The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A condition characterized by recurring episodes of fluid leaking from capillaries into extra-vascular compartments causing hematocrit to rise precipitously. If not treated, generalized vascular leak can lead to generalized EDEMA; SHOCK; cardiovascular collapse; and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Hollow cylindrical objects with an internal diameter that is small enough to fill by and hold liquids inside by CAPILLARY ACTION.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The noninvasive microscopic examination of the microcirculation, commonly done in the nailbed or conjunctiva. In addition to the capillaries themselves, observations can be made of passing blood cells or intravenously injected substances. This is not the same as endoscopic examination of blood vessels (ANGIOSCOPY).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Methods of comparing two or more samples on the same two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gel.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A disorder of the skin, the oral mucosa, and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma often resulting from trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.

Single cell studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of a tetramethylrhodamine labeled triglucoside in yeast. (1/1219)

Several hundred molecules of enzyme reaction products were detected in a single spheroplast from yeast cells incubated with a tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled triglucoside, alpha-d-Glc(1-->2)alpha-d-Glc(1-->3)alpha-d-Glc-O(CH2)8CONHCH2- CH2NH- COTMR. Product detection was accomplished using capillary electrophoresis and laser induced fluorescence following the introduction of a single spheroplast into the separation capillary. The in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of the TMR-trisaccharide involves at least two enzymes, limited by processing alpha-glucosidase I, producing TMR-disaccharide, TMR-monosaccharide, and the free TMR-linking arm. Hydrolysis was reduced by preincubation of the cells with the processing enzyme inhibitor castanospermine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies confirmed the uptake and internalization of fluorescent substrate. This single cell analysis methodology can be applied for the in vivo assay of any enzyme with a fluorescent substrate.  (+info)

Ups and downs of protein crystallization: studies of protein crystals by high-performance capillary electrophoresis. (2/1219)

High-performance capillary electrophoresis is a high-technology micro-separation method. Short run time, full automation and minute amounts of sample make it a very attractive technique. In this report we describe studies of protein crystals by capillary electrophoresis. We show how high-performance capillary electrophoresis can be used effectively for rapid evaluation and examination of the protein solution used for crystallization, the protein crystals (solubilized) and surrounding mother liquor. With coated capillaries, the runs were reproducible and disturbing effects, such as electroendosmosis and interaction of the proteins with the capillary wall, were suppressed efficiently. We recommend this new technique as a powerful and routine companion to protein crystallography.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid enhances interleukin-1-induced pressor response in freely moving rats through its effect on nitric oxide release. (3/1219)

We investigated whether changes in nitric oxide (NO) release might be responsible for the modulation by glucocorticoids of the pressor response to i.p. injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in freely moving rats. In such rats, IL-1beta (10 microgram/kg) induced a biphasic pressor response, with a rise in the plasma concentration of NOx (NO2(-) and NO3(-): metabolites of NO) during the second phase. Systemic pretreatment with an exogenous glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg), enhanced the second phase of the pressor response and completely suppressed the increase in plasma NOx. Treatment with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor), enhanced the pressor response while attenuating the increase in plasma NOx. After bilateral adrenalectomy, IL-1beta induced a smaller pressor response, but a larger increase in plasma NOx; dexamethasone reversed these changes. Our results suggest that endogenous NO moderates the pressor response to IL-1beta in freely moving rats, and that glucocorticoids enhance the IL-1beta-induced pressor response at least in part by reducing endogenous NO release.  (+info)

Characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps in mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan by capillary electrophoresis/electrospray mass spectrometry. (4/1219)

A new analytical approach based on capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) has provided new insight into the characterization of mannooligosaccharide caps from lipoarabinomannans (LAMs), which are key molecules in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. This analytical approach requires oligosaccharide labeling with the fluorophore 1-aminopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (APTS) by reductive amination at the reducing termini. Optimization of the separation and ionization conditions, such as the choice of capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrolyte buffers, is presented and discussed. Anionic separation of the mono and oligosaccharide APTS derivatives was finally achieved with aqueous triethylammonium formate buffer. It was found that in contrast to the triethylammonium phosphate buffer, the triethylammonium formate buffer was appropriate for CE/ESI-MS coupling analysis of APTS-carbohydrate derivatives. In this case, negative ESI-mass spectra of APTS-carbohydrate adducts showed mainly (M-2H)2-pseudomolecular ions and some sequence fragment ions allowing their non-ambiguous structural characterization at the picomolar level. This analytical approach was successfully applied to more complex mixtures of carbohydrates released by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The APTS-mannooligosaccharide cap adducts were separated by CE and their structural characterization achieved by CE/ESI-MS analyses. Mannooligosaccharide caps were routinely analyzed by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) from 50 fmol of lipoarabinomannans with mannosyl capping (ManLAMs) but sensitivity was about 50 times lower using ESI-MS detection.  (+info)

Insect immunity. Isolation from the lepidopteran Heliothis virescens of a novel insect defensin with potent antifungal activity. (5/1219)

Lepidoptera have been reported to produce several antibacterial peptides in response to septic injury. However, in marked contrast to other insect groups, no inducible antifungal molecules had been described so far in this insect order. Surprisingly, also cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides, which predominate in the antimicrobial defense of other insects, had not been discovered in Lepidoptera. Here we report the isolation from the hemolymph of immune induced larvae of the lepidopteran Heliothis virescens of a cysteine-rich molecule with exclusive antifungal activity. We have fully characterized this antifungal molecule, which has significant homology with the insect defensins, a large family of antibacterial peptides directed against Gram-positive strains. Interestingly, the novel peptide shows also similarities with the antifungal peptide drosomycin from Drosophila. Thus, Lepidoptera appear to have built their humoral immune response against bacteria on cecropins and attacins. In addition, we report that Lepidoptera have conferred antifungal properties to the well conserved structure of antibacterial insect defensins through amino acid replacements.  (+info)

Undercarboxylation of recombinant prothrombin revealed by analysis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence. (6/1219)

The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) content of several variants of human prothrombin has been measured by using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). Both plasma-derived prothrombin and recombinant prothrombin contain ten residues of Gla per molecule of protein. In contrast, a variant of human prothrombin (containing the second kringle domain of bovine prothrombin) was separated into two populations that differed in their Gla content. Direct measurement of the Gla content showed an association with the presence or absence of the calcium-dependent conformational change that is required for prothombinase function. Thus, the CE-LIF assay is useful in determining the carboxylation status of recombinant proteins.  (+info)

Fast and simple purification of chemically modified hammerhead ribozymes using a lipophilic capture tag. (7/1219)

A new type of 5'-lipophilic capture tag is described, enabling the facile reverse phase HPLC purification of chemically modified hammerhead ribozymes (oligozymes) whilst still carrying the 2'-O-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl protection of the essential riboses. In its most convenient form, the capture tag consists of a simple diol, such as hexan-1,6-diol, which at one end is attached via a silyl residue to a highly lipophilic entity such as tocopherol (vitamin E) or cholesterol, and the other end is functionalized as a phosphoramidite. This lipophilic capture tag is added as the last residue in the solid-phase synthesis of chemically modified hammerhead ribozymes. Cleavage from the support and release of all protecting groups except for the silyl groups is achieved with ethanolamine/ethanol. The crude product is then loaded directly on to a reverse phase HPLC column. Separation of failure peaks from full length product is achieved easily using a short run time. The retarded product peak is collected, lyophilized, desilylated in the normal way and then desalted. This method removes the lipophilic capture tag yet leaves behind the hexanediol entity which helps protect the compound against degradation by 5'-exonucleases. The purity of the product as judged by analytical anion-exchange HPLC and capillary gel electrophoresis is generally better than 95% full-length, and yields of 2-4 mg from a 1 micromol scale synthesis are routine. In addition, the method can be readily scaled up, an important feature for the development of such chemically modified ribozymes as potential therapeutics.  (+info)

An improved capillary electrophoresis method for measuring tissue metabolites associated with cellular energy state. (8/1219)

An improved method for the measurement of tissue metabolites associated with cellular energetic state by capillary electrophoresis is described. This method allows 17 compounds present in a mixture of standards to be determined simultaneously within 43 min with good reproducibility. ATP, ADP, AMP, UTP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine, creatine, phosphocreatine, UDP-galactose, NAD and NADH were detected in samples of either rat heart tissue or rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. This method can detect compounds at concentrations of 5 microm in samples. Recoveries for ATP and phosphocreatine added to cardiomyocyte samples were 99.4 +/- 2.1% and 103.1 +/- 3.3%, respectively (mean +/- SEM, n = 3). Our method has been comprehensively validated and is capable of measuring a wider range of tissue metabolites important in assessing cellular energy status than existing methods.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Large-scale prediction of cationic metabolite identity and migration time in capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry using artificial neural networks. AU - Sugimoto, Masahiro. AU - Kikuchi, Shinichi. AU - Arita, Masanori. AU - Soga, Tomoyoshi. AU - Nishioka, Takaaki. AU - Tomita, Maseru. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - We developed a computational technique to assist in the huge-scale identification of charged metabolites. The electrophoretic mobility of metabolites in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) was predicted from their structure, using an ensemble of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Comparison between relative migration times of 241 various cations measured by CE-MS and predicted by a trained ANN ensemble produced a correlation coefficient of 0.931. When we used our technique to characterize all metabolites listed in the KEGG ligand database, the correct compounds among the top three candidates were predicted in 78.0% of cases. We suggest that ...
This report provides an all-inclusive environment of the analysis for the Capillary Electrophoresis Systems Market. The market estimates provided in the report are the result of in-depth secondary research, primary interviews and in-house expert reviews. These market estimates have been considered by studying the impact of various social, political and economic factors along with the current market dynamics affecting the Capillary Electrophoresis Systems Market growth. Along with the market overview, which comprises of the market dynamics the chapter includes a Porters Five Forces analysis which explains the five forces: namely buyers bargaining power, suppliers bargaining power, threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, and degree of competition in the Capillary Electrophoresis Systems Market. It explains the various participants, such as system integrators, intermediaries and end-users within the ecosystem of the market. The report also focuses on the competitive landscape of the ...
A capillary electrophoresis method with indirect UV detection for the simultaneous determination of three carbohydrates (fructose, glucose and sucrose) and the amino acid proline in honey samples was developed. This method included the use of a background electrolyte consisting of 10 mM sodium benzoate and 1.5 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, pH 12.4. Under optimal capillary electrophoresis conditions, the separation of the investigated substances was achieved in less than 5 min and single dilution of each sample was employed. The detection limits for fructose, glucose and sucrose were 0.58 g L-1, 0.67 g L-1 and 0.12 g L-1 respectively, and 0.72 mg L-1 for proline. Precision measurements calculated in terms of %RSD in the range of 0.92 to 5.43%, were obtained. The proposed method was applied to honey samples from Argentina and Sweden and enables the determination of the three carbohydrates and the amino acid proline. The results show that the proposed method is simple, requires short analysis ...
A new approach for the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of charged metabolites by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is proposed. Metabolites are first separated by CE based on charge and size and then selectively detected using MS by monitoring over a large range of m/z values. This method enabled the determination of 352 metabolic standards and its utility was demonstrated in the analysis of 1692 metabolites from Bacillus subtilis extracts, revealing significant changes in metabolites during B. subtilis sporulation ...
Selective detection of sugar phosphates by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry and its application to an engineered E. coli host.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries and in micro- and nanofluidic channels. Very often, CE refers to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), but other electrophoretic techniques including capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), capillary isotachophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) belong also to this class of methods. In CE methods, analytes migrate through electrolyte solutions under the influence of an electric field. Analytes can be separated according to ionic mobility and/or partitioning into an alternate phase via non-covalent interactions. Additionally, analytes may be concentrated or focused by means of gradients in conductivity and pH. The instrumentation needed to perform capillary electrophoresis is relatively simple. A basic schematic of a capillary electrophoresis system is shown in figure 1. The systems main components are a sample ...
In clinical metabolomics, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has become a very useful technique for the analysis of highly polar and charged metabolites in complex biologic samples. A comprehensive overview of recent developments in CE-MS for metabolic profiling studies is presented. This review covers theory, CE separation modes, capillary coatings, and practical aspects of CE-MS coupling. Attention is also given to sample pretreatment and data analysis strategies used for metabolomics. The applicability of CE-MS for clinical metabolomics is illustrated using samples ranging from plasma and urine to cells and tissues. CE-MS application to large-scale and quantitative clinical metabolomics is addressed. Conclusions and perspectives on this unique analytic strategy are presented ...
Abstract A fast and precise affinity capillary electrophoresis ACE method has been applied to investigate the interactions between two serum albumins HSA and BSA and heparinoids. Furthermore, different free flow electrophoresis methods were developed to separate the species which appears owing to interaction of albumins with pentosan polysulfate...
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a hyphenated technique that combines the advantages like low sample consumption, high separation efficiency, short analytical time in CE and high sensitivity, powerful molecular structure elucidation in MS. Polyimide-coated fused silica capillary has become the most dominant capillary for CE, but it suffers from swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating when treated with organic solvents and alkaline buffer in the CE-MS interface in which
Detailed analysis of the Global and Chinese Capillary Electrophoresis System Market helps to understand the various types of Capillary Electrophoresis Syst
TY - JOUR. T1 - Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the analysis of amino acids. AU - Iavarone, Federica. AU - Desiderio, Claudia. AU - Rossetti, Diana Valeria. AU - Messana, Irene. AU - Castagnola, Massimo. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - In this review, the recent contribution of CE-MS technology to the analysis of amino acids, as well as the advantages of the hyphenation and the technologies involved in the instrumental coupling are reported. Different sections are dedicated to the recent contributions of CE-MS to the analysis of protein amino acids and their post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and sulfation. CE-MS analysis of some amino acid derivatives, such as the free methylated-derivatives of arginine is also discussed. A section is specifically devoted to the CE-MS applications in the field of chiral separation of D-and L-amino acid enantiomers.. AB - In this review, the recent contribution of CE-MS technology to the analysis of amino acids, as well as the ...
The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided
Automated microfluidics capillary electrophoresis systems provide rapid alternative to slab gel analysis. Size and quantitate DNA, RNA, and Protein for NGS or biotherapeutics applications.
Automated dual capillary electrophoresis system with hydrodynamic injeciton for the concurrent determination of cations and anions. Analytica chimica acta, Vol. 841. pp. 77-83 ...
This study aimed at validating an analytical method, using the accuracy profile approach, for the assay of chlorphenamine maleate by capillary electrophoresis. The validation was done using concentrations ranging between 75% and 125% of the target concentration of 600 mg/ml. Validation standards were prepared separately in triplicate for each series. Studied validation criteria were selectivity, linearity, trueness, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The method was selective, with recoveries ranging between 99.55% and 99.84%. The relative standard deviations of repeatability and intermediate precision were <5%. The accuracy profile confirmed the performance of the assay method between 75% and 100% of the target concentration of 600 mg/ml. The detection and quantification limits were 5 mg/l and 15 mg/l respectively. This ecological and economical method was applied to identify and quantify chlorphenamine maleate in 3 samples of
The objective of this research was to manufacture a miniaturised microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) system, which can be used to analyse suspected chemical agents accurately and rapidly. In order to avoid contamination during sample transportation and to provide real-time data for forensic analysis, this system is ideally portable and can be used on-site at the crime scene. Microchip with cheap and disposable material is also preferred for the purpose of saving cost and simplifying decontamination process. In Chapter 1, the most toxic known chemical warfare agents, nerve agents, including G-series, V-series, Novichok agents, carbamates, and organophosphate (OP) pesticides were introduced. Their history, poisoning cases, and existed analysis methods were briefly described. Introduction of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and MCE were given. Their features like principle, history, modes, materials, fabrications, and detection techniques were also discussed. In Chapter 2, highly toxic OP ...
The course will be composed of both lectures and a grant writing assignment. The course will include lectures focused on capillary electrophoresis separation modes (including capillary coatings), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, interfacing techniques for coupling CE to MS, CE-MS systems for the profiling of basic and acidic metabolites, CE-MS in comparison to other analytical techniques for metabolomics, volume-restricted metabolomics and the use of CE-MS for high-throughput metabolomics studies. The utility of CE-MS for metabolomics will be demonstrated by relevant biomedical/clinical examples, and the strengths and limitations of this approach in comparison to other techniques will also be highlighted ...
A simple method for determining protein-bound homocysteine and cysteine in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis / E. D. Virus, A. V. Ivanov, M. I. Kuchukova et al. // Biotecnologia Aplicada. - 2016. - Vol. 33, no. 4. - P. 4301-4304. A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection has been developed for the determination of protein-bound cysteine and homocysteine in human plasma based on the combination of derivatization step with pH-mediated base stacking. Centrifugal ultrafiltration was carried out to clarify plasma proteins from salts and low-molecular weight compounds. Thereafter, the sample was incubated with dithiothreitol to reduce the disulfides and release protein-bound aminothiols. The released thiols were derivatized with thiocarbonyldiimidazole and injected into the capillary electrophoresis by voltage. Due to the stacking effects it is possible to perform a considerable on-line pre-concentration of the analytes. The proposed approach allows to reach a detection limit of 1 ...
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The possibility of using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionisation (ESI)/MS to separate and quantify cobalt and iron was explored. It was necessary to tackle and overcome problems from different sources, some of them being rather unpredictable. The results obtained suggest the occurrence of oxidation processes of metal ions during the formation of the electrospray. The quantitative oxidation of cobalt(II) to cobalt(III), a process at our knowledge never described before, appears particularly interesting. The results obtained, though not optimised for sensitivity appear promising, since a limit of detection of the order of tenths of picograms was obtained. Further, from the comparison with the results obtained by optical detection, the use of CE-ESI/MS appears advantageous. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. The possibility of using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionisation (ESI)/MS to separate and quantify cobalt and iron was explored. It was necessary to tackle and ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Toward the generation of an aminonaphthalene trisulfonate labeled N-glycan database for capillary gel electrophoresis analysis of carbohydrates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI) was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40-50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL), the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were
A capillary zone electrophoresis method is described for the simultaneous determination of atropine, homatropine and scopolamine. Successful results were obtained after optimization of the electrophoretic parameters such as buffer composition and pH. The best separation was achieved using a 100 mM T …
Development and Validation of a Simple and Rapid Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Method for Quantification of Heparin in a Pharmaceutical Product and Stability Studies Abstract.
A U.S. Patent Application for Capillary Electrophoresis Inkjet Dispensing was published by LI-COR on August 20th, 2020. The present invention is a method for dispensing an analyte from a capillary electrophoresis tube, the method comprising: applying a voltage potential through a capillary electrophoresis tube, the capillary electrophoresis tube having a capillary outlet, and a capillary longitudinal axis proximate to the capillary outlet; impulsively pumping a sheath liquid through a microfluidic pump chamber having an internal region that is configured to be deformed by an impulsive pump element, wherein the capillary electrophoresis tube extends… Learn More. ...
Overview of Capillary Electrophoresis in Pharmaceutical Analysis -- Theoretical Consideration in Performance of Various Modes of CE -- Equipment Considerations for Capillary Electrophoresis -- Method Development for Pharmaceutical Analysis -- Role of CE in Drug Substance and Drug Product Development -- General Considerations to Improve Performance of CE Methods -- Overview of Current Regulatory Guidance -- Qualification of CE Instrumentation -- Robustness Testing of CE Methods -- Validation of Analytical Methods Using Capillary Electrophoresis-- The Need for CE Methods in Pharmacopeial Monographs -- CE in Impurity Profiling of Drugs -- Ion Analysis Using Capillary Electrophoresis -- Role of CE in Biopharmaceutical Development and Quality Control -- Capillary Electrophoresis and Bioanalysis -- CE as an Orthogonal Technique to Chromatography -- Capillary Electrochromatography of Pharmaceuticals -- Coupling CE and Chip-based Devices and Mass Spectrometry ...
A simple, sensitive and separative method for the photometric determination of inorganic anions was developed on the basis of suppressed electroosmosis by using a common silica capillary and a simple migrating solution. During the analysis of analyte anions by capillary zone electrophoresis, electroosmotic flow in a silica capillary was suppressed by using low-pH migrating solutions containing sodium sulfate. The stacking effect of sulfate ion was utilized for analyte concentration. Four kinds of inorganic analyte anions examined were detected in sharp signals, and the separation of a nitrate and a nitrite ion was improved by using the low-pH migrating solution with no decrease in detection sensitivity. Calibration graphs for nitrate and nitrite ions showed good linearity in the concentration ranges from about 10(-5) to 10(-4)mol dm(-3), with the detection limit for nitrate ion 4×10(-6)mol dm(-3). Separations of organic anions, such as aromatic sulfonate and carboxylate ions, were also ...
An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.
First ever parallel capillary electrophoresis instrument able to resolve DNA smears and DNA fragments through 200,000 bp, down to 5 fg/µl.
A simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of free sulfate anions in heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin with indirect UV detection is reported. The background electrolyte consists of 20 mM nitrate (pH 5.5) containing 0.2 mM CTAB. The use of nitrate as the probe anion is based on the consideration that nitrate has a very close electrophoretic mobility to that of sulfate, leading to a very narrow peak shape. Moreover, the apparent molar absorptivity of nitrate at 202 nm (8413 L mol(-1) cm(-1)) is much higher than that of the commonly used probe anion chromate at 254 nm (2400 L mol(-1) cm(-1)). The combination of the narrow peak shape with the high apparent molar absorptivity of the probe ion improved the limit of detection by 2.4 times and the limit of quantitation by 3.2 times. The effect of various CE parameters on the separation of sulfate from chloride was investigated and optimized. The method displays linearity in the range ...
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in plants. Studies indicate consumption of food containing these compounds may reduce the incidences of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In broccoli, the flavonoids are present at variable concentrations and so far have mainly been determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This paper describes a rapid capillary electrophoresis method, involving large volume sample stacking (LVSS), suitable for the analysis of flavonoids in broccoli. Following acid hydrolysis, the two key flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin) in a broccoli extract were concentrated on-line by LVSS prior to separation by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Using an optimised method, the extract was injected for 50 s into a 50 μm (internal diameter) × 85 cm (total length) capillary followed by stacking/matrix removal at -5 kV for 83 s. The two analytes were then separated in less than 8 min by CZE using a 10 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.40) and a separation voltage of
Thrombin is an important serine protease in blood and a therapeutic biomarker. The aptamer-based assays for thrombin take advantage of unique features of nucleic acid aptamers in selection, preparation, stability, and modification of functional groups. Aptamer affinity capillary electrophoresis coupled with
Many cellular functions are regulated through protein isoforms. Changes in the expression level or regulatory dysfunctions of isoforms often lead to developmental or pathological disorders. Isoforms are traditionally analyzed using techniques such as gel- or capillary-based isoelectric focusing. However, with proper electroosmotic flow (EOF) control, isoforms with small pI differences can also be analyzed using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Here we demonstrate the ability to quickly resolve isoforms of three model proteins (bovine serum albumin, transferrin, α1-antitrypsin) in capillaries coated with novel dynamic coatings. The coatings allow reproducible EOF modulation in the cathodal direction to a level of 10-9 m2V-1s-1. They also appear to inhibit protein adsorption to the capillary wall, making the isoform separations highly reproducible both in peak areas and apparent mobility. Isoforms of transferrin and α1-antitrypsin have been implicated in several human diseases. By coupling ...
Accurate clinical therapeutics rely on understanding the metabolic responses of individual cells. However, the high level of heterogeneity between cells means that simply sampling from large populations of cells is not necessarily a reliable approximation of an individual cell’s response. As a result, there have been numerous developments in the field of single-cell analysis to address this lack of knowledge. Many of these developments have focused on the coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE), a separation technique with low sample consumption and high resolving power, and mass spectrometry (MS), a sensitive detection method for interrogating all ions in a sample in a single analysis. In recent years, there have been many notable advancements at each step of the single-cell CE-MS analysis workflow, including sampling, manipulation, separation, and MS analysis. In each of these areas, the combined improvements in analytical instrumentation and achievements of numerous researchers have served
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers fast and high-resolution separation of charged analytes from small injection volumes. Coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), it represents a powerful analytical technique providing (exact) mass information and enables molecular characterization based on fragmentation. Although hyphenation of CE and MS is not straightforward, much emphasis has been placed on enabling efficient ionization and user-friendly coupling. Though several interfaces are now commercially available, research on more efficient and robust interfacing with nano-electrospray ionization (ESI), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) continues with considerable results. At the same time, CE-MS has been used in many fields, predominantly for the analysis of proteins, peptides and metabolites. This review belongs to a series of regularly published articles, summarizing 248 articles covering the time between June 2016 and May 2018. Latest
A capillary electrophoresis device as well as a process for fabrication of the device is disclosed. The capillary electrophoresis device comprises a device body structure having a plurality of reservoirs arrayed thereon for loading a sample, and a plurality of rows of grooves transversely defined to be connected with the reservoirs for receiving at least a capillary electrophoresis chip. The capillary electrophoresis chip comprises a straight main separation channel, an injection channel, and a plurality of sample transport channels defined thereon in liquid communication with the reservoirs. After an electrode means is applied, the sample can be transported into the separation channel for detection and analysis.
A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of aristolochic acid (AA) in dietary supplements and selected herbs is described. A clear separation of AA from other sample constituents was achieved within 5 minutes without any sample clean up. A mixture of 20 mM-morpholinethanesulphonic acid+10 mM-BisTrisPropane+0.2% hydroxyethylcelullose in 10% methanol serves as a background electrolyte. The linearity, accuracy, intra-assay and detection limit of the developed method are 200-6000 ng/mL, 95-103%, 3.5%, and 50 ng/ml, respectively. Ease of use, sufficient sensitivity and low running cost are the most important attributes of the CZE method. The proposed CZE method was compared with HPLC ...
Selected phenolic acids are determined by capillary zone electrophoresis and HPLC, each using UV detection. The optimised CZE background electrolyte contained 50 mM acetic acid, 95 mM 6-aminocaproic acid, 0.1% polyacrylamide, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 10% methanol. Twelve phenolic acids (gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic, salicylic and chlorogenic) were separated within 10 minutes. Chromatographic separation of these phenolic acids was carried out on an Eclipse XBD C8 column using a mobile phase gradient (acetonitrile / methanol / water / 0.1% phosphoric acid); all were separated within 25 minutes. Electrophoretic and chromatographic determinations of ferulic and chlorogenic acids were compared on barley, malt, and potato samples. The methods characteristics were: linearity (1-20 mg ml and 0.2-4 mg ml−1), accuracy (recovery 94 ± 5% and 96 ± 4%), intra-assay repeatability (4.1% and 3.5%), and detection ...
Selected phenolic acids are determined by capillary zone electrophoresis and HPLC, each using UV detection. The optimised CZE background electrolyte contained 50 mM acetic acid, 95 mM 6-aminocaproic acid, 0.1% polyacrylamide, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 10% methanol. Twelve phenolic acids (gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic, salicylic and chlorogenic) were separated within 10 minutes. Chromatographic separation of these phenolic acids was carried out on an Eclipse XBD C8 column using a mobile phase gradient (acetonitrile / methanol / water / 0.1% phosphoric acid); all were separated within 25 minutes. Electrophoretic and chromatographic determinations of ferulic and chlorogenic acids were compared on barley, malt, and potato samples. The methods characteristics were: linearity (1-20 mg ml and 0.2-4 mg ml−1), accuracy (recovery 94 ± 5% and 96 ± 4%), intra-assay repeatability (4.1% and 3.5%), and detection ...
Electrospray ionization with an ultralow flow rate (≤4 nanoliters per minute) was used to directly couple capillary electrophoresis with tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis and identification of biomolecules in mixtures. A Fourier transform mass spectrometer provided full spectra (,30 kilodaltons) at a resolving power of ≈60,000 for injections of 0.7 × 10−18 to 3 × 10−18 mole of 8- to 29-kilodalton proteins with errors of ,1 dalton in molecular mass. Using a crude isolate from human blood, a value of 28,780.6 daltons (calculated, 28,780.4 daltons) was measured for carbonic anhydrase, representing 1 percent by weight of the protein in a single red blood cell. Dissociation of molecular ions from 9 × 10−18 mole of carbonic anhydrase gave nine sequence-specific fragment ions, more data than required for unique retrieval of this enzyme from the protein database.. ...
Danser, A.H.J. (A. H. Jan), & Poglitsch, M. (2019). Letter to the Editor regarding A microanalytical capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry assay for quantifying angiotensin peptides in the brain. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. doi:10.1007/s00216-019-02162- ...
Received: Januanry 19, 1999 - Accepted: July 5, 1999) SUMMARY Humic substances (HS) have a great importance in regard to the quality and productivity of a soil, and in the retention of the metal ions and pollutants by the environment. The characterization of humic compounds provides important information to evaluate the interaction of HS metal ions and with different classes of organic compounds (e.g., herbicides and pesticides). In order to understand HS behavior, it is necessary to separate this complex organic matter into fractions, and determine the structure of each compound in the fractions obtained. Numerous studies applying many different analytical techniques have been used for this purpose. In particular, the application of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the characterization of HS has evoked an increased interest. The aim of this work is to study the CZE behavior of HA from a different origin. The HA of Argentinean soils and also the HA from compost of urban wastes will be ...
Separation of inorganic and organic ionic components of Bayer liquor by capillary zone electrophoresis. I. Optimisation of resolution using electrolytes containing surfactant mixtures
In this thesis the possibilities of using capillary electrophoresis as a separation technique for analysis of proteins and microbubbles is presented.. A complete analytical process consists of five necessary steps of which one is the actual analysis step. For this step a suitable analytical technique is needed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the common analytical separation techniques used for analysis of a diversity of analytes, and can be both used in routine analysis and for research purposes. The reason for using CE, compared to other liquid-based separation techniques, is mainly short analysis time, high resolution, and negligible sample volumes and solvent waste. Depending on the characteristics of the analytes, and the sample matrix, different modes of CE can be used, where capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is the most employed one. The basic principle of CZE is separation of the analytes due to differences in total mobility, which is dependent on the charge and size of the ...
Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis was evaluated for the separation of five hydrophobic basic blue dyes for application in forensic dye analysis. The use of a red light emitting diode as a high intensity, low-noise light source provided sensitive detection of the blue dyes while also allowing the evaluation of solvents that absorb strongly in the UV region. Excellent peak shapes and separation selectivity were obtained in methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide, however water, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide and acetone were unsuitable as solvents due to poor peak shapes and a lack of sensitivity, most likely due to adsorption onto the capillary wall. Due to the known compatibility of methanol with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, this solvent was examined further with the relative acidity/basicity of the electrolyte being optimised with an artificial neural network. The optimised method was examined for the separation of ink samples from 6 fibre tip and 2 ball ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid method for enkephalin analysis in tissues by capillary electrophoresis. AU - Hurst, W. Jeffrey. AU - McLaughlin, Patricia. AU - Zagon, Ian. PY - 1994/3. Y1 - 1994/3. N2 - A rapid method for the determination of the pentapeptide, met enkephalin, in samples of rat retina is described. The method uses ultrafiltration as a sample preparation followed by free solution capillary electrophoresis with detection at 210 nm. The method is rapid with an analysis time of less than 10 minutes.. AB - A rapid method for the determination of the pentapeptide, met enkephalin, in samples of rat retina is described. The method uses ultrafiltration as a sample preparation followed by free solution capillary electrophoresis with detection at 210 nm. The method is rapid with an analysis time of less than 10 minutes.. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - ...
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a relatively new separation technique suitable for handling small amounts of sample very important in bioanalytical research and in various clinical, diagnostic, genetic, and forensic applications. In Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field provide key techniques to investigate CE focusing on simple and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), aminoacids, peptides and proteins, enzymes, and nucleic acids. Along with practical procedures, reviews discussing CE applications related to bio(macro)molecules are also included. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.Authoritative and practical, Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules: Methods and Protocols
This volume presents accounts of some of the recent advances in high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with regard to biotechnology. Four of its 11 chapters present an introduction to capillary electrophoresis and discuss its application to various analytical problems ranging from the analysis of cyclic nucleotides to quality control in the pharmaceutical industry. Subsequent chapters cover recent developments in HPLC, with emphasis on analysis of pharmaceutical proteins; the problems associated with the use of HPLC as a detection method in preparative chromatography; the use of mass spectrometry in the structure determination of peptides; and the use of the displacement mode of chromatography.Horvath, Csaba is the author of Analytical Biotechnology Capillary Electrophoresis and Chromatography with ISBN 9780841218192 and ISBN 0841218196. [read more] ...
The anemia diagnostics laboratory provides diagnoses of congenital corpuscular hemolytic anemia (disorders of erythrocyte membrane, disorders of red blood cell enzymes, hemoglobinopatia) and some developed disorders of red blood series (myelodysplastic syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria). The laboratory is accredited in accordance with CAI standards.. In 2010, the Laboratory of Anemias introduced a capillary electrophoresis method, which makes the diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobins considerably more sensitive and precise, and it developed the membrane protein electrophoresis method, prepared in the routine standard diagnosis of inborn disorders of erythrocyte membrane.. The laboratory cooperates with the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics at the Palacký University in Olomouc in identifying some rare cases of hemoglobinopatia and the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology at the Motol University Hospital in Prague.. ...
Gerhardus (Ad) de Jong studied chemistry in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and received his Ph.D. at the Free University of Amsterdam. He worked for Duphar, a pharmaceutical company in Weesp, the Netherlands, in the department Analytical Research. Subsequently, he returned to the Free University as associate professor in the Department of Analytical Chemistry. In 1990, he again moved to the pharmaceutical industry and was appointed to section head Chromatography of Solvay Duphar. In 1995, he was appointed professor in Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Analysis at the University Centre for Pharmacy, Groningen, the Netherlands, and since 2001, he is professor in Pharmaceutical Analysis at the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University ...
Capillary zone electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography, with taurodeoxycholate as micellar agent, of protein kinase A peptide substrates ...
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SIMON, Brigitta; HANCU, Gabriel and GYERESI, Árpád. Application of capillary electrophoresis to the simultaneous determination and stability study of four extensively used penicillin derivatives. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. [online]. 2014, vol.50, n.3, pp.521-527. ISSN 1984-8250. The applicability of capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of four extensively used penicillin derivatives (benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacilllin) has been studied. Because of structural similarities, the electrophoretic behavior of these derivatives is very similar; consequently an efficient separation using the conventional capillary zone electrophoresis is hard to be achieved. Their simultaneous separation was solved by using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, the separation being based on the differential partition of the analytes between the micellar and aqueous phase. Using a buffer solution containing 25 mM sodium tetraborate and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF METALLOTHIONEIN ISOFORMS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS. AU - RICHARDS, M P AU - BEATTIE, J H PY - 1995/7/7. Y1 - 1995/7/7. N2 - We have investigated free-solution capillary electrophoresis (FSCE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) separations of metallothionein (MT) isoforms conducted in uncoated and surface-modified fused-silica capillaries. At alkaline pH, FSCE rapidly resolves isoforms belonging to the MT-1 and MT-2 charge classes. At acidic pH, additional resolution of MT isoforms is achieved. The use of high-ionic-strength (0.5 M) phosphate buffers can result in high peak efficiencies and increased resolution for some MT isoforms. Interior capillary surface coatings such as polyamine and linear polyacrylamide polymers permit separation of MT isoforms with enhanced resolution through their effects on electroosmotic flow (EOF) and protein-wall interactions. Improvements in MT isoform resolution can ...
Title: Recent Advances in the Use of Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Small Molecules. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Christian W. Klampfl and Wolfgang Buchberger. Affiliation:Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, A-4040 Linz,Austria.. Keywords:Capillary electrophoresis, Mass spectrometric detection, High-resolution mass spectrometry, Time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Review. Abstract: The hyphenation of separation methods with mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the major topics in analytical chemistry. This is not only true for pressure-driven methods like HPLC but also for electro-driven ones such as capillary electrophoresis (CE). Research during the first years of CE-MS was primarily focused on technical improvements leading to commercially available equipment, making this combination more reliable and robust. On the other hand investigations on the applicability of CE-MS for the solution ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-throughput analysis of telomerase by capillary electrophoresis. AU - Atha, Donald H.. AU - Miller, Karen. AU - Sanow, Anita D.. AU - Xu, Jingfan. AU - Hess, Jennifer L.. AU - Wu, Osmond C.. AU - Wang, Wendy. AU - Srivastava, Sudhir. AU - Highsmith, W. Edward. PY - 2003/1. Y1 - 2003/1. N2 - The enzyme telomerase is expressed in (85-90)% of all human cancers, but not in normal, non-stem cell somatic tissues. Clinical assays for telomerase in easily obtained body fluids would have great utility as noninvasive, cost-effective methods for the early detection of cancer. The most commonly used method for the detection and quantification of telomerase enzyme activity is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay known as the telomerase repeat amplification protocol or TRAP assay. Most of the TRAP assay systems use a slab-gel based electrophoresis system to size and quantify the PCR-amplified extension products. We are developing high-throughput capillary electrophoresis (CE) ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. ...
A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique has been developed for enantioseparation of vinpocetine using an inexpensive 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD) as the chiral selector (CS). The best chiral separation was achieved using 40 mM HP-β-CD as the CS in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) consisting of 40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at a separation temperature and separation voltage of 25°C and 25 kV, respectively. To the authors best knowledge, this is the first CD-MEKC study able to successfully separate the four stereoisomer of vinpocetine in separation time of 9.5 min and resolution of 1.04-3.87. Chirality, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ...
One obvious question raised is the origin of these amino acids. Under limited blood supply, two main sources of amino acids can be conceived: one is the degradation of extracellular matrix particularly by matrix metalloproteinases and the other is the autophagic degradation of preexisting intracellular proteins. In this perspective, it is notable that hydroxyproline concentration was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in their normal counterparts (P = 0.0005 in colon and P = 0.0025 in stomach tissues). Hydroxyproline is abundant in collagen and is posttranslationally produced from proline, which suggests that the higher concentration of hydroxyproline in tumor tissues is indicative of excess degradation of collagen ( 35). Autophagy is another possible source of amino acids, as it is well-documented that autophagy liberates and thereby increases the free amino acid pools ( 36, 37). We also have found recently that autophagy seems essential for colon cancer cell survival ( 38) and is ...
Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), is a chromatography technique, used in analytical chemistry. It is a modification of capillary electrophoresis (CE), where the samples are separated by differential partitioning between micelles (pseudo-stationary phase) and a surrounding aqueous buffer solution (mobile phase). The basic set-up and detection methods used for MEKC are the same as those used in CE. The difference is that the solution contains a surfactant at a concentration that is greater than the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Above this concentration, surfactant monomers are in equilibrium with micelles. In most applications, MEKC is performed in open capillaries under alkaline conditions to generate a strong electroosmotic flow. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is the most commonly used surfactant in MEKC applications. The anionic character of the sulfate groups of SDS cause the surfactant and micelles to have electrophoretic mobility that is counter to the direction of the ...
ABSTRACT: Sugars are the fundamental intermediary in the brewing process as barley is broken down into sugars before being fermented into ethanol, and monitoring them throughout the process is critical to flavor profile and process efficiency. If an on-line sugar measurement solution was available, brewing facilities could make production adjustments during the process to rapidly dial in batches to within specifications, flag problem variations at an early stage, and quickly pursue corrective actions. Our market research suggests an average facility will save nearly US$1 million annually. Because we hold the only demonstrated technology for combining capillary electrophoresis and pulsed amperometric detection on a microchip format, we can uniquely offer fast, simple, and reliable sugar analysis. A core team of researchers have come together to form Carbo Analytics, LLC (CARBO) with the sole mission of adding value to carbohydrate-based commodities through reliable process monitors. Funded ...
In this study a new capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed to quantify the four major theaflavins occurring in black tea. Where aqueous based CE methods showed poor selectivity and considerable band broadening, non-aqueous CE achieved baseline separation of the theaflavins within 10 min. The effects of the organic solvent composition and background electrolyte concentration on the separation selectivity and electrophoretic mobilities were investigated. Our optimized separation solution consisted of acetonitrile-methanol-acetic acid (71:25:4, v/v) and 90 mM ammonium acetate. This method was used to analyze three black tea samples.
In capillary electrophoresis systems, real-time monitoring and measurement of the electroosmotic flow through a separation capillary is accomplished by coupling the outlet of the separation capillary to an electrically-conductive junction. In one embodiment, this junction is an ion-impermeable or an ion-exchange membrane unit that preferentially exchanges ions having a charge opposite to analyte ions of interest. Within a downstream region of the junction, all axial incremental voltage from the electroosmotic voltage source is terminated, which ensures that downstream electrolyte ion movement is passive, due to active flow created upstream when an incremental axial voltage existed. Upstream electrolyte ion flux is proportional to C1 (μe +μeo), where C1 is the upstream concentration of the electrolyte ion of interest, μe is the electrolyte electrophoretic mobility, and μeo is the electroosmotic mobility. Downstream, the flux is proportional to C2 μeo, where C2 is the downstream concentration of
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder affecting approximately one percent of the population worldwide. The introduction of the second generation antipsychotic drug, atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, has demonstrated 80% reduction in suicide incident. This drug showed effectiveness in the treatment of resistant schizophrenia, however, high concentrations of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine in plasma exhibit the development of agranulocytosis, a possible lethal blood disorder. Therefore, constant therapeutic drug monitoring is important for patients who receive clozapine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the current assay for clinical clozapine measurement. A different assay, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) was explored in this study. It was found the use of a background electrolyte (BGE) concentration of 60 mM, pH at 2.5, temperature at 22 ℃, voltage applied at 10 kV and sample injection at 23 kV for 1.5 seconds is the optimal condition for clozapine separation using a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypotaurine is an energy-saving hepatoprotective compound against ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat liver. AU - Sakuragawa, Tadayuki. AU - Hishiki, Takako. AU - Ueno, Yuki. AU - Ikeda, Satsuki. AU - Soga, Tomoyoshi. AU - Yachie-Kinoshita, Ayako. AU - Kajimura, Mayumi. AU - Suematsu, Makoto. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - Metabolome analyses assisted by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) have allowed us to systematically grasp changes in small molecular metabolites under disease conditions. We applied CE-MS to mine out biomarkers in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Rat livers were exposed to ischemia by clamping of the portal inlet followed by reperfusion. Metabolomic profiling revealed that 1 contents of taurine in liver and plasma were significantly increased. Of interest is an elevation of hypotaurine, collectively suggesting significance of hypotaurine/taurine in post-ischemic responses. Considering the anti-oxidative capacity of hypotaurine, we examined if ...
Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) | Separation Science Pharmaceutical Analysis ( offers free learning from the experts covering methods, applications, webinars, videos, tutorials for pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical analysis users of chromatography, mass spectrometry, sample preparation and related analytical techniques.
Our comprehensive approach will be guided by alignment studies, a recently solved structure, molecular modeling and in silico ligand docking. Characterization of the recombinant ADPG PPases will include the measurement of binding of ligands using affinity capillary electrophoresis to complement steady-state kinetic assay data. A longer term goal includes transforming genes coding for highly active bacterial ADPG PPases into Arabidopsis thaliana leaves to determine the effects on starch accumulation, photosynthesis, and biomass. This project is well suited to training students in the theory and practice of biochemistry, analytical chemistry, molecular biology, bioinformatics, and molecular modeling within the framework of a larger interdisciplinary biotechnology project. Some of the research experiments and findings will be incorporated into lecture and lab class activities. Participants represent two laboratories at two different California State University campuses, a UC campus, and the biotech ...
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful technique that separates molecules based on their respective charge and hydrodynamic size. The major advantages of CE are high separation efficiency, small sample volume requirements, simple to no sample preparation and often organic solvents are not required for the separation. The work presented in this dissertation utilized capillary electrophoresis for the analysis two different classes of compounds in different matrices. The first project investigated pteridines in urine and plants. The second project investigated pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in Missouri waste water. As cancer continues to be one of the top three causes of human fatalities, early cancer screening research continues to gain momentum. One specific category of compounds known as pteridines is a class of compounds with potential linkage to cancer progression and deserves further investigation. Therefore, we constructed and performed a systematic investigation and
Carvedilol is administered as a racemic mixture of the R(+)- and S(-)-enantiomers, although it was demonstrated that the two enantiomers exhibit different pharmacological effects and stereoselective pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was the evaluation of several native and derivatized cyclodextrines as chiral selectors for the separation of carvedilol enantiomers. Stereoselective interactions were observed with four cyclodextrines (β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-CD, randomly methylated β-CD and sulfobuthyl ether- β-CD). The effects of CD concentration, pH value and composition of the background electrolyte, capillary temperature, running voltage and injection parameters have been investigated. The method was validated for precision of peak-area response, linearity range and limits of detection and quantification. An efficient stereoselective capillary zone electrophoretic method was developed for the determination of carvedilol enantiomers using a simple 25 mM phosphate buffer at a pH = 2.5 and 10 mM
Shape-Anchored Porous Polymer Monoliths for Integrated Online Solid-Phase Extraction-Microchip Electrophoresis-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry ...
By special arrangement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, patrons may access this resource online through the HathiTrust Emergency Temporary Access Service.. ...
韩富天 Bryan H. Huynh* 马银法* 林炳承. High-Efficiency DNA Separation by Capillary Electrophoresis in a Polymer Solution with Ultralow Viscosity[J]. Analytical Chemistry; 71(1999)2385-2389,1999 ...
A methodology for the determination of tomato phenolic acids and flavonoids has been developed combining MEKC and DAD detection. The influence on polyphenol separation of pH and background electrolyte, BGE (borax, acetonitrile, methanol and SDS concentrations), was studied and optimized using response surface methodology and weighted desirability function. Separation of polyphenols was achieved within 20 min at 15 °C using 11.3 mM borax and 11.2 mM SDS adjusted to pH 8.5 as BGE. Validation was performed using standards and tomato extracts. Recoveries ranged from 77 to 106%. Acceptable repeatabilities were obtained for peak area (%RSD ,3.1% and ,3.7%) and migration times (%RSD ,0.2% and ,1.4%) for intra- and inter-day respectively. Detection limits ranged between 0.8 and 3.8 mg kg−1. Five and seven of these polyphenols were determined in samples of tomato and related species. This methodology will be valuable tool in breeding programs, analyzing a large number of samples. [-] ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Analysis of cell separation efficiency in dielectrophoresis-activated cell sorter. AU - An, Jaemin. AU - Lee, Jangwon. AU - Kim, Youngho. AU - Kim, Byungkyu. AU - Lee, Sangho. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - We investigate the key parameters that influence the efficiency of the previously presented dielectrophoresis(DEP)-activated cell sorter (DACS). While the conventional cell separators typically sort cells depending on the different sizes of cells, our system differentiates similarly-sized cells by responding to the variations of electrical properties among cells namely conductivity and permittivity. Thus, continuously varying DEP forces generated by the system enable us to separate MCF10A (normal cells derived from human breast epithelium) and MCF7 (human breast cancer cells) cells of similar size. Unfortunately, however, both cell types possess a wide range of cell size variation. In previous study, therefore, separation efficiency was limited to 77±5% for sorting MCF10A cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic instrument in head and neck carcinoma. AU - Meier, Jeremy D.. AU - Xie, Hongtao. AU - Sun, Yang. AU - Sun, Yinghua. AU - Hatami, Nisa. AU - Poirier, Brian. AU - Marcu, Laura. AU - Farwell, D Gregory. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine differences in lifetime fluorescence between normal and malignant tissue of the upper aerodigestive tract, and 2) evaluate the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as a diagnostic instrument for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University-based medical center. Subjects and Methods: Nine patients with suspected HNSCC were included. In the operating room, a nitrogen pulse laser (337 nm, 700-picosecond pulse width) was used to induce tissue autofluorescence of normal tissue and suspected malignant lesions. Spectral intensities ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic polyps. AU - Schomacker, Kevin T.. AU - Frisoli, Joan K.. AU - Compton, Carolyn C.. AU - Flotte, Thomas J. AU - Richter, James M.. AU - Deutsch, Thomas F.. AU - Nishioka, Norman S.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence was examined in vivo to determine whether the technique can reliably distinguish between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps of the colon. Spectra from 86 normal colonic sites, 35 hyperplastic polyps, and 49 adenomatous polyps were recorded in vivo. Polyp type was independently determined by two senior pathologists who were unaware of the fluorescence measurement. A multivariate linear regression analysis was used to differentiate spectra from hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps and resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, predictive value positive, and predictive value negative for identifying adenomatous polyps of 86%, 80%, 86%, and 80%, respectively. These values were not significantly ...
Rhubarb, a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, is also used in Europe and other places of the world. Anthraquinones derivatives are thought to be the major active components. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation were developed for simultaneous determination of five anthraquinones including aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, and rhein in Rhubarb. The effects of the experimental variables on PLE and CZE have been optimized. The optimum conditions of PLE were: solvent, methanol; temperature, 1407C; particle size, 0.13-0.2 mm; static extraction time, 5 min; pressure, 1500 psi; and one extraction. The best separation of the five anthraquinones could be obtained using 50 mM borate buffer (pH 8.2) containing 25% isopropyl alcohol and 25% acetontrile as modifier, while the separation voltage was 25 kV and the temperature was at 207C. The method developed is accurate, simple, and reproducible, and could be used for quality control of Rhubarb ...
The application of quantum dots in capillary electrophoresis immunoassay was studied for the first time. Quantum dots were conjugated with antibody and subsequently tested by electrophoretic separation of free antibody and antibody-antigen complex. Antibody was fluorescently labeled by quantum dots via conjugation procedures and its electrophoretic characteristics were effectively modified due to the attachment of quantum dots. The determination of human IgM by direct CE based immunoassay could be easily achieved by simply changing the pH value of separation buffer. Polymer additive influenced the separation too but the effect was not as significant as buffer pH adjustment. Satisfactory separation of complex from free antibody could be achieved with 20 mM sodium tetraborate as separation buffer, at pH 9.8. The immunoassay application of quantum dots in CE offers considerable advantages and can be readily applied to other large bio-molecules. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Further on, we investigated employment of an automated system with a sequential injection analysis (SIA) manifold based on a syringe pump and multiport valve coupled with CE-C4D. Hydrodynamic pumping was introduced for electrophoretic separation of most commonly used artificial sweeteners. Compounds were determined in their anionic form at a high pH. Without any surfactant or modifier to reverse the electroosmotic flow, higher separation efficiency was noticed. The conditions were optimized either for better detection limits or for shorter analysis time. In addition, band broadening was observed due to pressure caused by hydrodynamic pumping. Therefore, the requirement of the narrow capillary of 10 µm for sensitive detection was necessary. The best compromise for differences between analysis time and separation efficiency was found. This coupled system setup approved to complete all operation steps to perform complex measurements with possibility to change any of the parameters during the ...
Guijt, Rosanne M, Armstrong, James P, Candish, Esme, Lefleur, Veronica, Percey, William J, Shabala, Sergey, Hauser, Peter C and Breadmore, Michael C 2011, Microfluidic chips for capillary electrophoresis with integrated electrodes for capacitively coupled conductivity detection based on printed circuit board technology, Sensors and actuators B: chemical, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 307-313, doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2011.06.023. ...
The research presented in this dissertation involves the synthesis, modification, characterization, and the application of polymeric surfactants in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Sodium undecenoyl-L-Leucinate (L-SUL) was synthesized and modified by use of alkali metal counterions, alcohols, and Triton X-102. Characterization of the modified poly-L-SUL was performed in order to elucidate the structural changes on the surfactants by use of four techniques. While surface tensiometry was used for the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc), fluorescence measurements were used for the determination of the polarity of the modified polymeric surfactants. The information about the size of the polymeric surfactants was obtained by use of pulsed field gradient-NMR (PFG-NMR). A superior chromatographic performance in MEKC was demonstrated by the modified polymeric surfactants as compared to the non-modified polymeric surfactants. A correlation between the polarity and the ...
The techniques for a dynamic and permanent reversal of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) were used for the reversal of the enantiomer migration order (EMO) of neutral and cationic analytes in chiral capillary electrophoresis (CE). Native beta-Cd and an anionic CD derivative, CM-beta-CD were used in both, bare silica- and positively coated capillaries. Advantages and disadvantages of a dynamic and permanent modification of the capillary inner surface are briefly discussed.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was initialized to introduce capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a useful technique in the analysis of fluid inclusions in quartz. lts advantages are low detection limits for the dissolved ionic content of the fluid, the small amount of sample (1 g or less) for a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis, and the short time required to obtain results (one run for either cations or anions take approximately 10 minutes). The study area from which quartz veins were selected is situated within the Neoproterozoic Saldania belt. Syn- and post-tectonic S-, 1- and A-type granitoids from the Cape Granite Suite intruded the metamorphosed Malmesbury greywacke and pelites between 550 and 510 Ma. Additional periods of tectonism and metamorphism occurred during Cape Supergroup sedimentation (480 - 400 Ma) as well as Karoo sedimentation and the simultaneous Cape Orogeny (280 -215 Ma). The quartz-biotite±chlorite vems are hosted by Cape Granite as well as Malmesbury sediments. ...
A new potentiometric analytical technique, termed pulsed potentiometric detection (PPD) has been developed and introduced as an end-capillary detection technique in capillary electrophoresis (CE). In contrast to normal potentiometry where the potential is measured in a steady-state, PPD involves the application of one or more independent pre-pulses to the detection electrode prior to the measurement period. The potential of the detection electrode is then allowed to move towards a steady-state value during which the potential is measured. The pulsing cycle is then repeated and a further measurement made. PPD was investigated using one or two pre-pulses of up to ±1V for 10ms on a platinum or gold detection electrode for a range of common anions separated in neutral to acidic electrolytes. Both the signal and the baseline noise were found to depend strongly on the sequence, sign and magnitude of the pre-pulses with the best results for a positive +800 mV pulse followed by a negative -800 mV ...
Choi, S. B., Zamarbide, M., Manzini, M. C., & Nemes, P. (2017). Tapered-Tip Capillary Electrophoresis Nano-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ultrasensitive Proteomics: the Mouse Cortex. Journal of the American Society of Mass Spectrometry, 28 (4). ...
ICP (intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy) is characterized by pruritus and biochemical cholestasis, including raised SBAs (serum bile acids) and, usually, elevated aminotransferases levels. However, AHP (asymptomatic hypercholanaemia of pregnancy) is defined as the presence of total SBA levels above the cut-off value (11 μM) in healthy pregnant women, thus elevation of total SBAs do not necessarily reflect an ICP condition. The aim of the present study was to describe clinical, obstetric, perinatal and biochemical findings, as well as the SBA profile, in pregnant women studied in the third trimester of pregnancy in order to define characteristic patterns of individual bile acids that enable women with ICP to be distinguished from AHP and healthy pregnancies. Free and conjugated ursodeoxycholic (UDCA), cholic (CA), lithocholic (LCA), deoxycholic (DCA) and chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) acids were evaluated by CE (capillary electrophoresis) in 41 patients (15 of them simultaneously by HPLC), in 30 ...
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Right here we report the use of a capillary electrophoretic method with laser induced fluorescence detection to evaluate hydroxyl radicals produced by respiring mitochondria. produced significantly more hydroxyl radicals than those from lean mice. to remove nuclei, unbroken cells, and lipids. Fractions enriched for mitochondria were prepared by centrifugation of the supernatants Rabbit polyclonal to ARG1. at CP-724714 10,000test. Results and discussion Separation and detection of HPF and fluorescein Upon receipt, the commercial HPF contained approximately 0.4% mole fluorescein. Although this is a small percentage, when 500 nM HPF was analyzed with MEKC-LIF the fluorescein peak was very intense (tM = 254 s) relative to that of HPF (tM = 274 s) (Figure 1b, top), which is unacceptable for detection of low fluorescein levels caused by HPF response with hydroxyl radicals. To lessen the quantity of fluorescein within the probe share remedy, the probe was CP-724714 purified with solid-phase extraction ...
In order to adopt a general workflow for complex biological matrices with respect to a new blood-brain barrier (BBB) model, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography method has been developed. The cells forming the BBB have been cultivated in a special cell growth medium in which six drugs (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cimetidine, indometacin and propranolol) have been dissolved and tested for their penetration properties. The results showed good to very good accordance to the reference values. Samples were directly injected onto the capillary without any pretreatment (fused silica capillary, id: 50 μm, L: 48 cm, l: 40 cm). After method development, separations were carried out using a 60 mM borate buffer containing 200 mM of SDS at 30 kV, leading to an analysis time of less than 10 min. Between two runs the capillary was rinsed with a mixture of equal parts of running buffer and isopropanol (70% v/v), which proved to be very effective to remove matrix compounds. An appropriate choice ...
Looking for isotachophoresis? Find out information about isotachophoresis. A variant of electrophoresis in which ionic species move with equal velocity in the presence of an electric field Explanation of isotachophoresis
The introduction of therapeutic peptides and proteins can be an expensive and time-intensive process. between January 2012 and Dec 2013 publication within the within the two-year period. The parting principles and technical advancements of CE capillary gel electrophoresis capillary isoelectric concentrating capillary electrochromatography and CE-mass spectrometry are talked about alongside exciting brand-new applications of LY2603618 … Continue reading The introduction of therapeutic peptides and proteins can be an expensive. ...
Sequencing the human genome depended on many technological improvements in the production and analysis of sequence data. Key innovations were developed both within and outside the Human Genome Project. Laboratory innovations included four-colour fluorescence-based sequence detection, improved fluorescent dyes, dye-labelled terminators, polymerases specifically designed for sequencing, cycle sequencing and capillary gel electrophoresis. These studies contributed to substantial improvements in the automation, quality and throughput of collecting raw DNA sequence. Human Genome Project, Nature ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of human blood glucose levels using microchip electrophoresis. AU - Maeda, Eiki. AU - Kataoka, Masatoshi. AU - Hino, Mami. AU - Kajimoto, Kazuaki. AU - Kaji, Noritada. AU - Tokeshi, Manabu. AU - Kido, Jun Ichi. AU - Shinohara, Yasuo. AU - Baba, Yoshinobu. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - A high-performance monitoring system for human blood glucose levels was developed using microchip electrophoresis with a plastic chip. The combination of reductive amination as glucose labeling with fluorescent 2-aminoacridone (AMAC) and glucose-borate complex formation realized the highly selective detection of glucose even in a complex matrix such as a blood sample. The migration time of a single peak, observed on an electropherogram of AMAC-labeled plasma, closely resembled that of glucose standard solution. The treatment of plasma with hexokinase or glucokinase for glucose phosphorylation resulted in a peak shift from approximately 145 to 70 s, corresponding to glucose and ...
(2014) Gasilova, Girault. Analytical Chemistry. Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) of cows milk allergy has been performed using immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (IACE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spec...
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry[edit]. Main article: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Capillary ... Maxwell EJ, Chen DD (October 2008). "Twenty years of interface development for capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ... is a technique that combines the liquid separation process of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry.[38] CE-MS is ... "Peptide and protein analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry". ...
Willems, A.; Deforce, D. L.; Van Bocxlaer, J. (2008). "Analysis of oligonucleotides using capillary zone electrophoresis and ... or capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CEMS) are used. Nucleic acids Nucleic acid analogues Peptide nucleic acid ... Capillary Electrophoresis. Totowa, NJ. 384: 401-414. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-376-9_14. PMID 18392576. Comprehensive Natural ... To eliminate unwanted truncation products, the oligonucleotides can be purified via polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or anion ...
Some include: DNA sequencing; capillary electrophoresis; mass spectrometry; single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP); ... single base extension; electrochemical analysis; denaturating HPLC and gel electrophoresis; restriction fragment length ...
"Capillary Electrophoresis Instruments". "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-03. Retrieved 2013-04 ... AQUITY QDa mass detector for chromatography; Bronze - AB Sciex LLC - CESI-MS system using capillary electrophoresis combined ... P/ACE MDQ capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometer; Bronze - Textron Inc - NIR Grain analyzer. 1999: Gold - PerkinElmer ... 2008: Gold - Bruker Corp - SMART X2S automated X-ray diffractometer; Silver - Nlisis BV - Meltfit One capillary column ...
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometryEdit. Main article: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Capillary ... is a technique that combines the liquid separation process of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry.[33] CE-MS is ... "Twenty years of interface development for capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry". Analytica ... "Peptide and protein analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry". ...
Mora, Maria F.; Stockton, Amanda M.; Willis, Peter A. (2015). Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis Protocols. Methods in ... the organic content can be assessed using microchip capillary electrophoresis and selective fluorescent dyes.[74] These devices ... "Enhanced Amine and Amino Acid Analysis Using Pacific Blue and the Mars Organic Analyzer Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis ... "Analysis of carbonaceous biomarkers with the Mars Organic Analyzer microchip capillary electrophoresis system: Aldehydes and ...
hirsutissima using capillary zone electrophoresis. Shuyu Zhang, Jun Cheng, Wenjing Chen, Xiaomei Ling, Yuying Zhao, Jie Feng, ...
His work on capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) supports the identification of DNA point mutations. He has been involved in ... 1996). Capillary electrophoresis in analytical biotechnology. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Righetti, P. G. (1990). Immobilized pH ... He has also worked on the editorial boards of the Journal of Chromatography, the Journal of Capillary Electrophoresis, the ... programmed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). In 2017, researchers stated "The work of P.G. Righetti has been paramount in ...
Eeckhaut, Ann Van; Michotte, Yvette (2009). Chiral Separations by Capillary Electrophoresis. CRC Press. pp. 258-262. ISBN 978-1 ... Electrophoresis. 28 (11): 1723-1734. doi:10.1002/elps.200600551. PMID 17464962. Lawton, W. "Viscoelasticity of Zein-Starch ...
ISBN 978-0-471-98373-6. Baker, D. (1995). Capillary Electrophoreses. New York: Wiley Interscience. pp. 56-57. ISBN 978-0-471- ... "Micelles as separation media in high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance capillary electrophoresis: overview ... "Pharmaceutical applications of micelles in chromatography and electrophoresis". Journal of Chromatography A. 780 (1-2): 243-264 ...
Separation of DNA by capillary electrophoresis. Beckman. PHPH - web-based tool for electropherogram quality analysis Systematic ... Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids Karabiber, F (2013). "A peak alignment algorithm with novel improvements in application to ... An electropherogram, or electrophoregram, is a record or chart produced when electrophoresis is used in an analytical technique ...
Landers, James P. (1997). Handbook of capillary electrophoresis (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-0-8493-2498- ... including the detection of single molecules in liquids at room-temperature and detection methods for capillary electrophoresis ...
By Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection". Electroanalysis. 17 (4): 356. doi:10.1002/elan.200403102. Kakuda ...
They can be separated by capillary electrophoresis. However, some species are monomorphic for many of their allozymes which ... "Allozyme Electrophoresis and Population Structure in the Snowy Campion". Archived from the original on 2013-06-17. Retrieved 15 ... Bader, James M. "Measuring Genetic Variability in Natural Populations by Allozyme Electrophoresis" (PDF). Association for ...
Ohwi by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection". Journal of Chromatography A. 923 (1-2): 255-262. doi:10.1016 ...
2001). "Determination of puerarin, daidzein and rutin in Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi by capillary electrophoresis with ...
Frazier, Richard A; Ames, Jennifer; Nursten, Harry E (2000). Capillary Electrophoresis for Food Analysis: Method Development. ...
Kreft, Samo; Štrukelj, Borut (2001). "Reversed-polarity capillary zone electrophoretic analysis of usnic acid". Electrophoresis ... It is possible to determine the content of usnic acid in lichen extract using reversed-polarity capillary zone electrophoretic ...
Immunoassay Luckey JA, Drossman H, Kostichka T, Smith LM (1993). "High-speed DNA sequencing by capillary gel electrophoresis". ...
Major contributions to analytical chemistry include affinity probe capillary electrophoresis, in vivo neurochemical ... capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidics. He is currently the Hobart H. Willard Distinguished University Professor of ... "Aptamers as Ligands in Affinity Probe Capillary Electrophoresis". Analytical Chemistry. 70 (21): 4540-4545. doi:10.1021/ ... and characterization of biomolecules by capillary electrophoretic analysis of binding interactions". Electrophoresis. 20 (15-16 ...
"Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar capillary electrophoresis". Journal of Chromatography B. 739 (1): 95-100. doi: ...
Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1972. New York, NY: ... The apparent indicator size is measured by Taylor dispersion analysis in a capillary under hydrodynamic flow. Poulsen, Nicklas ...
As of 2019, various capillary electrophoresis (e.g. Applied Biosystems) and next generation sequencing platform and consumable ...
"Quantitative metabolome analysis using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry". Journal of Proteome Research. 2 (5): 488- ...
"Migration order of wine anthocyanins in capillary zone electrophoresis". Analytica Chimica Acta. 524 (1-2): 207-213. doi: ...
"Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry methods for tryptic peptide mapping of therapeutic antibodies". Electrophoresis. 33 ... Capillary electrophoresis coupled with ESI-MS is another technique; however, it works best when analyzing small amounts of ... Coupling ESI with capillary LC can separate peptides from protein digests, while obtaining their molecular masses at the same ... Wang W, Sun J, Nimtz M, Deckwer WD, Zeng AP (2003). "Protein identification from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis ...
Separations: 1- and 2-D PAGE, capillary electrophoresis, chromatography. Quality Control: GLP, GMP, quality and compliance. ... conventional 2-D gel electrophoresis, disease biomarker discovery. Gene Expression and Profiling: gene arrays, real-time PCR. ... for the development of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 2013 Leonard Herzenberg and Leonore Herzenberg for the development of ...
liquid chromagraphy-infrared spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Hyphenated separation techniques ... Chromatography, electrophoresis and field flow fractionation are representative of this field. Combinations of the above ... Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation. Then ...
"Measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels in biological samples by capillary electrophoresis". Journal of Chromatography B. 660 ...
Buffer transfer by capillary action from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential (usually filter ... The transfer step of the DNA from the electrophoresis gel to a membrane permits easy binding of the labeled hybridization probe ... Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and subsequent fragment ... Southern, Edwin Mellor (5 November 1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis ...
He is known for introducing starch as a medium for gel electrophoresis in 1955 and for the discovery, simultaneously with Mario ... and gave the first modern account of capillary action.[204] ...
1993). "[12] High-speed DNA sequencing by capillary gel electrophoresis". Methods in Enzymology. 218 (12): 154-172. ...
Protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin levels can show increased IgA in 50% of all patients. ... microscopy confirms electron-dense deposits in the mesangium that may extend to the subendothelial area of adjacent capillary ...
... and capillary electrophoresis. Each method has many variations with individual advantages and limitations. Gel electrophoresis ... SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (in short: gel electrophoresis, PAGE, or SDS-electrophoresis), free-flow electrophoresis ... Before the widespread use of gel electrophoresis, protein electrophoresis was performed as free-flow electrophoresis (on paper ... Affinity electrophoresis Electroblotting Electrofocusing Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PAGE, or gel electrophoresis ...
Over that period, great advances were made in the technique, such as fluorescent labelling, capillary electrophoresis, and ... Single-nucleotide mutations in a fragment can be more easily detected with MS than by gel electrophoresis alone. MALDI-TOF MS ... Quail MA, Gu Y, Swerdlow H, Mayho M (2012). "Evaluation and optimisation of preparative semi-automated electrophoresis systems ... Kan CW, Fredlake CP, Doherty EA, Barron AE (1 November 2004). "DNA sequencing and genotyping in miniaturized electrophoresis ...
Analytical Separations, Capillary Electrophoresis, Capillary Liquid Chromatography. Institutions. University of North Carolina ... Zone Electrophoresis in Open-Tubular Glass Capillaries, J.W. Jorgenson, and K.D. Lukacs, Analytical Chemistry, 53, 1298-1302 ( ... Capillary Zone Electrophoresis, J.W. Jorgenson, and K.D. Lukacs, Science, 222, 266-272 (1983). ... How Capillary Electrophoresis Sequenced the Human Genome, Norman J. Dovichi, Jianzhong Zhang, Angewante Chemie, Volume39, ...
... capillary electrophoresis and NMR spectroscopy.[11] ...
Affinity electrophoresis. *Agarose gel electrophoresis. *Capillary electrochromatography. *Capillary electrophoresis. * ... "Electrophoresis. 38 (11): 1466-1474. doi:10.1002/elps.201700020. ISSN 1522-2683. PMC 5547746. PMID 28256738.. ...
... by multi-capillary electrophoresis or also dedicated oligonucleotides array based on comparative genomic hybridization (array- ...
These could be fractionated by electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel (called polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and ... Such capillary sequencers automated early large-scale genome sequencing efforts.. Main article: Shotgun sequencing ...
3.0.CO;2-E "Evaluation of the inhibition of choline uptake in synaptosomes by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical ... detection". Electrophoresis. 23 (21): 3699-704. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200211)23:21. 3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 12432531. Costa B, ...
Once these sequences have been amplified, they are resolved either through gel electrophoresis or capillary electrophoresis, ... Instruments built to resolve microsatellite fragments by capillary electrophoresis also use fluorescent dyes.[61] Forensic ... If the DNA was resolved by gel electrophoresis, the DNA can be visualized either by silver staining (low sensitivity, safe, ... 2004). "Haplotype studies support slippage as the mechanism of germline mutations in short tandem repeats". Electrophoresis. 25 ...
"Affinity capillary electrophoresis for the assessment of binding affinity of carbohydrate-based cholera toxin inhibitors". ...
"Comparison of RNA, single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA behavior during capillary electrophoresis in semidilute polymer ... solutions". 》Electrophoresis》 ( 23 (7-8): 1033-44. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200204)23:7/8,1033::AID-ELPS1033,3.0.CO;2-7. ...
Microfluidic sample separation can be achieved by capillary electrophoresis or continuous-flow separation. In capillary ... Capillary electrophoresis thus became a focus for chemical and DNA separation. Thirdly, DARPA of the US Department of Defense ... In electrophoresis, a charged species in a liquid moves under the influence of an applied electric field. Electrophoresis has ... and capillary electrophoresis channels for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that has attomolar ...
... and analytical electrophoresis (PAGE (polyacrylamide electrophoresis), capillary electrophoresis, affinity electrophoresis, etc ... "Small-scale analysis of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins and mucins separated by gel electrophoresis". Anal. Chem. ...
... of the electrochemical processes occurring in a capillary pit are the same than these encountered in capillary electrophoresis ... neutralised by negative charges brought by the electrokinetic migration of anions in the capillary pit. Some ...
... capillary electrophoresis; or boronate affinity chromatography. Point of care (e.g., doctor's office) devices use immunoassay ...
This is the latest generation of 4-capillary electrophoresis instruments for the low to medium throughput laboratories. ... One example of such automation is using DNA isolation robots, capillary electrophoresis and pipetting robots. ...
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a part of the capillary system that prevents the entry of T cells into the central nervous ... The cerebrospinal fluid is tested for oligoclonal bands of IgG on electrophoresis, which are inflammation markers found in 75- ...
Capillary electrophoresis[edit]. In capillary electrophoresis, there is no solid matrix. Proteins are separated primarily by ... Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins. ... Acetate or gel electrophoresis[edit]. Proteins are separated by both electrical forces and electroendoosmostic forces. The net ... Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique in which the blood serum (the fluid portion of the blood after the blood has clotted ...
Circulatory system - respiration - lung - heart - artery - vein - capillary - blood - blood cell. *Digestive system - stomach ... Techniques: electrophoresis - protein tag - affinity chromatography - x-ray diffraction - Proteomics - mass spectrometry ... Molecular Techniques: gel electrophoresis - transformation - PCR - PCR mutagenesis - primer - chromosome walking - RFLP - ...
Affinity electrophoresis. *Agarose gel electrophoresis. *Capillary electrochromatography. *Capillary electrophoresis. * ... As it reaches the anodic end of the electrophoresis medium electrophoresis is stopped. It can weakly bind to some proteins and ... Davis BJ, Ornstein L (1959). "A new high resolution electrophoresis method". Delivered at the Society for the Study of Blood at ... Electrophoresis[edit]. Various buffer systems are used in PAGE depending on the nature of the sample and the experimental ...
It is formed of capillaries with small pores that allow small molecules to pass through that have a molecular weight of less ... serum electrophoresis), or ultrasound of the whole abdomen. ... antigens provoke an obstruction in the glomerular capillary's ...
Recent developments in high-resolution separation techniques based on capillary-scale chromatography and electrophoresis have ... In Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates, hands-on experts describe cutting-edge techniques in capillary electrophoresis ( ... capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), capillary isotachophoresis (CITP), capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), and micellar ... Glycoprotein Analysis by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Electrospray Mass Spectrometry Kevin P. Bateman, John F. Kelly, Pierre ...
The Spectrum Compact CE System is a personal capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument that enables life scientists in ...
... Barboni, Paola pbarboni at Wed Nov 29 05:38:58 EST 2000 *Previous message: 4th ... Hello, I am looking for informations on capillary electrophoresis of proteins. I have just heard about this technique but I ...
The capillary electrophoresis device comprises a device body structure having a plurality of reservoirs arrayed thereon for ... The capillary electrophoresis chip comprises a straight main separation channel, an injection channel, and a plurality of ... of rows of grooves transversely defined to be connected with the reservoirs for receiving at least a capillary electrophoresis ... A capillary electrophoresis device as well as a process for fabrication of the device is disclosed. ...
... the end of the capillary tube is inserted in an injection block with a liquid tight seal and a syringe is inserted i ... To inject sample into an electrophoresis capillary tube having a separating medium, ... This invention relates to capillary electrophoresis. One class of capillary electrophoresis system includes as its principal ... The electrophoresis section 22 includes a capillary tube inlet carrier 44 for the inlet end of the capillary tube 30. The ...
Electrophoretic separations carried out in capillary tubes offer the possibilities of rapid and automated analyses of small ...
The Applied Biosystems SeqStudio Genetic Analyzer is a 4-capillary, fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis system ... The Applied Biosystems SeqStudio Genetic Analyzer is a 4-capillary, fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis system ...
Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system Patent Yeung, Edward S. ; Chang, Huan-Tsang ; Fung, Eliza ... multiplexed capillary; pass filters; capillary electrophoresis; dna sequencing; optically coupled; fluorescence emission; pass ... multiplexed; capillary; electrophoresis; provides; side-entry; optical; excitation; geometry; charge-injection; device; ... The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A ...
Capillary electrophoresis of cereal proteins: an overview.. Lookhart GL1, Bean SR. ... One of the new techniques used to separate these challenging proteins is high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). ...
Capillary Electrophoresis. CEAR facilities own an Agilent 1100 CE equipped with a built-in photo diode array detector (DAD) and ...
Purchase Capillary Electrophoresis Methods for Pharmaceutical Analysis, Volume 9 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Capillary Electrophoresis Methods for Pharmaceutical Analysis, Volume 9 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical technique that is widely used in research and development and in ... Overview of Capillary Electrophoresis in Pharmaceutical Analysis. *Theoretical Consideration in Performance of Various Modes of ...
Capillary electrophoresis has been established as a powerful and efficient separation ... ... Capillary Electrophoresis Services by Eutech Scientific Services Inc. ... capillary electrophoresis electrophoresis laboratory service electrophoresis product electrophoresis analysis screening ... Capillary electrophoresis has been established as a powerful and efficient separation technique. With its rapid analysis time, ...
CE refers to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), but other electrophoretic techniques including capillary gel electrophoresis ... Such capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) instruments with 16 or 96 capillaries are used for medium- to high-throughput ... In general, capillaries used in capillary electrophoresis are coated with a polymer (frequently polyimide or Teflon) for ... Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries ...
This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are ... coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device ... A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously ... excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. ...
Purchase Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis, Volume 2 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ... Capillary electrophoresis in the study of amino acids (P.L. Weber). Capillary electrophoresis of peptides and proteins (K.L. ... The use of capillary electrophoresis in pharmaceutical development (Sou Chan Chang et al.). Capillary electrophoresis-based ... Capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (R.D. Smith, H.R. Udseth). Electrochemical detection for capillary electrophoresis ...
... device and method are described which provide for control over the distortion of a sample zone upon exiting an electrophoresis ... A particularly preferred electrophoresis format is capillary electrophoresis (CE), where the electrophoresis is performed in a ... Dolnik et al., "Capillary electrophoresis on microchip," Electrophoresis, 2000, 21, 41-54. ;, 2000, 21, 41-54. Garcia Campana ... Method and apparatus for reducing the distortion of a sample zone eluting from a capillary electrophoresis capillary. 1998-11- ...
Although capillary electrophoresis (CE) technology has evolved quickly from the research laboratory into practical application ... Introduction to Capillary Electrophoresis, J.P. Landers Protein Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis, J.M. Hempe Micellar ... Capillary Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids, E. Szántai and A. Guttman Analysis of Carbohydrates by Capillary Electrophoresis, J ... Subcellular Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis, B.G. Poe and E.A. Arriaga Chemical Cytometry: Capillary Electrophoresis ...
Kinetic capillary electrophoresis or KCE is capillary electrophoresis of molecules that interact during electrophoresis. KCE ... non-equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of the equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM), sweeping capillary electrophoresis (SweepCE), ... Petrov A, Okhonin V, Berezovski M, Krylov SN (Dec 2005). "Kinetic capillary electrophoresis (KCE): a conceptual platform for ... Okhonin V, Berezovski M, Krylov SN (Jun 2004). "Sweeping capillary electrophoresis: a non-stopped-flow method for measuring ...
... capillary electrophoresis has taken a strong grip on investigators. The technique offers ... Traditional sample injection in capillary electrophoresis involves physical manipulation of the separation capillary into and ... Improving Capillary Electrophoresis the Photonic Way. BioPhotonics. Aug 2006 Novel techniques using lasers, LEDs and fiber ... and his group foresees testing them in combined capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry experiments.. "Using capillary ...
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Do you demand the best product range for your Capillary electrophoresis analyses? ... ANALYTICAL SCIENCES > Liquid Chromatography > Capillary Electrophoresis Capillary Electrophoresis. ...
FINGERPRINTS OF HUMIC ACIDS BY CAPILLARY ZONE. ELECTROPHORESIS S.B. CEPPI*1, M.I. VELASCO1, D. FETSCH2 AND J. HAVEL2 1 ... Capillary zone electrophoresis separation of oligomers of Desmonte HA observed when increasing HA concentration. HA ... KEY WORDS: Humic substances, capillary zone electrophoresis, fingerprints, separation. RESUMEN Las sustancias húmicas (SH) ... Capillary zone electrophoresis separation of oligomers of Pastizal HA observed when increasing HA concentration. HA ...
The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the ... A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries ... The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the ... capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to ...
Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis. The Facility operates an Applied Biosystems 3500 Genetic Analyser; an 8-capillary ... are supplied to the facility in 8-strip tube or a 96-well plate format diluted ready for electrophoresis on the ABI3500. The ... and supply the dried down reactions in 8-strip tube or a 96-well plate format ready for resuspension and electrophoresis on the ...
Z. K. Shihabi, "Transient pseudo-isotachophoresis for sample concentration in capillary electrophoresis," Electrophoresis, vol ... Capillary Electrophoresis with UV Detection to Determine Cocaine on Circulated Banknotes. Melina Heller,1 Luciano Vitali,2 ... Z. K. Shihabi, "Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis," Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 902, no. 1, pp. 107-117, 2000. ... A. F. Faria, M. V. N. de Souza, and M. A. L. de Oliveira, "Validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the ...
Instrumentation for capillary electrophoresis Save Table (XLS/CSV). Sort by: Code. Occupation ... Technology Skills & Tools Occupations for Instrumentation for capillary electrophoresis by U.S. Department of Labor, ...
Patch-Clamp Detection of Neurotransmitters in Capillary Electrophoresis Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Patch-Clamp Detection of Neurotransmitters in Capillary Electrophoresis. By Owe Orwar, Kent Jardemark, Ingemar Jacobson, ... Patch-Clamp Detection of Neurotransmitters in Capillary Electrophoresis. By Owe Orwar, Kent Jardemark, Ingemar Jacobson, ... Gamma-aminobutyrate acid, L-glutamate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate were separated by capillary electrophoresis and detected by the ...
Capel-205 is a new generation capillary electrophoresis system with a significantly extended autosampler for continuous running ... capillary electrophoresis system capillary electrophoresis electrophoresis system soil quality monitoring electrophoresis data ... "Capillary Electrophoresis: Principles" Introduction about capillary electrophoresis: "History and Theory of CE"; design and ... beer and beer products by capillary electrophoresis (CE) using capillary electrophoresis system "CAPEL® -105M". The mass ...
Creatinine in human serum was separated in a fused-silica capillary with H3PO4 (75 mmol/L, pH 2.5) as BGE, followed by UV ... Creatinine determination in serum by capillary electrophoresis Electrophoresis. 2004 Feb;25(3):463-8. doi: 10.1002/elps. ... Capillary electrophoresis, rapid and inexpensive, seems a promising alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC ... Creatinine in human serum was separated in a fused-silica capillary with H3PO4 (75 mmol/L, pH 2.5) as BGE, followed by UV ...
Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis - An Introduction. Electrospray Ionization Interface Development for Capillary ... Capillary Electrophoresis - Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS): Principles and Applications. Gerhardus de Jong ... Recent Developments of Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry. On-line Electrophoretic, ...
  • A high voltage isolated switching arrangement switches the end of the capillary from the injection block to buffer at a high electrical potential to accomplish the electrophoretic separation. (
  • Electrophoretic separations carried out in capillary tubes offer the possibilities of rapid and automated analyses of small volumes of complex mixtures with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. (
  • Very often, CE refers to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), but other electrophoretic techniques including capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), capillary isotachophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) belong also to this class of methods. (
  • The analytes separate as they migrate due to their electrophoretic mobility, and are detected near the outlet end of the capillary. (
  • The LabChip ® GXII Touch makes protein quantitation fast with capillary electrophoretic separation. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis is an analytical technique that separates ions based on their electrophoretic mobility with the use of an applied voltage. (
  • Study of two of these patients 3 month later gave the same result: a bicuspid electrophoretic pattern in the albumin fraction detected by capillary electrophoresis that was not seen with agarose electrophoresis. (
  • We will also evaluate the rapid derivitization technique developed by Waterhouse and Butzke under a separate AVF grant for its potential use in capillary electrophoretic separations of the amino acids. (
  • The Capillary Electrophoretic Method. (
  • The book describes the theory and applications of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) in the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (
  • 7. Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis. (
  • In Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis, Stephen Palfrey brings together for first time a collection of detailed capillary electrophoresis protocols designed exclusively for clinical applications. (
  • Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis demonstrates clearly the simplicity, versatility, and power of CE over conventional methods. (
  • Traditional sample injection in capillary electrophoresis involves physical manipulation of the separation capillary into and out of vials containing buffer or sample, making the process slow and difficult to reproduce. (
  • Buffer flowed from a reservoir through the separation capillary and merged with the reagent at a four-way connector at the end of the column. (
  • The separation capillary outlet is inserted coaxially into the reaction tube, giving rise to minimum turbulence and reproducible mixing. (
  • The outside diameter and shape of the template strand correspond to the inside diameter and shape of a desired separation capillary. (
  • Using this method, it is possible to form a single unit including a separation capillary, conductivity detector, and spectroscopy detector. (
  • The first and thinnest capillary is the separation capillary, with an outer diameter of 100μm. (
  • When an electric current is applied to the buffer in the separation capillary, the buffer in the protection capillary is grounded. (
  • This isolates the reaction solution from the electric current, preventing the gold nanoparticles from aggregating together before interacting with the analytes or from migrating into the separation capillary. (
  • Analytes in a sample are separated by CE in the separation capillary and then exit into first the protection capillary and then the reaction capillary, carried along in their separation order by pumped flows in the protection and reaction capillaries. (
  • Capillary Electrochromatography: A Review," 357-372, 1997. (
  • The thesis focuses on the development of new homogeneous gels for the separation of drug enantiomers, peptides, DNA and virus by electrophoresis and electrochromatography in capillaries and microchips. (
  • Types of CE systems include capillary electrochromatography (CEC), capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary gel electrophoresis. (
  • Such capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) instruments with 16 or 96 capillaries are used for medium- to high-throughput capillary DNA sequencing, and the inlet ends of the capillaries are arrayed spatially to accept samples directly from SBS-standard footprint 96-well plates. (
  • Fluorescence detection played a key role in DNA sequencing using capillary array electrophoresis (CAC) (9). (
  • Popular Abstract in Swedish Vad arbetar en analytisk kemist med? (
  • More detailed description and several applications of KCE methods (measuring equilibrium and rate constants of molecular interactions, quantitative affinity analysis of proteins, thermochemistry of protein-ligand interactions, selection of aptamers, determination of temperature inside a capillary) can be found in a PDF presentation: KCE ia a conceptual platform for kinetic homogeneous affinity methods. (
  • Development of a fast capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of propranolol-total analysis time reduction strategies," Journal of Chromatography A , vol. 1216, no. 45, pp. 7957-7961, 2009. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis, rapid and inexpensive, seems a promising alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for creatinine determination in human serum. (
  • Determination of synthetic colourant food additives by capillary zone electrophoresis , Journal of Chromatography A (1995) 718:448-453. (
  • By developing and validating an enantiomeric purity determination method for ropivacaine substance and products, it is shown that chiral capillary electrophoresis is a feasible technique for pharmaceutical analysis, which can offer an alternative and/or complement to chiral liquid chromatography. (
  • A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of sulfate in concrete digested with concentrated nitric acid is described. (
  • Sensitive determination of rhodamine 110-labeled monosaccharides in glycoprotein by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. (
  • This book provides the complete information on the types of the chiral pollutants, their toxicities and methods of determination by chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries and in micro- and nanofluidic channels. (
  • Different KCE methods are designed by varying initial and boundary conditions - the way interacting molecules enter and exit the capillary. (
  • Several KCE methods were described: non-equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of the equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM), sweeping capillary electrophoresis (SweepCE), plug-plug KCE (ppKCE). (
  • Capillary electrophoresis-based methods for in vivo analysis: single cell analysis and microdialysis sampling (B.L. Hogan). (
  • With proteomics, there are really good separation methods for peptides that are HPLC [high pressure liquid chromatography]-based, so capillary electrophoresis is not as important, but there is some potential there as well to do proteomics using CE or CE-MS. With carbohydrates, though, they're very hydrophilic and often they're very charged. (
  • Using the interface, we were able to separate by two primary methods used in capillary electrophoresis [see and ], and then we used a simple mass spec method on the separated analytes that relies on an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer that's available in almost any analytical lab nowadays. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful, well-established analytical technique that provides numerous valuable benefits over other separation methods including high-performance liquid chromatography. (
  • In Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field provide key techniques to investigate CE focusing on simple and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), aminoacids, peptides and proteins, enzymes, and nucleic acids. (
  • Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules: Methods and Protocols details key techniques used to investigate Capillary electrophoresis (CE). (
  • Today, among the various chiral discrimination methods, chromatography and capillary electrophoresis techniques have become powerful tools in environmental analysis. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical technique that is widely used in research and development and in quality control of pharmaceuticals. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis with a universal UV-based product detection is a promising analytical tool to quantify product formation. (
  • This technique is capillary electrophoresis coupled online to an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CE-MS). This technology has proven to be highly reproducible, sensitive with a quick analysis time, important features when analytical platforms have to be used in a clinical setting. (
  • This text aims to evaluate the actual impact of high-performance capillary electrophoresis on analytical biotechnology and environmental analysis. (
  • Four of its 11 chapters present an introduction to capillary electrophoresis and discuss its application to various analytical problems ranging from the analysis of cyclic nucleotides to quality control in the pharmaceutical industry. (
  • and the use of the displacement mode of chromatography.Horvath, Csaba is the author of 'Analytical Biotechnology Capillary Electrophoresis and Chromatography' with ISBN 9780841218192 and ISBN 0841218196. (
  • The advances in the chiral electrophoresis analytical approaches are divided and theoretically described in three sections involving (i. (
  • The author wishes the readers many inspirations in the creation of new innovative approaches in the field of advanced chiral electrophoresis techniques with the aim to overcome capabilities of the current analytical techniques. (
  • Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) has had a very significant impact on the field of analytical chemistry in recent years as the technique is capable of very high resolution separations, requiring only small amounts of samples and reagents. (
  • In this thesis the possibilities of using capillary electrophoresis as a separation technique for analysis of proteins and microbubbles is presented.A complete analytical process consists of five necessary steps of which one is the actual analysis step. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the common analytical separation techniques used for analysis of a diversity of analytes, and can be both used in routine analysis and for research purposes. (
  • Recent developments in high-resolution separation techniques based on capillary-scale chromatography and electrophoresis have transformed the analysis of free and conjugated mono- and oligosaccharides. (
  • The present paper describes a novel and easy-to-run capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) method for the specific analysis of fibrillar forms of Aβ aggregates obtained after in vitro incubation of Aβ 1-40 monomer. (
  • The monosaccharide derivatives were investigated by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. (
  • The system's main components are a sample vial, source and destination vials, a capillary, electrodes, a high voltage power supply, a detector, and a data output and handling device. (
  • The CE/sensor was built by modifying the detector-portion of the capillary with the redox-sensitive polymer polyaniline (PANI). (
  • The elementary parts of a CE system are a high voltage power supply, a source and destination vial, a fused silica capillary, electrodes and a detector. (
  • The capillary is directly passed through the detector. (
  • To detect bands in an electrophoresis capillary tube having a liquid separating medium, a light source and a light detector of a monitor are positioned on opposite sides of the capillary tube with the light source transmitting light through a first slit and light passing to the detector through a second slit after it has passed through the capillary tube. (
  • CE combined with MS detection CE/MS combines the short analysis time and high separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with the molecular weight and structural information from the mass selective detector (MS). The tech. (
  • A liquid core waveguide fluorescence detector for multicapillary electrophoresis applied to DNA sequ. (
  • Different CE separation formats, including capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), capillary isotachophoresis (CITP), capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), are presented for different types of applications, such as the analysis of glycoforms, the separation of enantiomers, and the resolution of oligosaccharides. (
  • The Applied Biosystems SeqStudio Genetic Analyzer is a 4-capillary, fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis system designed to provide users with an integrated experience that is easy, efficient, and versatile for research in genetic analysis. (
  • Your capillary electrophoresis (CE) genetic analyzer is more powerful than you may think. (
  • The Fragment Analyzer™ Automated CE System is a fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis instrument for both sizing and quantifying nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). (
  • com) focuses its core technologies of capillary electrophoresis , microfluidics, liquid handling and automation to develop and manufacture low-cost microfluidic, miniaturized digital genetic analyzer systems, software and consumables for biological materials testing applications. (
  • The conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is limited to the separation of ionic compounds. (
  • consequently an efficient separation using the conventional capillary zone electrophoresis is hard to be achieved. (
  • DNA and RNA quantitation and sizing can be done in seconds using automated capillary electrophoresis separation. (
  • Pressure, voltage or a vacuum is used to introduce the sample to fused silica capillaries. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of related separation techniques that use narrow-bore fused-silica capillaries to separate a complex array of large and small molecules. (
  • With fused-silica capillaries, detection below 200 nm up through the visible spectrum can be used. (
  • One of the new techniques used to separate these challenging proteins is high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). (
  • High performance capillary electrophoresis is based on the differential migration of components of aqueous samples within a narrow fused silica capillary driven by an electric field. (
  • Applied Biosystems genetic analysis systems are a trusted standard for Sanger sequencing and fragment analysis by capillary electrophoresis-proven through decades of results, including the first sequencing of the human genome and the discovery of genes implicated in diseases like cystic fibrosis. (
  • Chiral Separations by Capillary Electrophoresis 1st Edition by Ann Van Eeckhaut and Publisher CRC Press. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis was first combined with mass spectrometry by Richard D. Smith and coworkers, and provides extremely high sensitivity for the analysis of very small sample sizes. (
  • Despite the very small sample sizes (typically only a few nanoliters of liquid are introduced into the capillary), high sensitivity and sharp peaks are achieved in part due to injection strategies that result in concentration of analytes into a narrow zone near the inlet of the capillary. (
  • This technique has the sensitivity to observe the opening of a single ion channel for agonists separated by capillary electrophoresis. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-mass spectrometry (MS) is one such technology that integrates sensitivity, label-free detection, and capability for quantification. (
  • Clinical capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins: balancing high sensitivity and high specificity. (
  • Several techniques are described to enhance sensitivity by on-capillary sample concentration during or just after sample injection. (
  • Sensitivity and linearity usually can be improved by increasing the capillary i.d. (
  • In Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates, hands-on experts describe cutting-edge techniques in capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the analysis of complex carbohydrates. (
  • Timely and highly practical, Capillary Electrophoresis of Carbohydrates provides both novice and experienced CE analysts with powerful tools for the successful separation of complex carbohydrates by capillary electrophoresis. (
  • We can use capillary electrophoresis widely to do analysis of glycans, and we think it's a profoundly important technique because, again, carbohydrates don't work very well in partition chromatography like HPLC. (
  • But with capillary electrophoresis, we don't have a packing material so we don't have to worry about partition or binding to a column and then releasing, we're just separating carbohydrates based on their migration times from an open capillary. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE), introduced in the 1980s, utilizes the same principles as gel electrophoresis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of charged biological molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids as well as inorganic compounds. (
  • In the most common mode of CE, all ions, positive or negative, are pulled through the capillary in the same direction by electroosmotic flow. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a separation method which is based on different velocities of ions in an electric field. (
  • Ions migrate through the capillary tunnel in a similar way. (
  • The source vial, destination vial and capillary are filled with an electrolyte such as an aqueous buffer solution. (
  • In this interfacing design, the sheath-liquid is provided co-axially to the end of the CE capillary as a terminal electrolyte reservoir to provide a closed electrical contact. (
  • Analytes and background electrolyte solutions for testing a C4D system in electrophoresis experiments. (
  • Kinetic capillary electrophoresis or KCE is capillary electrophoresis of molecules that interact during electrophoresis. (
  • The Spectrum Compact CE System is a personal capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument that enables life scientists in laboratories of all sizes to perform Sanger sequencing and fragment analysis at the bench. (
  • The new personal capillary electrophoresis system, Spectrum Compact CE, performs Sanger sequencing and fragment analysis. (
  • Embodiments of a device and method are described which provide for control over the distortion of a sample zone upon exiting an electrophoresis separation channel. (
  • End-Column Detection for Capillary Zone Electrophoresis," Anal. (
  • In particular, the application of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the characterization of HS has evoked an increased interest. (
  • Analysis of soluble sugars using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under alkaline conditions with direct UV detection has previously been used to quantify simple sugars in fruit juices. (
  • 2,9,11,13,15) Capillary zone electrophoresis is at least equivalent to AGE, and the interpretation of its electrophoregrams is similar to that for AGE. (
  • Capillary zone electrophoresis on chemically bonded imidazolium based salts. (
  • The aim of this study was to establish a (Beta)-cyclodextrin ((Beta)-CD) modified capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with 4-methylumbelliferone as internal standard for the quantitative analysis and compare the contents of rutin and quercetin in "Huai hua" and "Huai mi" from eleven areas in Dezhou. (
  • Superimposition of 2 serum capillary zone electrophoresis profiles: that of the patient (gray) and of a healthy individual with values within the reference intervals (white). (
  • Beta)-cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis ((Beta)-CD a" CZE). (
  • More particularly, this invention relates to a multi-channel capillary electrophoresis device and method wherein the distortion of a sample zone exiting from the end of a channel is controlled thereby resulting in enhanced detectability of such sample zone. (
  • On-line fiber optic UV detection cell and conductivity cell for capillary zone electrophoresis", Electrophoresis 1986, 7,pp. 430-432. (
  • This invention relates to the design and construction of separation channels and detectors for use in electrophoresis, as exemplified by zone electrophoresis and isotachophoresis (ITP). (
  • Resolution in isotachophoresis or capillary zone electrophoresis is controlled by the diameter of the separation channel. (
  • For example, capillary zone electrophoresis can crisply separate serum components, detecting subtle monoclonal proteins. (
  • Depending on the characteristics of the analytes, and the sample matrix, different modes of CE can be used, where capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is the most employed one. (
  • A capillary zone electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of three tetracyclines in chicken meat samples: tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and doxycycline (DOC). (
  • Also, a simple capillary zone electrophoresis method was applied to study the stability of the studied penicillin derivatives in water at different temperatures, using ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as internal standard. (
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate serum M-protein quantification by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and to compare results with those obtained by densitometric scanning of high-resolution agarose gel electrophoresis (HRE-AGE). (
  • Separated solutes are quantitatively detected at the capillary outlet by a high sensitive optical system based on direct or indirect UV absorbance. (
  • Emphasizing microseparations and microfluidics, the Handbook of Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis, Third Edition features new chapters describing the use of microchip electrophoresis and associated microtechniques, with a focus on the extraordinary breadth of work undertaken to expand CE methodologies in recent years. (
  • Non-Ionic, Thermo-Responsive DEA/DMA Nanogels: Synthesis, Characterization, and Use for DNA Separations by Microchip Electrophoresis", J Colloid Interface Sci. (
  • Record the conductivity at up to eight positions on a capillary or tubing. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis in the study of amino acids (P.L. Weber). (
  • On-column derivatization and analysis of amino acids, peptides, and alkylamines by anhydrides using capillary electrophoresis. (
  • This work demonstrates the use of an in-capillary procedure for derivatization of amino acids, peptides, and alkylamines by anhydrides using capillary electrophoresis (CE). (
  • In separate experiments a series of amino acids and peptides were injected into the capillary and reacted with phthalic anhydride on-column to yield the phthalic derivatized species. (
  • Separation of nucleic acids and oligonucleotides and sequencing of DNA fragments by capillary electrophoresis (R.P. Singhal, Jun Xian). (
  • Analyzing nucleic acids through gel electrophoresis has been a staple of genetic research for decades. (
  • Urinary proteomics based on capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry in kidney disease. (
  • Fritless particle-loaded monoliths for chiral capillary electrochromatographic (CEC) separation were prepared. (
  • Silica particles containing a chiral selector are suspended in a monomer solution, which is drawn into the capillary followed by in situ polymerization. (
  • The scientific monograph by the author Peter Mikus entitled "Chiral Capillary Electrophoresis in Current Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis" provides a comprehensive view on the advanced capillary electrophoresis techniques aimed to current chiral bioanalysis. (
  • The chiral capillary electrophoresis mechanism is studied by evaluating the enantiomeric separations of a series of local anaesthetic analogues, the sixteen different optical isomers of a tetrapeptide and a series of glycyl, alanyl and leucyl dipeptides. (
  • The usefulness of mobility difference plots is appraised and important method parameters, such as the selection of the chiral selector, the chiral selector concentration, the chiral selector purity, the pH and the composition of the electrophoresis solution, are identified and discussed, bearing method robustness in mind. (
  • Chiral Selectors in Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis. (
  • A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. (
  • Since molecules can have different charges, in electrophoresis, molecules can be pulled toward the anode or cathode using electricity. (
  • Therefore, electrophoresis is a technique used to separate molecules based on size and charge. (
  • It is often used to separate proteins, RNA and DNA, but electrophoresis can also distinguish other types of molecules. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis ( CE ), then is the separation of molecules using electricity and a very small tube called a capillary. (
  • Molecules flow in the capillary when power is on. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis is utilized primarily for the analysis of charged molecules and thus has found a niche in laboratories focused on genomics and proteomics. (
  • Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) separates molecules based on charge, size and hydrophobicity. (
  • The capillary gel electrophoresis is used for the separation of DNA molecules and the fluorescence primer is detected by CCD. (
  • These procedures illustrate the use of the capillary as a microreactor in the facile synthesis of derivatized molecules and ease of quantitation of reaction products under conditions of electrophoresis. (
  • A schematic of a photolytic optical injection method for capillary electrophoresis depicts laser beam orientation. (
  • To further enhance the applicability of this method to low level pathogen and mutation detection, we have now successfully performed single molecule detection of DNA separations in microfabricated glass capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. (
  • 8. The method of claim 1 wherein said strand is a capillary tube. (
  • The new method will employ a chip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE) system to analyse different DNA fingerprints produced by enzymatic cleavage of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated fragments. (
  • Capillary electrophoresis is a separation method performed by applying a high voltage along a capillary. (
  • In optically gated capillary electrophoresis, the sample to be studied is tagged with a fluorescent dye, added to a buffer solution and continuously streamed under the high-voltage electrical field. (
  • When added to buffer running through a capillary electrophoresis system, the analyte was effectively invisible to the filtered 488-nm detection beam from an argon-ion laser made by Coherent Inc. of Santa Clara, Calif. (
  • Sigma's 10X Capillary Electrophoresis Running Buffer was designed to meet the high quality and high throughput demands of today's sequencing labs. (
  • Scientists at Sigma have taken this experience and joined it with today's advancing technologies to optimize a buffer for use with capillary electrophoresis sequencing instruments. (
  • The capillary, which as we discussed is shaped like a tube, is open on each end, and each end is placed in a buffer. (
  • Two ends of the capillary are in buffer solution. (
  • Since the walls of the capillary are negative, the buffer is attracted to the tunnel walls. (
  • Positive buffer neutralizes negative capillary walls. (
  • Post analysis, the capillaries are immediately cleaned with a wash solution and then refilled with buffer in preparation for the next samples. (
  • The separation and protection capillaries are both filled with an appropriate separation buffer, while the surrounding reaction capillary is filled with a reaction solution containing the gold nanoparticles. (
  • They used an acidic phosphate buffer in the separation and protection capillaries, to ensure the PAMAM dendrimers were positively charged, and a neutral solution of gold nanoparticles, around 20nm in size, in the reaction capillary. (
  • An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. (
  • The instrumentation needed to perform capillary electrophoresis is relatively simple. (
  • Certain aspects of the instrumentation (such as detection) are necessarily more complex than for a single-capillary system, but the fundamental principles of design and operation are similar to those shown in Figure 1. (
  • Technology Skills & Tools Occupations for 'Instrumentation for capillary electrophoresis' by U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License . (
  • Extending the previous preliminary study on the construction of a capillary electrophoresis (CE)/sensor for the detection of reducing analytes, we focus the interest on the simultaneous detection of redox active species, which are important indicators of the oxidative damage in tissues, of food preservation, and of pollution. (
  • During the last two decades capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) has gained in interest, become more robust to use and able to separate neutral analytes. (
  • When they enter the reaction capillary, the analytes interact with the gold nanoparticles to produce blue aggregations, which can be detected by their absorption of red light from a light-emitting diode. (
  • The analytes separate as they travel along the capillary because of differences in their ionic mobility and are detected near the outlet of the capillary. (
  • Their simultaneous separation was solved by using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, the separation being based on the differential partition of the analytes between the micellar and aqueous phase. (
  • The use of capillary electrophoresis in pharmaceutical development (Sou Chan Chang et al. ). (
  • This book presents the technique of capillary electrophoresis from the point of view of the serious hands-on use in the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (
  • when water-soluble proteins of muscle tissues are separated by electrophoresis, isoelectric focussing or by liquid chromatography, unique species profiles can be obtained. (
  • Principles and theory of capillary electrophoresis (S.M. Lunte, D.M. Radzik). (
  • The principles of operation in capillary electrophoresis are relatively simple. (
  • The portion of the capillary used for UV detection, however, must be optically transparent. (
  • Further a PANI/CE-biological sensor was developed by coupling an enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOD), to the PANI-modified portion of the capillary. (
  • The application of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) coupling technology in the analysis of. (
  • The application of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) coupling technology in the analysis of recombinant therapeutic proteins is detailed thoroughly. (
  • The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. (
  • A basic schematic of a capillary electrophoresis system is shown in figure 1. (
  • 2. The detection system of claim 1 wherein the capillaries have an inside diameter of about 20-500 microns and at least one optical fiber is coupled to each capillary in a manner to transmit the coherent light axially into the capillary. (
  • 3. The detection system of claim 2 wherein the optical fiber is coupled to the capillary by insertion of the second end of the optical fiber into the outflow end of the capillary, the optical fiber being of a suitable diameter for affixing the fiber inside the capillary without substantially hindering the sample flow. (
  • 4. The detection system of claim 1 wherein at least one optical fiber is coupled to each capillary and positioned adjacent to and orthogonally in relation to the capillary. (
  • 6. The detection system of claim 5 wherein the focusing means is a lens for focusing fluorescent light emitted from the target species in the capillaries to the means for detecting fluorescent light. (
  • 10. The detection system of claim 1 further comprising a spacer positioned between at least two capillaries to reduce optical crosstalk between the capillaries. (
  • 13. The detection system of claim 1 wherein the array of capillaries comprises at least 100 capillaries. (
  • 15. The detection system of claim 1 wherein at least one of the capillaries contains a gel that is suitable for capillary gel electrophoresis systems. (
  • A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. (
  • an 8-capillary system capable of fragment analysis for a range of projects from single sequencing reads to 96 well plates of microsatellite or AFLP genotyping products. (
  • Capel-205 is a new generation capillary electrophoresis system with a significantly extended autosampler for continuous running of dozens of analyses and increased efficiency in separation. (
  • Capel-205 is a new generation capillary electrophoresis system with advanced options and design. (
  • Usage of a multiplex system allows the simultaneous measurement with 96 capillaries. (
  • The capillary electrophoresis system G1600A from Agilent is available. (
  • A new benchtop capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument, the Spectrum Compact CE System, an integrated DNA analysis instrument by Promega, a provider of innovative solutions and technical support to the life sciences industry, enhances analysis by enabling the ability to perform Sanger sequencing and fragment analysis at the bench. (
  • A sample injector includes a vacuum chamber communicating with one end of the capillary tube to pull sample into the other end and a pressure sensor to measure the pressure in said vacuum chamber and generate a signal indicative thereof and integrate it to indicate the amount of sample pulled into the system. (
  • The system provides clear advantages over traditional electrophoresis for DNA quantitation (viral load, gene expression), mutation analysis, and size polymorphisms analysis (VNTR, STR, m. (
  • Serum protein electrophoresis by CZE 2000 clinical capillary electrophoresis system. (
  • The capillary electrophoresis device comprises a device body structure having a plurality of reservoirs arrayed thereon for loading a sample, and a plurality of rows of grooves transversely defined to. (
  • The capillary electrophoresis chip comprises a straight main separation channel, an injection channel, and a plurality of sample transport channels defined thereon in liquid communication with the reservoirs. (
  • 6. The capillary electrophoresis device, as recited in claim 1 , wherein said coating layer comprises a dielectric thin film. (
  • 5. The capillary electrophoresis device, as recited in claim 1 , wherein said plurality of reservoirs are positioned with a well spacing that is consistent with an interval of a 384 well ELISA. (
  • This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. (
  • Xu, Yan, "Capillary Electrophoresis" (1995). (
  • Applied Biosystems genetic analyzers for DNA sequencing and fragment analysis applications feature proven capillary electrophoresis technology and utilize our high-quality capillaries, polymers, and BigDye Terminator chemistry. (
  • direct detection and quantification of the different protein fractions is performed at a specific wavelength at the cathodic end of the capillary. (
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