A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Methods of comparing two or more samples on the same two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gel.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.

Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA. (1/3892)

Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin.  (+info)

Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug. (2/3892)

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol. (3/3892)

BACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of HDL-cholesterol measurements was assessed in native human sera by 25 Dutch clinical chemistry laboratories. Concomitantly, the suitability of lyophilized, saccharose-containing CRMs (n = 11) for HDL-cholesterol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the precipitation method group, which included 25 laboratories and four methods, the mean (minimum-maximum) TE was 11.5% (2.7-25.2%), signifying that 18 of 25 laboratories satisfied the TE goal of +info)

Molecular determination of species boundaries in corals: genetic analysis of the Montastraea annularis complex using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and a microsatellite marker. (4/3892)

Analyses of DNA have not been widely used to distinguish coral sibling species. The three members of the Montastraea annularis complex represent an important test case: they are widely studied and dominate Caribbean reefs, yet their taxonomic status remains unclear. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and a microsatellite locus, using DNA from sperm, showed that Montastraea faveolata is genetically distinct. One AFLP primer yielded a diagnostic product (880 bp in M. faveolata 920 bp in M. franksi and M. annularis) whose homology was established by DNA sequencing. A second primer revealed a 630 bp band that was fixed in M. faveolata, and rare in M. franksi and M. annularis; in this case homologies were confirmed by Southern hybridizations. A tetranucleotide microsatellite locus with several alleles exhibited strong frequency differences between M. faveolata and the other two taxa. We did not detect comparable differences between M. annularis and M. franksi with either AFLPs (12 primers screened) or the microsatellite locus. Comparisons of AFLP patterns obtained from DNA from sperm, somatic tissues, and zooxanthellae suggest that the technique routinely amplifies coral (animal) DNA. Thus analyses based on somatic tissues may be feasible, particularly after diagnostic differences have been established using sperm DNA.  (+info)

Androgen influence on lacrimal gland apoptosis, necrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration. (5/3892)

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that ovariectomy and hypophysectomy cause regression of the lacrimal gland and have implicated androgens as trophic hormones that support the gland. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that glandular regression after ovariectomy is due to apoptosis, to identify the cell type or types that undergo apoptosis, to survey the time course of the apoptosis, and to determine whether ovariectomy-induced apoptosis could be prevented by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. METHODS: Groups of sexually mature female New Zealand White rabbits were ovariectomized and killed at various time periods up to 9 days. Additional groups of ovariectomized rabbits were treated with 4 mg/kg DHT per day. At each time period, sham-operated rabbits were used as controls. Lacrimal glands were removed and processed for analysis of apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation and for morphologic examination. DNA fragmentation was determined using the TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling assay and by agarose gel electrophoresis. Labeled nuclei were quantified by automated densitometry. Sections were also stained for RTLA (rabbit thymic lymphocyte antigen), rabbit CD18, and La antigen. Morphology was evaluated by both light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: The time course of apoptosis exhibited two phases, a rapid and transient phase and a second prolonged phase. A transient phase peaked at approximately 4 to 6 hours after ovariectomy. The values for degraded DNA as a percentage of total nuclear area were 4.29%+/-0.79% and 4.26%+/-0.54%, respectively. The values for sham-operated controls examined at the same time periods were 1.77%+/-0.08% and 0.82%+/-0.21%, respectively. The percentage of degraded DNA at 24 hours after ovariectomy was not different from controls examined at the same interval after sham operation. The percentage of degraded DNA 6 days after ovariectomy was significantly increased (8.5%+/-2.4%), compared with sham-operated animals at the same time period (0.68%+/-0.03%). DNA laddering was more pronounced after ovariectomy. Dihydrotestosterone treatment in ovariectomized rabbits suppressed the increase in DNA degradation. Morphologic examination of lacrimal gland sections indicated that ovariectomy caused apoptosis of interstitial cells rather than acinar or ductal epithelial cells. Tissue taken 4 hours and 6 days after ovariectomy showed nuclear chromatin condensation principally in plasma cells. Increased numbers of macrophages were also evident. Significant levels of cell degeneration and cell debris, characteristic of necrosis, were observed in acinar regions 6 days after ovariectomy. Dihydrotestosterone prevented this necrosis. Increased numbers of RTLA+, CD18+, and La+ interstitial cells were also evident 6 days after ovariectomy. In addition, ovariectomy increased La expression in ductal cells. Dihydrotestosterone treatment prevented the increase in numbers of lymphoid cells and La expression. Dihydrotestosterone also promoted the appearance of mitotic figures in acinar cells and increased the sizes of acini by 43% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Glandular atrophy observed after ovariectomy is likely to proceed by necrosis of acinar cells rather than apoptosis. This process begins with an apparent time lag after a rapid phase of interstitial cell apoptosis. These processes are accompanied by increased lymphocytic infiltration. These results suggest that a critical level of androgen is necessary to maintain lacrimal gland structure and function and that a decrease in available androgen below this level could trigger lacrimal gland apoptosis and necrosis, and an autoimmune response. Because apoptotic and necrotic cell fragments may be sources of autoantigens that can be processed and presented to initiate an autoimmune reaction, we surmise that cell death triggered by androgen withdrawal may trigger an autoimmune response such as that encountered in Sjogren's syndrome. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous DNA with polyomavirus major structural protein, VP1. (6/3892)

'Empty' polyomavirus pseudocapsids, self-assembled from the major structural protein VP1, bind DNA non-specifically and can deliver it into the nuclei of mammalian cells for expression [Forstova et al. (1995) Hum. Gene Ther. 6, 297-3061. Formation of suitable VP1-DNA complexes appears to be the limiting step in this route of gene delivery. Here, the character of VP1-DNA interactions has been studied in detail. Electron microscopy revealed that VP1 pseudocapsids can create in vitro at least two types of interactions with double-stranded DNA: (i) highly stable complexes, requiring free DNA ends, where the DNA is partially encapsidated; and, (ii) weaker interactions of pseudocapsids with internal parts of the DNA chain.  (+info)

Associations between a polymorphism in the gene encoding glycoprotein IIIa and myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease. (7/3892)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a common variant (PIA2) of the membrane glycoprotein (GP) IIIa gene is associated with myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND: Platelet GP IIb/IIIa is believed to play a central role in MI, binding fibrinogen, cross-linking platelets and initiating thrombus formation. Genetically determined differences in binding properties of GP IIb/IIIa might result in changes in platelet activation or aggregation and affect the risk of MI or CAD. METHODS: To determine associations (odds ratios [OR] > or =1.5 to 2.0) of genotype with MI or CAD, blood was drawn from 791 patients (pt) undergoing angiography. A 266 base pair fragment of the GP IIIa gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and digested with the MspI restriction enzyme. Genotypes were identified after electrophoresis of digestion products in 1.5% agarose gel. RESULTS: Of the 791 pt, 225 had acute (n = 143) or previous MI, and 276 did not have MI or unstable angina. The PI(A2) allele was carried by 33.8% of MI pt versus 26.9% of no-MI control subjects, OR = 1.39 (95% CI, 0.95 to 2.04, p = 0.09). Angiographically, 549 pt had severe (>60% coronary stenosis) CAD, and 170 had normal coronary arteries (<10% stenosis). The PI(A2) allele was found in 31.0% of CAD pt versus 28.2% of no-CAD control subjects, OR = 1.14 (CI, 0.78 to 1.67, p = 0.50). When adjusted for six standard risk factors, ORs were 1.47 (CI, 0.98 to 2.20, p = 0.062) for MI and 1.20 (CI, 0.80 to 1.81, p = 0.38) for CAD. CONCLUSIONS: The PI(A2) variant of the gene encoding GP IIIa is modestly associated (OR approximately 1.5) with nonfatal MI but shows little if any association with CAD per se.  (+info)

Distribution of complement C3 variants in individuals with cystic fibrosis. (8/3892)

The gene frequency for slow and fast electrophoretic variants of complement C3 in Caucasian individuals with cystic fibrosis was similar to the values expected for unaffected controls, thereby ruling out a suspected differential involvement of these phenotypes with the disease. In one family, cystic fibrosis and complement C3 phenotypes segregated independently.  (+info)

Isolation of genomic DNA is an essential technique in modern research science, particularly molecular biology and biotechnology. Genomic DNA is purified from a multitude of sources including mammalian tissue, such as cheek cells (BE-303), plant cells or bacterial cells.. These kits use detergent lysis and precipitation to purify genomic DNA from onion or bacteria. Other plants or fruits can be used, such as strawberries. These kits do not utilize toxic agents, such as phenol or chloroform for genomic DNA extraction.. Agarose electrophoresis can be used to visualize the genomic DNA on an agarose gel.. Supplied with components needed for hands-on experimentation for six workstations of 4-5 students or 24-30 students. Supplied with Teachers Guide and separate Students Guides.. ...
Background: Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 Protein (NPC1L1), a target protein of ezetimibe, is expressed not only in the small intestine but also in the liver of humans, while its expression in the liver of mice has been shown to be little. To elucidate the role of hepatic NPC1L1 expression on lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, we over-expressed NPC1L1 in mice liver utilizing adenoviral gene transfer.. Methods & Results: C57BL/6 mice, fed on normal chow with or without ezetimibe for 4 weeks, were injected with NPC1L1 adenovirus (L1-mice) or control virus (C-mice). Four and 5 days after injection, we analyzed glucose metabolism and plasma lipid profiles, respectively. The plasma cholesterol levels increased in L1-mice (C-mice 96 mg/dl vs L1-mice 155 mg/dl); the FPLC profile of pooled plasma revealed increased cholesterol contents in the LDL-sized and large HDL-sized lipoprotein fractions. The large HDL fractions, which showed α-mobility on agarose electrophoresis, were rich in apoE and free cholesterol ...
Agarose electrophoresis of pre-amplification product showed that multiple enzyme digestion/ligation procedure produced DNA fragments of expected size (200-around 1000 bp) (Figure 1). PCR product of captured DNAs was in the similar MW range (Figure 1). Sixty colonies were randomly picked for colony PCR using AP11 primer. All of them harbouring plasmids with inserts of expected size (Figure 1 and Figure 2).. Plasmids were extracted from the colonies and inserts sequenced using M13 forward/reverse primer. Of the 272 colonies for sequencing, 259 were non-redundancy sequences, and 119 were found to have unique SSR inserts (Table 1). All of the six probes used could be directly related to these sequences; the (cgc) 4 SSR was an only exceptional case. The ratio of non-redundant SSR inserts was 43.7%. Although it may not be the highest in groundnut SSR isolation, due to the judicious choice of restriction enzymes, and a probe removal step for uprooting probe-primed PCR, most of these SSRs identified ...
Option microbiology This course will involve 2 blocks of laboratory work: 1 Procedures for isoating bacteria with contaminants degrading activity: 1 • Isolation of consortia and individual bacteria with degradation abilities from 1 • contaminated soil - preparation and dilution of samples, bacteria cultivation, 1 • colony counting, Gram staining, microscopy, biochemical characterization of 1 • Gram-negative bacteria, identification of bacteria using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR- 1 • based detection of functional genes, agarose electrophoresis 2 Measurement of toxicity 1 • Ecotoxicity tests - as Bioscreen, Vibrio fischeri (luminescent bacteria) - and seed 1 • germination will be used for soil ecotoxicity measurements. Option chemical analytical methods This course will give introduction into the basic, most common laboratory techniques used in analysis of drinkingwater, surface water or wastewater. It will involve: 1 Introduction into the lab and training on safety rules 2 Basic analytical ...
BACKGROUND: Products of the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase, stimulate the growth of several cell types. Selective inhibitors of the enzyme, including SC41661A and MK886, reduce PC-3 prostate cell proliferation. With continued culture, cells die, but the mode of death, necrotic or nonnecrotic, has not been established. METHODS: Flow cytometry, laddering after agarose electrophoresis of DNA from inhibitor-treated cells, and light and electron microscopy were employed to examine the type of death in PC-3 prostate cells cultured with either 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. RESULTS: The inhibitors induced nonnecrotic, programmed cell death. SC41661A-treated cells exhibited foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm and mitochondria with disrupted cristae and limiting membranes, while some cells contained numerous polysomes and extended hypertrophic Golgi and secretory cisternal networks. A proportion of the treated cells detached and the nuclei of these cells were characteristic of type 1 ...
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful method for biomarker analysis because it enables highly sensitive and accurate measurement of target molecules in clinical samples. The application of MS to clinical diagnosis, such as neonatal metabolic screening, has been progressing with a focus on metabolite markers. MS measurement of proteins is currently mainly used for novel marker discovery studies, but there is a growing interest in its application in clinical marker diagnosis as an alternative to immunoassays.. MS-based quantification of protein biomarkers is mainly performed by a bottom-up approach using peptide fragments obtained by enzymatic protein digestion with trypsin. Standard digestion protocols require a reaction time of more than 20 hours, which is a rate-limiting factor in sample preparation workflows.. Although protein quantification by MS is highly sensitive, plasma and serum proteome are highly complex, and interference by other components poses a significant challenge. For ...
Molecular anatomic pathology testing was performed. Realtime PCR for RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements were performed, with negative results (Figure 6, Realtime PCR for chromosomal rearrangements). Post-PCR melting curve analysis for NRAS codon 61, HRAS codon 61, and KRAS codons 12/13 demonstrated peaks at melting points consistent with the wild type genotype of each negative control. Analysis for the BRAF V600E mutation, showed a mild shift in melting temperature, however (Figure 7, Post-PCR melting curve analysis for RAS and BRAF mutations). PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing was therefore performed. On agarose gel electrophoresis, a larger PCR product, in addition to the expected target, was seen (Figure 8, Gel electrophoresis of BRAF PCR product (arrow: larger product containing insertion)). Sanger sequencing demonstrated an insertion/duplication of 51 nucleotides (17 amino acids): p.A599insIFLHEDLTVLIGDPGLAA (Figure 9, Sanger sequencing showing insertion/duplication: ...
Biology Assignment Help, Agarose gel electrophoresis, Agarose gel electrophoresis is the method to analyze the size of the DNA (or RNA) fragments. In the presence of an electric field, bigger fragments of DNA move through a gel slower than the smaller ones, producing different migrating bands. Genera
B.tech 1st Year Online course and notes for Lab Manual,Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Download B.tech 1st Year, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis in Lab Manual notes
Studying nucleic acid interactions with proteins can be accomplished using a rapid and efficient electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). This method is essentially an agarose gel electrophoresis technique that detects protein:nucleic acid interactions, as the mobility of the labeled nucleic acid will be retarded if bound to a protein (compared to unbound DNA). A lesser-known…. ...
Mouse lymphocyte H-2 and Ia glycoproteins have been analyzed with a two-dimensional (2-D) acrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, in which proteins are separated first according to their charge in isoelectrofocusing gels and then according to their size in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. Individual polypeptide chains from radiolabeled cells are resolved as discrete spots on autoradiograms of the gels, forming patterns which are characteristic of the proteins in the sample. 2-D gels of H-2K, H-2D, and Ia glycoproteins immunoprecipitated from 35S-methionine-labeled cells reveal that these proteins exist in the cells as complex arrays of molecules heterogeneous in both size and charge. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination of lymphocyte surfaces labels only subsets of the total H-2 and Ia molecules with 125I, indicating that some of the molecules may represent cytoplasmic precursors of the cell surface proteins. This theory is supported by the kinetics of labeling of various spots in ...
how to seperate double-digestion products on agarose gel - posted in Molecular Biology: After double digestion of my target plasmid, there are two products with similar sizes: one is 2.2 kb, the other is 2.3 kb. I have used 120 Voltage, 45 min, but these two bands were not be seperated with 1% agarose gel. So I wonder is it possible they can be seperated? Any suggestions are welcome!
Agarose gel electrophoresis of the PCR amplification products of the GH1 and NR5A1 genes.A - expression of the GH1 gene in the 6 h zebra finch embryos. B -
View Notes - LAB3.NEW from BIO 2322 at The University of Texas at San Antonio- San Antonio. Recombinant DNA Session 3: Restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis There are many enzymes
Shang Li is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Using a Fluorescent PCR-capillary Gel Electrophoresis Technique to Genotype CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Knockout Mutants in a High-throughput Format
Agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified VH chain, VL chain and assembled scFv fragments.Lane M: 100 bp plus DNA marker, lane 1: VH fragments, lane 2: VL fragme
The overall quality of an RNA preparation may be assessed by electrophoresis on a denaturing agarose gel; this will also give some information about RNA yield.
Inoculate CMV into LB medium with amicillin - CMV (BBa_J52034) from 10.8.2010 inoculated into LB medium with ampicillin, as falsly inoculated in Kanamycin Agarosegelelectrophoresis with digestions -,Protocol (11 Agarose gel electrophoresis) - Agarosegelelectrophoresis with the digestions (CMV, eGFP, pDS7, 190-6), 125V for 30 minutes and then for 20 minutes; - expected DNA bands: 190-6 (4840bp, 1903bp), pDS7 (8027bp, 6bp), CMV (654 bp (Insert), 2079bp (Plasmid)), eGFP (720bp (Insert), 2750bp (Plasmid)) - Correct DNA bands for 190-6 (~4800bp, ~1900bp, ~6700bp (undigested plasmid)) and eGFP (~2000bp (Plasmid), ~750 bp (Insert)); CMV probably not digested (two bands; one probably normal, one supercoiled) and pDS7 not clear Restriction digest from CMV and pDS7 -, Protocol (5 Restriction digest) - Restriction digest from CMV (EcoR1, Pst1; 6µl DNA, buffer H) and pDS7 (EcoR1, Spe1; 2µl DNA, buffer B) Agarosegelectrophoresis with digestions -,Protocol (11 Agarose gel electrophoresis) - ...
Inoculate CMV into LB medium with amicillin - CMV (BBa_J52034) from 10.8.2010 inoculated into LB medium with ampicillin, as falsly inoculated in Kanamycin Agarosegelelectrophoresis with digestions -,Protocol (11 Agarose gel electrophoresis) - Agarosegelelectrophoresis with the digestions (CMV, eGFP, pDS7, 190-6), 125V for 30 minutes and then for 20 minutes; - expected DNA bands: 190-6 (4840bp, 1903bp), pDS7 (8027bp, 6bp), CMV (654 bp (Insert), 2079bp (Plasmid)), eGFP (720bp (Insert), 2750bp (Plasmid)) - Correct DNA bands for 190-6 (~4800bp, ~1900bp, ~6700bp (undigested plasmid)) and eGFP (~2000bp (Plasmid), ~750 bp (Insert)); CMV probably not digested (two bands; one probably normal, one supercoiled) and pDS7 not clear Restriction digest from CMV and pDS7 -, Protocol (5 Restriction digest) - Restriction digest from CMV (EcoR1, Pst1; 6µl DNA, buffer H) and pDS7 (EcoR1, Spe1; 2µl DNA, buffer B) Agarosegelectrophoresis with digestions -,Protocol (11 Agarose gel electrophoresis) - ...
Agarose gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments according to their size. Typically, a DNA molecule is digested with restriction enzymes, and the agarose gel electrophoresis is used as a diagnostic tool to visualize the fragments. An electric current is used to move the DNA molecules across an agarose gel, which is a polysaccharide matrix that functions as a sort of sieve to help catch the molecules as they are transported by the electric current.. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-A9511, Albumin from human serum for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Using TBE allows us to have such a high (150V) voltage. If you use TAE you need to use a significantly lower voltage and your run time will be longer. Despite that, TAE is advantagous in some cases, but Mike feels that TBE is better suited for his applications. This is discussed in detail in the consensus protocol ...
The quality of RNA preparation could be measured by electrophoresis on a denaturing agarose gel. Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method used to separate a mixed population of DNA or RNA fragments by length. This video shows you how to prepare the formaldehyde agarose gel for the electrophoresis of RNA. - RNA Gel Preparation - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
Restriction fragments of DNA resolved on agarose gel were transferred to nylon membrane ( GeneScreen or GeneScreen Plus by the capillary blotting procedure of Southern ( 1975 ) as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . After the completion of electrophoresis, the gel was stained and photographed as described earlier. Position of the various bands obtained in the DNA size marker lane were marked by piercing small holes at the two ends of each band in the gel with a yellow tip. The gel was then denatured, neutralised and blotted essentially as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . Locally available coarse absorbent paper was used to make the paper towels of the appropriate size. In case of genomic DNA from mammalian cells, the agarose gel was first treated with 0.25 M HCl for 10 minutes, followed by the rest of the procedure as mentioned above. The transfer buffer was 20 X SSPE in all cases. To prevent the absorption of fluid from the 3 MM paper under the gel directly to the blotting paper ...
Restriction fragments of DNA resolved on agarose gel were transferred to nylon membrane ( GeneScreen or GeneScreen Plus by the capillary blotting procedure of Southern ( 1975 ) as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . After the completion of electrophoresis, the gel was stained and photographed as described earlier. Position of the various bands obtained in the DNA size marker lane were marked by piercing small holes at the two ends of each band in the gel with a yellow tip. The gel was then denatured, neutralised and blotted essentially as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . Locally available coarse absorbent paper was used to make the paper towels of the appropriate size. In case of genomic DNA from mammalian cells, the agarose gel was first treated with 0.25 M HCl for 10 minutes, followed by the rest of the procedure as mentioned above. The transfer buffer was 20 X SSPE in all cases. To prevent the absorption of fluid from the 3 MM paper under the gel directly to the blotting paper ...
DNA Quality Control Information: ·         > 100 kb in size by agarose gel electrophoresis ·         No RNA detected in the agarose gel ·         A260/A280 ratio ³ 1.8 ·         Tested and verified for PCR amplification and restriction digestion.
DNA Quality Control Information: ·         > 100 kb in size by agarose gel electrophoresis ·         No RNA detected in the agarose gel ·         A260/A280 ratio ³ 1.8 ·         Tested and verified for PCR amplification and restriction digestion.
1. Digestion of pTrc99A-AID with HindIII and NcoI. 2. DNA electrophoresis and isolation of DNA encoding AID from proper band. 3. Digestion of pMPM-T5 with HindIII and NcoI, use of alkaline phosphatase (CIAP). 4. DNA electrophoresis and isolation of pMPM-T5 backbone from proper band. 5. DNA ligation (AID + pMPM-T5 backbone) ...
it depends a lot on what you are planning on doing next. If you need unsheared DNA, then large DNA fragments will not run on either type of agarose (unless you use pulsed field or FIGE). If you are just planning on doing PCR of 5Kb fragments, then there are probably easier ways than running it on a gel. Cant you just dialyze the DNA against high volume buffer at 4C overnight? Ive never had any luck with LMP agarose gels -- I gave up on them the last time I tried to run an 0.5% LMP gel for sizing DNA fragments, and just cloned the cut DNA. Cloning without sizing worked very well.. ...
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In this study, 113 Enterococcus faecium, 37 Enterococcus faecalis, 24 Enterococcus gallinarum, 15 Enterococcus raffinosus, and 13 Enterococcus casseliflavus clinical isolates and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were evaluated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. Thirty-one of the E. faecium, 22 of the E. faecalis, 24 of the E. gallinarum, 15 of the E. raffinosus, and 13 of the E. casseliflavus isolates were also evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Genomic DNAs from type strains E. faecalis ATCC 19433, E. faecium ATCC 19434, E. gallinarum ATCC 49573, E. raffinosus ATCC 49427, and E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788 were labeled with biotin for use as probes. E. faecalis differed from all other species in always having a largest fragment of , 400 kb. E. gallinarum was different from all other species in having all SmaI fragments of , 200 kb. Biotin-labeled probes showed a high degree of hybridization with genomic DNA from the same species and a low degree of ...
Sixty-nine Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two epidemiologically unrelated sources were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after SmaI digestion of chromosomal DNA (genome typing), and the results were compared with those obtained by other typing methods: phage typing with the international set of phages, capsular serotyping with monoclonal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides type 5 and 8, and zymotyping by polyacrylamide agarose electrophoresis for esterase polymorphism. A good correlation of S. aureus types was found by these four typing methods. Differentiation increased in the order capsular typing , zymotyping , phage typing , genome typing, yielding 2, 10, 20, and 26 different S. aureus types, respectively. Five of the 26 genome types were further divided into several subtypes revealing clonal relationships. When 36 French S. aureus isolates were compared with 33 German S. aureus isolates, 3 strains representing clonal populations were identical in both groups. S. aureus ...
The genotyping technique described here, which couples fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to capillary gel electrophoresis,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific identification of fibrin(ogen) degradation products in plasma and serum using blotting and peroxidase labeled antiserum. AU - Proietti, Anna B.. AU - Mcguire, Maura. AU - Bell, William. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - We describe a method for identifying fibrinogen and fibrin split products using electrophoresis on agarose gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) followed by blotting in nitrocellulose paper. Detection of these derivatives after blotting is accomplished with per‐oxidase‐conjugated rather than by isotopically labeled antibodies. This technique can detect diverse fibrinogen derivatives produced in vivo or in vitro by the combined action of thrombin, plasmin, and factor XIII. This methodology is applicable to plasma, serum, and other body fluids including urine and ascitic fluid. This sensitive and specific assay, distinguishing the products of cross‐linked fibrin from those of fibrinogen and detecting fibrin polymers in plasma, can be achieved without ...
Background: Problem of the variability between the different methods using for bone alkaline phosphatase(bALP) determination greately influences the clinical significance of bALP as direct marker of bone metabolism.The aim of this study was to compare immunoassay with electrophoresis technique for bALP determination. Methods: We measured bALP in 71 patients on hemodialysis with agar gel electrophoresis (ISO-PAL, SEBIA) and immunoassay (OSTASE, Beckman Coulter).Results: The analyzed methods showed significant correlation (Spearmans rho: 0.776, P , 0.01), but we found statistically significant (P , 0.01) positive bias (27%)for the results measured by immunoassay. In support of this, using electrophoresis technique we have detected presence of the intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in 55% of patients with median value of 30% of the total alkaline phoshatase and presence of liver-2 alkaline phosphatase... isoform in 42% of patients with median value of 16.6%. The Kendalls W of 0.787 ...
The study of biomolecules on a single molecule level enables the investigations of dynamic, mechanistic as well as heterogeneous behavior of the biomolecules. For studying the features of DNA-protein interactions involved in DNA-repair, on the single-molecule level, the combination of microfluidics, surface preparations and fluorescence microscopy is used by the single molecule biophysics group at the physics department at the University of Gothenburg. In addition, traditional biochemical techniques, Polymerase Chain Reaction and agarose-gel electrophoresis, are also used to produce and analyze various types of DNA used in the single molecule experiments. The work is interdisciplinary and combines physics, surface science, biochemistry and micro/nano science, which motivated me to finish my master thesis project in the field of single molecule biophysics. In order to investigate the repair of the double-stranded break (DSB), we tried to simulate the homologous recombination (HR) process in vitro to
The availability of cultures of normal cells (NCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) with and without fibroblasts has allowed us to investigate the sources of endoneurial and perineurial constituents of peripheral nerve. NCs cultured alone, devoid of ensheathment but healthy in appearance, lack basal lamina and extracellular fibrils. In contrast, when SCs accompany NCs, basal lamina and extracellular fibrils are consistently visible around SCs in outgrowth areas formed de novo in culture. These fibrils average 18 nm in diameter, exhibit a repeating banding pattern, and are trypsin-resistant and collagenase-sensitive. Collagen synthesis is also indicated by the incorporation of [14C]proline into peptide-bound hydroxy-proline in NC + SC or SC cultures. That the [14C]hydroxyproline polypeptides formed in NC + SC cultures are collagenous was determined in part by pepsin digestion-ammonium sulfate precipitation-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques; the 14C-polypeptides migrate to the positions of ...
DNA Electrophoresis equipment for the whole class. Discover how easy Electrophoresis can be with this classroom set. Run the full spectrum of horizontal electrophoresis experiments with this versatile electrophoresis package! Our newly reimagined M12 Complete™ supports up to six student groups. The sleek new design produces excellent results in 30-40 minutes and includes a lifetime manufacturers warranty. The Kit includes: Fast 20 Minute Gel run Easy Gel Casting HexaGel Electrophoresis tank for 6 gels DuoSource™ 150 Power Supply (75/150v) 6 x Gel trays with GelCaps and combs 6 x 40mL minipipettes and tips Includes Complete Set of New & Improved Electrophoresis Accessories Now Includes DNA DuraGel™ for Pipetting Practice! Large Colour Coded Push Tabs for Easy Lid Insertion & Removal Pour Spout for Buffer Disposal Improved Ventilation Reduces Lid Condensation User Replaceable Electrodes Chamber Reverse Compatible with Previous Edvotek® Accessories US Design Patent No. D749,235 Made
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AIPMT- NEET Biology notes-AIPMT NEET Biology study material-Electrophoresis is a technique that uses differences in electrical charge to separate the molecules in a mixture. Rate of migration of molecules in electrophoresis depends on its size and its charge-to-mass ratio. As DNA
The SageELF is an electrophoresis system that separates DNA or protein samples by size, and then fractionates the whole sample, or section of sample, into 12 fractions. The system is equipped with pulsed-field electrophoresis for resolving large DNA.. Fractionation ranges are estimated and adjusted in software, and fractions are collected in buffer. One sample is fractionated on a single precast agarose cassette, and one or two cassettes may be processed at one time.. Benefits of the SageELF System: ...
For this article, RNA was isolated from mouse and rat brain followed by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis and Northern blot analysis of isolated RNA. RT-PCR analysis was performed on total RNA from mouse and rat brain as well as rat poly(A)+ RNA followed by T-vector cloning of beta-actin RT-PCR product and colony screening for positive recombinants.
EasyLadder I is a ready-to-use DNA molecular weight marker, ideal for short runs (1cm to 3cm) on agarose gels. The ladder is pre-mixed with red loading buffer.
HYDRASYS 2 SCAN GEL traceability Steps 2 & 3: The fully integrated analytical solution for agarose gel electrophoresis HYDRASYS 2 SCAN is the
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Total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) activity and the percentage distribution of LDH isoenzymes were determined in 127 patients with malignant diseases. A shift in the isoenzyme patterns was observed toward the M-type, with an increase in the percentage of LDH-4 and LDH-5 isoenzymes and a slight increase in total LDH activity of all patients. Serum samples from 68 of the patients contained an abnormal isoenzyme of LDH, LDH-1 ex, that, on agarose gel electrophoresis at pH 8.6, migrated between albumin and LDH-1 isoenzyme. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgical removal of the tumor was accompanied by disappearance of this abnormal isoenzyme. The heat stability of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme appears to be similar to that of LDH-1 but greater than that of the other LDH isoenzymes. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated a significant correlation between malignancy and the appearance of LDH-1 ex isoenzyme (P less than 0.001). In contrast, the relationship between LDH-1 ex isoenzyme and metastasis
Similar experiments were performed with cDNA derived from poly(A)+ RNA of bovine pineal tissue. Two overlapping fragments, harboring either the 5′ or 3′ part of the coding region for rod and cone CNG channels were amplified by two sets of primers similar to those used for amplification of fragments from chick cDNA.. Analysis of genomic structure of chick cone CNG channel. A chick genomic library in λFIXII-vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, Ca) was screened with two cDNA probes (F5′, nucleotides −39 to 926, and F3′, nucleotides 882 to 2391 of pCCG8B; Bönigk et al., 1993). Probe F5′ and F3′ yielded 12 and 7 positive signals, respectively. Two overlapping clones were chosen for further analysis. Clones were digested with SacI, XbaI, EcoRI,BamHI, SalI, and each possible combination of two endonucleases. Fragments were separated by agarose electrophoresis and those containing exon sequences were identified by Southern blotting using probes F5′ and F3′. These fragments were isolated and ...
The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of human lymphocitic cells has been determined in several people before and after stimulation by mitogenic lectins at different times after the start of the culture. A very significant change take place in the LDH 5 which can reach a greater concentration towards the other isoenzymes at the 72 h from the mitogenic stimulus, even if it starts from a smaller concentration.
AFLP-PCR or just AFLP is a PCR-based tool used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering. Developed in the early 1990s by Keygene, AFLP uses restriction enzymes to digest genomic DNA, followed by ligation of adaptors to the sticky ends of the restriction fragments. A subset of the restriction fragments is then selected to be amplified. This selection is achieved by using primers complementary to the adaptor sequence, the restriction site sequence and a few nucleotides inside the restriction site fragments (as described in detail below). The amplified fragments are separated and visualized on denaturing on agarose gel electrophoresis , either through autoradiography or fluorescence methodologies, or via automated capillary sequencing instruments. Although AFLP is commonly referred to as Amplified fragment length polymorphism, the resulting data are not scored as length polymorphisms, but instead as presence-absence polymorphisms. AFLP-PCR is a highly ...
A total of 65 identified isolates of coliform bacteria Salmonella, including Campylobacter and Staphylococcus isolated from different control points of a poultry slaughterhouse in Ankara, Turkey were characterized by morphological, biochemical and physiological tests including API 10 S system, and by plasmid profiles on agarose gel electrophoresis and whole-cell protein patterns on SDS-PAGE. Plasmids were detected in 53.8 % of the isolates. The molecular mass of the plasmids was within the range from 0.66 to 12.66 mDa. Electrophoretic banding patterns showed that whole cell protein profiles differed in several protein bands in Salmonella, Campylobacter and Staphylococcus species, but the differences were insufficient for reliable differentiation of bacteria species by SDS-PAGE method ...
Authors: ENGİN ŞEKER, MUSTAFA SARIEYYÜPOĞLU, BURHAN ÇETİNKAYA Abstract: In this study, 627 live freshwater mussels collected from the Koçkale and Pertek regions of Keban Dam Lake were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Homogenates prepared from the soft tissue of mussels, after pre-enrichment in Rappaport Vasilliadis, were inoculated onto Brilliant Green Phenol Red Lactose agar and Salmonella-Shigella selective media. Biochemical tests and DNA extraction were carried out on isolates suspected of containing Salmonella. From 19 (4.8%) out of 397 mussels collected in the Koçkale region, Salmonella spp. were isolated and identified, but the agent could not be detected in mussels obtained from the Pertek region. DNA extracted from these isolates was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a pair of genus-specific primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene of Salmonella. Analysis of PCR products on agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the Salmonella specific gene was ...
A physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 has been constructed. Digestion of strain FA1090 DNA with NheI, SpeI, BglII, or PacI resulted in a limited number of fragments that were resolved by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. The estimated genome size was 2,219 kb. To construct the map, probes corresponding to single-copy chromosomal sequences were used in Southern blots of digested DNA separated on pulsed-field gels, to determine how the fragments from different digests overlapped. Some of the probes represented identified gonococcal genes, whereas others were anonymous cloned fragments of strain FA1090 DNA. By using this approach, a macrorestriction map of the strain FA1090 chromosome was assembled, and the locations of various genetic markers on the map were determined. Once the map was completed, the repeated gene families encoding Opa and pilin proteins were mapped. The 11 opa loci of strain FA1090 were distributed over approximately 60% of ...
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What is Electrophoresis Gel? Definition of Electrophoresis Gel. Electrophoresis Gel FAQ. Learn more about Electrophoresis Gel. Electrophoresis Gel facts.
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Price: $149.00; Manufacturer: Bio-Rad; Item ID: 3016882; Warranty: 30-Day Money-Back Guarantee; Description: The Bio-Rad Mini Sub-Cell FT is an horizontal agarose gel electrophoresis cell, lid and
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has provided a very reliable system for separation of DNA fragments greater than 50 kb and has made a significant impact on the analysis of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. The chapters in this book cover both the theory behind this very important technique and present detailed protocols for many of its major uses.
This chapter summarizes the recent findings of bacterial genomics and comments on the themes and trends which are emerging. A variety of techniques and methods are available to construct physical maps, and those most commonly employed involve pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments generated by digesting intact genomic DNA, immobilized in agarose plugs, with rare-cutting enzymes. Hybridization techniques are often used to construct a map and to deduce the positions of genetic markers. In recent years significant effort has been devoted to developing direct-mapping techniques for large DNA molecules that do not require gel electrophoresis. Among the more promising of these are two new methods known as DNA combing and optical mapping, both of which make use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to visualize single DNA molecules. Overall, bacterial genomes range in size from about 0.6 to 9.4 Mb. In a recent review, it was suggested that there may be a relationship
I have seen marks denoting the number of nucleotides along the gel which actually denote the molecular weight. But , do the polynucleotides with same number of nucleotides have same molecular wt.always? I think , they would not , as the proportions of A ,T ,G & C would not be the same always.Thus , they will get separated during electrophoresis . So, how can we have a common mark denoting the nucleotide number for such polynucleotides as they would be apart from each other . Can we have only sizewise separation of molecules in electrophoresis? If yes , then ,I think , such polynucleotides may have same mark as the size-difference between them seems to be lesser ...
1.PCR. 1.1. Prepare Primary PCR Master Mixes in a 1.5 mL centrifuge tube according to the volumes calculated using Table 2. Include enough reactions for DNA controls (3D7) and negative (no template) controls.. 1.2. Label PCR tubes and add 20 µl Primary Master Mix to each tube.. 1.3. Add 5 µl of template DNA to each tube. Seal and run PCR in thermocycler according to the conditions listed in Table 3.. 2.Nested PCR. 2.1. Prepare nested PCR Master Mixes in a 1.5 mL centrifuge tube according to the volumes calculated using Table 4.. 2.2. Label PCR tubes and add 45 µl Secondary Master Mix to each tube.. 2.3. Add 5 µl of Primary PCR product to each tube. Seal and run PCR in thermocycler according to the conditions listed in Table 5.. 2.4. Run an agarose gel of Nested PCR product to ensure amplification has been successful (See Section 3).. NOTE: PCR product may be stored at 4 °C for up to 1 week or at - 20 °C or -80 °C for long-term storage.. 3.Agarose gel electrophoresis. 3.1. Make a 2% ...
Experiment I: Sequencing of an unknown gene. In this experiment, sequencing of an unknown gene is performed on the students own DNA extracted from saliva. During this the following techniques are used: DNA isolation, agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligation of a DNA fragment in a plasmid vector, heat shock transformation, Lac-Z screening, plasmid DNA extraction and DNA sequencing ...
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Gel electrophoresis is a technique that involves the movement of molecules through a gelatin-like material in an electrical field. Since the distance that a molecule will move is dependent on its size, gel electrophoresis is a good technique to separate different size DNA fragments. The smaller fragments will move the farthest from the sample well. An electrophoresis apparatus has five major components: (a) electrical current; (b) the test sample (e.g., DNA); (c) the gelatin medium (agarose) that the sample moves through; (d) a liquid to conduct the electrical current (usually a buffer); and (e) a stain used to highlight the migrated samples ...
Five milliliters of venous blood was collected from fasting patients in the morning. The blood was submerged for 30 min and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min to obtain a supernatant. TRIzol (Invitrogen; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., U.S.A.) was used to extract the total RNA from the serum. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to detect its purity, concentration and integrity. The total RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA using 5× TransScript® All-in-One SuperMix for qPCR and gDNA Remover, with the steps carried out following the manufacturers kit. The cDNA was stored, part of which was taken for subsequent experiments. A 7900PCR instrument from ABI was used for PCR amplification based on TransScript Two-Step RT-PCR SuperMix (TransGen Biotech, Beijing, China, AQ201-01) kit. The system was as follows: 1 μl cDNA, each 0.5 μl upstream and downstream primers, 12.5 μl of 2× TransTaq® HIFI PCR SuperMix II and Nuclease-free water added up to 25 μl. The ...
I get that sometime in DNA extracts. I put it down to dentatured DNA stuck in the well or some fluorescent contaminant that copurified with the DNA. In any case I dont think it is something to worry about. Is it plant DNA? On Sat, 16 Sep 2000, Rajeswari Srinivasan wrote: , Hi , , I extract DNA by CTAB method and purify by phenol chloroform , extraction.After washing I dry the DNA to remove ethanol , completely.Still,everytime, in agarose gel ,part of the DNA sticks to , the well.Can anybody suggest me some remedy? , Thanks in advance. , Rajeswari , , , ...
Emission filter guideline for agarose gel electrophoresis. Filter usage and combination for different fluorescent reagent (Excitation and Emission wavelengths )
Gel Electrophoresis, Agarose, Agarose additive, UV transparent sheets, permeable support mesh, drying frames, rapid coomassie stain, gel box, etc - Page H10
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Besta™ LE Agarose is a low EEO, multi-purpose, standard melting point agarose that yields high resolution sharp DNA bands with high clarity and low background. Its optimized gel st
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These give a characteristic "laddered" appearance on agar gel after electrophoresis. Tests for DNA laddering differentiate ... With the use of gel electrophoresis, it can be observed that OROV causes DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells. It can be interpreted ... "A selective procedure for DNA extraction from apoptotic cells applicable for gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry". ...
"Cheapass Science - Comparison of Agarose and Agar-Agar for Gel Electrophoresis of DNA". citizensciencequarterly.com. April 2014 ...
"Ribonucleic acids fractionation by density-gradient centrifugation and by agar gel electrophoresis: a comparison". Analytical ... snRNAs were discovered by accident during a gel electrophoresis experiment in 1966. An unexpected type of RNA was found in the ... gel and investigated. Later analysis has shown that these RNA were high in uridylate and were established in the nucleus. ...
... had been thought to be a single species but studies using nucleic acid sequencing and agar gel electrophoresis have since shown ...
... electrophoresis, agar gel MeSH E05.196.401.153.150 - comet assay MeSH E05.196.401.190 - electrophoresis, capillary MeSH E05.196 ... gel, pulsed-field MeSH E05.196.401.250 - electrophoresis, gel, two-dimensional MeSH E05.196.401.319 - electrophoresis, paper ... polyacrylamide gel MeSH E05.196.401.402.236 - electrophoresis, disc MeSH E05.196.401.402.250 - electrophoresis, gel, two- ... dimensional MeSH E05.196.401.485 - electrophoresis, starch gel MeSH E05.196.401.500 - electrophoretic mobility shift assay MeSH ...
... usually an agar or polyacrylamide gel. The effect is rapid migration of the antibody and antigen out of their respective wells ... Immunoelectrophoresis Electrophoresis Ling IT.; Cooksley S.; Bates PA.; Hempelmann E.; Wilson RJM. (1986). "Antibodies to the ...
... first use of agar gels 1969 - introduction of denaturing agents especially SDS separation of protein subunit (Weber and Osborn ... Gel electrophoresis can also be used for the separation of nanoparticles. Gel electrophoresis uses a gel as an anticonvective ... by native gel electrophoresis, by preparative gel electrophoresis (QPNC-PAGE), or by 2-D electrophoresis. Characterization ... isoelectric focusing then SDS gel electrophoresis 1977 - sequencing gels 1983 - pulsed field gel electrophoresis enables ...
... chelated complexes Discontinuous gel electrophoresis on rehydratable polyacrylamide gels Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar ...
... lysis of cells trapped in agar-molten agar mixed with cells and left to form a gel-followed by pulse field gel electrophoresis ...
Electroendosmosis is a reason agarose is used in preference to agar as the agaropectin component in agar contains a significant ... and its gel strength allows gels as dilute as 0.15% to form a slab for gel electrophoresis. Low-concentration gels (0.1-0.2%) ... Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical ... Magdeldin, Sameh (2012). Gel Electrophoresis. InTech. pp. 35-40. "Agarose gel electrophoresis (basic method)". Biological ...
Food portal Agarose gel electrophoresis Algaculture Alginic acid Asepsis Carrageenan Immunodiffusion Immunoelectrophoresis Lima ... Agar-Agar Archived 2011-09-03 at the Wayback Machine at Agar-Agar.org "Agar-Agar". Botanical.com. Retrieved 22 January 2017. " ... Agar-agar may also be used as the gelling agent in gel clarification, a culinary technique used to clarify stocks, sauces, and ... Agar (/ˈeɪɡɑːr/ or /ˈɑːɡər/), or agar-agar, is a jelly-like substance, obtained from red algae. Agar is a mixture of two ...
... jensenii differed from the similar Lactobacillus leichmannii in a gel electrophoresis analysis of their respective lactic ... The organism can grow on blood agar. Colonies of L. jensenii are circular, colorless, small, and translucent. Bloodstream ...
... see metal-induced gap states AgGE may refer to Agarose gel electrophoresis, a technique in microbiology. AGGE may refer to: Ad ... a nonsense lyric from 1984 novelty song Agadoo Agar, a gelatinous substance used in confectionery and microbiology Age ( ...
... pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and multilocus ... Both B. mallei and B. pseudomallei can be cultured in a laboratory; nutrient agar can be used to grow the bacteria. When grown ... B. mallei culture growth on MacConkey agar is variable. Many microbiologists are unfamiliar with B. mallei and as a result it ...
... -agar may also be used as the gelling agent in gel clarification, a culinary technique used to clarify stocks, sauces, and ... They are known in Spanish as Dulce de Agar (Agar sweets). Agar-agar is an allowed nonorganic/nonsynthetic additive used as a ... Agar (pronounced /ˈeɪɡɑːr/, US: /ˈɑːɡər/) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.[1] ... Agar is often dispensed using a sterile media dispenser.. Motility assays[edit]. As a gel, an agar or agarose medium is porous ...
Other examples of materials which form physically cross-linked gels include gelatin, collagen, agarose, and agar agar. Chemical ... such as applications in forming polyacrylamide gels for gel electrophoresis. Synthetic rubber used for tires is made by ... Polyvinyl alcohol gels upon the addition of borax through hydrogen bonding between boric acid and the polymer's alcohol groups ... For example, sodium alginate gels upon exposure to calcium ion, which allows it to form ionic bonds that bridge between ...
IF 11,8 Two-dimensional paper-agar electrophoresis of haemoglobin. FESSAS P, KARAKLIS A. Clin Chim Acta. 1962 Jan;7:133-8. IF 2 ... 1961 Feb 11;1(7172):297-301 IF=47 Demonstration of small components in red cell haemolysates by starch-gel electorphoresis. ...
For organisms with very small genomes (~10 kb), the digested fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis. The separated ... The cultures are then plated on agar plates and incubated overnight. The number of viral plaques are counted and can be used to ... The transformation is then spread on agar plates and incubated overnight. The titer of the transformation is determined by ...
... pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), ... The growth is then harvested after incubation for 24 h at 30 °C, plating on an Acinetobacter minimal agar (AMA), and incubating ... Most strains of Acinetobacter, except some of the A. lwoffii strain, grow well on MacConkey agar (without salt). Although ... They show mostly a coccobacillary morphology on nonselective agar. Rods predominate in fluid media, especially during early ...
... equigenitalis lipopolysaccharides by performing Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver ... Taylorella equigenitalis has scant growth on blood agar, the best growth is observed on chocolate agar at temperatures between ... Diagnosis is best done on chocolate agar or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a sample from the urethral or clitoral ... The colonies on the chocolate agar appear small, round and raised as well as yellow to grey in colour. Catalase, cytochrome ...
... in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; and in polyacrylamide gels. In traditional stained glass, silver stain is a ... Kerényi L, Gallyas F (September 1973). "[Errors in quantitative estimations on agar electrophoresis using silver stain]". Clin ... Blum H, Beier H, Gross HJ (1987). "Improved silver staining of plant protein, RNA & DNA in PAA gels". Electrophoresis. 8: 93-99 ... Silver staining is used to stain gels. The silver stain of proteins in Agarose gels was developed in 1973 by Kerenyi and ...
Extrachromosomal DNA in the form of two large plasmids was detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of the 16S ... The organism is known as strain KF46FT and was grown on nutrient agar for three days at 30 degrees Celsius. The carbon and ... Researchers performed pulse field gel electrophoresis, a similar method described by Barton et al., and determined that the ... Grown at 30 degrees Celsius on nutrient agar, it gives rise to opaque, yellow-colored colonies. These colonies can sometimes be ...
... who introduced methods for growing pure cultures on agar gels containing specific nutrients in Petri dishes. The long-held idea ... Improved laboratory techniques such as chromatography and electrophoresis led to rapid advances in physiological chemistry, ... Agar, Science in the Twentieth Century and Beyond Kohler, Landscapes and Labscapes, chapters 2, 3, 4 Agar, Science in the ... The Common Thread Agar, Jon. Science in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Polity Press: Cambridge, 2012. ISBN 978-0-7456-3469-2 ...
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) has historically been employed for the exploration of clonal relationships among S. ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae form large colonies (>0.5 cm) after 24 hours of incubation, and produce haemolysis on blood agar; ...
For instance, traditional PCR techniques require the use of gel electrophoresis to visualize amplified DNA molecules after the ... Solid culture: A solid surface is created using a mixture of nutrients, salts and agar. A single microbe on an agar plate can ...
Keeping these two methods in mind, other methods such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ( ... Second, the isolate is cultured on mannitol salt agar, which is a selective medium with 7.5% NaCl that allows S. aureus to grow ... To accomplish this, the technique uses multiple gel electrophoresis, along with a voltage gradient to display clear resolutions ... "Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) , Culture Media". Microbe Notes. 14 January 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2020. SAINT-MARTIN, M.; ...
... though multiple pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns have been identified among human isolates. S. iniae may be easily ... and does not grow in bile esculin agar. It does not express any of the known Lancefield antigens. Two serotypes of S. iniae are ... complete destruction of red blood cells in the blood agar culture medium) are surrounded by large zones of alpha-hemolysis ( ...
DNA fragments can be visualized through use of gel electrophoresis, which separates fragments according to their length. ... researchers can amplify the DNA fragments by inserting plasmids into bacteria and then culturing them on plates of agar (to ...
... be run through a gel electrophoresis to allow diagnostics of the organism by referencing back to previous gel electrophoresis ... The agar plate has DNA-methyl green complex, and if the organism on the agar does hydrolyze DNA then the green color fades and ... Gel electrophoresis is a technique to separate macromolecules by taking advantage of the charge on many of the molecules found ... Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate large DNA in an electric field that periodically changes ...
DNA fragments can be visualized through use of gel electrophoresis, which separates fragments according to their length. ... researchers can amplify the DNA fragments by inserting plasmids into bacteria and then culturing them on plates of agar (to ...
More modern approaches for typing and subtyping Salmonella include DNA-based methods such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, ... XLD agar. References[edit]. *^ "Salmonella". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. ... achieved by antibiotic sensitivity testing and by other molecular biology techniques such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, ... nature of Salmonella typhi and its genetic relatedness to other salmonellae as shown by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and ...
... as North American pulse-field-type NAP1 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and as ribotype 027; the differing terminology ... Under Gram staining, C. difficile cells are Gram-positive and show optimum growth on blood agar at human body temperatures in ...
... and Staphylococcus hyicus Isolates from Bovine Milk by Use of a Novel Multiplex PCR Assay and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis ... On blood agar, S. hyicus colonies are medium in size (1 to 3 mm in diameter) and appear white, opaque, convex, and circular. ... Rarely, some have been observed to appear yellow on sheep blood agar but the vast majority of colonies do not produce any ... It consists of clustered cocci and forms white circular colonies when grown on blood agar. S. hyicus is a known animal pathogen ...
April 2004). "Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the N2-fixing bacterial diversity ... While the bacterium has been shown to grow on solid media (such as gelatin and agar), liquid media (such as nitrate or nitrite- ... free media), and even potatoes, it shows optimal growth on peptone or yeast agar. When in aerobic environments, P. stutzeri can ...
... has largely been practiced through the separation of proteins by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. In the first dimension, ... Aebersold, Ruedi; Agar, Jeffrey N; Amster, I Jonathan; Baker, Mark S; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Boja, Emily S; Costello, Catherine E ... The gel is stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue or silver to visualize the proteins. Spots on the gel are proteins that have ... Marc Wilkins coined the term proteome in 1994 in a symposium on "2D Electrophoresis: from protein maps to genomes" held in ...
... tuberculosis strains were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This has now been superseded by variable numbers of ... and solid agar-based such as Middlebrook 7H11 or 7H10. Visible colonies require several weeks to grow on agar plates. It is ... "DNA polymorphisms in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: a tool for ...
... and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 36 (8): 2214-9. doi:10.1128/jcm.36.8.2214-2219.1998. ... A complete (β) hemolysis can be seen on blood agar as well. On a Gram stain, S. schleiferi appears as individuals, pairs, small ... It is then cultured on blood agar as non-pigmented round colonies that are beta-hemolytic meaning there is complete clearing of ... It is facultatively anaerobic, coagulase-variable, and can be readily cultured on blood agar where the bacterium tends to form ...
... fingerprinting of Enterobacter cloacae by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ... In microbiology labs, E. cloacae is frequently grown at 30 °C on nutrient agar or at 35 °C in tryptic soy broth. It is a rod- ... Comparative evaluation of the Vitek 2, disk diffusion, etest, broth microdilution, and agar dilution susceptibility testing ...
"Gels with predetermined conductivity used in electroporation of tissue USPTO Application #: 20080214986 - Class: 604 21 (USPTO ... followed by bacterial culture on agar plates. The success of the electroporation depends greatly on the purity of the plasmid ... respective contributions of cell electropermeabilization and DNA electrophoresis". Molecular Therapy. 5 (2): 133-40. doi: ...
Agar Gel" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Electrophoresis, Agar Gel" was a major or minor topic of ... "Electrophoresis, Agar Gel" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium. ... Electrophoresis, Agar Gel*Electrophoresis, Agar Gel. *Agar Gel Electrophoresis. *Gel Electrophoresis, Agar ...
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel * Female * Genotyping Techniques / methods* * Humans * Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods* ...
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel * Phylogeny* * Polymerase Chain Reaction * Propionibacterium / chemistry * Propionibacterium / ...
Wieme, R. J.: An improved technique of agar gel electrophoresis on microscope slides. Clin. chim. Acta4, 317-321 (1959).Google ... Zone electrophoresis in agar-gel revealed gross differences in proteins, PAS-positive substances (polysaccharides), and sudan ... Immuno-Elektrophorese in Agar-Gel. In: P. Grabar u. P. Burtin (Hrsg.), Immunoelektrophoretische Analyse. Amsterdam-London-New ... Quantitative Auswertung der Resultate nach Elektrophorese oder Immuno-Elektrophorese im Agar-Gel. In: P. Graber u. P. Burtin ( ...
Diagnosis of multiple myeloma by demonstration of M protein in bone marrow aspirate by agar gel electrophoresis: a case report ... Electrophoresis, Agar Gel / Lung Neoplasms / Middle Aged / Multiple Myeloma Type of study: Case report Language: English Year: ... Electrophoresis, Agar Gel / Lung Neoplasms / Middle Aged / Multiple Myeloma Type of study: Case report Language: English Year: ... Bone Marrow/chemistry , Carcinoma, Bronchogenic/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Glycoproteins ...
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel. Evolution, Molecular*. Female. Gene Amplification / genetics. Gene Dosage / genetics. Genes, Insect ... of both MspI and the MseI RDA libraries each contained four discrete bands that were isolated by gel electrophoresis, gel- ... A) Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products using the MspI-1r and MseI-3r primers sets on male and female genomic DNA from ... Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR reactions using the BoY primer set and primer sets designed to amplify the MspI-1, MseI-2 ...
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel. Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology*. Humans. Microscopy, Electron. Microscopy, Phase-Contrast. ... Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a typical internucleosomal DNA cleavage pattern (DNA ladder), a reliable indicator of ... The DNA was harvested from SNP-treated or untreated TSCCa cells and assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: SNP ...
Quantitative determination of glycosylated hemoglobin A1 by agar gel electrophoresis. Clin Chem 1980;26:1598-1602PubMedGoogle ...
"Ribonucleic acids fractionation by density-gradient centrifugation and by agar gel electrophoresis: A comparison". Analytical ... snRNAs were discovered by accident during a gel electrophoresis experiment in 1966. An unexpected type of RNA was found in the ... gel and investigated. Later analysis has shown that these RNA were high in uridylate and were established in the nucleus. A ...
agar-gel electrophoresis. *Principle: Classification of hyperlipoproteinaemia. according to the system of Fredrickson requires ... this is achieved by electrophoresis preferably in agarose. gel. At pH 8.8 chylomicrons if present remain at the origin.. The ... applied to a silica gel plate for separation by thin layer. chromatography and quantified after visualization by. treating with ...
Agar-gel-electrophoresis and Immunoelectrophoresis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins (1963) * 5. SOMEDA Kuniyuki ID: ...
The integrity of the DNA was inspected by agar gel electrophoresis. DNA was quantified on the NanoDrop spectrophotometer ( ... a chocolate agar plate and a Haemophilus chocolate agar plate. Agar plates were incubated at 35°C for 48 h; the blood agar ... The nasopharyngeal swabs were plated onto a 5% sheep blood agar plate, a 5% sheep blood agar plate with 5 mg/L gentamicin, ... the blood agar plate with gentamicin and the chocolate agar plates with raised CO2. Identification of S. pneumoniae, H. ...
Lipoprotein cholesterols were measured by a combination of heparin-calcium precipitation and agar-agarose gel electrophoresis. ... CRC Handbook of Electrophoresis Vol III: Lipoprotein Methodology and Human Studies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1983:185-204. ...
For visualization, agar was kept in a transilluminator gel box called the G box. PCR amplicon appeared as bands on the gel ... Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed for the PCR product. Staining was done with ethidium bromide solution. ... Agarose gel showing the PCR-amplified product of the bla NDM-1 gene. ... Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) according to CLSI guidelines [6]. ...
Studies on agar gel electrophoresis protein profiles 1977. *Cand.med., dr.med. Sven Arvid Birkeland: Renal transplantation, ...
I have made multiple 0.7%, 1%, and 1.5% gels, and obviously I expected the 0.7% gels to be fragile but even the 1.5% gels will ... All gels were made with agarose from the same bottle, and 0.5X TBE from the same stock so... ... posted in Electrophoresis: So I recently began work in a different lab that hasnt been used in about two years, and I have yet ... to make a gel that hasnt completely fallen apart. ... Solubilizing agarose in soft agar assay for absorbance reading ...
... agar gel electrophoresis. Approximately 2 μg RNA was used to synthesize first-strand cDNA using the PrimerScript RT Reagent Kit ...
These give a characteristic "laddered" appearance on agar gel after electrophoresis. Tests for DNA laddering differentiate ... With the use of gel electrophoresis, it can be observed that OROV causes DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells. It can be interpreted ... "A selective procedure for DNA extraction from apoptotic cells applicable for gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry". ...
By infusing cubes of agar with a pH indicator, and then soaking the treated cubes in vinegar, you can model how diffusion ... Carefully pour the agar solution into silicone ice-cube molds or a small glass baking pan. Make sure the agar block(s) will be ... Let the agar cool until it solidifies (an hour is usually sufficient). Remove the agar blocks from the molds or cut in the pan ... Agar Cell Diffusion. Use cubes of agar to investigate how size impacts diffusion.. All biological cells require the transport ...
Agarose, which is used to make electrophoresis gel, is derived from the seaweed agar. ... In gel electrophoresis the medium is a gel, typically made of polyacrylamide, agarose, or starch. Electrophoresis, which has ... In gel electrophoresis, larger molecules migrate more slowly than smaller ones, and so the distance of migration within a gel ... Electrophoresis Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is one of the most important ...
Second-round PCR products were demonstrated by ethidium bromide gel electrophoresis on 2.5% agar gels. Digital gel images were ... A single colony was then subcultured onto 5% horse blood agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h to produce pure growth for all ... The minimum time to obtain a result was 28 h, including 24 h of incubation on suitable solid medium (tryptic soy agar) and 4 h ... B. pseudomallei PCR.A single colony of B. pseudomallei grown on blood agar was resuspended in deionized water, treated with ...
Agar comes from seaweed. Pour gel in a comb and it leaves wells. Put in a tray and put buffer with ions that run an electric ... separated according to their MW on polyacrylamide gels. The higher the MW the slower it migrates on a gel. The number of bands ... SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis Weights dictate the size. The proteins run to the positive due to the SDS which gives each ... Buffer, put in acrylamide, add ionic salt that acts like a cross linker and helps make the gel matrix. DNA is negative, so it ...
"Cheapass Science - Comparison of Agarose and Agar-Agar for Gel Electrophoresis of DNA". citizensciencequarterly.com. April 2014 ...
The scientist takes bacterial cells from an agar plate.. *The scientist mixes bacterial cells with melted agarose and pours ... Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a laboratory technique used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint for a ... The gel is stained, so that DNA can be seen under ultraviolet (UV) light. A digital camera takes a photograph of the gel and ... The figure shows an example of an agarose gel where each lane represents a DNA fingerprint or pattern. PFGE is different from ...
... did not separate from Hb A by agar gel electrophoresis. CHROMATOGRAPHY. Hb X moves like Hb E in cation exchange HPLC; does not ... ELECTROPHORESIS. Hb X was easily separated from Hb A by alkaline electrophoresis with a mobility slightly faster than Hb S; ...
Place fragments into one end of a bed of agarose gel with electrodes in it. Agarose gel is made from agar-agar, a type of ... This process is called agarose gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis refers to the process of moving the negatively-charged ... Then, the fragments are amplified using PCR and sorted using gel electrophoresis. AmpFLPs advantage over other techniques is ... molecules through the gel with electricity. Shorter segments move farther away from their original location, while longer ones ...
Analyzed cloning methods and efficiency using electrophoresis and agar gels Internship: Intern Silvertone Biochemistry Lab, ... immunoprecipitation and gel electro phoresis Maintained lab equipment such as Bio-Rad FPLC, Sartorius Water Purification System ...
Sometimes the gels have odd random, smudge type pattern scattered all over the surface (see photo).Our gels can be used same ... posted in Electrophoresis: We add ethidium bromide or GelRed to molten agarose in 1x TAE prior to pouring our gels. ... When not in use we store the gels in walk-in fridge to prevent yeast growing in the 1x TAE buffer. We use 7 rows of 20 well ... Solubilizing agarose in soft agar assay for absorbance reading Started by TinaTeaspoon, 29 Jul 2015 agarose, soft agar assay ...
It can stay gelled at incubating temperatures. Purified agarose is used as a medium for electrophoresis, the separation of ... Agar Chemical Formula: Synonyms. Seaweed extract Description. Agar is made up of two polysaccharides, agaropectin and agarose. ... Agar is most familiar as the gelatinous growth medium used in petri dishes to culture bacteria. But it also finds uses in ... As a growth medium, agar has nice properties, such as a high melting point (85 degrees Celsius), and a lower solidifying point ...
  • The DNA was harvested from SNP-treated or untreated TSCCa cells and assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • What causes surface fluorescence on agarose gels? (protocol-online.org)
  • Has anyone else experienced smudgy surface fluorescence on their agarose gels? (protocol-online.org)
  • Besides, sometimes we need to prepare tens of agarose gels at a time for training and/or practices of students. (intechopen.com)
  • Incubation of the yeast protein with complementary single-stranded DNA resulted in the rapid formation of large aggregates which did not enter agarose gels. (elsevier.com)
  • A further measurement by electrophoresis on agarose gels gives the percent hemoglobin with respect to total protein in the sample. (calzyme.com)
  • Proteolysis of the ECM glycoproteins by ePA was determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • High-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is then used to separate the fragments and to allow the sequence to be determined. (biologyreference.com)
  • As a result, a specialized technique, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), is usually used to analyze proteins. (biologyreference.com)
  • In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), under non-reducing conditions, a single band was noticed and under reduced conditions, a band with molecular weight of 74 kDa was observed. (niscair.res.in)
  • Fifty healthy subjects and 50 subjects with osteoporosis were screened for genetic polymorphism in the coding region of SLC22A11 (hOAT4) using GC-clamp PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). (cdc.gov)
  • DNA was extracted from fecal samples of each child and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although there were changes in intensity and fluctuation of some bands, the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis patterns in the one-year microbial analysis were stable for breastfeeding children. (bvsalud.org)
  • We describe the development and validation of a method for the qualitative analysis of complex bifidobacterial communities based on PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). (asm.org)
  • Purified agarose is used as a medium for electrophoresis, the separation of proteins or DNA fragments by size using an electric field. (scitoys.com)
  • Serum proteins separate in agar gels under the influence of an electric field into albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta and gamma globulins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Electrophoresis separates proteins based on their physical properties, and the subsets of these proteins are used in interpreting the results. (aafp.org)
  • Electrophoresis is a method of separating proteins based on their physical properties. (aafp.org)
  • The subsets of these proteins and their relative quantity are the primary focus of the interpretation of serum protein electrophoresis. (aafp.org)
  • Figure 1 shows a typical normal pattern for the distribution of proteins as determined by serum protein electrophoresis. (aafp.org)
  • gel electrophoresis (serum proteins). (bibsys.no)
  • Following electrophoresis, the protein in the gel can be stained to visualize all the proteins in a sample, or the proteins in the gel can be transferred to a nylon membrane (Western blot) and specific ones detected with the use of enzyme -linked antibodies. (biologyreference.com)
  • Usually a gel is calibrated so that you get some idea of how big the proteins are in your mixture. (csbsju.edu)
  • Agarose gel is a nonionic cleaning that binds to proteins malegra fxt plus 160mg cheap impotence law chennai, Chemistry/Apply principles of remarkable procedures/ neutralizing their charge buy malegra fxt plus 160 mg amex impotence lab tests. (nippon-kan.org)
  • Which of the following stains is occupied to save The smaller proteins befit trapped in the pores lipoprotein electrophoresis? (nippon-kan.org)
  • Electrophoresis (EP) is a technique for separation of ionic molecules principally proteins by the differential migration through a gel according to the size and ionic charge of the molecules in an electrical field. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Crystallization of bio-molecules, specifically proteins, in gels such as Silica hydrogel, agarose and polyacrylamide, is known in the art (e.g. (google.com)
  • Under the influence of an electrical field charged molecules can be separated from one another as they pass through a gel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As a result, molecules that are negatively charged such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein are pulled toward the positive end of the gel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After electrophoresis, the pieces of DNA appear as bands (composed of similar length DNA molecules) in the electrophoresis matrix. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Electrophoresis refers to the process of moving the negatively-charged molecules through the gel with electricity. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As the current passes through, protein molecules are filtered into the gel and toward each glass slide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gel electrophoresis is a technique that involves the movement of molecules through a gelatin-like material in an electrical field. (flinnsci.com)
  • In gel electrophoresis, larger molecules migrate more slowly than smaller ones, and so the distance of migration within a gel can be used to determine a molecule's size. (biologyreference.com)
  • Progress in biology has always been linked to the development of novel materials and techniques such as agar for bacterial culture, agarose for nucleic acid gel electrophoresis to new fluorescent molecules for microscopy. (mit.edu)
  • One of the popular methods for size fractionation of such molecules is electrophoresis. (intechopen.com)
  • Electrophoresis is a method of separating charged molecules from one another. (csbsju.edu)
  • One practical aspect of electrophoresis is that molecules must move through a stationary gel medium. (csbsju.edu)
  • In gel electrophoresis, small molecules move the fastest, and large molecules move the slowest. (csbsju.edu)
  • Smaller molecules with a more negative charge will travel faster and further through the gel toward the anode of an electrophoretic cell when high voltage is applied. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Similar molecules will group on the gel. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Twelve samples were analysed for genotype distribution of haemoglobins and the tissue enzymes LDH, PGI, IDH, PGM, and GPD by agar-gel and starch gel electrophoresis. (bibsys.no)
  • Differences among GE and rennin or pepsin preparations have also been established using starch gel electrophoresis and casein-agar gel diffusion techniques. (usu.edu)
  • Electrophoresis is a sensitive analytical form of chromatography. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Setting up electrophoresis is basically similar to chromatography, although a little more complicated. (csbsju.edu)
  • Diagnosis of multiple myeloma by demonstration of M protein in bone marrow aspirate by agar gel electrophoresis: a case report. (bvsalud.org)
  • The advent of electrophoresis revolutionized the methods of protein analysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Further, Hb levels were lower at 24.0°C than at 20.0°C and 7.0°C. This was likely to be due to cell swelling, as electrophoresis of Hb samples did not suggest protein denaturation, and at 24.0°C Hb samples showed peak absorbance at the expected wavelength (540 nm). (biologists.org)
  • It is usually requested when a different type of electrophoresis, called a serum protein electrophoresis , has indicated a rise at the immunoglobulin level. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gel electrophoresis is a technique that allows separation of DNA, RNA and protein segments based on size. (flinnsci.com)
  • Serum protein electrophoresis is used to identify patients with multiple myeloma and other serum protein disorders. (aafp.org)
  • Many subspecialists include serum protein electrophoresis screening in the initial evaluation for numerous clinical conditions. (aafp.org)
  • This article provides a comprehensive review of serum protein electrophoresis, including a discussion of how the examination is performed, what it measures, and when it is indicated. (aafp.org)
  • Several subsets of serum protein electrophoresis are available. (aafp.org)
  • In zone electrophoresis, for example, different protein subtypes are placed in separate physical locations on a gel made from agar, cellulose, or other plant material. (aafp.org)
  • The pattern of serum protein electrophoresis results depends on the fractions of two major types of protein: albumin and globulins. (aafp.org)
  • Typical normal pattern for serum protein electrophoresis. (aafp.org)
  • Enriched fractions of yolk protein were loaded on a 4%-12% gradient SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel phoresis ) for Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of these techniques, native protein electrophoresis in an agarose gel, is applied in human and veterinary medicine. (usda.gov)
  • After a gel is run through electrophoresis, the gel is usually stained with a dye (such as bromothymol blue) so that we can see how far each protein has moved. (csbsju.edu)
  • A compact, spherical protein might move more efficiently through a gel than a more open, floppy one. (csbsju.edu)
  • As a result, a heavier protein may move farther on the gel than a lighter one simply because of its shape. (csbsju.edu)
  • The protein was capable of renaturing complementary single-stranded DNA as evidenced by S1 nuclease assays and analysis of the reaction products by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • the separated illustration in the same good form as conducive to protein immunoglobulins diп¬Ђhandle against specific electrophoresis, except that six lanes are adapted to with a view the antisera placed into troughs same example. (nippon-kan.org)
  • DNA fragmentation was assessed by flow-cytometric analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • BLM treatment with EP also augmented the apoptotic-like DNA fragmentation in both a flow-cytometric DNA histogram and agarose gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • Apoptosis was detected by demonstration of DNA fragmentation in agarose gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunoelectrophoresis is a powerful analytical technique with high resolving power as it combines separation of antigens by electrophoresis with immunodiffusion against an antiserum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • W × H), which increases the separation length by more than 30% over conventional 10 × 8 cm gels. (thomassci.com)
  • adding and mixing graphene oxide powder in agarose gel enhances a separation quality of electrophoresis [ 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • However the separation in the electric field takes place in a narrow capillary tube without the supporting gel media. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed for all patients and abnormal bands were identified by citrate agar gel electrophoresis and PCR based methods. (intechopen.com)
  • Agarose and/or cellulose acetate electrophoresis was performed on the CSF of one thousand patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE ) is a technique similar to electrophoresis EP. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Hgb D migrates to the same Punjab results/Electrophoresis/2 stand as Hgb S on agarose, but moves with Hgb A on citrate agar. (nippon-kan.org)
  • To name only a few applications, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) electrophoresis is used to map the order of restriction fragments within chromosomes , to analyze DNA variation within a population by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and to determine the nucleotide sequence of a piece of DNA. (biologyreference.com)
  • Agarose gel electrophoresis is one of the most fundamental experiment in biochemistry and/or molecular biology, especially in analyzing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). (intechopen.com)
  • Other techniques and equipment use for students included aseptic technique, micropetting, gel electrophoresis and gel loading, cell culturing, isolation of plasmids growing in bacterial colonies and reverse transcription. (wnc.edu)
  • If you don't have enough solution, make more using the ratio of 0.8 g agar-agar powder to 100 ml water. (exploratorium.edu)
  • For example to get a 1% agarose gel, you would add 1 gram of agarose powder to 100 ml of TAE buffer. (igem.org)
  • Agarose is often used as the gel structure for electrophoresis to fractionate nucleic acids. (intechopen.com)
  • Although polyacrylamide gel is also usable, agarose gel is the most major compound for electrophoresis of nucleic acids, because of its easy handling [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Generally, nucleic acids for research have rather large size (around 20 to several thousand base pairs), and the pore size of agarose gel is enough for such large molecule (nucleic acids) to be fractionated. (intechopen.com)
  • Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium. (harvard.edu)
  • Use cubes of agar to investigate how size impacts diffusion. (exploratorium.edu)
  • By infusing cubes of agar with a pH indicator, and then soaking the treated cubes in vinegar, you can model how diffusion occurs in cells. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The prevalence of aspergilli and antibodies to different Aspergillus species were detected using cultural methods and serological technique like agar gel double diffusion (DD), counter-immuno-electrophoresis (CIEP) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (jpgmonline.com)
  • Thus, electrophoresis can reveal much detail at the molecular level. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many different biochemical techniques use the principles of electrophoresis to identify compounds of interest in a sample and understand interactions at the molecular and ionic level. (libretexts.org)
  • Electrophoresis is one of the most important techniques used by molecular biologists. (biologyreference.com)
  • Immunoelectrophoresis, also called gamma globulin electrophoresis, or immunoglobulin electrophoresis, is a method of determining the blood levels of three major immunoglobulins: immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin A (IgA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunoelectrophoresis is performed by placing serum on a slide containing a gel designed specifically for the test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Purity of the fractionated IgM was confirmed by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and immunoelectrophoresis (IE) using rabbit anti-chicken serum. (niscair.res.in)
  • When not in use we store the gels in walk-in fridge to prevent yeast growing in the 1x TAE buffer. (protocol-online.org)
  • I ask because this very same smudging used to happen to a student in our lab, turned out she wasn't wiping the transilluminator after removing her gel so any buffer and moisture from the gel just dried onto the glass. (protocol-online.org)
  • Gel Loading -The gel is placed into the electrophoresis chamber and a running buffer is added to the chamber, covering the entire gel. (flinnsci.com)
  • The alumina back plate of each gel sandwich is in contact with buffer in one of the two buffer chambers, which act as heat sinks. (thomassci.com)
  • The alumina plate conducts heat away from the gel sandwich into the upper buffer at a rate 40-times faster than glass of comparable thickness. (thomassci.com)
  • In this manuscript, conditions of agarose gel electrophoresis experiment (agarose, buffer, and equipment) are considered, and achievements of such efforts are described. (intechopen.com)
  • Basically, 0.3-2.0% (weight per volume in buffer) of agarose is used in electrophoresis [ 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • For example, the medium may be based on agar or, in a common method, a polyacrylamide gel (used in PAGE gel electrophoresis), and it is swollen with a buffer solution. (csbsju.edu)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a laboratory technique used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint for a bacterial isolate. (cdc.gov)
  • The scientist takes bacterial cells from an agar plate. (cdc.gov)
  • An electric current is then passed through the gel, and immunoglobulins, which contain an electric charge, migrate through the gel according to the difference in their individual electric charges. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • agarose , soft agar assay and 3 more. (protocol-online.org)
  • Conditioned medium was assayed for embryonic uPA (ePA) activity using a caseinolytic agar gel assay. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The scientist loads the DNA gelatin plug into a gel, and places it in an electric -field that separates DNA fragments according to their size. (cdc.gov)
  • PFGE is different from conventional DNA electrophoresis because PFGE can separate very large fragments to generate a fingerprint by constantly changing the direction of the electric field. (cdc.gov)
  • Place fragments into one end of a bed of agarose gel with electrodes in it. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Then, the fragments are amplified using PCR and sorted using gel electrophoresis. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Since the distance that a molecule will move is dependent on its size, gel electrophoresis is a good technique to separate different size DNA fragments. (flinnsci.com)
  • RNA is isolated, separated by electrophoresis, and then the gel-separated RNA fragments are transferred to a nylon membrane using a technique called a Northern blot. (biologyreference.com)
  • Coomassie Remarkable Gloomy is more emotional than Chemistry/Select reagents/Media/Blood products/ Ponceau S or Amido Dusky order 160mg malegra fxt plus free shipping erectile dysfunction pills walmart, and all three stains comprise Electrophoresis/1 slightly greater aп¬ѓnity instead of albumin than globulins generic 40mg cialis professional with mastercard . (nippon-kan.org)
  • The principle of these modified electrophoresis methods is basically the same as the traditional method described here, and the cost-saving method in this manuscript will also be applicable for such modified methods. (intechopen.com)
  • Electrophoresis refers to the migration of a charged molecule through a restrictive matrix , or gel, drawn by an electrical force. (biologyreference.com)
  • As the force drags the molecule through the gel, it encounters resistance from the strands of the gel, retarding its rate of migration. (biologyreference.com)
  • 2. Measure out the amount of agar needed for desired concentration. (igem.org)
  • Agarose, an uncharged polysaccharide purified from agar, is commonly used. (flinnsci.com)
  • Agarose is a polysaccharide obtained from agar that is the most widely used medium for gel electrophoresis procedures. (ehelp.com)
  • When DNA is subjected to electrophoresis, the DNA is first cut into smaller pieces by restriction enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • C Hgb A2 is the slowest of the natural Hgbs, Electrophoresis/2 and Hgb A is the fastest. (nippon-kan.org)
  • Gel Staining -A variety of staining techniques can be used to enhance the visibility of the DNA bands left at various locations along the gel. (flinnsci.com)
  • They all share the trait that they are a three-dimensional arrangement of intertwined strands, which produces holes (or pores) through the gel matrix. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Intact DNA is so large that it cannot move through the pores of a gel (although the technique of pulsed field electrophoresis does allow very large pieces of DNA to be examined). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The size of the pores in the gel matrix can be varied by using different concentrations of agarose. (flinnsci.com)
  • Malignancy Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ and rheumatoid arthritis display polyclonal Electrophoresis/2 gammopathies classified as confirmed inflammatory or delayed reply patterns buy discount malegra fxt plus 160mg on line erectile dysfunction while drunk. (nippon-kan.org)
  • Levels correlate with glomerular wound in patients with diabetes mellitus Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological Electrophoresis/2 characteristics/Nutrition markers/1 22 generic 100 mg lady era . (nippon-kan.org)
  • CSF electrophoresis is the single most reliable laboratory test in multiple sclerosis and deserves incorporation into the diagnostic criteria for the disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe the results of a multicenter, multicountry validation of a new PulseNet International standardized V. parahaemolyticus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol. (asm.org)
  • Nonadherence to the recommended procedure may lead to high background in the PFGE gel patterns, partial digestion, and poor fragment resolution. (asm.org)
  • On April 29, the FDA cleared Hardy's new chromogenic agar plate, HardyCHROM CRE. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • The findings demonstrate the potential for wide applicability of hydrate gels in high-flux and low-cost water purification devices. (nature.com)
  • only 10 of 21 cytotoxin-producing strains could be shown to have any plasmid by agarose gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • No matter how, Hgb C and Hgb S tie to sulfated Chemistry/Apply principles of weird procedures/ pectins in the agar gel, forming a complex that is Electrophoresis/2 negatively charged causing them to move house toward 32. (nippon-kan.org)
  • The figure shows an example of an agarose gel where each lane represents a DNA fingerprint or pattern. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe a method for identifying fibrinogen and fibrin split products using electrophoresis on agarose gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) followed by blotting in nitrocellulose paper. (elsevier.com)
  • To visualize the results after electrophoresis, the gel is soaked in a solution that causes DNA to fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light. (biologyreference.com)
  • What is the clinical utility of testing for serum electrophoresis results suggests an shooting prealbumin? (nippon-kan.org)
  • Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the complex formation between the nanoparticles and the pDNA coincided with the zeta-potential results. (elsevier.com)
  • Choose ONE pH indictor to work with ( either bromothymol blue or phenolphthalein ) and add a few drops of it to the agar solution. (exploratorium.edu)
  • When not in use we store the gels in the electrophoresis chamber in the dark on a cart in walk-in fridge (we cover with a heavy green plastic grocery shopping basket). (protocol-online.org)
  • The chamber is then sealed and an electrical field applied to the gel chamber. (flinnsci.com)
  • We will try being more mindful of the temperature and pour the gel when it cools to about 60*C. (protocol-online.org)
  • Loba Chemie offers a wide variety of agarose with varying properties including: high EEO, low EEO, medium EEO, low gelling temperature and high gelling temperature. (ehelp.com)
  • Quantitative determination of glycosylated hemoglobin A 1 by agar gel electrophoresis. (springer.com)
  • A total of 344 patients (151 males and 193 females) with abnormal CBC and/or hemoglobin electrophoresis were enrolled in the present study. (intechopen.com)
  • The glycosylated hemoglobin is assayed by electrophoresis on agar gels following the method of Menard et al, Clin. (calzyme.com)