Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)TritiumGolgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Spectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss: A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Nissl Bodies: Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.
The two major types of electron microscopes are transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes ( ... They are often used in tomography (see micro-computed tomography) to produce three dimensional images of objects, including ... the electron microscope (both, the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and the various types ... Scanning optical and electron microscopes, like the confocal microscope and scanning electron microscope, use lenses to focus a ...
... high resolution transmission electron microscopes), and differ from analytical TEMs mainly in the design of the electron beam ... In X-ray tomography, the same physical principles can be used to increase image contrast by highlighting small details of ... The retardation of the light results in some waves being 'out of phase' with others, and so to the human eye a microscope in ... All of these methods produce images that can be used to calculate the projections (integrals) of the refractive index in the ...
This contrasts with electron tomography, where the viewing angles are limited due to the geometry of the sample/imaging set up ... Due to the nature of image formation in the electron microscope, bright-field TEM images are obtained using significant ... Images (micrographs) collected on film are digitized using high-quality scanners, although increasingly electron microscopes ... whereby strong image averages produced by classification are used as reference images for a subsequent alignment of the whole ...
... s are unlike conventional optical or electron microscopes, in that the magnification effect comes from the ... Modern day atom probe tomography (APT) uses a position-sensitive detector to deduce the lateral location of atoms. The idea of ... Rather than attempt to determine the identity of a surface species producing a preselected ion-image spot, we wish to determine ... It combined a field ion microscope with a mass spectrometer having a single particle detection capability and, for the first ...
... is underdeveloped in non-light microscopes. X-ray and electron microscopes typically have a large depth of ... producing a clear image of the plane of the sample the microscope is focused on. Unfortunately a microscope is not this ... Tomography, which is particularly well developed for transmission electron microscopy. Qian, Jia; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yao, ... Although similar physics guides the focusing process, Scanning probe microscopes and scanning electron microscopes are not ...
... electron tomography can benefit from the reduction of dynamic contrast effects. Tomography entails collecting a series of ... is a specialized method to collect electron diffraction patterns in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). By rotating ( ... However, with Cs corrected microscopes, the probe can be made much smaller. Precession electron diffraction is typically ... This produces a quasi-kinematical diffraction pattern that is more suitable as input into direct methods algorithms to ...
During the 1920s and 1930s, S & H started to manufacture radios, television sets, and electron microscopes.[17] ... A 1973 Siemens electron microscope on display at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris. ... The new plant is expected to begin producing turbine rotor blades in 2016. The plant and the associated service center, in ... Schenectady, USA, energy industry software and training),[71] CTI Molecular Imaging (Positron emission tomography and molecular ...
The key idea is that the sample is pumped with high levels of energy such that all of its electrons are saturated to the ... Photoacoustic tomography, is able to complement these super resolution techniques and achieve much greater field of depth and ... Finally, the diffuser was rotated to produce a series of PA images for 100 different speckle patterns, and the mean and ... "Live Cell Multicolor Structured Illumination Microscope (SIM) , Janelia Research Campus". www.janelia.org. Retrieved 2017-10-29 ...
... with electrons,[11][12] and with buckyball molecules large enough to be seen under an electron microscope.[13] ... optical coherence tomography Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a medical imaging technique using low-coherence ... A focusing lens produces what would be an inverted image of the source if the paired flats were not present; i.e. in the ... 24 and 25, phase contrast and DIC microscopes allow unstained, living cells to be studied.[98] DIC also has non-biological ...
Programmable array microscopes (PAM) use an electronically controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) that produces a set of ... obtained is best explained by comparing it with another scanning technique like that of the scanning electron microscope (SEM ... "Confocal X-ray Fluorescence Imaging and XRF Tomography for Three Dimensional Trace Element Microanalysis". Microscopy and ... The Tandem-Scanning-Microscope[edit]. Scheme of Petráň's Tandem-Scanning-Microscope. Red bar added to indicate the Nipkow-Disk. ...
... is a form of tomography involving optical microscopy.[1] The OPT technique is sometimes referred to as Optical Computed Tomography (optical-CT) and Optical Emission Computed Tomography (optical-ECT) in the literature, to address the fact that the technique bears similarity to X-ray computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).[2] It is in many ways the optical equivalent of X-ray computed tomography or the medical CT scan. OPT differs in the way that it often uses ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared photons as opposed to X-ray photons. However, essential mathematics and reconstruction algorithms used for CT and OPT are similar; for example, radon transform or iterative reconstruction based on projection data are used in both medical CT scan and OPT for 3D reconstruction. Both medical CT and OPT compute 3D volumes based on transmission of the photon through the ...
As previously mentioned, electrical conductivity and permittivity vary among biological tissue types and depend on their free ion content.[2][3][8] Further factors affecting conductivity include temperature and other physiological factors, e.g. the respiratory cycle between in- and expiration when lung tissue becomes more conductive due to lower content of insulating air within its alveoli. After positioning surface electrodes through adhesive electrodes, an electrode belt or a conductive electrode vest around the body part of interest, alternating currents of typically a few milliamperes at a frequency of 10-100 kHz will be applied across two or more drive electrodes. The remaining electrodes will be used to measure the resulting voltage. The procedure will then be repeated for numerous "stimulation patterns", e.g. successive pairs of adjacent electrodes until an entire circle has been completed and image reconstruction can be carried out and displayed by a digital workstation that incorporates ...
Traditional colour-film camera images are the reference standard in imaging, requiring an expert ophthalmic photographer, ophthalmic technician, optometrist or an ophthalmologist for taking standardised pictures of the optic disc. Stereoscopic images offer an excellent investigative tool for serial follow-up of suspected changes in the hands of an expert optometrist or ophthalmologist. Automated techniques have also been developed to allow for more efficient and less expensive imaging. Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT), scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography are computerised techniques for imaging various structures of the eyes, including the optic disc. They quantify the nerve fiber layer of disc and surrounding retina and statistically correlate the findings with a database of previously screened population of normals. They are useful for baseline and serial follow-up to monitor minute changes in optic disc morphology. Imaging will not provide ...
Starting with the effects to discover the causes has concerned physicists for centuries. A historical example is the calculations of Adams and Le Verrier which led to the discovery of Neptune from the perturbed trajectory of Uranus. However, a formal study of inverse problems was not initiated until the 20th century. One of the earliest examples of a solution to an inverse problem was discovered by Hermann Weyl and published in 1911, describing the asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator.[1] Today known as Weyl's law, it is perhaps most easily understood as an answer to the question of whether it is possible to hear the shape of a drum. Weyl conjectured that the eigenfrequencies of a drum would be related to the area and perimeter of the drum by a particular equation, which has later been improved upon by many mathematicians. The field of inverse problems was later touched on by Soviet-Armenian physicist, Viktor Ambartsumian.[2][3]. While still a student, Ambartsumian ...
The castle is a mix of styles from Gothic to Renaissance. Prince Elector Ruprecht III (1398-1410) erected the first building in the inner courtyard as a royal residence. The building was divided into a ground floor made of stone and framework upper levels. Another royal building is located opposite the Ruprecht Building: the Fountain Hall. Prince Elector Philipp (1476-1508) is said to have arranged the transfer of the hall's columns from a decayed palace of Charlemagne from Ingelheim to Heidelberg. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Prince Electors added two palace buildings and turned the fortress into a castle. The two dominant buildings at the eastern and northern side of the courtyard were erected during the rule of Ottheinrich (1556-1559) and Friedrich IV (1583-1610). Under Friedrich V (1613-1619), the main building of the west side was erected, the so-called "English Building". The castle and its garden were destroyed several times during the Thirty Years' War and the Palatine War of ...
An acoustic hailing device (AHD) is a specialized loudspeaker that emits high-power sound waves for communicating at a distance. AHDs vary in design, output, and usability. Acoustic hailing devices are acoustic devices capable of outputting highly intelligible sound at very high volumes. The distance at which acoustic hailing can be effective varies based on several factors including the sound level, directionality, and frequency of the acoustic source, the sensitivity and directionality of the receiver, and the transmission channel environment. The sound level diminishes or attenuates with distance. Consequently, as a general rule, higher source levels have greater range. Acoustic hailing devices can come in two forms; Directional models: These AHDs are characterized by their ability to create long-range, directional voice communications and warning tones. Their directionality is typically 5° to 60° radius conical at a 2 kHz tone. Omnidirectional models: These acoustic hailing devices are ...
... ar eller plasmamembranar er biologiske membranar som omgjev ei selle. Dei er sette saman av eit dobbelt lipidlag med eit hydrofobt indre, og slepp ikkje inn ion og polare molekyl.[1] Gram-negative-bakteriar har to sellemembranar, ein indre og ein ytre.[2]. Sellemembranar kan ha mange protein knytte til seg, og det har vore estimert at 30 % av dei proteinkodande gena i menneskegenomet er integrale membranprotein.[3] Mellom desse proteina er protein som kan sleppa inn og ut ion (ionekanalar)[4], vatn (akvaporin)[5] og andre molekyl (til dømes glukosetransportørar[6]). ...
... ar eller plasmamembranar er biologiske membranar som omgjev ei selle. Dei er sette saman av eit dobbelt lipidlag med eit hydrofobt indre, og slepp ikkje inn ion og polare molekyl.[1] Gram-negative-bakteriar har to sellemembranar, ein indre og ein ytre.[2] Sellemembranar kan ha mange protein knytte til seg, og det har vore estimert at 30 % av dei proteinkodande gena i menneskegenomet er integrale membranprotein.[3] Mellom desse proteina er protein som kan sleppa inn og ut ion (ionekanalar)[4], vatn (akvaporin)[5] og andre molekyl (til dømes glukosetransportørar[6]). ...
... ar eller plasmamembranar er biologiske membranar som omgjev ei selle. Dei er sette saman av eit dobbelt lipidlag med eit hydrofobt indre, og slepp ikkje inn ion og polare molekyl.[1] Gram-negative-bakteriar har to sellemembranar, ein indre og ein ytre.[2] Sellemembranar kan ha mange protein knytte til seg, og det har vore estimert at 30 % av dei proteinkodande gena i menneskegenomet er integrale membranprotein.[3] Mellom desse proteina er protein som kan sleppa inn og ut ion (ionekanalar)[4], vatn (akvaporin)[5] og andre molekyl (til dømes glukosetransportørar[6]). ...
Cafodd Mendeleev ei eni yn Tobolsk, Siberia, i Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev a Maria Dmitrievna Mendeleeva (nee Kornilieva). Nid oes sicrwydd, ond mae'n debygol mai Mendeleev oedd y 13eg o 17 o blant. Roedd ei rieni yn perchen ar ffatri cynhyrchu gwydr, ac wrth weithio yna magwyd ei ddiddordeb cynnar yng nghemeg, ac yn 13 dechreuodd ef fynychu'r gymnasium yn Tobolsk. Collodd ef ei dad yn gynnar, ac yn 1849, symudodd y teulu i St Petersberg, lle ddechreuodd y Mendeleev ifanc astudio yn y brif athrofa bedagogaidd. Ar ôl iddo ennill ei radd, dioddefodd o salwch arw, ac fe symudodd i'r Crimea i weithio fel athro gwyddoniaeth yn y gymnasium lleol. Yn 1857, ar ôl iddo wella, cafodd gyfle i ddychwelyd i St Petersberg, cyn treulio cyfnod yn yr Almaen ym mhrifysgol Heidelberg. Yn 1862, fe briododd Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva, cyn ennill swydd fel athro prifysgol yn athrofa dechnolegol a phrifysgol St Petersburg. Erbyn 1871, roedd ei waith wedi llwyddo i wneud St Petersberg yn ganolfan fyd-enwog am ymchwil ...
MRC is a file format that has become industry standard in cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and electron tomography (ET), where the result of the technique is a three-dimensional grid of voxels each with a value corresponding to electron density or electric potential. It was developed by the MRC (Medical Research Council, UK) Laboratory of Molecular Biology.[1] In 2014, the format was standardised.[2] The format specification is available on the CCP-EM website. The MRC format is supported by many of the software packages listed in b:Software Tools For Molecular Microscopy. ...
Within a transition metal group moving down the series corresponds with an increase in Δ. The observed result is larger Δ splitting for complexes in octahedral geometries based around transition metal centers of the second or third row, periods 5 and 6 respectively. This Δ splitting is generally large enough that these complexes do not exist as high-spin state. This is true even when the metal center is coordinated to weak field ligands. It is only octahedral coordination complexes which are centered on first row transition metals that fluctuate between high and low-spin states. The charge of the metal center plays a role in the ligand field and the Δ splitting. The higher the oxidation state of the metal, the stronger the ligand field that is created. In the event that there are two metals with the same d electron configuration, the one with the higher oxidation state is more likely to be low spin than the one with the lower oxidation state. For example, ...
A Luttinger liquid, or Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, is a theoretical model describing interacting electrons (or other fermions) in a one-dimensional conductor (e.g. quantum wires such as carbon nanotubes). Such a model is necessary as the commonly used Fermi liquid model breaks down for one dimension. The Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid was first proposed by Tomonaga in 1950. The model showed that under certain constraints, second-order interactions between electrons could be modelled as bosonic interactions. In 1963, Luttinger reformulated the theory in terms of Bloch sound waves and showed that the constraints proposed by Tomonaga were unnecessary in order to treat the second-order perturbations as bosons. But his solution of the model was incorrect; the correct solution was given by Mattis and Lieb 1965. Luttinger liquid theory describes low energy excitations in a 1D ...
As with all microscopes, soft X-ray microscopes produce only 2D projections of the specimen. Cells are sufficiently complex ... This microscope is fitted with a modified electron microscopy cryo-rotation stage and is therefore subject to limitations on ... Tomography. a method for calculating a 3D volumetric reconstruction of the specimen from 2D microscope images. Water window. ... Baumeister W. Electron tomography: towards visualizing the molecular organization of the cytoplasm. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. ...
Although significant limitations to their use exist (e.g., the need for a vacuum to produce and transmit electrons, electron ... in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine chemical composition;5 and (3) electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) ... Electron microscopes, invented in the 1930s, can also yield chemical information over a range of length scales. By examining ... J. Microsc. 201:395-403; electron tomography (cryoelectron microscopy) of a microtubule, courtesy Ken Downing, Lawrence ...
"Producing a three-dimensional map of just a cubic millimeter of the brain with an electron microscope requires processing ... It may be possible to examine minuscule brain regions piece by piece with electron microscopes then compute them together into ... "We have begun doing X-ray tomography on large brain tissues, then weve gone deeper into specific tiny regions of interest in ... "FMRIs image at a high level, and with many microscopes, youre zoomed in too far to recognize the forest for the trees," Dyer ...
Xradia products utilize advanced X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging methodology and optics to nondestructively produce 3D ... adds a new dimension to ever more sophisticated evolutions in imaging techniques including light and electron microscopes and ... Xradia Announces the Purchase of its VersaXRM-500 3D X-Ray Microscope by University of Manchester ... Xradia produces state-of-the-art far-field ambient environment imaging systems capable of 3D imaging with resolution below 50 ...
Electron microscopy is frequently portrayed as a discipline that stands alone, separated from molecular biology, light ... Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopes (IVEM), Electron Tomography, and Single-Particle Electron Microscopy ... Fixation electron microscopy microscopy scanning electron microscope transmission electron microscopy Authors and affiliations ... ments required a level of knowledge about electron optics and vacuum systems to produce optimal photographs and to avoid " ...
Service Request for Electron Microscopes. * Service Contracts for Electron Microscopes. * Register Your Electron Microscope ... The electrons interact with the sample as they pass through it, producing information about the internal structure of the ... Versatile micro computed-tomography instruments provide solutions for quantitative analysis for a variety of research ... Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) generate images by scanning a sample with a focused beam of electrons. The interaction of ...
11 What is a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) ? In a typical SEM electrons are emitted from a tungsten cathode and are ... Around 900kg of clinker is used in each 1000kg of cement produced so the global cement industry produces around 1.4 tonnes of ... the majority of respondents involved in techniques and instruments stated that they used scanning electron microscopes (35%) ... 12 What is Synchrotron Radiation Tomography/ Soft X-Ray Transmission Microscopy? This is the use of electromagnetic radiation ...
Electron microscopes focus streams of electrons rather than light to see incredibly tiny things. The short wavelength of an ... He calls his technique "individual-particle electron tomography," or IPET. The work is described in the January 24 issue of ... Ren has pushed his Zeiss Libra 120 Cryo-Tem microscope to resolutions never envisioned by its German manufacturers, producing ... Under the electron microscope - a 3-D image of an individual protein Share: ...
ZEN Correlative Array Tomography to connect your light and electron microscope to reconstruct your sample in 3D and produce one ... Latest: X-Radia Versa 600-Series is the New Generation of X-Ray Microscopes from ZEISS ... ZEN Correlative Array Tomography to connect your light and electron microscope to reconstruct your sample in 3D and produce one ... Application Note: 3D Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy for Serial Sections. 6 May 2016 ...
"Producing a three-dimensional map of just a cubic millimeter of the brain with an electron microscope requires processing ... It may be possible to examine minuscule brain regions piece by piece with electron microscopes then compute them together into ... They were based on the X-ray tomography, but a lot was involved in getting from the X-ray to the image. ... then weve gone deeper into specific tiny regions of interest in the same tissue with an electron microscope to see the full ...
Transmission Electron Microscopy has many applications across a multitude of industry sectors. It allows 2D and 3D-imaging of ... Wageningen Electron Microscopy Center The Transmission Electron Microscopes and sample preparation facilities are embedded in ... The JEOL JEM-1400Plus Transmission Electron Microscope offers ultimate in 120kV performance for a wide range of applications. ... Tomography Tomography data collection program SerialEM can be used to automate acquisition of tilt-series. These EM tilt series ...
Biocenter Oulu Electron Microscopy Core Facility provides services and training in various electron microscopy techniques for ... In the dual beam electron microscope the focused gallium ion beam and electron source are arranged at an angle which allows the ... Tomography. Electron microscopic tomography is a technique that enables the examination of three-dimensional biological ... consultancy on experimental planning and provide training for sample preparation and operation of electron microscopes. With ...
"After the NDE work, a scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) will be used to ... For EFT-1, the initial surveys and characterizations produced 25 ROIs on backshell thermal protection system tiles. An internal ... of the suspected MMOD impact features using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy. ... MMOD damage were removed and sent to the HVIT group at JSC for additional analysis with higher magnification microscopes and 2D ...
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons ... This capability will be directly linked to data generated by X-Ray tomography, allowing precious samples to be analysed via a ... The focussed Ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIBSEM) takes this one step further by allowing these features to be viewed ... Equipment includes a suite of high resolution scanning electron microscopes, a focussed ion beam SEM, a correlated optical ...
19, 2018Webcast Complete Fly Brain Imaged at Nanoscale Resolution Two high-speed electron microscopes. 7,062 brain slices. 21 ... In recent years, AFMs have produced .... *. Oct. 06, 2015. News. 3D Imaging: Electron Tomography with 3487 Images in 3.5 ... New Microscope: Instrument Scans Images 2,000 Times Faster than Commercial Models. State-of-the-art atomic force microscopes ( ... Two high-speed electron microscopes. 7,062 brain slices. 21 million images. For a team of scientists at the Howard Hughes ...
Under the electron microscope (EM), insulin granules are usually spherical organelles containing an electron dense-core ... the emergence of volumetric electron microscopy techniques such as electron tomography and focused ion beam scanning electron ... and offers good transferability in handling of data from different electron microscopes. Therefore, MFCN can be represented as ... As the dense-core is produced by the co-crystallization of Zinc and insulin, these changes suggest that defects in insulin ...
... the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)[8] produces images by detecting low energy secondary electrons which are emitted from ... had patented the electron microscope in 1931, although Siemens was doing no research on electron microscopes at that time. In ... Electron tomography. *Cellular tomography. *Cryo-electron microscopy. *Toxicology. *Biological production and viral load ... Reflection Electron Microscope (REM). In the Reflection Electron Microscope (REM) as in the TEM, an electron beam is incident ...
The two major types of electron microscopes are transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes ( ... They are often used in tomography (see micro-computed tomography) to produce three dimensional images of objects, including ... the electron microscope (both, the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and the various types ... Scanning optical and electron microscopes, like the confocal microscope and scanning electron microscope, use lenses to focus a ...
Three-dimensional electron microscopy (EM) analysis is performed by the method of electron microscopic tomography, which, by ... The Howard Hughes Medical Institutes intermediate voltage electron microscope equipped with an ultrahigh angle tilt stage and ... State-of-the-art imaging methods for both kinds of microscopes have been coupled with advanced three-dimensional image ... now developing an optimal strategy for combining the information in several images taken at different focus levels to produce a ...
Table 1. Comparison of different electron guns used to produce a beam in an electron microscope. Data obtained from Hitachi ( ... These can be split into two main categories, transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). ... 3D data of 200-500 nm-thick sections of cells and tissues can be obtained using a technique called electron tomography. ... Secondary electrons (SE) are low energy electrons produced by small energy transfers between electrons from the beam and ...
New chemical imaging electron microscopes, which permit recording of images created with electrons with a well-defined energy ... Biologists have made use of electron tomography (the electron equivalent of the X-ray CAT scan) to reconstruct ... For the ultimate in resolution, the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is necessary, but until recently TEM images of ... the image thus produced has a resolution much better than that of conventional optical microscopes, but without the problems ( ...
With its award, FSU will purchase a top-of-the-line, robotic electron microscope capable of rapid 3-D imaging of frozen ... In addition, two high-powered electron microscopes, such as the one to Florida State University (FSU), will be supported ... two cyclotrons for producing new probes for noninvasive imaging at the molecular level; and many other types of specialized ... a new system that combines positron emission tomography (PET) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into one hybrid system. ...
TEAM I is a double-aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) capable of producing images with 50 ... Energy filtered imaging and high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. *Three-dimensional electron tomography in both ... NCEM operates an array of state-of-the art electron microscopes, offering a wide range of capabilities for materials ... The Spin-Polarized Low-Energy Electron Microscope (SPLEEM) is a unique low-voltage electron microscope for the study of ...
The scanning electron microscope and 3D Tomography Advanced module were used for a 3D BSE reconstruction of an integrated ... Core product groups include electron microscopes (SEMs and TEMs), instruments for the semiconductor industry (electron beam ... Damiano, Jr, MD,. The plasma chemical splitting of carbon dioxide (CO 2) to produce carbon monoxide (CO) in a pulsed corona ... Focused Ion Beam (FIB) The focused ion beam (FIB) is an extension to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tescan Amber X is a ...
Core product groups include electron microscopes (SEMs and TEMs), instruments for the semiconductor industry (electron beam ... JEOL is a world leader in electron optical equipment and instrumentation for high-end scientific and industrial research and ... "Electron micrographs of phase contrast electron microscope":. [1] F. Zernike (1942) Phase contrast, a new method for the ... The optimal design for phase contrast cryo-electron tomography demands careful consideration of all optical elements to ...
  • The focussed Ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIBSEM) takes this one step further by allowing these features to be viewed in three dimensions at the same high resolution. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Our FIB-SEMs are capable of producing ultra-thin samples for S/TEM and creating fully functional nanoscale prototype devices. (thermofisher.com)
  • EDS uses X-Rays emitted from the sample after electron bombardment to map composition changes, whilst EBSD takes advantage of structurally sensitive electron interactions to map changes in the crystal structure. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • 13. The system of claim 1 , wherein upon placement of the support tape in a chamber of an electron microscope and upon subsequent bombardment of electrons on to the support tape, the electrons are permitted to travel freely along a surface of the support tape so that the support tape does not exhibit charging. (google.ca)
  • Recent technological advances, such as the introduction of the direct electron detector, have transformed the field of cryo-EM and the landscape of molecular and cellular structural biology. (iucr.org)
  • The image is magnified and focused onto an imaging device, such as a fluorescent screen, on a layer of photographic film, or to be detected by a sensor such as a direct electron detector. (structuralbiology.eu)
  • At the Molecular Foundry, Berkeley Lab's acclaimed nanotechnology research center, Ren has pushed his Zeiss Libra 120 Cryo-Tem microscope to resolutions never envisioned by its German manufacturers, producing detailed snapshots of individual molecules. (berkeley.edu)
  • There are countless specialized techniques in the field of electron and light microscopy that require the acquisition of specialized knowledge, particularly for interpretation of results (electron tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy immediately come to mind), but most laboratories possessing the equipment to effect these approaches have specialists to help the casual user. (springer.com)
  • The University of California, San Diego's Nanofabrication Cleanroom Facility (Nano3) is the first institution to obtain a novel FEI Scios dual-beam microscope, with an adaptation for use at cryogenic temperatures. (imaging-git.com)
  • State-of-the-art atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are designed to capture images of structures as small as a fraction of a nanometer - a million times smaller than the width of a human hair. (imaging-git.com)
  • The high-resolution electron microscope has evolved into a sophisticated instrument that is capable of routinely providing quantitative structural information on the atomic scale. (structuralbiology.eu)
  • Using cryo-electron microscopy it has become possible to generate reconstructions with sub-nanometer resolution and near-atomic resolution first in the case of highly symmetric viruses, and now in smaller, asymmetric proteins as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Platform and poster presentations will include the emergence of novel approaches and instrumentation for electron holography, as well as providing an overview of latest applications to piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, measurement of charge, magnetic nanostructures, both natural and man-made, and dopant profiling in semiconductor devices. (microscopy.org)
  • A powerful X-ray tomography scanner allowed the researchers to image particularly thick sections of the brains of mice, which afforded them views into intact neural areas much larger than are customary in microscope imaging. (eurekalert.org)
  • FMRIs image at a high level, and with many microscopes, you're zoomed in too far to recognize the forest for the trees," Dyer said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unique helical scanning and iterative reconstruction technology produce unsurpassed image fidelity and deliver the highest signal-to-noise ratio compared to traditional circular scanning technology. (thermofisher.com)
  • He's equipped the microscope with a $300,000 CCD camera, some powerful image-processing software, special contrasting agents, and a device called an "energy filter" that sifts through the digitized camera data and culls weak signals. (berkeley.edu)
  • The spatial variation in this information (the "image") is recorded by projecting the magnified electron image onto a fluorescent viewing screen coated with a phosphor or scintillator material such as zinc sulfide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2018 ). However, different from natural images, we only have a small electron micrograph dataset annotated, in which insulin granules only occupy a small portion of the image. (springer.com)
  • The optimal design for phase contrast cryo-electron tomography demands careful consideration of all optical elements to maximize image contrast, and features necessary in a dedicated column configuration have been incorporated in the JEM-2200FS. (jeolusa.com)
  • The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This class covers the fundamental principles underlying cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) starting with the basic anatomy of electron microscopes, an introduction to Fourier transforms, and the principles of image formation. (coursera.org)
  • Due to the nature of image formation in the electron microscope, bright-field TEM images are obtained using significant underfocus. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEAM 0.5 was the first electron microscope in the world to demonstrate 50pm resolution in both TEM and STEM modes and 0.1eV energy resolution. (lbl.gov)
  • The TitanX is equipped to do fast energy dispersive X-ray mapping (EDS), high-angle STEM or TEM tomography, and in-situ heating/biasing experiments, as well as STEM/TEM. (lbl.gov)
  • This 200 kV TEM is equipped with a field emission electron source, STEM imaging mode, Gatan energy filter and Edax EDS. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • The so-called TEAM0.5 microscope housing CEOS's improved C s correctors for TEM and STEM is running at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL). (ceos-gmbh.de)
  • Xradia produces state-of-the-art far-field ambient environment imaging systems capable of 3D imaging with resolution below 50 nm. (azooptics.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, for example, will benefit from the latest hybrid imaging technology - a new system that combines positron emission tomography (PET) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into one hybrid system. (nih.gov)
  • It is meant for anyone interested in the burgeoning fields of cryo-EM and 3-D EM, including cell biologists or molecular biologists without extensive training in mathematics or imaging physics and practicing electron microscopists who want to broaden their understanding of the field. (coursera.org)
  • He was recruited to work at Berkeley Lab in August 2010 from the University of California at San Francisco, where he had used a cryo-electron microscope and more conventional averaging techniques to discern the 3-D structure of LDL - the "bad cholesterol" thought to be a major risk factor for heart disease. (berkeley.edu)
  • Others are at the state of the art, or offer forefront capabilities and techniques such as in-situ nanoindentation, spin-polarized low-energy microscopy, or tomography. (lbl.gov)
  • This symposium will consider recent advances in electron holography techniques and applications. (microscopy.org)