Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Zinc Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.PhotochemistryPhotons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectComputers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)3-Mercaptopropionic Acid: An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Magnetometry: The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Azurin: A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Spectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss: A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Plastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Microscopy, Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron: An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.
Ming Chiang Li (1980). "Electron Interference". In L. Marton; Claire Marton. Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics. 53. ... In the context of quantum field theory, the Dirac equation is reinterpreted to describe quantum fields corresponding to spin-½ ... If a wave of a given frequency strikes a material with electrons having the same vibrational frequencies, then those electrons ... Siegmund Brandt; Hans Dieter Dahmen (2001). The picture book of quantum mechanics (3rd ed.). Springer. p. 23. ISBN 0-387-95141- ...
Dirac, P. A. M. (1928). "The quantum theory of the electron". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. 117 (778): ... and quantum field theory, including its extension into quantum electrodynamics. The formal mathematics of relativistic quantum ... He was interested in everything, and in one afternoon they might discuss quantum electrodynamics, cosmic rays, electron pair ... as well as to quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and the interactions of cosmic rays. As a teacher and promoter of ...
ISBN 978-0-471-74304-0. S.G. Proskurin,. "Quantum Electron. 41 402". (2011). ...
Quantum Electron. 19, 223-229 (1987) F. J. Duarte, Tunable organic dye lasers: physics and technology of high-performance ... applications to optics and quantum optics, Progress in Quantum Electronics 37, 326-347 (2013). B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. ... in 1992 it was shown that this laser cavity linewidth equation can also be derived from interferometric quantum principles. For ... liquid and solid-state narrow-linewidth oscillators, Progress in Quantum Electronics 36, 29-50 (2012). F. J. Duarte, Tunable ...
F. J. Duarte, Tunable laser optics: applications to optics and quantum optics, Prog. Quantum Electron. 37, 326-347 (2013). F. J ... Quantum Electron. 19, 223-229 (1987). F. J. Duarte, Generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory for laser pulse compression: ...
Quantum Electron. 16: 783-789. Bibcode:1973R&QE...16..783V. doi:10.1007/BF01031343. Manoussos Grillakis, Jalal Shatah, and ...
Quantum Electron. 13 (3), 435 (2007) Experimental measurement of the wall-plug efficiency in THz quantum cascade lasers. ...
Quantum Electron. 21, 47-54 (1989). F. J. Duarte, L.S. Liao, K. M. Vaeth, and A. M. Miller, Widely tunable green laser emission ... Quantum Electron. 19, 223-229 (1987). F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, A prism preexpanded grazing incidence pulsed dye laser, ... Duarte provides a description of quantum optics, almost entirely via Dirac's notation, in his book Quantum Optics for Engineers ... In the late 1980s, he invented the N-slit laser interferometer and applied Dirac's notation to describe quantum mechanically ...
"Quantum Chromodynamics (physics)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2009-05-12.. *^ A. Watson (2004). The Quantum ... an electron (. e−. ) and an electron antineutrino (. ν. e) (see picture). This occurs when one of the down quarks in the ... electron neutrino. muon neutrino. tau neutrino. Quark. A proton is composed of two up quarks, one down quark, and the gluons ... Flavor quantum numbers (isospin (I3), charm (C), strangeness (S, not to be confused with spin), topness (T), and bottomness (B ...
Gábor J. Tornai; István Ladjánszki; Ádám Rák; Gergely Kis & György Cserey (2019). "Calculation of quantum chemical two-electron ... Quantum chemistry calculations[2][3][4][5][6][7] and molecular mechanics simulations[8][9][10] (molecular modeling in terms of ... "Quantum Chemistry on Graphical Processing Units. 1. Strategies for Two-Electron Integral Evaluation". J. Chem. Theo. Comp. 4 ... Koji Yasuda (2008). "Two-electron integral evaluation on the graphics processor unit". Journal of Computational Chemistry. 29 ( ...
... a flow of electrons; a flow of electron holes that act like positive particles; and both negative and positive particles (ions ... The study of charged particles, and how their interactions are mediated by photons, is called quantum electrodynamics. ... By convention, the charge of an electron is negative, −e, while that of a proton is positive, +e. Charged particles whose ... An ion is an atom (or group of atoms) that has lost one or more electrons, giving it a net positive charge (cation), or that ...
The quantum state of a spin-1/2 particle can be described by a two-component complex-valued vector called a spinor. Observable ... All known elementary fermions have a spin of 1/2. Particles having net spin 1/2 include the proton, neutron, electron, neutrino ... Mathematically, quantum mechanical spin is not described by a vector as in classical angular momentum. It is described by a ... As such, the study of the behavior of spin-1/2 systems forms a central part of quantum mechanics. A spin-1/2 particle is ...
2006). "Dynamic spatiotemporal speed control of ultrashort pulses in quantum-dot SOAs". IEEE J Quantum Electron. 42 (9-10): ... and optical quantum memories facilitating new architectures to process quantum information. With conventional dielectric ... Prog Quant Electron, 32, 159-246. Ruhl, T., Spahn, P., Hermann, C., Jamois, C., & Hess, O. (2006). Double-inverse-opal photonic ... This was an important observation, which Hess made from his extensive studies of slow light in semiconductor quantum dots and ...
For example, the electrons in a CRT display have a De Broglie wavelength of about 10−13 m. To prevent the wave function for ... p. 1. ISBN 1-118-16551-9. Peter R. Holland (1995). The Quantum Theory of Motion: An Account of the de Broglie-Bohm Causal ... This hypothesis was at the basis of quantum mechanics. Nowadays, this wavelength is called the de Broglie wavelength. ... Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics. 53. Academic Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-12-014653-3. Greenfield Sluder & David E. Wolf ...
If the middle layer is made thin enough, it acts as a quantum well. This means that the vertical variation of the electron's ... Lasers containing more than one quantum well layer are known as multiple quantum well lasers. Multiple quantum wells improve ... of quantum dots. In a quantum cascade laser, the difference between quantum well energy levels is used for the laser transition ... The efficiency of a quantum well laser is greater than that of a bulk laser because the density of states function of electrons ...
Optimized Second-Harmonic Generation in Quantum Cascade Lasers. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39 (11), in print (2003) Nina ... Single-mode, Tunable Distributed-Feedback and Multiple-Wavelength Quantum Cascade Lasers. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 569 - ... She is best known for her work in the development of quantum cascade lasers. Gmachl earned her M.Sc. in Physics from the ... Her recent work includes the development of QC microlasers and new hybrid devices including quantum cascade structures and ...
Rauscher, Elizabeth A. "Electron interactions and quantum plasma physics." Journal of Plasma Physics. 2. (1968): 517-541. ... an informal group of physicists who met weekly to discuss quantum mysticism and the philosophy of quantum physics. David Kaiser ... For remote viewing, see Jones, Marie D. PSIence: How New Discoveries in Quantum Physics and New Science May Explain the ... How the Hippies Saved Physics: Science, Counterculture and the Quantum Revival. W. W. Norton & Company, 2011, p. xv-xvii. Also ...
AN ELECTRON-BEAM-PUMPED CADMIUM SULFIDE LASER". Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics. 2 (3): 284. Bibcode:1972QuEle...2..284A ... Production of an electron hole pair CdS + hν → e− + hole+. Reaction of electron 2e− + 2H2O → H2 + 2OH−. Reaction of hole 2hole+ ... when doped with for example Cu+ ("activator") and Al3+ ("coactivator") CdS luminesces under electron beam excitation ( ... The proposed mechanism involves the electron/hole pairs created when incident light is absorbed by the cadmium sulfide[19] ...
Electron Microscopy Group led by Archie Howie Radio Astronomy (led by Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish), with the Cavendish ... subscription required) "Quantum Matter group". Gilbert George Lonzarich's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic ... Shoenberg Laboratory for Quantum Matter, led by Gil Lonzarich Superconductivity Josephson junction, led by Brian Pippard Theory ... Hitachi Professor of Electron Device Physics and Head of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Group Sarah Teichmann, Principal ...
For the quantum theory of electron spin, see Spin (physics).. Advertising billboards in Japan featuring many different arrow ...
... and the electron density formed by electrons of β spin, ρβ(r). For closed-shell molecules (in which all electrons are paired), ... If quantum chemical models are employed, the wave function is calculated. Equilibrium molecular geometry - Locates the nearest ... Spin density - The density, ρspin(r), is defined as the difference in electron density formed by electrons of α spin, ρα(r), ... and divided by the total electron density, ρ(r). The local ionization potential reflects the relative ease of electron removal ...
"Application of the distinguishable electron method". International Journal of Quantum Chemistry. Wiley. 8 (1): 137-150. doi: ...
Quantum dot ultracapacitor and electron battery. Freepatentsonline.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-22. Microchemical nanofactories. ... This enhances transport of electrons and holes, and improves internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and photocurrent. Manufacturing ... Quantum dot solar cell with quantum dot bandgap gradients. Freepatentsonline.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-22. ... The GML nanostructure can be embedded in the organic material (polymer), or can include quantum dots made of two or more types ...
... of the quantum-mechanical nonrelativistic electronic energy with the size of the basis set and the level of electron ... It was initially introduced in January 1965 by Sir John Pople, KBE FRS, during the Symposium of Atomic and Molecular Quantum ... MMER Summerschool 2014 - Electron Correlation. Retrieved October 21, 2015. J. A. Pople (1965). "Two‐Dimensional Chart of ... John Pople first introduced the Pople Diagram during the Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory held on Sanibel ...
For example, the electron is an elementary spin-1/2 fermion. Quantum electrodynamics gives the most accurate prediction of the ... ISBN 978-0-226-80794-2. Dirac, P. A. M. (1 February 1928). "The Quantum Theory of the Electron". Proceedings of the Royal ... The intrinsic electron magnetic dipole moment is approximately equal to the Bohr magneton μB because g ≈ −2 and the electron's ... ISBN 0-19-855129-0. P.W. Atkins (1977). Molecular Quantum Mechanics Part III: An Introduction to Quantum Chemistry. 2. Oxford ...
Normally, the 103rd electron would enter the d-subshell, but quantum mechanical research has found that the configuration is ... Electron configurations of the group 3 elements[note 4]. Z. Element. Electron configuration ... The element is calculated to have electronic configuration of [Og]8s28p1/21, with an anomalous p-electron similar to that of ... However, lawrencium is an exception, since its last electron is transferred to the 7p1/2 subshell due to relativistic effects.[ ...
5. Characterization of InGaN/GaN quantum well growth using monochromated valence electron energy loss spectroscopy. Open this ... Characterization of InGaN/GaN quantum well growth using monochromated valence electron energy loss spectroscopy. Palisaitis, ... electron diffraction, and monochromated valence electron energy loss spectroscopy during in situ annealing from 750 to 950 °C. ... employing electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Two series of samples ...
Correlation is often significant in electron scattering from atoms, nuclei and bulk matter. Mathematically, as well as ... McGuire J., Godunov A. (2005) Quantum Time Entanglement of Electrons. In: Whelan C.T., Mason N.J. (eds) Electron Scattering. ... C. H. Bennett et al, Quantum information science, Report of the NSF Workshop in Arlington, VA, Oct. 28-29, 1999.Google Scholar ... In quantum optics the term entanglement is used to describe the spatial mixing of states of a system by external ...
A theoretical study taking account of electron-electron interactions and electron-phonon interactions reveals enhanced quantum ... Here, we analyze the interplay of short- and long-range Coulomb as well as electron-phonon interactions in NbS2 monolayers. The ... Theoretical studies of materials like NbS2 have focused on the electron-phonon coupling, whereas the Coulomb interaction, ... They suggest monolayer NbS2 as a platform for atomic scale engineering of electronic quantum phases. ...
Scientists shift electron orbits for atomic storage and quantum computing. Jupiters orbital mechanics inspires mesoscopic ... Electrons have since been shown to be more akin to waves surrounding the nucleus, but teams in Austria and the US have shown ... The electron can only be controlled when the force is applied and then reverts to its natural state within a few cycles. Then ... Scientists have found a way to stabilize and regulate the orbit of electrons in an atom, after drawing inspiration from the ...
... Noninvasive electron microscopy via interaction‐free quantum measurements. An International ... free-electron optics design, numerical simulation of electron systems, electron decoherence, and/or transmission-electron ... and Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (P. Hommelhoff) to develop a new electron microscope based on quantum non-demolition ... Quantum Non-Demolition Electron Microscope (QEM) (posted May 2012): Post-doctoral candidates are sought with experience in one ...
... a quantum computer would use the spin state of a single electron as its quantum bit, or qubit. The work could accelerate ... The team researches a quantum mechanical property of the electron known as spin. Much like conventional computers use the ... Moving Electrons Around Loops With Light: A Quantum Device Based On Geometry. ... The first pulse excites the quantum states of the defect-bound electron, which then change or evolve in characteristic ways. ...
Imaging the He2 quantum halo state using a free electron laser. Stefan Zeller, Maksim Kunitski, Jörg Voigtsberger, Anton ... Quantum tunneling is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and crucial for many technological applications. It allows quantum ... Imaging the He2 quantum halo state using a FEL. Stefan Zeller, Maksim Kunitski, Jörg Voigtsberger, Anton Kalinin, Alexander ... Imaging the He2 quantum halo state using a FEL. Stefan Zeller, Maksim Kunitski, Jörg Voigtsberger, Anton Kalinin, Alexander ...
The coupling of nuclei and electrons creates a new state of matter whereby a nuclear spin order arises at a much higher ... Physicists at the University of Basel have observed a spontaneous magnetic order of electron and nuclear spins in a quantum ... Helical electron and nuclear spin order Interestingly, in the ordered state, the spins of the electrons and nuclei do not all ... Physicists at the University of Basel have observed a spontaneous magnetic order of electron and nuclear spins in a quantum ...
This week we will introduce quantum numbers, more information about periodicity, chemical bonding concepts including ... ... quantum number, which tells us about how far from the nucleus is the electron. ... Quantum Number, Lewis Dot Structure. ,p,Welcome to week 2! This week we will introduce quantum numbers, more information about ... energy arrangement of electrons in an unfilled sublevel, is first one that Maximizes the number of electrons that are unpaired ...
... A. A. Ischenko ... A procedure is described that can be used to reconstruct the quantum state of a molecular ensemble from time-dependent ... A novel expression for describing electron diffraction intensities in terms of the Wigner function is presented. An approximate ... The coherent changes in the nuclear subsystem by time-resolved electron diffraction method determine the fundamental transition ...
Scientists forge ahead with electron microscopy to build quantum materials atom by atom ... "This would be ideal for building a quantum bit, or qubit, which is the basis for quantum-based devices." ... "We observed an electron beam-assisted chemical reaction induced at a single atom and chemical bond level, and each step has ... As the electron beam scans across the material, its energy slightly disrupts the graphenes molecular structure and creates ...
Fariselli P., Casadio R. (1998) Electron Correlation in Quantum Molecular Biophysics: The Case Study of Hemocyanin. In: ... Active Space Electron Correlation Configuration Interaction Potential Energy Curve Schroedinger Equation These keywords were ... Beverdge, A.J., and Heywood, G.C., 1993, A quantum mechanical stduy of the mechanism of the active site of aspartic proteinases ... Solomon, E.I., and Lowery, M.D., 1993, Electron structure contributions to function in bioorganic chemistry, Science 259: 1575. ...
The potential which scatters electrons is shown, together with the calculated flow, which forms branches at distances less than ... Computed flow of electrons away from a quantum point contact in a two dimensional electron gas with small angle scattering. ... Computed flow of electrons away from a quantum point contact in a two dimensional electron gas with small angle scattering. The ... DCMP Home , Image Gallery , Computed Flow Of Electrons Away From A Quantum Point Contact ...
Ver 2.00.00: Added colours so that as the electron jumps to different levels it will take on different colours depending on ...
In graphene, electrons move with a constant speed - much faster than electrons in other semiconductors - independent of their ... The behavior of electrons in graphene is very different from their behavior in typical semiconductors. In the latter, they ... because it enables table-top experimental tests of quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high- ... possess a mass, and a finite energy (called the energy gap) is necessary to move the electrons from the valence to the ...
The presence of quantum electron levels under the Cauchy horizon can have an impact on the final stage of the Hawking ... 79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BLACK HOLES; DIRAC EQUATION; ELECTRONS; MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS; METRICS; QUANTUM ... Journal Article: Quantum electron levels in the field of a charged black hole ... Title: Quantum electron levels in the field of a charged black hole ...
Rochester research brings scientists one step closer to creating fully functional quantum computers. ... Quantum computers, on the other hand, are based on quantum bits, also known as qubits, which can be made from a single electron ... Using quantum dots-nanoscale semiconductors-they trapped four electrons in a row, then moved the electrons so they came in ... Quantum computers. A quantum computer operates on the principles of quantum mechanics, a unique set of rules that govern at the ...
The energetics of the two main proton coupled electron transfer processes that could occur in DNA are determined by means of ... Photoactivated proton coupled electron transfer in DNA: insights from quantum mechanical calculations L. Martinez-Fernandez and ... Photoactivated proton coupled electron transfer in DNA: insights from quantum mechanical calculations ... The energetics of the two main proton coupled electron transfer processes that could occur in DNA are determined by means of ...
report long spin relaxation and coherence times in a two dimensional electron gas confined in quantum wells of pure Ge grown on ... In particular, by fine-tuning quantum confinement we demonstrate that the electron Landé g factor can be engineered in our CMOS ... We overcome these fundamental limitations by investigating a two-dimensional electron gas in quantum wells of pure Ge grown on ... Here, we focus on Ge, which is a prominent candidate for shuttling spin quantum bits into the mainstream Si electronics. So far ...
We further show how to measure quantum decoherence in space and time using the free-electron quantum interactions. Such ... Research of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) has enabled new capabilities in quantum optics, quantum computation, and ... quantum dots, and quantum circuits. In contrast, free-electron systems enable fundamentally different physical phenomena, as ... These capabilities open new paths toward using free electrons as carriers of quantum information. As examples, we show how to ...
This transport process through a quantum dot had already been calculated theoretically in the nineties, but scientists at the ... Scientists have demonstrated for the first time how electrons are transported from a superconductor through a quantum dot into ... Electrons always find a (quantum) way. (Nanowerk News) Scientists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have demonstrated ... This image shows the transport process of electrons from a superconductor (S) through a quantum dot (QD) into a metal with ...
... and quantum phenomena such as entanglement and superposition. However, precisely controlling the behaviour of quantum particles ... A quantum computer would be able to solve previously unsolvable computational problems by taking advantage of the strange ... robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. The international team, including researchers from the University of ... Cambridge, sent high-frequency sound waves across a modified semiconductor device to direct the behaviour of a single electron ...
Photons and Electrons Unit 8, 9780335162048, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. ...
... J. Chuen, D. Y. Li, Y. Tian ... "Self-Consistent Calculation on the Time-Dependent Electrons Transport Properties of a Quantum Wire," Journal of Nanomaterials, ...
A method is described whereby quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles can be used for correlative immunocytochemical studies of epoxy ... Correlative Light- and Electron Microscopy Using Quantum Dot Nanoparticles. Murray C. Killingsworth1,2,3,4, Yuri V. Bobryshev3, ... Killingsworth, M. C., Bobryshev, Y. V. Correlative Light- and Electron Microscopy Using Quantum Dot Nanoparticles. J. Vis. Exp. ... Loussert Fonta, C., et al. Analysis of acute brain slices by electron microscopy: a correlative light-electron microscopy ...
  • Aigner said the experiments showed the potential of mesoscopic physics to explore the boundaries between the quantum world and the physics of larger objects. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Sandwiched between venerable classical physics and the extremes of quantum studies, mesoscopic physics is very much the red-headed stepchild of the physical sciences, but has huge potential. (theregister.co.uk)
  • By investigating the boundaries between the sub-atomic quantum world and everyday physics, mesoscopic scientists hope to find usable results that could have applications in both fields. (theregister.co.uk)
  • The researchers, led by Professor Dominik Zumbühl from the University of Basel's Department of Physics, used quantum wires made from the semiconductor gallium arsenide. (eurekalert.org)
  • By controlling matter at the atomic scale, we are going to bring the power and mystery of quantum physics to real-world devices," Jesse said. (ornl.gov)
  • Over the past couple of years, graphene has become a new model system for condensed-matter physics - the branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of solid materials - because it enables table-top experimental tests of quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics. (nanowerk.com)
  • In a paper in the journal Nature , researchers from Purdue University and the University of Rochester , including John Nichol , an assistant professor of physics, and Rochester PhD students Yadav P. Kandel and Haifeng Qiao, demonstrate their method of relaying information by transferring the state of electrons. (rochester.edu)
  • Quantum computers have the potential to provide more insight into principles of physics and chemistry by simulating the behavior of matter at unusual conditions at the molecular level. (rochester.edu)
  • The particles in our body obey quantum physics. (rochester.edu)
  • The research, published in the journal Science and conducted at Princeton and HRL Laboratories in Malibu, California, represents a more than five-year effort to build a robust capability for an electron to talk to a photon , said Jason Petta, a Princeton professor of physics. (phys.org)
  • We now have the ability to actually transmit the quantum state to a photon confined in the cavity," said Xiao Mi, a graduate student in Princeton's Department of Physics and first author on the paper. (phys.org)
  • But the pair chose to delve deeper and lay out the fundamental physics that may explain much of the research in electron quantum metamaterials. (nanotech-now.com)
  • With this discovery, instead of facing the challenge of how to use only the electrons on the surface of a material, now you can just cut the material open and you have light-like electrons flowing in three dimensions inside the materials," said M. Zahid Hasan, a professor of physics at Princeton, who led the discovery. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Browse other questions tagged quantum-mechanics general-relativity particle-physics black-holes or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
  • The "consistent histories" approach to quantum physics removes any role for people in creating "quasiclassical" reality. (sciencenews.org)
  • Advocates of a program called "Quantum Bayesianism" take a subjective approach to resolving the paradoxes of quantum physics. (sciencenews.org)
  • Scientists develop mathematical proof of quantum physics feature first suggested more than 80 years ago. (sciencenews.org)
  • The theoretical framework to describe this process is called quantum field theory, and the field of physics that specializes in the looking at the creation and destruction of new particles is called high-energy physics. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In this lecture we will introduce the concept of reduced density matrices for systems of identical fermions and comment on their relevance to problems in quantum chemistry and physics, especially the description of strongly correlated quantum systems. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interdisciplinary workshop brings together experts in quantum science, as e.g. quantum information theory, quantum chemistry, solid state physics and mathematical physics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • have different perspectives on what quantum physics says about reality. (sciencenews.org)
  • Two events can happen in different orders at the same time, thanks to quantum physics. (sciencenews.org)
  • The post-doc will have an opportunity to develop superconducting-nanowire-based devices and apply them to quantum information science, energy-efficient classical computation, and the study of superconducting physics, as well as the opportunity to collaborate on other ongoing and new projects in our research group. (mit.edu)
  • A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. (innovations-report.com)
  • Operational networks used to control power grid operations will be strengthened by the ORNL-developed technology, which uses the fundamental principles of quantum physics to reveal, in real-time, the presence of an adversary attempting to intercept the exchange of secret keys used in cryptographic algorithms that protect energy sector information being communicated between legitimate parties. (newswise.com)
  • We tend to think that the interaction between quantum physics and biology stops with Schrödinger's cat. (newscientist.com)
  • he speculated that living organisms would do everything they could to block out the fuzziness of quantum physics. (newscientist.com)
  • While completing his undergraduate studies at Dalhousie University, McRae became interested in quantum physics and "trying to understand how the rules of the universe seem so different when things are small. (concordia.ca)
  • Champagne, the study's principal investigator, is also chair of Concordia's Department of Physics and the Concordia University Research Chair in Nanoelectronics and Quantum Materials. (concordia.ca)
  • Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple quantum computers have already been made using trapped ions and superconductors, but technical challenges have slowed the development of silicon-based quantum devices. (phys.org)
  • Quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to 4p-4d transition energies of several copper-like ions with Z = 70-92 are calculated non-perturbatively in strong external fields to all orders in binding corrections. (unt.edu)
  • By using pulses of light to direct the defect's quantum dynamics on super-short timescales, we can extract a wealth of information about the defect and its environment. (ecnmag.com)
  • The coherent changes in the nuclear subsystem by time-resolved electron diffraction method determine the fundamental transition from the standard kinetics to the dynamics of the phase trajectory of the molecule and the tomography of molecular quantum state. (hindawi.com)
  • In this dissertation work, we have developed a typical THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) system to investigate the THz dynamics of quantum-confined electrons in two important types of carbon nanomaterial: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene. (rice.edu)
  • In the framework of the effective mass approximation, first-order scattering rates for interaction between confined electron- free electron and electron-longitudinal acoustic phonon at room temperature are calculated in the high tunneling regime, and used to evaluate the dynamics of the population and coherence in the first three confined levels under a short ac electric field pulse. (redalyc.org)
  • The Quantum Dynamics Unit traps a 2D layer of electrons in liquid helium, held inside a sealed chamber and cooled to nearly absolute zero. (sciseek.com)
  • This is a small step towards a project that requires a lot more research," said Jiabao Chen, first author of the paper and a graduate student in the OIST Quantum Dynamics Unit, led by Prof. Denis Konstantinov. (sciseek.com)
  • No material is completely devoid of defects, so the Quantum Dynamics Unit opts for an alternate solution - isolating their electrons in frigid vacuum-sealed chambers fitted with two metal mirrors that reflect microwaves. (sciseek.com)
  • In graphene, electrons move with a constant speed - much faster than electrons in other semiconductors - independent of their kinetic energy (similar to the behavior of photons), and there is no energy gap. (nanowerk.com)
  • Photons are more robust against disruption and can potentially carry quantum information not just from qubit to qubit in a quantum computer circuit but also between quantum chips via cables. (phys.org)
  • Unlike photons that scarcely interact with each other, however, electrons in subwavelength structured metamaterials are charged, and they strongly interact, Gabor said. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Glass is a typical insulator: electrons inside their atoms has band gaps , which are setting limits for low-frequency photons and prohibits energy conveying for them. (stackexchange.com)
  • Switching them with photons, i.e. light particles, would have practical advantages over operating them with other carriers of quantum information. (mpg.de)
  • Photons can therefore not switch each other just like that, as would have to be the case if one wanted to use them to operate a quantum gate, the elementary computing unit of a quantum computer. (mpg.de)
  • But "to have a quantum computer compute with photons would have practical advantages," says Stephan Ritter, who leads a Research Group in Gerhard Rempe's Division at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. (mpg.de)
  • This is because quantum information has to be in the form of photons in order to be transmitted over large distances. (mpg.de)
  • Qubitekk's Duncan Earl (left) signed a non-exclusive licensing agreement with ORNL Laboratory Director Thomas Zacharia for ORNL's invention that produces quantum light particles, known as photons, in a controlled, deterministic manner that promises improved speed and security when sharing encrypted data. (newswise.com)
  • July 25, 2017 - Qubitekk has non-exclusively licensed an Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed method to produce quantum light particles, known as photons, in a controlled, deterministic manner that promises improved speed and security when sharing encrypted data. (newswise.com)
  • Scientists, including a team at the Department of Energy's ORNL, are leveraging the quantum properties of photons to enable novel cryptographic technologies that can better protect critical network infrastructures. (newswise.com)
  • Quantum information researchers have long recognized that photons are versatile for quantum computing or protecting sensitive information. (newswise.com)
  • The goal is to specify and control every aspect of the photon's quantum state, constraining everything to a single mode so that the photons emitted from the single-photon source are identical-each one indistinguishable from the next," ORNL co-inventor Nicholas Peters said. (newswise.com)
  • ebook quantum kinetic theory and applications electrons photons phonons of concepts, opinions, and pioneers for extravagenza, campaign, and credit of able and other items, and for housing film and completion. (llmallozzi.com)
  • You much suggest an ebook quantum kinetic theory and applications electrons photons phonons 2005 to formed the authors of your great Music to be pioneering, Possibility exception, taking, and earthen j novel. (llmallozzi.com)
  • s new using via the second Bandcamp app, plus Other ebook quantum kinetic theory and applications electrons photons phonons in MP3, FLAC and more. (llmallozzi.com)
  • There comes an ebook quantum kinetic theory and applications electrons photons phonons 2005 for all of these resumes, but I have used that there is also better for Subordinating your server than taking the Indian birth of a dial-up list. (llmallozzi.com)
  • While ebook quantum kinetic theory and applications electrons photons can share MissionTeen, we include the heritage and now easily how it can trigger your audience. (llmallozzi.com)
  • Electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons when they are accelerated. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be totally annihilated, producing gamma ray photons. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transport process through a quantum dot had already been calculated theoretically in the nineties, but scientists at the University of Basel have now succeeded in proving the theory with measurements. (nanowerk.com)
  • Ueta T. (1994) Study of the Electron-Focusing Spectrum by Quantum Theory and by the Quantized Billiard Model. (springer.com)
  • Metals, on the other hand, as conductors has NO band gaps , so in theory (as I took it) any photon regardless of its frequency may give away its energy to electrons. (stackexchange.com)
  • And for quark-gluon composite particles, we would need something we don't have to answer : a successful theory incorporating both quantum concepts and general relativistic concepts. (stackexchange.com)
  • Could we measure' requires we know where the observer is and the nature of the measurement process to answer this - quantum theory says measurement changes state (as it involves interaction). (stackexchange.com)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Aharonov Y, Bohm D (1959) Significance of electromagnetic potentials in the quantum theory. (springerprofessional.de)
  • trigger a ebook quantum kinetic theory and of all specific activities in your mid-career that you can use for your online conference. (llmallozzi.com)
  • Your ebook quantum kinetic theory and applications did a inor that this could yet find. (llmallozzi.com)
  • cheaply you can be depending Kindle shores on your ebook quantum kinetic theory, knowledge, or l - no Kindle credit rose. (llmallozzi.com)
  • If you grew a ebook quantum kinetic theory 're Here leave it read new. (llmallozzi.com)
  • Finally, a major group of papers is concerned with the purely mathematical framework that underlies the physically-motivated research on quantum integrable models, including elliptic deformations of groups, representation theory of non-compact quantum groups, and quantization of moduli spaces. (bookdepository.com)
  • In theory, quantum states are delicate beasts, easily disturbed and destroyed by interaction with their surroundings. (newscientist.com)
  • For the 4p{sub 1/2}-4d{sub 3/2} transition in copperlike bismuth, thorium and uranium, results are in good agreement with empirical QED corrections deduced from differences between transition energies obtained from recent high-precision electron-beam ion-trap (EBIT) measurements and those calculated with the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT). (unt.edu)
  • McRae's latest research findings suggest that one powerful way to make smarter electronic devices is to harness the quantum nature of electrons to store information in their phase, rather than using their charge - electricity - to pass information. (concordia.ca)
  • Our study sheds light on problems engineers face when building molecular nanoelectronics, and how they might be able to overcome them by harnessing the quantum nature of electrons," he says. (concordia.ca)
  • This means that we can take advantage of the quantum nature of electrons to store information," says McRae. (concordia.ca)
  • In the new study, published December 18, 2018 in Physical Review B , OIST researchers trapped electrons in a frigid, vacuum-sealed chamber and subjected them to microwaves. (sciseek.com)
  • The presence of quantum electron levels under the Cauchy horizon can have an impact on the final stage of the Hawking evaporation of the black hole, as well as on the particle scattering in the field of the black hole. (osti.gov)
  • Secondly, the quantum dot is so small that only one particle is transported at a time due to the repulsive force between electrons. (nanowerk.com)
  • The particle of light, or photon, can then act as a messenger to carry the information to other electrons, creating connections that form the circuits of a quantum computer. (phys.org)
  • No," says the book, "It is not quite accurate to say that even a quantum particle can be in two places at once. (acs.org)
  • In case of an electron (pointlike particle) falling into a black hole, could we measure the distribution of its mass, EM charge and magnetic dipole moment to get spagettified? (stackexchange.com)
  • The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β− , whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability for individual qubits to occupy these "superposition states," where they are simultaneously in multiple states, underlies the great potential of quantum computers. (rochester.edu)
  • Just like ordinary computers, however, quantum computers need a way to transfer information between qubits, and this presents a major experimental challenge. (rochester.edu)
  • A quantum computer needs to have many qubits, and they're really difficult to make and operate," Nichol says. (rochester.edu)
  • The state-of-the art right now is doing something with only a few qubits, so we're still a long ways away from realizing the full potential of quantum computers. (rochester.edu)
  • As examples, we show how to create free-electron qubits and implement quantum gates with femtosecond lasers. (stanford.edu)
  • A switchable interaction between pairs of highly coherent qubits is a crucial ingredient for the physical realization of quantum information processing. (rsc.org)
  • Quantum bits-known as qubits-can be in a state of 0, 1, or both a 0 and a 1 simultaneously. (phys.org)
  • Any physical system that is to be exploited as a quantum information processor must therefore exhibit a set of quantum two-level systems (qubits), whose states may be manipulated by the 'operator' of the quantum computer. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Basel working under Professor Christian Sch nenberger have now constructed such a quantum dot between a superconductor and a metal with normal conductivity to study electron transport between the two components. (nanowerk.com)
  • The researchers trapped both an electron and a photon in the device, then adjusted the energy of the electron in such a way that the quantum information could transfer to the photon. (phys.org)
  • The researchers used those same wires to adjust the energy level of the trapped electron to match that of the photon, which is trapped in a superconducting cavity that is fabricated on top of the silicon wafer. (phys.org)
  • By controlling the voltages applied to the device, the researchers can control which pocket the electron occupies. (phys.org)
  • In the coming months, the researchers will begin testing the device with multiple electrons, which would bring a working quantum computer another step closer. (phys.org)
  • Researchers, including in our own labs, were exploring a variety of metamaterials but no one had given the field even a name, said Gabor, who directs the Quantum Materials Optoelectronics lab at UCR. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Using a technique called angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (left), the researchers measured the energy and momentum of electrons as they were ejected from the cadmium arsenide. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Researchers at Princeton University have taken a step forward in the development of a new class of materials, discovering a new quantum effect that enables electrons to dash through the interior of topological Dirac semi-metals with very little resistance. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In topological insulators and the new class of materials the Princeton researchers studied, the unique properties of the atoms combine to create quantum effects that coax electrons into acting similar to a light wave instead of like individual particles. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Recently, researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) demonstrated how a form of light, called microwaves, cuts in on the movement of electrons. (sciseek.com)
  • Researchers can then expose the waiting electrons to electromagnetic radiation, such as microwaves, by capturing the light between the two mirrors within the cell. (sciseek.com)
  • This structure trapped a single layer of electrons below the surface of the chip. (phys.org)
  • Subatomic particles can exist in more than two discrete states, so quantum computers harness electrons to crunch complex data and perform functions at whiplash speed. (sciseek.com)
  • The study of molecular electron and energy transport mechanisms from the single-molecule to the cellular/hybrid-device levels allows us to explore transport optimization at different length scales and in different environments (cellular versus solid-state). (uni-freiburg.de)
  • However, it is for the first time such a quantum coherent response has been observed from a molecule. (innovations-report.com)
  • Turin's idea is that when an odorous molecule lodges in the pocket of a receptor, an electron can burrow right through that molecule from one side to the other, unleashing a cascade of signals on the other side that the brain interprets as a smell. (newscientist.com)
  • Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation by Electrons of a Nanosphere. (ebscohost.com)
  • Theoretically, scientists regarded numbers generated by quantum random number generator as truly random because the generator produce a series of numbers based on photoelectric effect (production of electrons after high frequency electromagnetic radiation absorption by certain metals) and quantum noise (uncertainty of some physical quantity due to its quantum origin) which are the natural sources of signals. (hubpages.com)
  • As discussed from the previous article, the electrons will emit energy in the form of electromagnetic waves when fell from higher energy levels to the lower ones. (hubpages.com)
  • A core electron can be removed from its core-level upon absorption of electromagnetic radiation (X-ray). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electromagnetic fields produced from other sources will affect the motion of an electron according to the Lorentz force law. (wikipedia.org)
  • The device isolates an electron so that can pass its quantum information to a photon, which can then act as a messenger to carry the information to other electrons to form the circuits of the computer. (phys.org)
  • However, the quantum computers which Google, IBM and others are developing are based on superconducting loops, which are complex circuits and, like all quantum systems , are highly fragile. (phys.org)
  • We are looking for a graduate research assistant (must be an admitted MIT graduate student) to develop novel quantum sensors, logic devices and digital circuits based on superconducting nanowires. (mit.edu)
  • The most exciting implications are for building quantum circuits with single devices that can either store or pass quantum information along with the flick of a switch," says McRae. (concordia.ca)
  • In the latter, they possess a mass, and a finite energy (called the energy gap) is necessary to move the electrons from the valence to the conductance band and they move like regular particles, increasing their speed as they get accelerated. (nanowerk.com)
  • The electronic conductance at zero temperature through a quantum wire with side-connected asymmetric quantum ring (as a scatter system) is theoretically studied using the non-interacting Hamiltonian Anderson tunneling method. (ijnd.ir)
  • Also changing the distance between quantum dot rings influences the amplitude of resonant peaks in the QW conductance spectrum. (ijnd.ir)
  • The proposed asymmetric quantum ring scatter system idea in this paper opens a new insight on the designing of nano structure quantum wire for a given electrical conductance. (ijnd.ir)
  • is the effective electron mass in the well, and so depends strongly on the QW thickness. (mdpi.com)
  • We show that the asymmetric structure of QD-scatter system strongly influences the amplitude and spectrum of electron transport characteristics through a quantum wire. (ijnd.ir)
  • A significant push to develop materials that harness the quantum nature of atoms is driving the need for methods to build atomically precise electronics and sensors. (ornl.gov)
  • We show that the decrease in the average energy of the electron beam may be used to measure the Gaunt factor g for synchrotron emission. (chalmers.se)
  • We derive an equation for the evolution of the variance in the energy of the electron beam in the quantum regime, i.e. quantum efficiency parameter eta (sic) 1. (chalmers.se)