Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methods of comparing two or more samples on the same two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gel.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.

Hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations. (1/3912)

The amount of hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations is studied by using the infinite site model and stepwise mutation model simultaneously. A formula is developed for the bivariate probability generating function for the number of codon differences and the number of electromorph state differences between two randomly chosen cistrons. Using this formula, the distribution as well as the mean and variance of the number of codon differences between two identical or nonidentical electromorphs are studied. The distribution of the number of codon differences between two randomly chosen identical electromorphs is similar to the geometric distribution but more leptokurtic. Studies are also made on the number of codon differences between two electromorphs chosen at random one from each of two populations which have been separated for an arbitrary number of generations. It is shown that the amount of hidden genetic variability is very large if the product of effective population size and mutation rate is large.  (+info)

Application of temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis in taxonomy of coryneform bacteria. (2/3912)

Strains belonging to the Gram-positive coryneform soil bacteria were screened genotypically by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). This method allows the sequence-specific separation of amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. A total of 115 reference strains representing the majority of the species of the genera Aeromicrobium, Agromyces, Arthrobacter, Aureobacterium, Cellulomonas, Curtobacterium, Nocardioides and Terrabacter were characterized. Depending on the genus investigated, the resolution limit of the technique appeared to be at the species or genus level or intermediate between the two. Aberrant TGGE profiles of strains within particular taxa revealed genomic heterogeneity and generic misclassification of nine strains studied. Beyond that, indications of 16S rRNA gene heterogeneity were found within the genomes of three Curtobacterium strains. The misclassifications revealed by TGGE were confirmed using whole-cell fatty acid methyl ester analysis and subsequent comparison with a database. TGGE has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in bacterial taxonomy.  (+info)

Evidence for suppressed activity of the transcription factor NFAT1 at its proximal binding element P0 in the IL-4 promoter associated with enhanced IL-4 gene transcription in T cells of atopic patients. (3/3912)

Allergen-specific T cells in atopic patients are polarized IL-4-producing Th2 cells, promoting IgE synthesis by B cells. The molecular basis for increased IL-4 gene expression in atopy is not fully understood. IL-4 gene regulation in general involves the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, of which NFAT1 and NFAT2 are most prominent in peripheral T cells. Recently, a unique inhibitory role of NFAT1 in IL-4 gene control was shown in the mouse. In a series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays with protein extracts of highly polarized Th2 clones from atopics and Th1 clones from controls we compared DNA-binding activities at the two NFAT-binding elements P0 and P1 of the crucial proximal human IL-4 promoter. At the most proximal P0 site, NFAT-containing complexes devoid of NFAT2 were readily inducible in the Th1 clones, but hardly or not in the Th2 clones. In contrast, both in Th1 and Th2 clones NFAT-containing complexes were strongly inducible at the P1 site, consisting of NFAT2 and a P0-compatible NFAT activity, without apparent differences between Th1 and Th2 clones. Like in Th2 clones, suppressed NFAT-P0 complex formation was observed also at the polyclonal level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of three of five severe atopic dermatitis patients with strongly elevated serum IgE levels, but not in control PBMC. These findings suggest that high-level IL-4 production in atopic Th2 cells is associated with selective reduction of suppressive NFAT1 activity at the IL-4 P0 element and that some patients with this multifactorial disease may have a putative systemic disorder at this level.  (+info)

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 regulates intestinal expression of the guanylin/heat-stable toxin receptor. (4/3912)

We have investigated the regulation of gene transcription in the intestine using the guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) gene as a model. GCC is expressed in crypts and villi in the small intestine and in crypts and surface epithelium of the colon. DNase I footprint, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), transient transfection assays, and mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that GCC transcription is regulated by a critical hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) binding site between bp -46 and -29 and that bp -38 to -36 were essential for binding. Binding of HNF-4 to the GCC promoter was confirmed by competition EMSA and by supershift EMSA. In Caco-2 and T84 cells, which express both GCC and HNF-4, the activity of GCC promoter and/or luciferase reporter plasmids containing 128 or 1973 bp of 5'-flanking sequence was dependent on the HNF-4 binding site in the proximal promoter. In COLO-DM cells, which express neither GCC nor HNF-4, cotransfection of GCC promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids with an HNF-4 expression vector resulted in 23-fold stimulation of the GCC promoter. Mutation of the HNF-4 binding site abolished this transactivation. Transfection of COLO-DM cells with the HNF-4 expression vector stimulated transcription of the endogenous GCC gene as well. These results indicate that HNF-4 is a key regulator of GCC expression in the intestine.  (+info)

Nuclear factor-kappa B activity in T cells from patients with rheumatic diseases: a preliminary report. (5/3912)

OBJECTIVE: The NF-kappa B/Rel family of transcription factors regulates the expression of many genes involved in the immune or inflammatory response at the transcriptional level. The aim of this study was to determine whether distinctive patterns of NF-kappa B activation are seen in different forms of joint disease. METHODS: The DNA binding activity of these nucleoproteins was examined in purified synovial and peripheral T cells from patients with various chronic rheumatic diseases (12: four with rheumatoid arthritis; five with spondyloarthropathies; and three with osteoarthritis). RESULTS: Electrophoretic mobility shift assays disclosed two specific complexes bound to a NF-kappa B specific 32P-labelled oligonucleotide in nucleoproteins extracted from purified T cells isolated from synovial fluid and peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The complexes consisted of p50/p50 homodimers and p50/p65 heterodimers. Increased NF-kappa B binding to DNA in synovial T cells was observed relative to peripheral T cells. In non-rheumatoid arthritis, binding of NF-kappa B in synovial T cells was exclusively mediated by p50/p50 homodimers. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results suggest that NF-kappa B may play a central part in the activation of infiltrating T cells in chronic rheumatoid arthritis. The activation of this nuclear factor is qualitatively different in rheumatoid synovial T cells to that in other forms of non-rheumatoid arthritis (for example, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthropathies).  (+info)

"The FSGS factor:" enrichment and in vivo effect of activity from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis plasma. (6/3912)

A circulating causative factor has been postulated in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). It has been shown that serum or plasma from some FSGS increases glomerular albumin permeability (Palb) in vitro. Palb greater than 0.5 (i.e., FS activity) is associated with recurrence after transplantation. Specimens from 15 FSGS patients were studied to document the presence of a permeability factor, to isolate this factor, to characterize its biochemical properties, and to show its effect in vivo. Total lipids were extracted by chloroform/methanol (2: 1); FS activity was absent from total lipid extract. Chylomicrons and lipoproteins were removed from the plasma with dextran sulfate, followed by sequential precipitation of proteins at 50 and 70% ammonium sulfate saturation. FS activity was retained in the 70% ammonium sulfate supernatant and exhibited a 100-fold purification. FS activity was lost after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min or after protease digestion. Under nondenaturing conditions, electrophoresis of the FSGS 70% supernatant showed a prominent low molecular weight band that was not evident in the 70% supernatant from normal plasma. Dialysis and centrifugation-based membrane ultrafiltration of the FSGS factor indicated a molecular size between 30 and 50 kD. Injection of the 70% FSGS supernatant into rats caused a threefold increase in urine protein in collections from 6 to 24 h after injection. No increase in proteinuria occurred in rats injected with 70% supernatant from normal individuals. It is concluded that the FSGS factor is a low molecular weight protein with the potential to increase Palb in vitro and to cause proteinuria in vivo.  (+info)

Isolation of DNA fragments associated with methylated CpG islands in human adenocarcinomas of the lung using a methylated DNA binding column and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. (7/3912)

We have constructed a library of DNA fragments heavily methylated in human adenocarcinomas of the lung to permit the comprehensive isolation of methylated CpG islands in cancer. Heavily methylated genomic DNA fragments from tumors of nine male patients were enriched using a methylated DNA binding column and used for construction of the library. From this library, DNA fragments having properties of CpG islands were isolated on the basis of their reduced rate of strand dissociation during denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Approximately 1,000 clones, corresponding to 0.3% of the library were analyzed, and nine DNA fragments were identified as being associated with CpG islands that were methylated in tumor DNA. One CpG island was methylated specifically in tumor DNA, whereas the remaining eight CpG islands were methylated both in normal and tumor DNA derived from the same patients. Our results suggest that the number of CpG islands methylated specifically in tumors is not large. The library, which contains DNA fragments from methylated CpG islands comprehensively, is expected to be valuable when elucidating epigenetic processes involved in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

An electrophoretic study of the reversible binding of phosphate to ovalbumin. (8/3912)

An electrophoretic method is described for the measurement of relatively weak interaction of ions with proteins, and illustrated with the ovalbumin-phosphate system in 0.1I buffers, pH6.1. Results indicate that under these conditions the interaction of a single dibasic phosphate ion with ovalbumin is described by an association constant of approx. 250M-1.  (+info)

A continuous forced flow electrophoresis cell and a method of operation for the fractionation of an aqueous liquid, such as blood, containing at least two compounds, the relative mobilities of which in an electric field vary as a function of the pH, in order to obtain one fraction enriched and one depleted in one of the compounds, the cell having six compartments divided by ion permeable membranes, the end cell containing an anode and cathode respectively, the central cells being separated by a microporous membrane. The liquid is fed to one of the central cells the filtered fraction being removed, after passage through the microporous membrane, from the other. A main electrolyte is fed to and from the end cells and an auxiliary electrolyte to the intermediate cells such that the pH in one intermediate cell differs from that of the other.
A method for the isolation of brush-border membranes from newborn-rat kidney, employing centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis, is described. The composition and purity of the preparation was assessed by determination of enzyme activities specific for various cellular membranes. Free-flow electrophoresis resolves the newborn-rat renal membrane suspension into two populations of alkaline phosphatase-enriched brush-border membranes, designated A and B, with the A peak also showing activity of (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase, the basolateral membrane marker enzyme, whereas those of the B peak were enriched 11-fold in alkaline phosphatase and substantially decreased in (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity. Membranes in the A peak showed a 7-fold enrichment of alkaline phosphatase, and (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity similar to that of the original homogenate. Proline uptake employed to assess osmotic dependency revealed 7% binding of proline to the B vesicles and 31% to the A vesicles. ...
Fig 1. Principle of free-flow electrophoresis. The miniaturization of FFE implies several advantages especially considering sample volume and separation speed. In contrast to the tens of milliliters of sample consumed by conventional large scale FFE devices, microfluidic FFE systems require only tens of nanoliters up to hundreds of microliters of sample. This is especially interesting in clinical analysis where often only low sample volumes are available. Furthermore, instead of residence times of up to tens of minutes, microfluidic FFE (µ-FFE) devices separate within several seconds. The aim of this project is to develop a microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis device (as shown in figure 2 and 3) which eventually might find application in so called proteomics-on-a-chip systems for proteome analysis.. ...
Temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed to determine the thermal stabilities of 48 DNA fragments that differ by single base pair mismatches. The approach provides a rapid way for studying how specific base mismatches effect the stability of a long DNA fragment. Homologous 373 bp DNA fragments differing by single base pair substitutions in their first melting domain were employed. Heteroduplexes were formed by melting and reannealing pairs of DNAs, one of which was ³²P-labeled on its 5-end. Product DNAs were separated based on their thermal stability by parallel and perpendicular temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis. The order of stability was determined for all common base pairs and mismatched bases in four different nearest neighbor environments; d(GXT) d(AYC), d(GXG) d(CYC), d(CXA) d(TYG), and d(TXT) * d(AYA) with X,Y = A,T,C, or G. DNA fragments containing a single mismatch were destabilized by 1 to 5°C with respect to homologous DNAs with complete Watson - Crick ...
FFE Service GmbH offers the following products: free flow electrophoresis system, an upgrade kit for existing instruments and a FFE robotic system.
FFE Service GmbH conducts Free Flow Electrophoresis training courses, where customers can bring their own sample and elaborate the optimum protocols during the training.
article{5aecc78e-10a8-4a8d-a992-f32f2a699c72, abstract = {Microchip-based free flow acoustophoresis (FFA) in combination with two-dimensional cell prefocusing enables concurrent multiple target outlet fractionation of leukocytes into subpopulations (lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes); we report on this method here. We also observed significantly increased accuracy in size-based fractionation of microbeads as compared to previously presented FFA multiple outlet systems. Fluorescence microscopy illustrates the importance of two-dimensional prefocusing where a sample mixture of 3, 7, and 10 mu m beads are separated into well-confined particle streams and collected in their respective target outlets. Flow cytometry data for lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively, in their corresponding outlets verify concurrent isolation of leukocyte subpopulations with high purity (95.2 +/- 0.6% and 98.5 +/- 0.7%) and high recovery (86.5 +/- 10.9% and 68.4 +/- 10.6%). A relatively low purity and high ...
May 2, 2007. S. 1267 (110th). A bill to maintain the free flow of information to the public by providing conditions for the federally compelled disclosure of information by certain persons connected with the news media. In GovTrack.us, a database of bills in the U.S. Congress.
Buy Selle Italia SLR Friction Free Flow Titanium Saddle at Wheelbase, UKs largest cycle store. Bicycle mail order specialists. FREE shipping. 0% FINANCE. For sales and advice call 01539 821443
Free Flow IPA is a American IPA style beer brewed by Otter Creek Brewing in Middlebury, VT. 4.08 average with 268 ratings, reviews and opinions.
One of Free Flows initiatives is the Period Project. Through networking and partnerships, the Period Project aims to assist women and girls who either cannot a
Although the phenomenon we now call dielectrophoresis was described in passing as far back as the early 20th century, it was only subject to serious study, named and first understood by Herbert Pohl in the 1950s.[9][10] Recently, dielectrophoresis has been revived due to its potential in the manipulation of microparticles,[2][4][5][11]nanoparticles and cells. Dielectrophoresis occurs when a polarizable particle is suspended in a non-uniform electric field. The electric field polarizes the particle, and the poles then experience a force along the field lines, which can be either attractive or repulsive according to the orientation on the dipole. Since the field is non-uniform, the pole experiencing the greatest electric field will dominate over the other, and the particle will move. The orientation of the dipole is dependent on the relative polarizability of the particle and medium, in accordance with Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization. Since the direction of the force is dependent on field ...
Microreactors have gained increasing attention in their application toward continuous micro flow synthesis. An unsolved problem of continuous flow synthesis is the lack of techniques for continuous...
This thesis presents two new concepts for separation of micro particles using dielectrophoresis, demonstrated by calculated examples, as well as a new method for obtaining dielectric data on living cells. The thesis is based on four papers.. Paper I describes how the trapping efficiency of micro particles may be significantly increased when superpositioned electric fields are employed in a high conductivity medium. Avoiding low conductivity media is important when working with living cells. Calculations were performed to predict trajectories of Escherichia coli bacteria in the system with superpositioned electric fields, and a model was developed which employed two arrays of interdigitated electrodes in a micro channel.. Paper II proposes a new concept for separation of micro particles, based on repetitive dielectrophoretic trapping and release in a flow system. Calculations show that the resolution increases as a direct function of the number of trap and release steps, and that a difference in ...
Vital Baby Soft Spout Babys 1st Tumbler - a 120ml cup with a soft spout. Perfectly sized for little hands and can be used either non-spill or free flow as your baby develops. Simply remove the 2-in1 non-spill valve from the cap, and the cup can be used as a free-flow cup. With the value in place, liquid will only flow when your baby drinks from the soft spout. Vital Baby cups have soft spouts, and grips that are kind and gentle to your babys sensitive mouth and tiny hands, allowing you to choose the cup that best suits your babys changing needs as it develops. Age range from 4+ months. All Vital Baby cups are dishwasher safe if placed on the top shelf and can be steam sterilised. We really have thought of everything! 1. Both non-spill and free flow drinking 2. Protect your babys sensitive gums with our soft spout 3. Built-in measurement markings to monitor how much liquid baby is drinking 4. Cleverly designed hygienic spout cover 5. 120ml/4oz capacity 6. BPA-Free
Our research takes advantage of Fluorophore-Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (FACE), a technology that we have extensively modified over the years to give us a suite of methods for comprehensive analysis of glycosylation processes of the ER. These innovations have led to many exciting collaborations with investigators both at UT Southwestern and around the world, involving biological samples from various animals, parasites, plants, and bacteria. Here is a partial list of labs that have recently collaborated with us to use FACE, with PubMed links to Resulting publication that resulted:. ...
That episode was so over the top gross that it is leading me to believe that Shonda is going for the shock factor and no longer confident that her characters stories are strong enough to keep us coming back. All, I know is that I couldnt get through that episode fast enough and the case of that poor man has stayed with me even today. I feel nauseous about it and this is not how I want to feel. If I want to know about the health issues of the indigent people of third world countries, Ill go to National Geographic ...
Tong Ze Bu Tong; Bu Tong Ze Tong Huang Di Nei Jing If there is free flow, there is no pain; if there is pain, there is lack of free flow. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qi (air or fluid) is stimulated at specific Acupuncture points to create a balanced flow throughout the body, this is said to balance the Yin and Yang of the body and create a smooth flow of [...]. ...
A method of simultaneously forming a multiplicity of surface mountable solid state capacitors is disclosed. The method comprises mounting on a substrate a wafer of powdered solid state capacitor forming metal, sintering the wafer and metal together to fuse the interface between wafer and substrate to each other and convert the wafer into a porous integral mass, dividing the sintered wafer into a multiplicity of mutually spaced sub-units, isolating the interface or boundary between the substrate and sub-units one from the other by a resin infusion or by a dielectric deposition step, causing the sub-units to be converted to capacitors by sequential anodizing and manganizing steps, bonding a cathode plate to the counter electrode components present on the upper surfaces of the sub-units in electrical contact therewith, filling the voids between adjacent sub-units with insulative resin material by injecting same between the plates utilizing the plates as elements of a mold, and after hardening of the resin
Medox-Bio electrophoretic systems are designed to suit various applications related to Nucleic acid separation, Protein seperation, Immuno protein separation and Protein transfer in laboratories. These computer designed systems are made out of well-polished and clear Plexiglass sheets fused together by using high-strength specific adhesives.
An electrophoretic analysis of the dissolved precipitate and supernatant fluid was conducted in the equivalent zone. For microelectrophoresis on paper, a Flynn and De Mayo type of chamber as modified...
Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate determination. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.
Nucleotides are the sub-units that make up DNA, and are made up of even smaller sub-units. The differences between these sub-units result in the unique base pairs that record genetic information and make up genes. More » ...
Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular) populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus.
Tumor initiating cells (TICs), also known as cancer stem cells, are a finite population of cancer cells that have the ability to transplant a new tumor from an...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Rebecca Soffe, Shi-Yang Tang, Sara Baratchi, Sofia Nahavandi, Mahyar Nasabi, Jonathan M Cooper, Arnan Mitchell, Khashayar Khoshmanesh].
A device for holding an IV tube in a pumping apparatus and for selectively occluding the tube when the door of the pumping apparatus is opened, to prevent free flow of fluid in the tube. The device consists of a base member to which the IV tube is attached or through which it passes, and a slide clamp which slides relative to the base member and relative to the tube. The IV tube is passed through an elongated aperture in the slide clamp, and the slide clamp is slidingly mounted on the base member. The aperture in the slide clamp has a relatively open hole at one end, through which the tube passes when the slide clamp is in one position, allowing fluid to flow through the tube. The aperture also has a relatively constricted slot at the other end, through which the tube passes when the slide clamp is in a second position, preventing fluid flow through the tube. A flexible cantilevered arm on the base interlocks with a locking projection on the slide clamp to lock the slide clamp in the second
Body plan: molds Hyphae - long filaments that invade their food source and provide a large surface area to absorb nutrients Mycelium - a tangled mat of hyphae Some have cells separated by cell walls called septa, others do not - coenocytic Even those with septa often have large pores that allow free flow of organelles between cells
The Global Information Locator Service (GILS) encompasses a global vision framed by the fundamental values of open societies. Societal values such as a free flow of information impose certain requirements on the societys information infrastructure. These requirements in turn shape the various laws, policies, standards, and technologies that determine the infrastructure design. A particular focus of GILS is the requirement to provide the means for people to discover sources of data and information. Information discovery in the GILS vision is designed to be decentralized yet coherent, and globally comprehensive yet useful for detailed data. This article introduces basic concepts and design issues, with emphasis on the techniques by which GILS supports interoperability. It explains the practical implications of GILS for the common roles of organizations involved in handling information, from content provider through system engineer and intermediary to searcher. The article provides examples of GILS
Lagos government has demolished all shanties and illegal structures on Lekki coastal road which serves as alternative to Lekki-Epe route.. The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that the demolition was carried out after a three-day removal notice had reportedly been issued to affected persons.. Chairman of the State Environmental and Special Offences Unit (Task Force), CSP Shola Jejeloye, confirmed the demolition in a statement issued by Head, Public Affairs of the unit, Mr Femi Moliki, on Sunday in Lagos.. According to Jejeloye, the task force is prepared to monitor and prevent future encroachments and illegal occupation of any part of Lekki coastal road.. The chairman said that the exercise was carried out to give way for the construction of the coastal road, linking Lekki to the Free Trade Zone.. The road, he said, would also serve as an alternative route to Lekki-Epe expressway, to enhance free flow of traffic on the corridor.. We have enlightened the occupants on the strategic nature of ...
Build confidence as your toddler grows and needs larger amounts of liquid. Its soft spout, easy grip base and large 280ml capacity make our Toddler Trainer Cup perfect for this. It can be used as non spill or free flow. Our award winning range of Vital Baby® Trainer Cups is specially designed to protect sensitive gums, teach how to hold, build confidence and ultimately help to develop baby s drinking skills as they grow. Every cup comes complete with a non-spill valve which has been cleverly designed to provide a smooth drinking action and a steady flow of liquid from just 4 months old!
Previously, we tried to predict 90th percentile evacuation time $T{90}$ determined from ABM simulation using 90th percentile free flow clearance time $T90f$. Bigger the city, greater we can expect $T90f$ to be since it would take longer to traverse. Plotting $T90f$ vs $T90$ produces the figure below. $T90f$ under predicts $T90$ with a poor fit ($R=0.31$) but it is clear that $T90$ is never less than $T90f$! Since that did not work out too well, I attempt to predict $T90$ using the knowledge of how the population is distributed distance $D$ from the exit.
Open Honeycomb Design - Allows a free flow of water and soap through the open walls to clean dishes efficiently and dry them quickly ...
Earth - Spleen-Pancreas/Stomach - is associated with the harvest time. It is the patient and nourishing mediator, it represents balance and neutrality. The colour is yellow, the flavour bland or sweet and the negative emotions are worry and over thinking; positive is fairness and openness - and singing is associated with the free flow of spleen Chi. You can learn more by watching the following short video. The Five Phases correspond to each other through nourishing and controlling cycles. Metal nourishes Water, Water nourishes Wood, Wood nourishes Fire, Fire nourishes Earth, Earth nourishes Metal ...
Talk of such policies is often met by objections that this will lead to a dangerous balkanisation of global capital markets, preventing the free flow of capital and stymieing its allocative efficiency benefits, he said. But since the evidence for the benefits of financial integration is at best elusive and ambiguous, some balkanisation of short term international debt markets could be a good thing ...
Economic and trade sanctions enacted by one government against another often have detrimental effects on the free flow of digital communications and communications technologies that activists, innovators and ordinary users of technologies desperately need. EFF has a long history of fighting against those effects, especially by the US government. Since the beginning, the
WHAT CAUSES SNORING? The noisy sounds of snoring occur when there is an obstruction to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth
This report is chilling in its implications on the free flow of information to the American people. Under the bill, which is written in extremely broa
Renovations at home, especially those involving plentiful of demolition can be a very dusty affair. This nasty dust can easily free flow through the air and into your house to form a thick film on your entire furniture, possessions and the floor. To save yourself from arising potential health issues and hassles of
Creating urban spaces that allow for the free flow and penetration of water and wind is essential to the survival of water-based cities like Bangkok.
Snoring is most annoying health situation, snoring, it is a noise reason when there is an obstacle to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth and nose. That area is the collapsible part of the airway. Snoring happens when these structures hit each other and vibrate during breathing.. ...
Hubby saya memang dah nak try makan kat restoran ni masa dia datang ke JB sebelum tu tapi tak berani dan tak best sorang2...sbb dia menyediakan hidangan steamboat dan BBQ secara buffet. Alhamdulillah amat puasa hati makan kat sini. Pilihannya amatlah banyak berpuluh2 jenis rasanya...macam2 ada,ayam lebih 10 jenis, daging lembu, daging kambing dan ikan ,pelbagai jenis fishballs, meatballs, udang, sotong, kerang, mussels, sayur, dessert (aiskrim, ABC, cendol, buah-buahan etc) dan air yang free flow (soft drink, juice). Harga RM70++ untuk dua orang ...
Advanced search is divided into two main parts, and one or more groups in each of the main parts. The main parts are the Search for (including) and the Remove from search (excluding) part. (The excluding part might not be visible until you hit NOT for the first time ...
Definition : Tubes covered with supporting media that are used to separate an ionic mixture of solutes into its components by the differences in migration rate when an electric field is applied (electrophoresis). These columns are usually made of glass or plastic (e.g., acrylic) tubes; they are usually mounted vertically, with both ends placed into buffer wells that make the electrical connection between the columns and the electrodes. Typically, several columns are run simultaneously in an electrophoretic system.. Entry Terms : Columns, Electrophoresis , Immunoelectrophoresis Equipment , Apparatus, Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis Equipment , Chromatography Equipment. UMDC code : 18551 ...
Mulhall, HJ, Abdallat, R, Liang, X, Fedele, S, Lewis, MP, Porter, S, Tsinkalovsky, O, Johannessen, AC, Hughes, MP, Costea, DE and Labeed, FH (2010) Rapid detection of oral cancer: Electrophysiological characterization by dielectrophoresis technology In: Nanotech Conference & Expo 2010, 2010-06-21 - 2010-06-24, Anaheim, USA. Armellin, R, Lavagna, M, Starkey, RP and Lewis, MJ (2006) Aero-gravity assist maneuvers: Coupled trajectory and vehicle shape optimization In: AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference and Exhibit, 2006-08-21 - 2006-08-24, Keystone, U.S.A.. ...
Pumperne har et kompakte design med en bredde på hhv. 24,5 cm og 29,5 cm ligesom eksempelvis otte pumper klikket direkte sammen har en samlet højde på kun 70 cm. Til trods for det kompakte design inkluderer pumperne store trykknapper og 3,5 skærme, som direkte viser information uden at skulle klikke i gennem en række undermenuer. Pumperne har auto selv-test, hurtig opstart, stor nøjagtighed, omfattende infusions- og programmeringsindstillinger, SEMI-PRESS funktion, DPS; et væld af muligheder, alarmer og sikkerhedsindstillinger bl.a. for anti free-flow, anti-bolus, og anti-siphonage; fem niveauer for detektering af luftbobler; automatisk lagring af seneste 2000 infusionshistorikker samt mere end 10 timers batteritid ...
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Summary: A 16S rRNA-based molecular ecological study was performed to search for dominant bacterial sequences in Drentse A grassland soils (The Netherlands). In the first step, a library of 165 clones was generated from PCR-amplified 16S rDNA. By sequence comparison, clone DA079 and two other identical clones could be affiliated to a group of recently described uncultured Actinobacteria. This group contained 16S rDNA clone sequences obtained from different environments across the world. To determine whether such uncultured organisms were part of the physiologically active population in the soil, ribosomes were isolated from the environment and 16S rRNA was partially amplified via RT-PCR using conserved primers for members of the domain Bacteria. Subsequent sequence-specific separation by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) generated fingerprints of the amplicons. Such community fingerprints were compared with the TGGE pattern of PCR-amplified rDNA of clone DA079 which was generated with the
Article: Smith, James P.; Huang, Chao; Kirby, Brian J.; (2015) Enhancing Sensitivity and Specificity in Rare Cell Capture Microdevices with Dielectrophoresis, Biomicrofluidics, 9(1). DOI. Abstract: The capture and subsequent analysis of rare cells, such as circulating tumor cells from a peripheral blood sample, has the potential to advance our understanding and treatment of a wide range of diseases. There is a particular need for high purity (i.e., high specificity) techniques to isolate these cells, reducing the time and cost required for single-cell genetic analyses by decreasing the number of contaminating cells analyzed. Previous work has shown that antibody-based immunocapture can be combined with dielectrophoresis (DEP) to differentially isolate cancer cells from leukocytes in a characterization device. Here, we build on that work by developing numerical simulations that identify microfluidic obstacle array geometries where DEP-immunocapture can be used to maximize the capture of target ...
Cavalli, sforza L.; Santachiara, S A.; Wang, L; Erdelyi, E; and Barchas, J, Electrophoretic study of 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase from brain and liver in several species. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 607 ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Dielectrophoresis of DNA using 3D Carbon Electrodes. T2 - Electrophoresis. AU - Martinez-Duarte, R. AU - Camacho-Alanis, F. AU - Renaud, P. AU - Ros, A. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. M3 - Other contribution. ER - ...
Mote B. Normal serum protein values in newborn infants, determined by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1967;67(4):430. doi: https://doi.org/.. Download citation file:. ...
Carbon nanomaterials have a large surface area and complex particles shape architecture. These qualities are successfully applying to develop new drug carriers, fillers, or nanodetectors [1]. At the same time, the utilization efficiency of such materials is caused by maintaining of the nanodispersity. An agglomeration and partially sedimentation of nanotubes in aqueous media is a well-known fact. The stability of the nanotube dispersion mostly depends on the uniformity of the boundary layer and nanotube morphology. The hydrophobic nature of defectless areas of their surface and the hydrophilicity of some types of defects in the nanotube boundary layer, namely carboxy- or phenolic groups [2, 3] which are formed during nanotube purification and washing, are competing during dispersing in the aqueous media. An increase in stability of the nanotube dispersion in water can be achieved through the surface charge via formation of the double electrical layer (EDL). Among other carbon materials, carbon ...
Fluid-Screen, Inc. presents a bacterial concentration and filtration method based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP has been known to induce particle motion since the 1960s. However, yields and reproducibility have consistently been low in practice, reducing the potential of DEP for practical applications. Here we present a novel electrode design to induce high electric field gradients. This design allows rapid and efficient capture of diverse bacteria from aqueous solutions of varied conductivity. By using the novel spiral electrode design and tuning the electric field to species-specific frequencies, we show capture of over 99% of bacteria within seconds of gradient application. Our method of DEP induces responses in both the representative Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Equilibrium repositioning of suspended bacteria can be seen within miliseconds for low-conductivity medium and within seconds for higher conductivity solutions such as environmental
Development and Validation of a Simple and Rapid Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Method for Quantification of Heparin in a Pharmaceutical Product and Stability Studies Abstract.
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an effective method to manipulate cells. Printed circuit boards (PCB) can provide inexpensive, reusable and ...
If you want to hydrate and moisturize your skin instantly, then Freshen Up Facial Spray is a great toner to be in your makeup kit, as it is blended with Rosewater Hydrosol!. Your skin maintains proper oil balance (pH) but gets disturbed with outside forces that act on it in the form of alkaline soaps or atmospheric impurities. Freshen Up maintains a constant pH balance and also contains astringent properties that combat the acne developing bacteria and reduces skin defects. It is a Rosewater Hydrosol that helps in hydrating your skin in the most natural way. Can be used for all the skin types as the formulation is absolutely skin-safe! Use it once, after your bath and keep your skin healthy through the day.. Results have shown that Freshen Up Facial Spray can prevent ingrown hair thus aiding hair tidiness! 8 oz.. ...
This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience ...
A site dededicated to personalized behavioral healthcare with an emphasis on evidence based complementary alternative approaches to psychiatry and mental wellness challenges.
The present disclosure is directed to a novel apparatus and novel methods for the separation, characterization, and manipulation of matter. In particular, the invention combines the use of frequency-dependent dielectric and conductive properties of particulate matter and solubilized matter with the properties of the suspending and transporting medium to discriminate and separate such matter. The apparatus includes a chamber having at least one electrode element and at least one inlet and one output port into which cells are introduced and removed from the chamber. Matter carried through the chamber in a fluid stream is then displaced within the fluid by a dielectrophoretic (DEP) force caused by the energized electrode. Following displacement within the fluid, matter travels through the chamber at velocities according to the velocity profile of the chamber. After the matter has transmitted through the chamber, it exits at the opposite end of the chamber at a characteristic position. Methods according to
The present disclosure is directed to a novel apparatus and novel methods for the separation, characterization, and manipulation of matter. In particular, the invention combines the use of frequency-dependent dielectric and conductive properties of particulate matter and solubilized matter with the properties of the suspending and transporting medium to discriminate and separate such matter. The apparatus includes a chamber having at least one electrode element and at least one inlet and one output port into which cells are introduced and removed from the chamber. Matter carried through the chamber in a fluid stream is then displaced within the fluid by a dielectrophoretic (DEP) force caused by the energized electrode. Following displacement within the fluid, matter travels through the chamber at velocities according to the velocity profile of the chamber. After the matter has transitted through the chamber, it exists at the opposite end of the chamber at a characteristic position. Methods according to
URN zum Zitieren dieses Dokuments: urn:nbn:de:bvb:355-epub-219889. Hansen, Ernil und Hannig, Kurt (1984) Electrophoretic separation of lymphoid cells. Methods in enzymology 108, S. 180-197 ...
In order to point out the driven forces in the loading and release of protein onto thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAM) nanogel particles, which largely claimed in drug delivery and analytical processes, various polyNIPAM based nanogel particles were prepared, and the loading and release of two model proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and -Globulins (G), onto various cationically or anionically charged polyNIPAM nanocrogel particles were investigated. At first, the nanogels particles were well characterized regarding their colloidal properties (swelling ability, particle size, and electrokinetic properties). Then, the loading and release of proteins behaviour onto the elaborated particles were investigated as a function of temperature, pH, and salinity. It was found that the loaded amount of both proteins increases as a function of temperature irrespective of the nature of charge of polyNIPAM nanogels. The protein loaded amount onto the two lower charged polyNIPAM ...
This thesis presents two new concepts for separation of micro particles using dielectrophoresis, demonstrated by calculated examples, as well as a new method for obtaining dielectric data on living cells. The thesis is based on four papers.. Paper I describes how the trapping efficiency of micro particles may be significantly increased when superpositioned electric fields are employed in a high conductivity medium. Avoiding low conductivity media is important when working with living cells. Calculations were performed to predict trajectories of Escherichia coli bacteria in the system with superpositioned electric fields, and a model was developed which employed two arrays of interdigitated electrodes in a micro channel.. Paper II proposes a new concept for separation of micro particles, based on repetitive dielectrophoretic trapping and release in a flow system. Calculations show that the resolution increases as a direct function of the number of trap and release steps, and that a difference in ...
An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.
This car is a ground effects machine and rides on a five inch cushion of air and can run on land or water, has no wheels, transmission or rear end. Plus, no frictional moving parts. Air is drawn in through the front and rear openings into the open plenum chamber with outlets through a combination of peripheral jet inserts. Four inch polyethylene circular skirt is installed on the lower portion of the body. Frame construction is of 3/4 inch alloy round tubing and the dimensions are 12′ long, 6′ wide, and 30″ high. Stabilizer fins has an 8 7 wingspan, plus 53 high. All panels are hand formed from 040 half hard aluminum, by Jack Sutton. Power is two jet aircraft starter motors 24 volt D.C., 4 horse power that turns 40,000 rpm at 300 amps. This is reduced 8 to 1 to absorb the amount of load combination of horsepower. Balanced 20 inches cast aluminum fans push 11,800 C.I.M. free flow & under ₖ″ static water pressure has 7,600 C.I.M., dry weight of the car is 422 pounds including all the ...
A recent WHO review of the PIP Framework offered an opportunity to close major gaps but also revealed the texts rigidity in adapting to rapid scientific progress (10). GSD fundamentally change the paradigm within which the PIP Framework operates, potentially rendering the framework less effective.. In the short run, it would be best simply to interpret the framework to include GSD as biological materials. Keeping GSD under the umbrella of a global agreement would facilitate tracking sequencing data, while holding users accountable-facilitating socially productive research, while limiting harmful use. A tracking system need not be burdensome or restrict the free flow of scientific information. A simple registration system that monitors who has downloaded GSD would help ensure that recipients abide by global research norms and could be incorporated into existing databases such as the GISAID platform. Moreover, allowing free exchange of GSD without enforcing the obligations owed to the donating ...
A BMW is a unique experience all in its own, but a tuned BMW makes it truly unique. This 2016 Alpine White M3 was not only ordered completely optioned out but was also ordered with the Dinan S1 Signature Package. Modifications of the package include a Stage 2 Upgrade, Dinan Free Flow Stainless Exhaust, Carbon Fiber Cold Air Intake, High Performance Adjustable Coil-Over Suspension System, Sway Bars, Pedal Cover Set, and of course an under the hood plaque and deck lid badge for proof of the modifications. Other than the Dinan labeled black exhaust tips, this M3 gives fairly stock appearance with its Carbon Fiber Diffuser and by not flaunting any badge on the trunk other than the Black M Badge.. Being as powerful a vehicle as the M3 is, making sure it can stop properly is important. Stopping isnt a problem for this M3 with its M Carbon Ceramic Brakes and Yellow Calipers that not only prove it, but also add on to the clean appearance of the car. Keeping the black badging and trimming consistent, ...
Did you know that private companies can patent genes in your body? A company called Myriad Genetics owns two genes known as BRCA 1 and BRCA2 -or Breast Cancer 1 and Breast Cancer 2. Women with certain mutations in these genes have a strong chance of getting breast or ovarian cancer.. This has very dangerous implications for womens health and scientific research.. The government should not be granting private entities control over something as personal and basic to the human body as our genes. Moreover, granting patents that limit scientific research, learning and the free flow of information violates the First Amendment.. ...
Plaque, a combination of cholesterol, fat, and other substances starts to stick to the walls lining your blood vessels which builds up over time. This makes arteries become harder and narrower,resulting in atherosclerosis.These plaques can break or rupture, by which blood cells called platelets will try to repair the artery, forming a blood clot. This buildup prevents a free flow of blood through the arteries. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the heart. If you dont get enough, it can lead to shortness of breath and chest pain (angina).. ...
AP Photo/Nati Harnik. Mike Pence speaks at a campaign stop in Council Bluffs, Iowa in August 2016.. Although Mike Pence has won praise for championing a proposed federal shield law to protect journalists sources, the Indiana governors overall First Amendment record is mixed.. When he was in the U.S. House of Representatives, Pence several times was one of the two leading sponsors of the Free Flow of Information Act, a bill to protect reporters from being compelled to reveal confidential sources or information. While 39 states and the District of Columbia have shield laws, there is no such protection on the federal level.. The push for a federal shield law has been unsuccessful to date, but Pences advocacy for freedom of the press earned him bipartisan admiration.. He was a terrific champion for reporters and their rights to maintain the confidentiality of sources, and I think that history needs to be noted, said Rick Boucher, a former Democratic congressman from Virginia who co-sponsored ...
But making hydrogen requires energy too. Making nitrogen fertilizers uses lots of hydrogen, so those serious about fuel supplies will also have to worry about food supplies. I just wish the same people who talk about shutting down industries and exacting revenge would instead busy themselves with showing that alternatives can be successfully commercialized, because if they cant theres little sense in using them. Energy independence will not come from government investing in unworkable alternatives. Energy independence can only come from the use and exploitation of domestic energy sources and this includes coal. Oil and related hydrocarbons are intrinsically cheap. If we decide to move away from them because we dont like or cant shoulder the associated problems, e.g., keeping the free flow free, wed better prepare for somebody else doing the dirty jobs. And to the winner goes the spoils ...
2012-8-30 · We offer precision-engineered bin vibrators that deliver an efficient and cost-effective solution to maintain the free flow of product from bins, hoppers and chutes with a direct and positive result on the bottom line.Whether the requirement is to ensure constant and uninterrupted material flow, or to eliminate the necessity for manual manipulation of a bin hopper or bulk material, our bin .... Get Price ...
Snoring causes a person to wake up throughout the night. For most, snoring is simply a case of having to move your body from a bad position into one thats more comfortable to breathe in. But for the 18 million people in the United States suffering from OSA, snoring is their bodys cry for help. Throughout the night people with OSA literally stop breathing. They stop breathing because the muscles in their mouth, jaw, and throat relax, blocking the free flow of air in the airway. These moments of suffocation can last for up to an entire minute. A person with OSA wakes up hundreds of times during a single night as their bodies try not to suffocate. Snoring is their bodys only way to get enough air to breathe. ...
Some states, particularly members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), see Article III on nonproliferation and Article X on promotion of peaceful use of biotechnology as equally important. They interpret Article X as an obligation for developed countries to share their expert knowledge with less-developed countries. Several states feel that developed countries have not fulfilled this obligation, and have called for the establishment of a formal mechanism for scientific cooperation. A few states also oppose the view that compliance with the BTWCs Article III necessitates national strategic trade controls, which in their view restrict the free flow of biological technology and knowledge.. Other states view disarmament and nonproliferation as the primary goal of the BTWC. Therefore, the aim of Article X is principally to ensure that the nonproliferation goals of the treaty do not hinder peaceful activities. These states are generally supportive of strategic trade controls and view them as necessary ...
If we are truly engaged in trying to understand the world we live in we need to busy ourselves with observation. Not looking properly, not seeing things are the common reasons why we fail to understand. We tend to be very quick at drawing conclusions without allowing the full experience of watching and observing to collect its information inside our system. And so it is with ear candling too. I have heard many explanations but sadly most of them dont even pass a simple observation test. However, when we observe we also have to guard ourselves, as much as we can, against wanting to see a certain thing and in doing so failing to see what is really important.. Lets put this into some practice. Take any type of ear candle you like and remove whatever device acts as a filter. This may be the little cross we find in the Biosun candles or it may be a tapered end, anything that partially obstructs the free flow of the air inside the candle. When cutting the candles above any sort of filter we have to ...
By Tony Perry, Los Angeles Times, January 22, 2008. The meeting between the Marines and the power brokers of this border region began with pleasantries, an exchange of gifts, and the drinking of small cups of tea, very hot and very sweet.. But within a few minutes the subject turned to one of crucial importance to both sides: the possible rise of militias among Sunni tribes who feel disrespected and shut out of the mild economic upturn the region is enjoying.. The power brokers - the mayor, the sheiks, and the local Iraqi army general - are from the Albu Mahal tribe, the most powerful in the region.. The Mahals were the first of the tribes to join with the U.S. in fighting the insurgency while lesser tribes stayed neutral or assisted the insurgents.. Now that the insurgency has been largely suppressed, Mahal leaders feel it is their right to share in the benefits of peace, such as the flourishing downtown market in Husaybah and the recently opened port of entry that allows a free flow of goods ...
This work is based on the theory that the Craniosacral and Fascial systems are not separate but are one interconnected system.. This blends craniosacral Therapy and Myofascial Release into a single and highly effective therapy.. A healthy system allows a healthy free flow of Cerebrospinal fluid from the brain , down the spine, to the sacrum, and into the connective tissue (fascia). Our brains need to expand and contract, and this is often blocked by stress, difficult birth or ...
Shared these thoughts and a few more with a reporter from CNN a few moments ago: The arrest of Henry Louis Gates sends a chilling message to the scholars, writers, activists, and artists who work so hard to keep a free flow of information. It seems eerily ironic Mr. Gates was returning from China, where surveillance is so high and freedom of speech and ideas so curtailed. To see the mugshot of Skip was a blow to all of us who feel some sense of safety based on our work to try to mend all of these broken fences in America--to make ourselves into people who refuse to be limited by race and class and gender and everything else. We do this work every day, and it is work, just like any other. To end up, at the end of the day, treated like a criminal, unjustly stripped of our accomplishments and contributions even if only for a moment, is profoundly disturbing. We must ask ourselves what it means, and to allow ourselves to face various scenarios regarding power and freedom and how these will ...
A common issue with tube feeding is snagging: door knobs, chairs, and otuer humans have been my top three culprits for sometimes a rather rough tug. And no. It does not feel very good.. There are a lot of people who use the button style tubes as either their G and/or J tubes because of the tube being low-profle, but in my experience, the button style tubes are superior in design and function. Even when accessed, these tubes arent as bulky and easier to conceal (which is good for those of us on continuous feeds). The extension tubing used to access the tubes are disposable, which is beneficial in respects to keeping things as sanitary as possible and in best functioning order. Extension tubing also has a clamp so there is only free flow of content when one is too absent minded to forget to squeeze the clamp shut and pump alarms are also as easy to fix as releasing the clamp (those are moments when you shake your head and say out loud to yourself Really?).. Here is another benefit of the ...
|p|The inhalation membrane wont cause a free flow in a counter current or when riding a scooter, which is a huge advantage of having the purge button on the side. It also gives the diver a freedom to select if the hose comes from the left or right withou
Create a list of priorities based on what sells in a kitchen and ensure to meet them. Without compromising on architecture, opt for simplicity and add some wow features like extra drawers, pull out pantry etc.. Now just enjoy the great bargain received for the house. Home renovations, especially those involving plentiful of demolition can be a very dusty affair. This nasty dust can easily free flow through the air and into your house to form a thick film on your entire furniture, possessions and the floor. To save yourself from arising potential health issues and hassles of cleaning, try the followings tips. Needs to be remembered that the total cost incurred for remodeling by you must never exceed the value that your home value can support. Its advisable to limit it to anything between 6-10 percent of total home value to get decent returns. Create a list of priorities based on what sells in a kitchen and ensure to meet.. ...
High-speed Internet is an absolute necessity, and the free flow of information is vital to our everyday lives. It impacts the way we live, work, study, and enjoy our free time. But right now, net neutrality rules that help ensure we have a free and open Internet are under attack. The FCC voted last year to repeal the rules that say Internet service... Read More ...
Plans to set up a transparent and easily accessible database with information on trade and markets in countries of East and Southern Africa could boost the free flow of goods and services in fields such as agriculture and health, experts have said.
I could not be mad or frustrated with him. He was just doing his job and the customer is not always right. Still, I wondered why this process was necessary and tried to process why there was a $10 service fee for cancelling the flight. The reality was, I needed to get home.. A one-way ticket when you have intentions of returning home can be a challenge, although the free flow of having no set plans has its perks of adrenaline. The other week, I was on a budget search for a plane ticket from Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Toronto, Canada. I could philosophize about whether my return was meant to be, but I knew I had to make it home as I had made a promise to a friend to return for her wedding and funds were running out.. So, I started looking for flights and a couple of weeks ago, I found one. I booked it. I wiped my hands of any stress. Until, that is, the e-mail came a week ago saying that it had been cancelled. Trying to get home became an enduring task mixed in with a little stress.. One night ...
T.J. Coles US Army trainers drill Nigerian soldiers in Jaji between Jan. 15 and Feb. 22, 2018 Under the cover of counterterrorism, AFRICOM is beefing up Nigerias military to ensure the free flow of oil to the West, and using the country as a proxy against Chinas influence on the continent. Last month, Nigerias President…
Martuza said, The government is working tirelessly to curb corruption. The joint activities of the Information Commission and TIB will play a vital role in ensuring free flow of information and peoples right to information. TIB Executive Director said Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has already identified the implementation of the right to information as a milestone. Information Commission and TIB will make the implementation of this act more effective ...
Instead of encouraging the free flow of data, research and results, the FDA is trying to muzzle it - especially when the exchange involves drugmakers truthfully discussing off-label uses.
Zyprexa adhd medication - they give a glimpse into the untold stories of the current war on cannabis, hemp and the free flow o...
Units may divide and recombine. This is done using the Divide / Recombine button in the Unit Report window (see 16.1), or from the popup menu you get by right clicking on the unit icon in the Map Panel. When you choose to divide a unit, it can be divided into either two or three sub-units at your discretion. In order to recombine into the original unit, all sub-units must be present. If any sub-unit is lost, the unit may not recombine until the sub-unit reappears as a reinforcement ...
Archives of Clinical Nephrology is an international, open access, peer-reviewed Journal, dedicated to the clinical and investigative studies, treatments, new diagnostic techniques, and other topics relating to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the Kidney and its sub-units. The journal publishes novel updated research information dealing with the branch of medicine which deals with disorders related to Kidney and its sub-units.
By way of example, females endure a higher extent of endothelial and smooth muscle dysfunc tion in contrast with men. Hence, it has been suggested the endothel
This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Alternative Names: Lipoprotein electrophoresis Learn more here.
Electrophoresis Package 3/4 provides sufficient agarose, gel stains and electrophoresis buffers for up to 6 individual experiments. The package also includes the dye for rapid DNA staining during electrophoresis.. Contents of EP 3/4. ...
Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 960-969. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301199. PMID 1286667. S2CID 41855774. Ghetti A, Piñol-Roma S, Michael ...
Electrophoresis. 16 (7): 1160-9. doi:10.1002/elps.11501601192. PMID 7498159. S2CID 32209361. Nielsen SU, Spener F (Aug 1993). " ...
Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 960-9. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301199. PMID 1286667. S2CID 41855774. Kristensen P, Johnsen AH, Uerkvitz ...
Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 960-9. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301199. PMID 1286667. S2CID 41855774. Hattori H, Liu YC, Tohnai I, Ueda ...
Bamman, MM; Clarke, MS; Talmadge, RJ; Feeback, DL (March 1999). "Enhanced protein electrophoresis technique for separating ... human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms". Electrophoresis. 20 (3): 466-8. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(19990301)20:3. ...
Electrophoresis. 20 (8): 1786-1789. doi:10.1002/(sici)1522-2683(19990101)20:8. 3.0.co;2-5. PMID 10435450. S2CID 21965899. " ... Electrophoresis. 20 (8): 1786-1789. doi:10.1002/(sici)1522-2683(19990101)20:8. 3.0.co;2-5. PMID 10435450. S2CID 21965899. " ...
Electrophoresis. 26 (1): 91-98. doi:10.1002/elps.200406129. PMID 15624129. S2CID 44989190. Fuku, Noriyuki; Soo Park, Kyong; ...
Electrophoresis. 15 (3-4): 529-539. doi:10.1002/elps.1150150171. PMID 8055880. S2CID 25560231. Brendel V, Bucher P, Nourbakhsh ...
Electrophoresis. 20 (2): 241-8. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(19990201)20:2. 3.0.CO;2-A. PMID 10197429. S2CID 24089641. "Entrez ...
Electrophoresis. 22 (10): 2103-2109. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200106)22:10. 3.0.co;2-w. PMID 11465512. S2CID 38878805. Xi J, Wang ... gel electrophoresis with polyethylene glycol, affinity chromatography, and aggregation using DTT, though these methods are more ... "Polyethylene glycol fractionation improved detection of low-abundant proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of ...
Electrophoresis. 34 (12): 1720-1728. doi:10.1002/elps.201300100. hdl:11343/44126. PMID 23592267. S2CID 36906333. Conlan JV, ...
Electrophoresis. 41 (7-8): 615-620. doi:10.1002/elps.201900356. ISSN 0173-0835. PMID 31891191. S2CID 209520081. Mandal, Pratiti ...
Electrophoresis. 23 (14): 2247-2251. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200207)23:14. 3.0.co;2-m. PMID 12210229. S2CID 29462550. Fraser, M.P ...
Electrophoresis. 14 (10): 1023-31. doi:10.1002/elps.11501401163. PMID 8125050. S2CID 38041111. Berglund L, Björling E, Oksvold ...
Guttman, András (2004). "Obituary: Professor Csaba Horváth (1930-2004)". Electrophoresis. 25 (1819): 3067-3068. doi:10.1002/ ...
... electrophoresis ... more than one hundred papers have been published during the past five years." Coulson's group consisted of ...
Electrophoresis. 26 (1): 91-98. doi:10.1002/elps.200406129. PMID 15624129. S2CID 44989190. Asari, M; et al. (2007). "Utility of ... Electrophoresis. 27 (22): 4408-18. doi:10.1002/elps.200600151. PMID 17058303. S2CID 28252456. Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Mengge; Zou, ...
Shafer GE, Price MA, Tullius TD (1989). "Use of the hydroxyl radical and gel electrophoresis to study DNA structure". ... Electrophoresis. 10 (5-6): 397-404. doi:10.1002/elps.1150100518. PMID 2504579. S2CID 38355953. Galas DJ (November 2001). "The ...
Electrophoresis. 20 (4-5): 928-34. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(19990101)20:4/5. 3.0.CO;2-Z. PMID 10344268. S2CID 22531212. ...
"Denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of DNA & RNA". Electrophoresis. National Diagnostics. Retrieved 13 October 2016. ... These denaturants have been employed to make Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis gel (DGGE), which promotes denaturation of ...
"Comparison of RNA, single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA behavior during capillary electrophoresis in semidilute polymer ... solutions". Electrophoresis. nih.gov. 23 (7-8): 1033-44. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200204)23:7/8. 3.0.CO;2-7. PMID 11981850. S2CID ...
In gel electrophoresis analysis, significant differences were found in the migration of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial HSP60. ... Electrophoresis. 11 (10): 883-91. doi:10.1002/elps.1150111019. PMID 2079031. S2CID 21541503. Jindal S, Dudani AK, Singh B, ... Electrophoresis. 15 (11): 1459-65. doi:10.1002/elps.11501501209. PMID 7895732. S2CID 33359306. Baca-Estrada ME, Gupta RS, Stead ... Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 992-1001. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301201. PMID 1286669. S2CID 23518983. Ikawa S, Weinberg RA (1992). " ...
Capillary electrophoresis coupled with ESI-MS is another technique; however, it works best when analyzing small amounts of ... Wang W, Sun J, Nimtz M, Deckwer WD, Zeng AP (2003). "Protein identification from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis ... Whitmore, Colin D.; Gennaro, Lynn A. (2012-06-01). "Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry methods for tryptic peptide ... the typical PMF samples are isolated proteins from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D gels) or isolated SDS-PAGE bands. ...
Barnes et al., Electrophoresis in Practice: A Guide to theory and Practice. Page 44. VCH Publishers Inc, 1993 (USA) Görg, ... IPG increased reproducibility of Isoelectric focusing and 2D-Gel Electrophoresis. Other advantages are increased resolution, ... Görg, Angelika; Weiss, Walter; Dunn, Michael J. (2004-12-01). "Current two-dimensional electrophoresis technology for ... Electrophoresis. 15 (8-9): 1205-1211. doi:10.1002/elps.11501501182. ISSN 0173-0835. PMID 7532129. Blomberg, A.; Blomberg, L.; ...
Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 960-9. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301199. PMID 1286667. S2CID 41855774. Lee SW, Tomasetto C, Swisshelm K, ...
developed a DMF system with a capillary electrophoresis (CE) module with the purpose of automating the process of next ... Electrophoresis. 33 (23): 3506-3513. doi:10.1002/elps.201200441. PMID 23135807. S2CID 205802837. Baker M (2016-05-01). "1,500 ...
Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 960-9. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301199. PMID 1286667. S2CID 41855774. Prasad GL, Valverius EM, McDuffie ...
Electrophoresis. 14 (11): 1216-22. doi:10.1002/elps.11501401181. PMID 8313870. S2CID 33424554. Ji H, Reid GE, Moritz RL, Eddes ... Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 992-1001. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301201. PMID 1286669. S2CID 23518983. Kaul SC, Wadhwa R, Matsuda Y, ... JS, Burgess AW, Simpson RJ (1997). "A two-dimensional gel database of human colon carcinoma proteins". Electrophoresis. 18 (3-4 ...
Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 960-9. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301199. PMID 1286667. S2CID 41855774. Peddada LB, McPherson JD, Law R, ...
Electrophoresis. 21 (17): 3785-96. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200011)21:17. 3.0.CO;2-2. PMID 11271497. S2CID 42538820. Yin ZL, ...
Hemoglobin electrophoresis measures the levels of the different types of this protein in the blood. ... Hb electrophoresis; Hgb electrophoresis; Electrophoresis - hemoglobin; Thalassemia - electrophoresis; Sickle cell - ... Hemoglobin electrophoresis measures the levels of the different types of this protein in the blood. ...
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a laboratory technique used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint for a ... PFGE is different from conventional DNA electrophoresis because PFGE can separate very large fragments to generate a ... generic subtyping method for many different bacteria with only the choice of the restriction enzyme and electrophoresis ...
Protein Gel Electrophoresis, Protein Gel Staining and Imaging, Proteins, Expression, Isolation and Analysis ...
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... An interactive gel electrophoresis lab that includes links to DNA in forensic science, how to ... I may however, do an electrophoresis demonstration, because it great to see the real thing. But I think the University of Utah ... You just viewed Gel Electrophoresis Virtual Lab. Please take a moment to rate this material. ... make your own electrophoresis chamber, and ways to make the DNA colorful. ...
Electrophoresis is popular in the field of forensics, particularly in the analysis of unknown samples containing proteins and ... Using electrophoresis to separate proteins in blood. Electrophoresis can be used to analyze proteins, including those found in ... Capillary electrophoresis. This method is also known as high-performance capillary electrophoresis and can be used to separate ... Electrophoresis. Image Credit: Martinek Jan/Shutterstock.com. What are the basic principles of electrophoresis?. In ...
... and hand-casting reagents for hand-pouring polyacrylamide gels for PAGE and SDS-PAGE protein gel electrophoresis. ... Electrophoresis tanks, blotting systems, and power supplies for protein gel electrophoresis and wet and semi-dry transfer. ... Gel Electrophoresis. Protein gel electrophoresis is used to separate proteins for purification, characterization, and detection ... Article: How to Run an mPAGE® Protein Gel Using a Bio-Rad Electrophoresis System. Article: How to Run an mPAGE® Protein Gel ...
An Introduction to Capillary Electrophoresis. Capillary electrophoresis is a method for separating and identifying fragments of ... Capillary Electrophoresis Instruments. Spectrum Compact CE System. An affordable benchtop instrument for Sanger sequencing and ... Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) Instruments. Spectrum and Spectrum Compact CE Systems provide scalable solutions for DNA ... Fluorescently labeled DNA samples are prepared for electrophoresis and loaded into the CE instrument. The capillary array is ...
Q4B Annex 10: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter September 2010 Download the Final Guidance Document Read the ...
... Analysis, Regional Demands and Industry Developments Report - published ... More Releases for Electrophoresis. 11-20-2021 , Health & Medicine ReportsnReports Automated Electrophoresis Systems Market 2021 ... Numerous applications of electrophoresis technique will boost the global Electro … The research report " Global Electrophoresis ... Segment-level analysis on Global Electrophoresis Market The Global Electrophoresis Market was worth USD 2.03 billion in 2016 ...
... Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 ... and produce a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) map of soluble crystallins in young rat lens. ...
Dendrogram of unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Salmonella Newport. The 58 patterns represent all patterns ... Automated Ribotyping and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Rapid Identification of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Serotype ... Automated Ribotyping and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Rapid Identification of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Serotype ...
The electrophoresis chamber is a double-gel unit that features state-of-the-art design and safety features to prevent shocks. ... The electrophoresis lab station contains all the basic equipment you will need to run your first experiment. ... 1 double-gel electrophoresis chamber • 1 variable voltage power supply • 1 agarose Gel Electrophoresis Lab Investigation ... The electrophoresis chamber is a double-gel unit that features state-of-the-art design and safety features to prevent shocks. ...
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis in Sickle Cell Disease: A Primer for the Clinician ... Figure 1. The different zones on an alkaline gel electrophoresis.. 2. Capillary electrophoresis: An electric current is applied ... Figure 2. Normal hemoglobin electrophoresis in an adult by capillary electrophoresis. The 15 different zones can be seen in the ... These include gel electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis, and isoelectric ...
Wednesday, November 18, 2020 at 9:00 AM Central Standard Time.
Team:Newcastle/Gel electrophoresis. From 2010.igem.org. (Difference between revisions). Revision as of 09:41, 27 July 2010 ( ... New page: {{Team:Newcastle/mainbanner}} ===Gel electrophoresis=== *Transfer harden gel into the gel tank *add TAE buffer until ...
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Membranes for the Electroprep Electroporesis Dialysis System are available in three membrane materials to suit your application: regenerated cellulose, cellulose acetate, and polycarbonate.
VWR Electrophoresis Plates, Bio-Rad Protean II Front Plate 7 7/8 x 7 7/8, 2/Pk Retail Price: ... VWR Electrophoresis Plates, Bio-Rad Protean II Front Plate, 6 5/16 x 7 7/8, 2/Pk Retail Price: ... VWR Electrophoresis Plates, Bio-Rad Protean II Back Plate, Pack of 2 Retail Price: ... VWR Electrophoresis Plates, HOEFER SE250 Notched Front Plate, Pack of 5 Retail Price: ...
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and its applications in forensic toxicology are demonstrated by the investigation of ... The method is based on capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with a phosphate running buffer (pH 2.2). The drugs were dissolved ... "Analysis of Ecstasy by capillary electrophoresis" Int J Legal Med. 1996;109(2):53-7. ... by capillary electrophoresis Int J Legal Med 1996 109(2):53-7 ... "Analysis of Ecstasy by capillary electrophoresis". Int J ...
Find help and support for your protein electrophoresis, western blotting and western blot detection questions including useful ...
Learn how CometAssay Electrophoresis Starter Kit from R&D Systems DNA Damage and Repair Kits supports DNA damage research. Used ... Why Use the CometAssay Electrophoresis Starter Kit?. CometAssay Electrophoresis Starter Kit offers a complete standardized ... Electrophoresis System (Catalog # 4250-050-ES). Conventional slab gel electrophoresis chambers are not designed to eliminate ... Reviews for CometAssay Electrophoresis Starter Kit. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review ...
Electrophoresis is a procedure to separate and/or purify the molecules like nucleic acids and proteins, under the influence of ... DNA Electrophoresis, RNA Electrophoresis, Protein Electrophoresis), By Products (Gel Electrophoresis, Capillary Electrophoresis ... Electrophoresis Equipment and Supplies Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Types ( ... Electrophoresis Supplies & Accessories), By End-Users (Biotechnology & Pharmaceutical Industries, Diagnostic Centers, Academic ...
Rana Taj "Experimental Protocols of Cell Divisions and Electrophoresis" Published in International Journal of Trend in ... Rana Taj "Experimental Protocols of Cell Divisions and Electrophoresis" Published in International Journal of Trend in ... Jul-Aug 2021 Page 2293 Experimental Protocols of Cell Divisions and Electrophoresis Dr. Rana Taj Department of Zoology, Seth RL ... www.ijtsrd.com/biological-science/zoology/46335/experimental-protocols-of-cell-divisions-and-electrophoresis/dr-rana-taj ...
The CAPEL Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) instruments can be used in the fields of Biopharma, Environmental Analysis, Chemical ... Capillary Electrophoresis Applications. The CAPEL Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) instruments are robust, compact, and well ... The method is based on Capillary Gel Electrophoresis and executed according to the USP129 and CH.P 3127. It is also possible to ... The method is based on capillary zone electrophoresis and executed according to EPA 6500 and ASTM D6508-10. The method can be ...
Tidsskrift : Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems , vol. 96 , p. 188-195-8 , 2009 Utgiver : Elsevier Internasjonale standardnummer : ...
Electrophoresis equipment includes horizontal and vertical gel electrophoresis chambers, isoelectric focusing systems, 2D ... Electrophoresis equipment is used to separate mixtures of protein, DNA or RNA, based on their electric charge, size and other ... Find the best electrophoresis equipment in our peer-reviewed product directory: compare products, check customer reviews and ... electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis instruments. Precast gels with a gradient can be used or gels can be hand cast. ...
  • This method is also known as high-performance capillary electrophoresis and can be used to separate different kinds of molecules, including inorganic molecules and biopolymers. (news-medical.net)
  • The components of capillary electrophoresis include an injection system, capillary and high voltage source, electrode, and a detector. (news-medical.net)
  • However, it also has a wider variety of column lengths, while capillary electrophoresis is restricted to thin capillaries. (news-medical.net)
  • These include gel electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis, and isoelectric focusing. (hematology.org)
  • Normal hemoglobin electrophoresis in an adult by capillary electrophoresis. (hematology.org)
  • Abnormal hemoglobin capillary electrophoresis showing sickle cell disease with a significant peak seen in the HbS zone. (hematology.org)
  • At our institution, HPLC is often employed as the second method of electrophoresis to confirm a finding seen by capillary electrophoresis. (hematology.org)
  • Frost M, Kohler H, Blaschke G. "Analysis of 'Ecstasy' by capillary electrophoresis" Int J Legal Med . (erowid.org)
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and it's applications in forensic toxicology are demonstrated by the investigation of amphetamine derivatives in 'Ecstasy' tablets. (erowid.org)
  • The method is based on capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with a phosphate running buffer (pH 2.2). (erowid.org)
  • The CAPEL Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) instruments are robust, compact, and well design to be used as Dedicated Analysers for several dedicated solutions in the fields of Biopharma, Environmental Analysis, Chemical Industry, Food Testing, Animal feeding and Veterinary. (isogen-lifescience.com)
  • The CAPEL CE instruments can be used use a versatile Analytical Tool for developing assays in BioPharma that are based on capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and CE-SDS. (isogen-lifescience.com)
  • The method is based on Capillary Gel Electrophoresis and executed according to the USP129 and CH.P 3127. (isogen-lifescience.com)
  • The method is based on Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and executed according to the EP monographs 0579 and 0580. (isogen-lifescience.com)
  • The method is based on capillary zone electrophoresis and executed according to EPA 6500 and ASTM D6508-10. (isogen-lifescience.com)
  • Electrophoresis equipment is used to separate mixtures of protein, DNA or RNA, based on their electric charge, size and other physical characteristics, by passing them through a medium such as a polyacrylamide gel, an agarose gel or a capillary tube. (selectscience.net)
  • Electrophoresis equipment includes horizontal and vertical gel electrophoresis chambers, isoelectric focusing systems, 2D electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis instruments. (selectscience.net)
  • Sebia UK is pleased to announce the launch of Minicap, a new fully automated capillary electrophoresis system specifically developed to meet the needs of smaller clinical diagnostic laboratories. (labmate-online.com)
  • Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is used in the ATF Forensic Science Laboratories for the analysis of inorganic ions commonly encountered in post-blast residues including monomethylamine (MMA) and benzoate ions. (astm.org)
  • Capillary electrophoresis provides a simple, rapid method for the analysis of protein samples. (eurekamag.com)
  • The book details the instrumentation, detection, and application of nano chromatography (that is, any chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic method dealing with the detection of a sample at nano gram per liter or lower) and capillary electrophoresis in the analyses of biological and environmental samples. (ellibs.com)
  • Methods discussed include: Nano Gas Chromatography, Nano Capillary Electrophoresis, Nano Chiral Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, and Nano High Performance Liquid Chromatography. (ellibs.com)
  • In our studies, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the analysis of water-soluble fountain pen inks. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When more than one complexation additive is used in capillary electrophoresis (CE), the migration behavior of an analyte can be described using contour plots and profile plots of the multivariate binding isotherms, At a certain concentration of one additive, the net electrophoretic mobility of the analyte is not affected by the concentration of the second additive, even though the second additive does alter the mobility of the analyte when used alone. (ubc.ca)
  • Carbohydrate Composition of Endotoxins from R-type Isogenic Mutants of Shigella sonnei Studied by Capillary Electrophoresis and GC-MS. Croatica Chemica Acta, 84 (3), 393-398. (srce.hr)
  • The carbohydrate composition of the rough-type endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPSs) from Shigella sonnei mutant strains (Shigella sonnei phase II - 4303, 562H, R41 and 4350) was investigated by capillary electrophoresis and GC-MS. The monosaccharides obtained by hydrolysis were determined by capillary electrophoresis combined with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) after labeling with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (APTS) and by GC-MS as alditol-acetate derivatives. (srce.hr)
  • Albalat A, Franke J, Gonzalez J, Mischak H & Zurbig P (2013) Urinary proteomics based on capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry in kidney disease. (stir.ac.uk)
  • This technique is capillary electrophoresis coupled online to an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CE-MS). This technology has proven to be highly reproducible, sensitive with a quick analysis time, important features when analytical platforms have to be used in a clinical setting. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Microchip capillary electrophoresis with solid-state electrochemiluminescence detector. (duke.edu)
  • We report microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupling to a solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detector. (duke.edu)
  • This is a natural progression as a technology, in this case capillary electrophoresis, gets steadily better through higher volumes and lower costs. (pharmtech.com)
  • Sex determination of forensic samples by polymerase chain reaction of the amelogenin gene and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with polymer matrix. (bvsalud.org)
  • Agarose or polyacrylamide gel is the most commonly used reagents in gel electrophoresis. (news-medical.net)
  • High throughput Serum Protein Electrophoresis, with high resolution results. (sebia.com)
  • Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is an easy, inexpensive method of separating proteins based on their net charge, size, and shape. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Globulins make up a much smaller fraction of the total serum protein but represent the primary focus of interpretation of serum protein electrophoresis. (medscape.com)
  • Monoclonal pattern serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP). (medscape.com)
  • Conduct serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation analyses, and kappa and lambda free light chain (FLC) assays in serum, to determine the age-adjusted prevalence and monoclonal protein size distribution of MGUS by ethnic/racial group. (cdc.gov)
  • For those individuals where an abnormal protein band or equivocal pattern with conventional agarose-gel electrophoresis was found, an additional 250 microliter serum was used to perform immunofixation for validation purposes (see below). (cdc.gov)
  • First, serum samples were analyzed for all identified subjects (described above) by using conventional agarose-gel electrophoresis, which has been described in detail previously. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a laboratory technique used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint for a bacterial isolate. (cdc.gov)
  • PFGE is different from conventional DNA electrophoresis because PFGE can separate very large fragments to generate a fingerprint by constantly changing the direction of the electric field. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, or PFGE, is a DNA-based typing technique that is highly discriminatory and has been used in epidemiological investigations of S. zooepidemicus outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • All six of these cases yielded a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern indistinguishable from those associated with an ongoing cluster summarized in 2) below. (cdc.gov)
  • Any isolated pathogens are sent for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) testing and the resulting genetic pattern is uploaded to the Centers for Disease Control PulseNet database so that it can be matched against human isolates or outbreak patterns. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The Comet assay, or single cell gel electrophoresis assay, provides a simple and effective method for evaluating DNA damage in cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) for evaluating manoparticles-induced DNA damage in cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The ability to separate proteins and other biological components mean that electrophoresis is popular in the field of forensics, particularly in the analysis of unknown samples. (news-medical.net)
  • Electrophoresis can be used to analyze proteins, including those found in human blood. (news-medical.net)
  • Protein gel electrophoresis is used to separate proteins for purification, characterization, and detection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gel Electrophoresis may be a strategy utilized to partitioned DNA, RNA and proteins, based on their atomic size. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Besides using the laser scanner to capture the 2D gel electrophoresis image, researchers can also use a UV light box to visualize separated proteins on their 2D gels. (abnova.com)
  • Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, (2-DE or 2D electrophoresis), is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to isolate the proteins in a sample for further characterization by mass spectroscopy. (abnova.com)
  • We conducted that method of electrophoresis used to separate proteins or nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) across a temperature at 4°C for 10-15 minutes. (who.int)
  • Various disease states or conditions alter the pattern of proteins in electrophoresis (see Table 1 below). (medscape.com)
  • Pre-stained and unstained molecular weight markers for protein gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and SDS-PAGE are common techniques used for protein separation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human whole saliva. (bvsalud.org)
  • The report aims to provide an overview of global Electrophoresis Buffers with detailed market segmentation by component, wearable, type, application and geography. (emailwire.com)
  • EMAILWIRE.COM , September 27, 2018 ) The report Electrophoresis Buffers Market by Manufacturers highlights the essential market dynamics of Electrophoresis Buffers sector. (emailwire.com)
  • This report focuses on the Global Electrophoresis Buffers Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, exclusively in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. (emailwire.com)
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis measures the levels of the different types of this protein in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ABI Model 230A HPECTM micropreparative electrophoresis system was used to separate carbonic anhydrase and fractions were analyzed for purity using the ABI Model 270A CE system an compared to silver stained slab gels. (eurekamag.com)
  • Cleaver Scientific manufactured us 10 x custom made electrophoresis tanks for running our Gene Read gels. (cleaverscientific.com)
  • AU - Rohde,E, AU - Vogt,C, AU - Heineman,W R, PY - 1998/3/25/pubmed PY - 1998/3/25/medline PY - 1998/3/25/entrez SP - 31 EP - 41 JF - Electrophoresis JO - Electrophoresis VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - Information on the identity of inks adds to the circumstantial evidence in legal cases involving fraudulent documents. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and sequencing of the szP gene. (cdc.gov)
  • The Electrophoresis Chambers market research report is proficient and top to bottom research by specialists on the current state of the industry. (openpr.com)
  • The Electrophoresis Chambers research report offers significant bits of information into the business focus from the early stage including some steady techniques chalked out by perceptible market pioneers to develop a strong foothold and development in the business. (openpr.com)
  • Moreover, the important areas of the Electrophoresis Chambers market are also assessed on the basis of their performance. (openpr.com)
  • Genome sequencing is now poised to transform PulseNet , the major foodborne outbreak detection system, which until recently relied on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (cdc.gov)
  • In the field of processing suspensions innovative methods like electrophoresis, gel casting and freeze casting are developed. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory method used for a variety of protocols including sequencing, RFLP analysis, marker analysis, DNA fingerprinting and DNA purification. (who.int)
  • We also provide important insight into how RRM2B mutations cause disease by demonstrating impaired assembly of the p53R2 protein using the technique of Blue native gel electrophoresis. (bmj.com)
  • CometAssay Electrophoresis Starter Kit offers a complete standardized system for the comet assay which includes a 50 test sample Reagent Kit (25 x 2 well slides), Alkaline Control Cells, and the CometAssay Electrophoresis System II for consistent and reproducible results. (rndsystems.com)
  • A number of proprietary plasmids are digested to completion with appropriate restriction enzymes to yield 10 bands suitable for use as molecular weight standards for agarose gel electrophoresis. (selectscience.net)
  • Isozyme electrophoresis as applied to Sphagnum: an analysis of methodology. (lu.se)
  • article{fc887fab-a53c-4a85-8abc-c4e18112c8b5, author = {{Cronberg, Nils}}, issn = {{0105-0761}}, language = {{eng}}, pages = {{40--48}}, publisher = {{Nordic Bryological Society}}, series = {{Lindbergia}}, title = {{Isozyme electrophoresis as applied to Sphagnum: an analysis of methodology. (lu.se)
  • Thus DNA can be separated based on the length (size) of the DNA segment In this study we worked in Desert laboratory in semnan university for analysis effect of temperature on gle electrophoresis. (who.int)
  • MES and MOPS SDS buffer powders are available for fast and easy preparation of running buffer for protein gel electrophoresis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • New page: {{Team:Newcastle/mainbanner}} ===Gel electrophoresis=== *Transfer harden gel into the gel tank *add TAE buffer until the gel is completely submerged *Depending on the nature of the samp. (igem.org)
  • Cover the buffer reservoirs during electrophoresis. (umbc.edu)
  • SCD genotype may be determined from the results of Hb electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or similar testing. (who.int)
  • With gel tray options of 10 x 7cm and 10 x 10cm, the multiSUB Midi has been designed for routine horizontal gel electrophoresis. (biotechlab-bg.com)
  • Find the best electrophoresis equipment in our peer-reviewed product directory: compare products, check customer reviews and receive pricing direct from manufacturers. (selectscience.net)
  • We manufacture a large range of electrophoresis and laboratory products, for sale worldwide. (cleaverscientific.com)
  • Agarose gel Electrophoresis could be a method basically utilized to partitioned and distinguish DNA atoms. (alliedacademies.org)
  • DNA is then subjected to electrophoresis and stained with a fluorescent DNA intercalating dye. (rndsystems.com)
  • In addition to the fluorescent stain, the result of the 2D gel electrophoresis can also be visualized with visible stain. (abnova.com)
  • The electrophoresis lab station contains all the basic equipment you will need to run your first experiment. (flinnsci.com)
  • All common areas should be kept free of clutter and all dirty dishes, electrophoresis equipment, etc should be dealt with appropriately. (umbc.edu)
  • Analytical tube and slab gel electrophoresis has frequently been used to monitor protein purification procedures. (eurekamag.com)
  • To determine the sequence of four rat beta-crystallins, confirm the sequences by mass spectrometry, and produce a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) map of soluble crystallins in young rat lens. (nih.gov)
  • Des préparations d'antigènes bruts de Setaria equina ont été utilisées dans le cadre des méthodes ELISA et transfert Western afin d'étudier la réaction croisée avec des sérums humains en provenance de zones endémiques pour la filariose de Bancroft. (who.int)
  • The whole system was built by reversibly sealing the TBR-modified ITO electrode plate with a PDMS layer containing electrophoresis microchannels. (duke.edu)
  • Electrophoresis is often classified according to the presence or absence of a solid supporting medium or matrix through which the charged molecules move in the electrophoretic system. (who.int)
  • The fundamental driving force of electrophoresis is the voltage applied to the system. (who.int)
  • An interactive gel electrophoresis lab that includes links to DNA in forensic science, how to make your own electrophoresis chamber, and ways to make the DNA colorful. (merlot.org)
  • The electrophoresis chamber is a double-gel unit that features state-of-the-art design and safety features to prevent shocks. (flinnsci.com)
  • The different zones on an alkaline gel electrophoresis. (hematology.org)
  • This method has become increasingly popular since it can detect more types of hemoglobin than gel electrophoresis can. (hematology.org)
  • Dendrogram of unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Salmonella Newport. (cdc.gov)