The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
'Ink,' when used in a medical context, typically refers to a dark watery substance used in diagnostic procedures like Schirmer's test for measuring tear production or in certain artistic applications like tattooing, which is not to be confused with the pharmaceutical or medicinal usage of the term 'ink' that relates to a preparation intended for internal use.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Reducing the SURFACE TENSION at a liquid/solid interface by the application of an electric current across the interface thereby enhancing the WETTABILITY of the surface.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Discarded electronic devices containing valuable and sometimes hazardous materials such as LEAD, NICKEL, CADMIUM, and MERCURY. (from accessed 4/25/2010)
A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
'Printing' in a medical context refers to the temporary or permanent transfer of ink from a substrate to the skin, often used for identification purposes, monitoring medical conditions, or as a form of temporary decoration.
A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.
Brominated hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H) atoms, and bromine (Br) atoms, where bromine atoms replace some or all of the hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon structure.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Relating to the size of solids.

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/548)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (2/548)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

The usefulness of a piezo-micromanipulator in intracytoplasmic sperm injection in humans. (3/548)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has wide clinical application. In order to achieve good results with this method, it is important to restrict the possibility of oocyte injury as much as possible, and securely inject spermatozoa into the ooplasm. For this purpose, we clinically applied piezo-ICSI, which employs a micromanipulator with piezoelectric elements, to humans, and compared the results with those obtained by conventional ICSI. Conventional ICSI and piezo-ICSI were used in 279 cycles and 335 cycles respectively. Piezo-ICSI showed significantly more favourable results, with a survival rate of 88.1% (conventional ICSI: 81.4, P < 0.001), a fertilization rate of 79.4% (conventional ICSI: 66.4%, P < 0.001), and a pregnancy rate of 23.1% (conventional ICSI: 14.9%, P < 0.05). In piezo-ICSI, the needle used is not sharpened and has a flat tip. However, deformation of the oocyte during insertion of the needle is restrained by vibration of the piezo, and the oolemma is punctured readily and securely by the piezo pulse, at the site where the spermatozoon is injected. Piezo-ICSI is a promising new technique for human ICSI that should improve the survival, fertilization and pregnancy rates after ICSI.  (+info)

A modular NIRS system for clinical measurement of impaired skeletal muscle oxygenation. (4/548)

Near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) is a well-known method used to measure in vivo tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics. This method is used to derive relative measures of hemoglobin (Hb) + myoglobin (Mb) oxygenation and total Hb (tHb) accumulation from measurements of optical attenuation at discrete wavelengths. We present the design and validation of a new NIRS oxygenation analyzer for the measurement of muscle oxygenation kinetics. This design optimizes optical sensitivity and detector wavelength flexibility while minimizing component and construction costs. Using in vitro validations, we demonstrate 1) general optical linearity, 2) system stability, and 3) measurement accuracy for isolated Hb. Using in vivo validations, we demonstrate 1) expected oxygenation changes during ischemia and reactive hyperemia, 2) expected oxygenation changes during muscle exercise, 3) a close correlation between changes in oxyhemoglobin and oxymyoglobin and changes in deoxyhemoglobin and deoxymyoglobin and limb volume by venous occlusion plethysmography, and 4) a minimal contribution from movement artifact on the detected signals. We also demonstrate the ability of this system to detect abnormal patterns of tissue oxygenation in a well-characterized patient with a deficiency of skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10). We conclude that this is a valid system design for the precise, accurate, and sensitive detection of changes in bulk skeletal muscle oxygenation, can be constructed economically, and can be used diagnostically in patients with disorders of skeletal muscle energy metabolism.  (+info)

Prospects for treating acquired pendular nystagmus with servo-controlled optics. (5/548)

PURPOSE: To determine whether a device featuring electronically controlled motor-driven prisms can reduce oscillopsia and improve acuity in patients with acquired pendular nystagmus (APN). METHODS: A device was developed that senses eye movements and, by the use of motor-driven prisms, oscillates the image of the world in lockstep with the pathologic nystagmus, to negate its deleterious visual effects. Unlike existing optical and surgical treatments for nystagmus, the device negates only the pathologic movements. Voluntary and normal reflex eye movements required for normal vision are unaffected. The benefits of the device were assessed by its impact on acuity in five patients with medication-refractory APN. RESULTS: All patients reported decreases in oscillopsia when the device was in operation. Averaged across patients, the device increased the percentage of time in which retinal image velocity was within +/-4 degrees/sec from 12.8% to 33.3%. Acuities improved in four of five patients, by an average of 0.21 logMAR units. CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms of pendular nystagmus can be treated with a servomechanical device. Further refinements in the device should result in greater improvements in acuity, and a portable, wearable version is feasible using existing technologies.  (+info)

Evaluation of new online automated embolic signal detection algorithm, including comparison with panel of international experts. (6/548)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical application of Doppler detection of circulating cerebral emboli will depend on a reliable automated system of embolic signal detection; such a system is not currently available. Previous studies have shown that frequency filtering increases the ratio of embolic signal to background signal intensity and that the incorporation of such an approach into an offline automated detection system markedly improved performance. In this study, we evaluated an online version of the system. In a single-center study, we compared its performance with that of a human expert on data from 2 clinical situations, carotid stenosis and the period immediately after carotid endarterectomy. Because the human expert is currently the "gold standard" for embolic signal detection, we also compared the performance of the system with an international panel of human experts in a multicenter study. METHODS: In the single-center evaluation, the performance of the software was tested against that of a human expert on 20 hours of data from 21 patients with carotid stenosis and 18 hours of data from 9 patients that was recorded after carotid endarterectomy. For the multicenter evaluation, a separate 2-hour data set, recorded from 5 patients after carotid endarterectomy, was analyzed by 6 different human experts using the same equipment and by the software. Agreement was assessed by determining the probability of agreement. RESULTS: In the 20 hours of carotid stenosis data, there were 140 embolic signals with an intensity of > or =7 dB. With the software set at a confidence threshold of 60%, a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 88.9% for detection of embolic signals were obtained. At higher confidence thresholds, a specificity >95% could be obtained, but this was at the expense of a lower sensitivity. In the 18 hours of post-carotid endarterectomy data, there were 411 embolic signals of > or =7-dB intensity. When the same confidence threshold was used, a sensitivity of 95.4% and a specificity of 97.5% were obtained. In the multicenter evaluation, a total of 127 events were recorded as embolic signals by at least 1 center. The total number of embolic signals detected by the 6 different centers was 84, 93, 108, 92, 63, and 78. The software set at a confidence threshold of 60% detected 90 events as embolic signals. The mean probability of agreement, including all human experts and the software, was 0.83, and this was higher than that for 2 human experts and lower than that for 4 human experts. The mean values for the 6 human observers were averaged to give P=0.84, which was similar to that of the software. CONCLUSIONS: By using the frequency specificity of the intensity increase occurring with embolic signals, we have developed an automated detection system with a much improved sensitivity. Its performance was equal to that of some human experts and only slightly below the mean performance of a panel of human experts  (+info)

Holding forces of single-particle dielectrophoretic traps. (7/548)

We present experimental results and modeling on the efficacy of dielectrophoresis-based single-particle traps. Dielectrophoretic forces, caused by the interaction of nonuniform electric fields with objects, have been used to make planar quadrupole traps that can trap single beads. A simple experimental protocol was then used to measure how well the traps could hold beads against destabilizing fluid flows. These were compared with predictions from modeling and found to be in close agreement, allowing the determination of sub-piconewton forces. This not only validates our ability to model dielectrophoretic forces in these traps but also gives insight into the physical behavior of particles in dielectrophoresis-based traps. Anomalous frequency effects, not explainable by dielectrophoretic forces alone, were also encountered and attributed to electrohydrodynamic flows. Such knowledge can now be used to design traps for cell-based applications.  (+info)

A molecular logic gate. (8/548)

We propose a scheme for molecule-based information processing by combining well-studied spectroscopic techniques and recent results from chemical dynamics. Specifically it is discussed how optical transitions in single molecules can be used to rapidly perform classical (Boolean) logical operations. In the proposed way, a restricted number of states in a single molecule can act as a logical gate equivalent to at least two switches. It is argued that the four-level scheme can also be used to produce gain, because it allows an inversion, and not only a switching ability. The proposed scheme is quantum mechanical in that it takes advantage of the discrete nature of the energy levels but, we here discuss the temporal evolution, with the use of the populations only. On a longer time range we suggest that the same scheme could be extended to perform quantum logic, and a tentative suggestion, based on an available experiment, is discussed. We believe that the pumping can provide a partial proof of principle, although this and similar experiments were not interpreted thus far in our terms.  (+info)

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Electronics" is not a medical term, but rather a branch of physics and engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of electronic devices and systems. It involves the study and application of electrical properties of materials, components, and systems, and how they can be used to process, transmit, and store information and energy.

However, electronics have numerous applications in the medical field, such as in diagnostic equipment, monitoring devices, surgical tools, and prosthetics. In these contexts, "electronics" refers to the specific electronic components or systems that are used for medical purposes.

"Medical electronics" refers to the field of electronics that is specifically designed for medical applications. This can include a wide range of devices and systems, such as:

1. Medical imaging equipment, such as X-ray machines, CT scanners, MRI machines, and ultrasound machines.
2. Patient monitoring equipment, such as heart rate monitors, blood pressure monitors, and oxygen saturation monitors.
3. Therapeutic devices, such as pacemakers, defibrillators, and deep brain stimulators.
4. Laboratory equipment, such as DNA sequencers, mass spectrometers, and microarray scanners.
5. Wearable health technology, such as fitness trackers, smartwatches, and continuous glucose monitors.
6. Telemedicine systems that enable remote consultations and patient monitoring.

Medical electronics must meet strict regulatory requirements to ensure safety, effectiveness, and reliability. These devices often require specialized electronic components, such as sensors, signal processing circuits, and power management circuits, that are designed to operate in the challenging environments found in medical settings. Medical electronics engineers must have a deep understanding of both electronics and medical applications to design and develop these complex systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "ink" is not a term that has a medical definition. Ink is a substance used for writing or printing, typically consisting of a colored pigment mixed with a liquid to make it flow. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semiconductors" is a term from the field of materials science and electronics rather than medicine. Semiconductors are materials, often silicon-based, that have properties between conductors and insulators. They are used in various electronic devices due to their unique property of controlling the flow of electrical current. If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Transistors, Electronic" is not a recognized medical term. Transistors are electronic components used in various devices, including medical equipment, to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. They are crucial for the functioning of numerous technologies, such as computers, smartphones, and other digital devices. However, they are not typically described in the context of medical definitions. If you have any questions related to electronics or technology that you believe could be relevant to a medical context, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Electrowetting is a phenomenon that describes the changes in the contact angle between a conductive liquid and a solid surface when an electric field is applied. This effect results in the spreading or contraction of the liquid droplet on the surface, which can be used to manipulate and control small volumes of liquids in various applications such as lab-on-a-chip devices, displays, and adjustable lenses.

The medical definition of electrowetting is not widely established since it is a physical phenomenon rather than a medical term. However, there may be some potential medical applications for this technology, such as in the development of microfluidic devices for diagnostic testing or drug delivery systems.

In a medical context, "resins, plant" refer to the sticky, often aromatic substances produced by certain plants. These resins are typically composed of a mixture of volatile oils, terpenes, and rosin acids. They may be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, and roots, and are often found in specialized structures such as glands or ducts.

Plant resins have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and other applications. Some resins have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, respiratory infections, and pain.

Examples of plant resins with medicinal uses include:

* Frankincense (Boswellia spp.) resin has been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, arthritis, and asthma.
* Myrrh (Commiphora spp.) resin has been used as an antiseptic, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent.
* Pine resin has been used topically for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

It's important to note that while some plant resins have demonstrated medicinal benefits, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some resins can have adverse effects or interact with medications, and it's essential to ensure their safe and effective use.

"Electrical equipment and supplies" refer to devices, apparatus, or tools that operate using electricity and are used in medical settings for various healthcare purposes. These items can include, but are not limited to:

1. Medical instruments: Devices used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) machines, ultrasound machines, and defibrillators.
2. Patient care equipment: Items that provide support or monitoring for patients, including ventilators, oxygen concentrators, infusion pumps, and patient monitors.
3. Laboratory equipment: Instruments used in medical laboratories for testing and analysis, such as centrifuges, microscopes, and spectrophotometers.
4. Imaging equipment: Devices that generate images of the body's internal structures or functions, like X-ray machines, MRI scanners, CT scanners, and mammography systems.
5. Lighting and power distribution: Electrical outlets, switches, lighting fixtures, and other components used to provide electricity and illumination in medical facilities.
6. Communication devices: Equipment used for transmitting or receiving information, such as intercoms, pagers, and wireless networks.
7. Data management systems: Computers, servers, and storage devices that manage patient records, medical images, and other healthcare-related data.
8. Sterilization equipment: Devices used to clean and disinfect medical instruments and supplies, such as autoclaves and ultrasonic cleaners.
9. Building management systems: Electrical controls for heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), and other environmental systems in healthcare facilities.
10. Safety equipment: Devices used to protect patients, staff, and visitors from electrical hazards, such as ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) and arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs).

Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is not a medical term, but rather a technology term that refers to the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronic components on a single silicon chip through microfabrication technology. MEMS devices are extremely small (typically measured in micrometers or millionths of a meter), and can be found in various consumer products such as accelerometers in smartphones and automobiles, inkjet printheads, and biosensors.

In the medical field, MEMS technology has been used to develop various diagnostic and therapeutic devices, including lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics, drug delivery systems, and implantable sensors for monitoring physiological parameters such as glucose levels or blood pressure.

Therefore, while MEMS is not a medical definition itself, it is a technology that has significant applications in the medical field.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "graphite" is not a medical term. It is a mineral form of carbon that is used in various applications, such as pencils, lubricants, and batteries. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silicon" does not have a specific medical definition. Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. In the human body, silicon is not considered an essential nutrient, although it is found in trace amounts in various tissues. Some research suggests that silicon might play a role in collagen synthesis and bone health, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish recommended intake levels.

A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another. In the context of medicine and biology, transducers often refer to devices that convert a physiological parameter (such as blood pressure, temperature, or sound waves) into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of medical transducers include:

1. Blood pressure transducer: Converts the mechanical force exerted by blood on the walls of an artery into an electrical signal.
2. Temperature transducer: Converts temperature changes into electrical signals.
3. ECG transducer (electrocardiogram): Converts the electrical activity of the heart into a visual representation called an electrocardiogram.
4. Ultrasound transducer: Uses sound waves to create images of internal organs and structures.
5. Piezoelectric transducer: Generates an electric charge when subjected to pressure or vibration, used in various medical devices such as hearing aids, accelerometers, and pressure sensors.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

Electric power supplies are devices that convert electrical energy from a source into a form suitable for powering various types of equipment or devices. They can include a wide range of products such as batteries, generators, transformers, and rectifiers. The main function of an electric power supply is to maintain a stable voltage and current to the load, despite variations in the input voltage or changes in the load's electrical characteristics.

In medical terminology, electric power supplies are used in various medical devices such as diagnostic equipment, therapeutic machines, and monitoring systems. They provide a reliable source of power to these devices, ensuring their proper functioning and enabling accurate measurements and treatments. In some cases, medical power supplies may also include features such as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems or emergency power-off functions to ensure patient safety in the event of a power failure or other electrical issues.

Gallium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is a soft, silvery-blue metal that melts at a temperature just above room temperature. In medicine, gallium compounds such as gallium nitrate and gallium citrate are used as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine imaging studies, particularly in the detection of inflammation, infection, and some types of cancer.

For example, Gallium-67 is a radioactive isotope that can be injected into the body to produce images of various diseases such as abscesses, osteomyelitis (bone infection), and tumors using a gamma camera. The way gallium distributes in the body can provide valuable information about the presence and extent of disease.

Therefore, while gallium is not a medical term itself, it has important medical applications as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wireless Technology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Wireless technology generally refers to the transmission of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires." It encompasses a wide range of technologies, including cellular networks, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and various forms of telecommunication.

However, in a medical context, wireless technology can be used to refer to devices or systems that transmit patient data without the need for physical connections. For example, wireless pulse oximeters, blood glucose monitors, or cardiac event monitors. These devices use wireless technologies to send patient data to a remote monitoring station or to a healthcare provider's electronic health record system. This can provide more flexibility and mobility for patients, and can also improve the efficiency of healthcare delivery.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Electronic waste (e-waste) is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used to describe discarded electronic devices, such as computers, televisions, smartphones, and other electrical equipment that have reached the end of their useful life. These items are often disposed of in landfills or incinerated, which can lead to environmental pollution and health risks due to the hazardous substances they contain, including heavy metals like lead, mercury, and cadmium. Proper management and recycling of e-waste is essential to minimize these negative impacts.

Capillary action, also known as capillarity, is the ability of a liquid to rise or get drawn into narrow spaces, such as small tubes or gaps between particles, against gravity. This phenomenon occurs due to the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid and the solid surface of the narrow space.

The height to which a liquid will rise in a capillary tube is determined by several factors, including the surface tension of the liquid, the radius of the capillary tube, and the adhesive forces between the liquid and the tube's material. In general, liquids with higher surface tension and stronger adhesion to the tube's material will rise higher than those with lower surface tension and weaker adhesion.

Capillary action plays an essential role in many natural and industrial processes, such as water absorption by plants, fluid transport in biological systems, and ink movement in fountain pens.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "printing" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of producing text or images by impressing ink onto a surface, such as paper. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Silica gel is not typically considered a medical term, but it is often used in medical contexts. Silica gel is a form of silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is a naturally occurring mineral. It is usually produced in a porous form, with a large surface area and high absorption capacity.

In the medical field, silica gel is sometimes used as a desiccant in packaging to protect sterile medical supplies from moisture during storage and transportation. This helps maintain the sterility of the products and ensures their effectiveness when they are used. Silica gel can also be found in some medical devices, such as wound dressings, where it can help absorb excess exudate and maintain a moist environment that promotes healing.

It is important to note that silica gel should not be ingested or inhaled, as it can cause irritation to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

Brominated hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and bromine (Br) atoms. These chemicals are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule with bromine atoms. Depending on the number and arrangement of bromine atoms, these compounds can have different properties and uses.

Some brominated hydrocarbons occur naturally, while others are synthesized for various applications. They can be found in consumer products like flame retardants, fumigants, refrigerants, and solvents. However, some brominated hydrocarbons have been linked to health and environmental concerns, leading to regulations on their production and use.

Examples of brominated hydrocarbons include:

1. Methyl bromide (CH3Br): A colorless gas used as a pesticide and fumigant. It is also a naturally occurring compound in the atmosphere, contributing to ozone depletion.
2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): A group of chemicals used as flame retardants in various consumer products, such as electronics, furniture, and textiles. They have been linked to neurodevelopmental issues, endocrine disruption, and cancer.
3. Bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2): These compounds are used in chemical synthesis, as solvents, and in water treatment. They can also be found in some natural sources like seaweed or marine organisms.
4. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD): A flame retardant used in expanded polystyrene foam for building insulation and in high-impact polystyrene products. HBCD has been linked to reproductive and developmental toxicity, as well as endocrine disruption.

It is essential to handle brominated hydrocarbons with care due to their potential health and environmental risks. Proper storage, use, and disposal of these chemicals are crucial to minimize exposure and reduce negative impacts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nanowires" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of materials science and nanotechnology. Nanowires are one-dimensional structures with a diameter of 1-100 nanometers (nm) and an aspect ratio (length/diameter) greater than 1000. They have unique electrical, mechanical, and optical properties that make them useful in various applications such as electronics, sensors, energy storage, and biomedical devices.

An electronic amplifier is a device that increases the power of an electrical signal. It does this by taking a small input signal and producing a larger output signal while maintaining the same or similar signal shape. Amplifiers are used in various applications, such as audio systems, radio communications, and medical equipment.

In medical terminology, electronic amplifiers can be found in different diagnostic and therapeutic devices. For example, they are used in electrocardiogram (ECG) machines to amplify the small electrical signals generated by the heart, making them strong enough to be recorded and analyzed. Similarly, in electromyography (EMG) tests, electronic amplifiers are used to amplify the weak electrical signals produced by muscles.

In addition, electronic amplifiers play a crucial role in neurostimulation devices such as cochlear implants, which require amplification of electrical signals to stimulate the auditory nerve and restore hearing in individuals with severe hearing loss. Overall, electronic amplifiers are essential components in many medical applications that involve the detection, measurement, or manipulation of weak electrical signals.

Nanostructures, in the context of medical and biomedical research, refer to materials or devices with structural features that have at least one dimension ranging between 1-100 nanometers (nm). At this size scale, the properties of these structures can differ significantly from bulk materials, exhibiting unique phenomena that are often influenced by quantum effects.

Nanostructures have attracted considerable interest in biomedicine due to their potential applications in various areas such as drug delivery, diagnostics, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. They can be fabricated from a wide range of materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, and carbon-based materials.

Some examples of nanostructures used in biomedicine include:

1. Nanoparticles: These are tiny particles with at least one dimension in the nanoscale range. They can be made from various materials like metals, polymers, or lipids and have applications in drug delivery, imaging, and diagnostics.
2. Quantum dots: These are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit unique optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. They are used as fluorescent labels for bioimaging and biosensing applications.
3. Carbon nanotubes: These are hollow, cylindrical structures made of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. They have exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability, making them suitable for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biosensors.
4. Nanofibers: These are elongated nanostructures with high aspect ratios (length much greater than width). They can be fabricated from various materials like polymers, ceramics, or composites and have applications in tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery.
5. Dendrimers: These are highly branched, nanoscale polymers with a well-defined structure and narrow size distribution. They can be used as drug carriers, gene delivery vehicles, and diagnostic agents.
6. Nanoshells: These are hollow, spherical nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core covered by a thin metallic shell. They exhibit unique optical properties that make them suitable for applications such as photothermal therapy, biosensing, and imaging.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are defined in medical literature as hollow, cylindrical structures composed of rolled graphene sheets, with diameters typically measuring on the nanoscale (ranging from 1 to several tens of nanometers) and lengths that can reach several micrometers. They can be single-walled (SWCNTs), consisting of a single layer of graphene, or multi-walled (MWCNTs), composed of multiple concentric layers of graphene.

Carbon nanotubes have unique mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties that make them promising for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, biosensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, their potential toxicity and long-term effects on human health are still under investigation, particularly concerning their ability to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity in certain experimental settings.

"Miniaturization" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, it refers to the process of creating smaller versions of something, usually with the aim of improving functionality, efficiency, or ease of use. In medicine, this concept can be applied to various fields such as medical devices, surgical techniques, and diagnostic tools.

For instance, in interventional radiology, miniaturization refers to the development of smaller and less invasive catheters, wires, and other devices used during minimally invasive procedures. This allows for improved patient outcomes, reduced recovery time, and lower risks of complications compared to traditional open surgical procedures.

Similarly, in pathology, miniaturization can refer to the use of smaller tissue samples or biopsies for diagnostic testing, which can reduce the need for more invasive procedures while still providing accurate results.

Overall, while "miniaturization" is not a medical term per se, it reflects an ongoing trend in medicine towards developing more efficient and less invasive technologies and techniques to improve patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microtechnology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Microtechnology generally refers to the development and application of technologies on a microscopic or tiny scale. It is used in various fields including engineering, physics, electronics, and materials science.

In the context of medicine, microtechnologies can be used in the development of medical devices, diagnostic tools, drug delivery systems, and other healthcare applications. For example, microfabrication techniques are used to create microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications, which can perform complex biochemical analyses for disease diagnosis or drug screening.

However, it's important to note that the application of microtechnologies in medicine is constantly evolving, and new developments and techniques are being explored all the time.

Scintillation counting is a method used in medical physics and nuclear medicine to detect and quantify radioactivity. It relies on the principle that certain materials, known as scintillators, emit light flashes (scintillations) when they absorb ionizing radiation. This light can then be detected and measured to determine the amount of radiation present.

In a scintillation counting system, the sample containing radioisotopes is placed in close proximity to the scintillator. When radiation is emitted from the sample, it interacts with the scintillator material, causing it to emit light. This light is then detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which converts the light into an electrical signal that can be processed and counted by electronic circuits.

The number of counts recorded over a specific period of time is proportional to the amount of radiation emitted by the sample, allowing for the quantification of radioactivity. Scintillation counting is widely used in various applications such as measuring radioactive decay rates, monitoring environmental radiation levels, and analyzing radioisotopes in biological samples.

An electrode is a medical device that can conduct electrical currents and is used to transmit or receive electrical signals, often in the context of medical procedures or treatments. In a medical setting, electrodes may be used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Recording electrical activity in the body: Electrodes can be attached to the skin or inserted into body tissues to measure electrical signals produced by the heart, brain, muscles, or nerves. This information can be used to diagnose medical conditions, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, or guide medical procedures.
2. Stimulating nerve or muscle activity: Electrodes can be used to deliver electrical impulses to nerves or muscles, which can help to restore function or alleviate symptoms in people with certain medical conditions. For example, electrodes may be used to stimulate the nerves that control bladder function in people with spinal cord injuries, or to stimulate muscles in people with muscle weakness or paralysis.
3. Administering treatments: Electrodes can also be used to deliver therapeutic treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for depression or deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. In these procedures, electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a device that generates electrical impulses, which can help to regulate abnormal brain activity and improve symptoms.

Overall, electrodes play an important role in many medical procedures and treatments, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that affect the body's electrical systems.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a group of organic compounds that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and chlorine (Cl) atoms. These chemicals are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule with chlorine atoms. The properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons can vary widely, depending on the number and arrangement of chlorine and hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been widely used in various industrial applications, including as solvents, refrigerants, pesticides, and chemical intermediates. Some well-known examples of chlorinated hydrocarbons are:

1. Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) - a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor, used as a solvent in various industrial applications, including the production of pharmaceuticals and photographic films.
2. Chloroform - a heavy, volatile, and sweet-smelling liquid, used as an anesthetic in the past but now mainly used in chemical synthesis.
3. Carbon tetrachloride - a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mildly sweet odor, once widely used as a solvent and fire extinguishing agent but now largely phased out due to its ozone-depleting properties.
4. Vinyl chloride - a flammable, colorless gas, used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and other synthetic materials.
5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a group of highly stable and persistent organic compounds that were widely used as coolants and insulating fluids in electrical equipment but are now banned due to their toxicity and environmental persistence.

Exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, depending on the specific compound and its physical state. Some chlorinated hydrocarbons have been linked to various health effects, including liver and kidney damage, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and cancer. Therefore, proper handling, use, and disposal of these chemicals are essential to minimize potential health risks.

Biosensing techniques refer to the methods and technologies used to detect and measure biological molecules or processes, typically through the use of a physical device or sensor. These techniques often involve the conversion of a biological response into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of biosensing techniques include electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, and piezoelectric biosensors.

Electrochemical biosensors measure the electrical current or potential generated by a biochemical reaction at an electrode surface. This type of biosensor typically consists of a biological recognition element, such as an enzyme or antibody, that is immobilized on the electrode surface and interacts with the target analyte to produce an electrical signal.

Optical biosensors measure changes in light intensity or wavelength that occur when a biochemical reaction takes place. This type of biosensor can be based on various optical principles, such as absorbance, fluorescence, or surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

Piezoelectric biosensors measure changes in mass or frequency that occur when a biomolecule binds to the surface of a piezoelectric crystal. This type of biosensor is based on the principle that piezoelectric materials generate an electrical charge when subjected to mechanical stress, and this charge can be used to detect changes in mass or frequency that are proportional to the amount of biomolecule bound to the surface.

Biosensing techniques have a wide range of applications in fields such as medicine, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biodefense. They can be used to detect and measure a variety of biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and small molecules, as well as to monitor biological processes such as cell growth or metabolism.

Indium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a soft, silvery-white, post-transition metal that is rarely found in its pure form in nature. It is primarily used in the production of electronics, such as flat panel displays, and in nuclear medicine as a radiation source for medical imaging.

In nuclear medicine, indium-111 is used in the labeling of white blood cells to diagnose and locate abscesses, inflammation, and infection. The indium-111 labeled white blood cells are injected into the patient's body, and then a gamma camera is used to track their movement and identify areas of infection or inflammation.

Therefore, while indium itself is not a medical term, it does have important medical applications in diagnostic imaging.

Flame retardants are chemical compounds that are added to materials, such as textiles, plastics, and foam furnishings, to reduce their flammability and prevent or slow down the spread of fire. They work by releasing non-flammable gases when exposed to heat, which helps to suppress the flames and prevent ignition. Flame retardants can be applied during the manufacturing process or added as a coating or treatment to existing materials. While flame retardants have been shown to save lives and property by preventing fires or reducing their severity, some types of flame retardants have been linked to health concerns, including endocrine disruption, neurodevelopmental toxicity, and cancer. Therefore, it is important to use flame retardants that are safe for human health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "oxides" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Oxides are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one oxygen atom and one other element. They can be formed through the process of oxidation, which involves the combination of oxygen with another substance.

In a broader sense, you might encounter the term "oxide" in a medical context when discussing various materials or substances used in medical devices, treatments, or research. For instance, titanium dioxide is a common ingredient in medical-grade sunscreens due to its ability to block and scatter UV light. However, it's important to note that the term "oxides" itself doesn't have a direct connection to medicine or human health.

Medical definitions generally refer to terms and concepts within the medical field. The term "metal nanoparticles" is more commonly used in materials science, chemistry, and physics. However, I can provide a general scientific definition that could be relevant to medical applications:

Metal nanoparticles are tiny particles with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), composed of metals or metal compounds. They have unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties due to their small size and high surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful in various fields, including medical research. In medicine, metal nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutic applications such as photothermal therapy and radiation therapy. Examples of metals used for nanoparticle synthesis include gold, silver, and iron.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Industry" is a general term that refers to a specific branch of economic activity, or a particular way of producing goods or services. It is not a medical term with a defined meaning within the field of medicine.

However, if you are referring to the term "industrious," which can be used to describe someone who is diligent and hard-working, it could be applied in a medical context to describe a patient's level of engagement and effort in their own care. For example, a patient who is conscientious about taking their medications as prescribed, following through with recommended treatments, and making necessary lifestyle changes to manage their condition might be described as "industrious" by their healthcare provider.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Electric impedance is a measure of opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit or component, caused by both resistance (ohmic) and reactance (capacitive and inductive). It is expressed as a complex number, with the real part representing resistance and the imaginary part representing reactance. The unit of electric impedance is the ohm (Ω).

In the context of medical devices, electric impedance may be used to measure various physiological parameters, such as tissue conductivity or fluid composition. For example, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses electrical impedance to estimate body composition, including fat mass and lean muscle mass. Similarly, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique that uses electric impedance to create images of internal organs and tissues.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

In the field of medical imaging, "phantoms" refer to physical objects that are specially designed and used for calibration, quality control, and evaluation of imaging systems. These phantoms contain materials with known properties, such as attenuation coefficients or spatial resolution, which allow for standardized measurement and comparison of imaging parameters across different machines and settings.

Imaging phantoms can take various forms depending on the modality of imaging. For example, in computed tomography (CT), a common type of phantom is the "water-equivalent phantom," which contains materials with similar X-ray attenuation properties as water. This allows for consistent measurement of CT dose and image quality. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), phantoms may contain materials with specific relaxation times or magnetic susceptibilities, enabling assessment of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and other imaging parameters.

By using these standardized objects, healthcare professionals can ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of medical images, ultimately contributing to improved patient care and safety.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are invisible forces that result from the interaction between electrically charged objects. They are created by natural phenomena, such as the Earth's magnetic field, as well as by human-made sources, such as power lines, electrical appliances, and wireless communication devices.

EMFs are characterized by their frequency and strength, which determine their potential biological effects. Low-frequency EMFs, such as those produced by power lines and household appliances, have frequencies in the range of 0 to 300 Hz. High-frequency EMFs, such as those produced by wireless communication devices like cell phones and Wi-Fi routers, have frequencies in the range of 100 kHz to 300 GHz.

Exposure to EMFs has been linked to a variety of health effects, including increased risk of cancer, reproductive problems, neurological disorders, and oxidative stress. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health risks associated with exposure to EMFs and to establish safe exposure limits.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. Gold is typically a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions.

However, if you are referring to "Gold" in the context of medical terminology, it may refer to:

1. Gold salts: These are a group of compounds that contain gold and are used in medicine for their anti-inflammatory properties. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, although they have largely been replaced by newer drugs with fewer side effects.
2. Gold implants: In some cases, a small amount of gold may be surgically implanted into the eye to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. The gold helps to hold the retina in place and can improve vision in some patients.
3. Gold thread embedment: This is an alternative therapy used in traditional Chinese medicine, where gold threads are embedded into the skin or acupuncture points for therapeutic purposes. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness.

I hope this information helps! If you have any further questions, please let me know.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

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Electronics manufacturing, Electronics and society, Electronics and the environment). ... By using sustainable electronics principles, such as Green Engineering, chemicals can be prevented from entering electronics in ... Sustainable electronics are electronic products made with no toxic chemicals, recyclable parts, and reduced carbon emissions ... Many hazardous chemicals and materials are used in the production of electronics. These substances are further outlined in this ...
Clipper (electronics), a circuit that imposes a fixed limit and does not offset the signal Envelope detector, a circuit that ... Horowitz, Paul; Winfield, Hill (30 March 2015). The Art of Electronics Third Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. ...
A brick (or bricked device) is a mobile device, game console, router, computer or other consumer electronic device that is no longer functional due to corrupted firmware, a hardware problem, or other damage. The term analogizes the device to a brick's modern technological usefulness. Bricking a device is most often a result of interrupting an attempt to update the device. Many devices have an update procedure which must not be interrupted before completion; if interrupted by a power failure, user intervention, or any other reason, the existing firmware may be partially overwritten and unusable. The risk of corruption can be minimized by taking all possible precautions against interruption. Installing firmware with errors, or for a different revision of the hardware, or installing firmware incompetently patched such as DVD firmware which only plays DVDs sold in a particular region, can also cause bricking. Devices can also be bricked by malware (malicious software) and sometimes by running ...
... is a Thai electronics manufacturer, mostly involved in the production of circuitboards. It was founded in 1992 ... "KCE Electronics PCL". Bloomberg Markets. Retrieved 30 June 2021. "KCE.BK - KCE Electronics PCL Profile". Reuters. Retrieved 30 ... Staporncharnchai, Satawasin (25 October 2018). "Thailand's KCE Electronics cuts 2018 sales growth target by half". Reuters. ...
In electronics, a clipper is a circuit designed to prevent a signal from exceeding a predetermined reference voltage level. A ... Limiter Rectifier Graf, Rudolf F. (1999-08-11). Modern Dictionary of Electronics. Newnes. ISBN 9780080511986. Salivahanan, ...
In electronics, electric power and telecommunication, coupling is the transfer of electrical energy from one circuit to another ... coefficient of resonators Directional coupler Equilibrium length Fiber-optic coupling Loading coil Shield List of electronics ...
... may refer to: ROM cartridge, a removable enclosure containing read-only memory devices designed to be ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Electronics cartridge. If an internal link led you here, you ...
Jensen is a consumer electronics brand with a history that dates back to 1915 with Peter L. Jensen's invention of the first ... In 2015, Dual Electronics Corporation (Namsung America) acquired Jensen, however Audiovox maintains its selection of Advent- ... In 2004, Audiovox Corporation added the Jensen portfolio of brands to their mobile and consumer electronics lines. ... These lines include: Jensen Loudspeakers Jensen Mobile Jensen Home Electronics Jensen Accessories Jensen Specialty Jensen ...
Electronics companies established in 1920, Electronics companies of the United Kingdom, Electronics industry in London, ... "Ultra Electronics Holdings plc Annual Report and Accounts 2010" (PDF). Ultra Electronics Holdings plc. 2010. p. 7. Retrieved 19 ... In 1961, Ultra's consumer electronics interests became part of Thorn Electrical Industries. During 1977, Ultra Electronics was ... By 2005, Ultra Electronics was ranked as the 66th biggest aerospace company in the world: at this point in time, the American ...
... is a privately held American consumer electronics company in South Carolina. Element Electronics is a ... This was Element Electronics' first national TV campaign. Element Electronics offers a wide range of televisions integrated ... Building on their commitment to affordable and high-quality consumer electronics, in 2023, Element Electronics formed strategic ... This milestone marked Element Electronics as a distinctive player in the consumer electronics industry, as it became the only ...
... official web site (Digital television, Electronics companies of the United Kingdom). ... Nebula Electronics Ltd were a small UK company specialising in digital terrestrial cards for Windows PCs. The brand-name for ... Nebula Electronics operated entirely from the United Kingdom, including production and direct sales but they also had ... the Nebula electronics website and the forum both disappeared, no official announcement has been made as to the seeming demise ...
... (Chinese: 七盟電子) is a Taiwanese manufacturer of power supplies for Personal Computer and Industrial PC. ... Electronics companies of Taiwan, Manufacturing companies established in 1986, Privately held companies, Taiwanese companies ...
In electronics, a lead (/ˈliːd/) is an electrical connection consisting of a length of wire or a metal pad (surface-mount ...
Electronics use wafer sizes from 100 to 450 mm diameter. The largest wafers made have a diameter of 450 mm, but are not yet in ... In electronics, a wafer (also called a slice or substrate) is a thin slice of semiconductor, such as a crystalline silicon (c- ... Reed Electronics Group. Levy, Roland Albert (1989). Microelectronic Materials and Processes. Springer. pp. 1-2. ISBN 978-0-7923 ... Manners, David (2014-02-11). "450mm May Never Happen, says Micron CEO". Electronics Weekly. Retrieved 2022-02-03. "450mm May ...
"BREAKING: Novak Electronics has closed its doors". Retrieved 2016-07-13. v t e (Radio-controlled cars, Electronics ... Novak Electronics, Inc. of Irvine, California, United States was a manufacturer RC electronics. Founded by RC enthusiast and ... "Novak Electronics is changing its name for 2014". Retrieved 2016-07-13. "Novak announces partnership with Hobbico ... Electronics companies established in 2016, American companies established in 2016, All stub articles, Leisure company stubs). ...
Core competences of Myungin Electronics are as follows: ​ Manufacturing Systems including Server/Workst ... Myungin Electronics is the Titanium Partner as well as HPC Specialist of Intel in South Korea. ​ ... Myungin Electronics is the Titanium Partner as well as HPC Specialist of Intel in South Korea. ​ Core competences of Myungin ... Electronics are as follows: ​ Manufacturing Systems including Server/Workstation/PC Sourcing and distributing IT devices/parts ...
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Get the November issue of Electronics Bazaar for the latest updates.. ... Starting with its flagship publication, Electronics For You, which is today South Asias most popular electronics magazine, the ... These publications -- Linux For You, BenefIT, Facts For You and Electronics Bazaar - also enjoy a huge readership, and have ... Get the November issue of Electronics Bazaar for the latest updates.. ...
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Materials and processing approaches for foundry-compatible transient electronics. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5522-E5529 ( ... Biodegradable thin metal foils and spin-on glass materials for transient electronics. Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 1789-1797 (2015). ... Nature Electronics thanks Christopher Bettinger, Roozbeh Tabrizian and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution ... Mechanisms for hydrolysis of silicon nanomembranes as used in bioresorbable electronics. Adv. Mater. 27, 1857-1864 (2015). ...
Simulink to apply power electronics control to Electric Vehicles, Renewable Energy, Battery Systems, Power Conversion, and ... The MathWorks community for engineers using Simulink to apply power electronics control to Electric Vehicles, Renewable Energy ...
The novel material graphene makes faster electronics possible. Scientists have developed light detectors made of graphene and ... New material promises faster electronics. Date:. June 27, 2011. Source:. Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna. Summary:. ... Fast Signals for Fast Electronics. The main reason for the fact that graphene-photodetectors can operate at such high ... "New material promises faster electronics." ScienceDaily. /. releases. /. 2011. /. 06. /. 110627095406.htm ...
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For some years now, the speed and efficiency of conventional electronics have stagnated as they have reached the limits set by ... The basic idea of lightwave electronics is to use the oscillating electric field of light to manipulate charge carriers faster ... than a single cycle of light, which could allow future low-loss electronics to operate at optical clock rates. ...
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  • The electronics industry also encompasses other sectors that rely on electronic devices and systems, such as e-commerce, which generated over $29 trillion in online sales in 2017. (
  • Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Electronics Engineers, Except Computer are provided. (
  • For a list of all industries with employment in Electronics Engineers, Except Computer, see the Create Customized Tables function. (
  • As someone who has actively driven innovation in consumer electronics at Qualcomm, automotive at Siemens VDO/Continental, and aerospace at Airbus, I have gained valuable insights into the innovative ecosystems of these industries and their potential for cross-industry learning and collaborations. (
  • BASF offers a spectrum of solutions to its customers to help them achieve this goal across various focus areas and technologies - display, photovoltaics, solid state lighting, communications, computers, consumer electronics, smart wearable devices and quantum dot display. (
  • The affordable sE Electronics sE X1 capacitor microphone is now available with an onboard USB converter, so that it can be plugged straight into a computer without the need for a separate audio interface. (
  • Heilind Electronics, Inc. ( ) is one of the world's leading distributors of connectors, relays, sensors, switches, thermal management and circuit protection products, terminal blocks, wire and cable, wiring accessories and insulation and identification products. (
  • This database is a valuable tool for all stakeholders who want to track the Connected TV Device footprint of the world's major Consumer Electronics brands. (
  • 4 Star Electronics, Inc. is the world's leading supplier of obsolete electronic components. (
  • Stretchable electronics to map the inside of the heart? (
  • What if you could design a small piece of electronics that is both flexible and stretchable, is able to take high-resolution images of the electrical signals inside the heart, and cure a cardiac condition that impacts more than 35 million people worldwide? (
  • Lipomi is helping to build a future of "stretchable electronics," semiconducting devices that will more seamlessly integrate with the contours of our bodies, outside and even inside, to monitor vital signs, muscle activity, metabolic changes, and organ function-to name just a few possibilities. (
  • Nonhysteretic Nb/NbxSi1-x/Nb junctions with IcRn products greater than 1 mV, where Ic is the critical current, and Jc values near 100 kA/cm2 have been fabricated and are promising for superconductive digital electronics. (
  • As an Independent Distributor, 4 Star Electronics, Inc. is not affiliated with the manufacturers of the products it sells except as expressly noted otherwise. (
  • Apple products and other electronics will be a good deal on this day too. (
  • For example, we see more sitewide discounts or category-wide discounts on Cyber Monday, whereas Black Friday will often have very specific products such as electronics and home goods at deep, deep discounts," she says. (
  • This curriculum map provides a mapping of content from Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers and Standard Handbook of Electronic Engineering to standard Electronics course topics. (
  • Let your robot or electronics project gather information about the world around it using our wide selection of sensors. (
  • Researchers have reported a new form of electronics known as 'drawn-on-skin electronics,' allowing multifunctional sensors and circuits to be drawn on the skin with an ink pen. (
  • The consumer electronics industry is characterized by its agility and rapid pace of innovation, often operating on a two-year cycle. (
  • In addition, this industry is developing aerospace-specific technologies and is also adopting technologies from consumer electronics and automotive sectors to accelerate innovation. (
  • The main driving force behind the advancement of electronics is the semiconductor industry, which produces the basic materials and components for electronic devices and circuits. (
  • Give your robots and electronics projects some character with these high-quality, compact buzzers and speakers, and detect and record sounds with our selection of microphones and voice recorders. (
  • The results of the inventory and the feasibility studies which was designed to assist in the development of a National Electronics Clinical Trials and Research (NECTAR) network. (
  • The early growth of electronics was rapid, and by the 1920s, commercial radio broadcasting and communications were becoming widespread and electronic amplifiers were being used in such diverse applications as long-distance telephony and the music recording industry. (
  • It revolutionized the electronics industry, becoming the most widely used electronic device in the world. (
  • While consumer electronics companies face fewer regulatory constraints, they can benefit from learning about risk management and robust design practices. (
  • Explore over a decade of blog posts on electronics topics. (
  • Electronics is a scientific and engineering discipline that studies and applies the principles of physics to design, create, and operate devices that manipulate electrons and other electrically charged particles. (
  • 2000 includes the "hacker," and so the security of the data discipline has developed since 1962, one that Dr. Zworykin bank containing the lifelong record or the distributed data included within the realm of electronics. (
  • Computer software and commercial unmodified electronics for which the manufacturer maintains design control are not covered. (
  • Electronics is a subfield of electrical engineering, but it differs from it in that it focuses on using active devices such as transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits to control and amplify the flow of electric current and to convert it from one form to another, such as from alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) or from analog to digital. (
  • 800-35-NIOSH (1-800-356-4674), or visit programmable electronics. (
  • Consumer electronics companies are technology and marketing-driven and often engage in various business models, making them IP sensitive and open to experimentation. (
  • We present a technology based on Nb/NbxSi1-x/Nb junctions, with barriers near the metal-insulator transition, for applications in superconducting electronics (SCE) as an alternative to Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions. (
  • For mining, programmable electronics (PE) is an emerging technology that enables new capabilities and flexibility. (
  • format, Plasmana lays out on each page a list of electronics vendors and makers that offer free, limited quantity samples to customers, covering gear like LEDs, Semiconductors, switches, enclosures, and other tinker-friendly toys. (
  • Consumer electronics and automotive companies can learn from the aerospace industry's focus on long-term value creation and strategic acquisitions. (
  • Learn more about electronics with these complete educational project kits. (
  • Electronics and Electric (E&E) devices are an inseparable part of our daily lives and will become even more so in the future. (
  • We're looking forward to our next Tech Expo in Salt Lake City ," said Andrew Gacek , Territory Business Manager, Heilind Electronics. (
  • Easily connect your electronics and robotics projects to the computer. (
  • Power your robots and electronics projects with our assortment of batteries and battery packs. (
  • Almost every day, there is a news story concerning the Dr. Zworykin looked into his crystal ball to see how security of the Internet itself or the data banks accessible via electronics would influence the practice of health care. (
  • At PreSonus Audio Electronics, they offer retirement benefits. (
  • Click the link there to follow Samsung Electronics Nordic AB. (
  • Consumer electronics excel at speed and agility, allowing companies to respond quickly to market demands. (
  • Liebherr power electronics are developed for use in harsh environmental conditions and easily withstand dust, vibrations and extreme temperatures. (
  • safety recommendations for programmable electronics in mining. (
  • L.G.L. Hangzhou is the daughter company of the LGL Electronics Spa ( ) , Italian company established in 1982, specialized in the development and manufacturing of electronic yarn feeders for weaving and knitting machines. (
  • L.G.L. Hangzhou is the daughter company of the LGL Electronics Spa ( ) , Italian company established in 1982, specialized in the development and manufacturing of electronic yarn feeders for weaving and knitting machines.In 2004 LGL HANGZHOU was established in China to optimize the production, sales and after-sales service for Far-Eastern market. (
  • The National Electronics Clinical Trials and Research (NECTAR) program has transitioned from Common Fund support. (
  • The Joint Electronics Type Designation System (JETDS) , which was previously known as the Joint Army-Navy Nomenclature System (AN System. (
  • JAN) and the Joint Communications-Electronics Nomenclature System , is a method developed by the U.S. War Department during World War II for assigning an unclassified designator to electronic equipment. (
  • Vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) were the first active electronic components which controlled current flow by influencing the flow of individual electrons, They were responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century, They enabled the construction of equipment that used current amplification and rectification to give us radio, television, radar, long-distance telephony and much more. (