Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission.

Electron microscopic visualization of fluorescent signals in cellular compartments and organelles by means of DAB-photoconversion. (1/303)

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Cryo-electron tomography of cells: connecting structure and function. (2/303)

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Evaluation of denoising algorithms for biological electron tomography. (3/303)

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Nanoscale increases in CD2-CD48-mediated intermembrane spacing decrease adhesion and reorganize the immunological synapse. (4/303)

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The three-dimensional network of the thylakoid membranes in plants: quasihelical model of the granum-stroma assembly. (5/303)

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Cryoelectron tomography of HIV-1 envelope spikes: further evidence for tripod-like legs. (6/303)

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Molecular architecture of inner dynein arms in situ in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella. (7/303)

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Tomographic subvolume alignment and subvolume classification applied to myosin V and SIV envelope spikes. (8/303)

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Tomography is a medical imaging technique used to produce cross-sectional images or slices of specific areas of the body. This technique uses various forms of radiation (X-rays, gamma rays) or sound waves (ultrasound) to create detailed images of the internal structures, such as organs, bones, and tissues. Common types of tomography include Computerized Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The primary advantage of tomography is its ability to provide clear and detailed images of internal structures, allowing healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions.

Electron microscope tomography (EMT) is a 3D imaging technique used in electron microscopy. It involves collecting a series of images of a sample at different tilt angles, and then using computational algorithms to reconstruct the 3D structure of the sample from these images.

In EMT, a sample is prepared and placed in an electron microscope, where it is exposed to a beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, producing contrast that allows the features of the sample to be visualized. By tilting the sample and collecting images at multiple angles, a range of perspectives can be obtained, which are then used to create a 3D reconstruction of the sample.

EMT is a powerful tool for studying the ultrastructure of cells and tissues, as it allows researchers to visualize structures that may not be visible using other imaging techniques. It has been used to study a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, organelles, and cells.

EMT is a complex technique that requires specialized equipment and expertise to perform. However, it can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of biological systems, making it an important tool in the field of biology and medicine.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

An electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e-, with a negative electric charge. Electrons are fundamental components of atoms and are responsible for the chemical bonding between atoms to form molecules. They are located in an atom's electron cloud, which is the outermost region of an atom and contains negatively charged electrons that surround the positively charged nucleus.

Electrons have a mass that is much smaller than that of protons or neutrons, making them virtually weightless on the atomic scale. They are also known to exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties, which is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. Electrons play a crucial role in various physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, and chemical reactions.

Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called a radiotracer, to produce detailed, three-dimensional images. This technique measures metabolic activity within the body, such as sugar metabolism, to help distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify cancerous cells, or examine the function of organs.

During a PET scan, the patient is injected with a radiotracer, typically a sugar-based compound labeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope, such as fluorine-18 (^18^F). The radiotracer accumulates in cells that are metabolically active, like cancer cells. As the radiotracer decays, it emits positrons, which then collide with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays. A special camera, called a PET scanner, detects these gamma rays and uses this information to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and processes.

PET is often used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide both functional and anatomical information, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Common applications include detecting cancer recurrence, staging and monitoring cancer, evaluating heart function, and assessing brain function in conditions like dementia and epilepsy.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses low-coherence light to capture high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissues, particularly the retina and other ocular structures. OCT works by measuring the echo time delay of light scattered back from different depths within the tissue, creating a detailed map of the tissue's structure. This technique is widely used in ophthalmology to diagnose and monitor various eye conditions such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Emission computed tomography (ECT) is a type of tomographic imaging technique in which an emission signal from within the body is detected to create cross-sectional images of that signal's distribution. In Emission-Computed Tomography (ECT), a radionuclide is introduced into the body, usually through injection, inhalation or ingestion. The radionuclide emits gamma rays that are then detected by external gamma cameras.

The data collected from these cameras is then used to create cross-sectional images of the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the body. This allows for the identification and quantification of functional information about specific organs or systems within the body, such as blood flow, metabolic activity, or receptor density.

One common type of Emission-Computed Tomography is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), which uses a single gamma camera that rotates around the patient to collect data from multiple angles. Another type is Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which uses positron-emitting radionuclides and detects the coincident gamma rays emitted by the annihilation of positrons and electrons.

Overall, ECT is a valuable tool in medical imaging for diagnosing and monitoring various diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.

Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to transmit through a specimen and create an image based on the interactions between the electrons and the sample. In STEM, the electron beam is scanned across the sample in a raster pattern, similar to how a television or computer monitor displays an image. As the electrons pass through the sample, they interact with the atoms in the material, causing scattering and energy loss. By detecting these scattered and energy-loss electrons, a high-resolution image of the sample can be created.

Scanning transmission electron microscopy is particularly useful for imaging thin specimens with high resolution, making it an important tool in materials science, biology, and other fields where detailed information about the structure and composition of materials is needed. The technique can provide information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and electronic properties of materials at the atomic level.

Overall, scanning transmission electron microscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing materials and understanding their properties at the nanoscale and atomic level.

Spiral Computed Tomography (CT), also known as Helical CT, is a type of computed tomography scan in which the X-ray tube and detector rotate around the patient in a spiral path, capturing data as the table moves the patient through the scanner. This continuous spiral motion allows for faster and more detailed volumetric imaging of internal organs and structures, reducing the need for multiple slices and providing improved image reconstruction. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and trauma injuries.

Microscopy is a technical field in medicine that involves the use of microscopes to observe structures and phenomena that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. It allows for the examination of samples such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms at high magnifications, enabling the detection and analysis of various medical conditions, including infections, diseases, and cellular abnormalities.

There are several types of microscopy used in medicine, including:

1. Light Microscopy: This is the most common type of microscopy, which uses visible light to illuminate and magnify samples. It can be used to examine a wide range of biological specimens, such as tissue sections, blood smears, and bacteria.
2. Electron Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce highly detailed images of samples. It is often used in research settings to study the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
3. Fluorescence Microscopy: This technique involves labeling specific molecules within a sample with fluorescent dyes, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. It can be used to study protein interactions, gene expression, and cell signaling pathways.
4. Confocal Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a laser beam to scan a sample point by point, producing high-resolution images with reduced background noise. It is often used in medical research to study the structure and function of cells and tissues.
5. Scanning Probe Microscopy: This technique involves scanning a sample with a physical probe, allowing for the measurement of topography, mechanical properties, and other characteristics at the nanoscale. It can be used in medical research to study the structure and function of individual molecules and cells.

Optical Tomography (OT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses light to visualize and measure the optical properties of tissue, such as absorption and scattering coefficients. This modality can be used to produce cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of internal structures, providing functional information about tissue physiology. It has applications in various fields including biomedical research, dermatology, and oncology for the detection and monitoring of diseases. There are different types of optical tomography, such as diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which differ in their light sources, detection schemes, and data analysis methods.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a type of computed tomography (CT) scan that uses multiple rows of detectors to acquire several slices of images simultaneously, thereby reducing the total time required for the scan and improving the spatial resolution. This technology allows for faster scanning of moving organs, such as the heart, and provides high-resolution images with detailed information about various body structures, including bones, soft tissues, and blood vessels. MDCT has numerous applications in diagnostic imaging, interventional procedures, and cancer staging and treatment follow-up.

Autoradiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and localize the distribution of radioactively labeled compounds within tissues or organisms. In this process, the subject is first exposed to a radioactive tracer that binds to specific molecules or structures of interest. The tissue is then placed in close contact with a radiation-sensitive film or detector, such as X-ray film or an imaging plate.

As the radioactive atoms decay, they emit particles (such as beta particles) that interact with the film or detector, causing chemical changes and leaving behind a visible image of the distribution of the labeled compound. The resulting autoradiogram provides information about the location, quantity, and sometimes even the identity of the molecules or structures that have taken up the radioactive tracer.

Autoradiography has been widely used in various fields of biology and medical research, including pharmacology, neuroscience, genetics, and cell biology, to study processes such as protein-DNA interactions, gene expression, drug metabolism, and neuronal connectivity. However, due to the use of radioactive materials and potential hazards associated with them, this technique has been gradually replaced by non-radioactive alternatives like fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunofluorescence techniques.

Emission-Computed Tomography, Single-Photon (SPECT) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure that generates detailed, three-dimensional images of the distribution of radioactive pharmaceuticals within the body. It uses gamma rays emitted by a radiopharmaceutical that is introduced into the patient's body, and a specialized gamma camera to detect these gamma rays and create tomographic images. The data obtained from the SPECT imaging can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, evaluate organ function, and guide treatment decisions. It is commonly used to image the heart, brain, and bones, among other organs and systems.

Organoids are 3D tissue cultures grown from stem cells that mimic the structure and function of specific organs. They are used in research to study development, disease, and potential treatments. The term "organoid" refers to the fact that these cultures can organize themselves into structures that resemble rudimentary organs, with differentiated cell types arranged in a pattern similar to their counterparts in the body. Organoids can be derived from various sources, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), or adult stem cells, and they provide a valuable tool for studying complex biological processes in a controlled laboratory setting.

'Staining and labeling' are techniques commonly used in pathology, histology, cytology, and molecular biology to highlight or identify specific components or structures within tissues, cells, or molecules. These methods enable researchers and medical professionals to visualize and analyze the distribution, localization, and interaction of biological entities, contributing to a better understanding of diseases, cellular processes, and potential therapeutic targets.

Medical definitions for 'staining' and 'labeling' are as follows:

1. Staining: A process that involves applying dyes or stains to tissues, cells, or molecules to enhance their contrast and reveal specific structures or components. Stains can be categorized into basic stains (which highlight acidic structures) and acidic stains (which highlight basic structures). Common staining techniques include Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), which differentiates cell nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm and extracellular matrix; special stains, such as PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) for carbohydrates or Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers; and immunostains, which use antibodies to target specific proteins.
2. Labeling: A process that involves attaching a detectable marker or tag to a molecule of interest, allowing its identification, quantification, or tracking within a biological system. Labels can be direct, where the marker is directly conjugated to the targeting molecule, or indirect, where an intermediate linker molecule is used to attach the label to the target. Common labeling techniques include fluorescent labels (such as FITC, TRITC, or Alexa Fluor), enzymatic labels (such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase), and radioactive labels (such as ³²P or ¹⁴C). Labeling is often used in conjunction with staining techniques to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of detection.

Together, staining and labeling provide valuable tools for medical research, diagnostics, and therapeutic development, offering insights into cellular and molecular processes that underlie health and disease.

Histological techniques are a set of laboratory methods and procedures used to study the microscopic structure of tissues, also known as histology. These techniques include:

1. Tissue fixation: The process of preserving tissue specimens to maintain their structural integrity and prevent decomposition. This is typically done using formaldehyde or other chemical fixatives.
2. Tissue processing: The preparation of fixed tissues for embedding by removing water, fat, and other substances that can interfere with sectioning and staining. This is usually accomplished through a series of dehydration, clearing, and infiltration steps.
3. Embedding: The placement of processed tissue specimens into a solid support medium, such as paraffin or plastic, to facilitate sectioning.
4. Sectioning: The cutting of thin slices (usually 4-6 microns thick) from embedded tissue blocks using a microtome.
5. Staining: The application of dyes or stains to tissue sections to highlight specific structures or components. This can be done through a variety of methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and special stains for specific cell types or molecules.
6. Mounting: The placement of stained tissue sections onto glass slides and covering them with a mounting medium to protect the tissue from damage and improve microscopic visualization.
7. Microscopy: The examination of stained tissue sections using a light or electron microscope to observe and analyze their structure and composition.

These techniques are essential for the diagnosis and study of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infections. They allow pathologists and researchers to visualize and understand the cellular and molecular changes that occur in tissues during disease processes.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a medical imaging technique that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed, cross-sectional images of the body. In dental and maxillofacial radiology, CBCT is used to produce three-dimensional images of the teeth, jaws, and surrounding bones.

CBCT differs from traditional computed tomography (CT) in that it uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam instead of a fan-shaped beam, which allows for a faster scan time and lower radiation dose. The X-ray beam is rotated around the patient's head, capturing data from multiple angles, which is then reconstructed into a three-dimensional image using specialized software.

CBCT is commonly used in dental implant planning, orthodontic treatment planning, airway analysis, and the diagnosis and management of jaw pathologies such as tumors and fractures. It provides detailed information about the anatomy of the teeth, jaws, and surrounding structures, which can help clinicians make more informed decisions about patient care.

However, it is important to note that CBCT should only be used when necessary, as it still involves exposure to ionizing radiation. The benefits of using CBCT must be weighed against the potential risks associated with radiation exposure.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Cell biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of cells, which are the basic units of life. It involves understanding the structure, function, and behavior of cells, as well as their interactions with one another and with their environment. Cell biologists may study various aspects of cellular processes, such as cell growth and division, metabolism, gene expression, signal transduction, and intracellular transport. They use a variety of techniques, including microscopy, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, to investigate the complex and dynamic world inside cells. The ultimate goal of cell biology is to gain a deeper understanding of how cells work, which can have important implications for human health and disease.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Osmium" is not a medical term. It is actually a chemical element with symbol "Os" and atomic number 76. Osmium is a hard, brittle, blue-gray or blue-black transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a minor constituent in some mineral deposits such as placer gold.

It's primarily used in the manufacture of fountain pen tips, electrical contacts, and other specialized applications. Osmium tetroxide, a volatile, pale yellow, water-soluble compound formed by the reaction of osmium with oxygen or chlorine, is used as a fixative and stain in electron microscopy, histology, and in mortuary science for the stabilization and staining of tissues. However, exposure to osmium tetroxide can cause respiratory irritation and damage, so it's handled with great care.

X-ray tomography, also known as computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT), is a medical imaging technique that uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. In this technique, an X-ray source and detectors rotate around the patient, acquiring multiple X-ray projections at different angles. A computer then processes these projections to reconstruct tomographic images (slices) of the internal structures of the body, such as bones, organs, and soft tissues.

The term "tomography" comes from the Greek words "tome," meaning slice or section, and "graphein," meaning to write or record. X-ray tomography allows radiologists and other medical professionals to visualize and diagnose various conditions, such as fractures, tumors, infections, and internal injuries, more accurately and efficiently than with traditional X-ray imaging techniques.

It is important to note that while X-ray tomography provides valuable diagnostic information, it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, the benefits of the examination should outweigh the potential risks, and the use of this technique should be justified based on clinical necessity and patient safety considerations.

"Electron microscope tomography: Transcription in three dimensions". Science. 220 (4596): 498-500. Bibcode:1983Sci...220..498O. ... In his later life, Levy worked on electron tomography of large biological complexes, particularly those transcribing DNA. Levy ...
X-ray computed tomography Electron microscope Neutron microscope Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M ... The resolution of X-ray microscopy lies between that of the optical microscope and the electron microscope. It has an advantage ... are recorded using a light microscope or an electron microscope. A unique advantage that X-ray contact imaging offered over ... Horowitz and Howell built the first synchrotron-based X-ray microscope at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator. This microscope ...
... serial TEM tomography can be used to increase the z-resolution. More recently, back scattered electron (BSE) images can be ... An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of electrons as a source of illumination. They use electron optics that ... The original form of the electron microscope, the transmission electron microscope (TEM), uses a high voltage electron beam to ... Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) Immune electron microscopy In situ electron microscopy Microscope image ...
Electron microscope Cryo-electron microscopy Electron diffraction Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) Energy filtered ... 2006). Electron tomography: methods for three-dimensional visualization of structures in the cell. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387- ... Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) Precession electron diffraction Scanning confocal electron microscopy "Viruses". users. ... is still used in modern microscopes. The worldwide electron microscopy community advanced with electron microscopes being ...
The atomic electron tomography technique is performed in transmission electron microscopes capable of reaching sub-Angstrom ... Fluctuation electron microscopy experiments can be done in conventional or scanning transmission electron microscope mode. ... High quality analysis and processing using atomic electron tomography results in a 3D reconstruction of an amorphous material ... Fluctuation electron microscopy is another transmission electron microscopy based technique that is sensitive to the medium ...
Both disciplines make extensive use of optical and scanning electron microscopes, for example. They also share common use of ... Radiography using X-rays (such as X-ray computed tomography), or neutrons is also very useful in examining thick products for ... Scanning electron microscopy or SEM showed that the nylon connector had fractured by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) due to a ... When a product fails for no obvious reason, SEM and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) performed in the microscope can ...
... and has similarities to dark field imaging in the electron microscope community. Topography is used for monitoring crystal ... Unlike "classical" computed tomography (CT), image contrast is not based on differences in absorption (absorption contrast), ... topo-tomography'". Journal of Applied Crystallography. International Union of Crystallography (IUCr). 34 (5): 602-607. doi: ... tomography, diffraction topography". Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. International Union of Crystallography (IUCr). 7 (3): ...
Samples are imaged in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). As in other electron tomography techniques, the sample is ... Electron microscopy Electron tomography Transmission electron cryomicroscopy Transmission electron microscopy Gan, Lu; Jensen, ... Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an imaging technique used to produce high-resolution (~1-4 nm) three-dimensional views of ... In contrast to other electron tomography techniques, samples are imaged under cryogenic conditions (< −150 °C). For cellular ...
Virions within neurons are visible via electron microscopes. Neuroimaging and lumbar puncture (LP) are both essential methods ... Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) help identify increased intracranial pressure and the risk of ... cytoplasm when viewed with an optical microscope. Because encephalitis is an inflammatory response, inflammatory cells situated ...
Electron microscope, Sterilization, LASERs, Dental, Telemedicine, Heart lung device, DaVinci Surgical Robot, Optometry, ... Positron emission tomography (PET), Medical imaging, Computed tomography (CT), linear tomography, Picture archiving and ...
Eyeglasses, the telescope, the microscope and electron microscope, all the varieties of chromatography, protein and DNA ... Radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and medical ultrasonography are important diagnostic tools ... electron, neutron and proton were all unveiled by Westerners.[citation needed] The world's most widely adopted system of ... sequencing, computerised tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-rays, and light, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, were ...
... including the transmission electron microscope Titan Cubed G-2 60-300, devices requiring the so-called clean room conditions, ... nanotechnology and material nanodiagnostics equipment, a computed tomography scanner to study construction materials, an ... microscopes for microstructure parameter analyses and measurements, as well as various types of laboratory installations ( ... electron microprobe Jeol SuperProbe JXA-8230 that facilitates the determination of elemental contents from boron to uranium in ...
Her early work developed tags for Cryo Electron Tomography (cryo-ET), for which she was awarded an National Institutes of ... Images can be acquired from various angles using a transmission electron microscope and reconstructed to form a three- ... Her research considers the development of Cryo Electron Tomography and structural biology. She was named a Howard Hughes ... "New Nano3 microscope will allow high-resolution look inside cells". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 2021-09-27. "NIH Director's New ...
... from microscopes (electron, optical), X-ray tomography (CT, micro-/nano-CT, synchrotron), neutron tomography and other ... Leschner, J.; Biskupek, J.; Chuvilin, A.; Kaiser, U. (2008). Quantification and Segmentation of Electron Tomography Data - ... "3D Imaging and Metrology of Yttria Dispersoids in INCOLOY MA956 by Electron Tomography". Solid State Phenomena. 186: 37-40. doi ... "Three-Dimensional Visualization and Metrology of Nanoparticles in Inconel 718 by Electron Tomography". Solid State Phenomena. ...
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopes (STEM), and microcomputed tomography (microCT).[2] TESCAN serves customers in ... of Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM), Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM), ... Photocatalitic Analytic system with Raman microscope end electron microscope - CRM SEM Device for polishing samples by ionic ... Detector in FIB A METHOD FOR AUTOMATICALLY ALIGNING A SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE FOR PRECESSION ELECTRON ...
Hair cells lack an arciform density so the anchor of this ribbon is considered to be invisible by electron microscope. The ... "Synaptic vesicle populations in saccular hair cells reconstructed by electron tomography". J. Neurosci. 19 (1): 119-32. doi: ... DE ROBERTIS, E; FRANCHI, CM (25 May 1956). "Electron microscope observations on synaptic vesicles in synapses of the retinal ... It sticks out into the cytoplasm around 200-1000 nm and anchors along its base to the arciform density which is an electron ...
... microscopy Electron diffraction Electron microscope Scanning transmission electron microscopy Transmission electron microscope ... JSTOR 73192 Barnard, Jonathan & Sharp, Jo & Tong, Jenna & Midgley, P. (2006). Weak-beam dark-field electron tomography of ... A kinematical theory of diffraction contrast of electron transmission microscope images of dislocations and other defects. ... A Kinematical Theory of Diffraction Contrast of Electron Transmission Microscope Images of Dislocations and other Defects. ...
Walsh was able to take two sets of silicone molds of surface tool marks for scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The ... and computerized tomography. Homann took the skull to the museum again in 2008 so it could be filmed for a Smithsonian Networks ... Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the use of lapidary machine tools in its carving. The results of a new ... Using electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, a team of British and American researchers found that the British Museum ...
... cryo-electron tomography, and correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). The Natural Products Discovery Core is home to ... cryo-EM facility at the Life Sciences Institute offers a wide range of advanced microscopes and technologies for cryo-electron ... The cryo-electron microscopy facility opened in 2009, expanding the institute's structural biology capabilities. In 2018, with ...
... is an extension of traditional transmission electron microscopy and uses a transmission electron microscope ... Tomography Tomographic reconstruction 3D reconstruction Cryo-electron tomography Positron emission tomography Crowther ... Electron tomography (ET) is a tomography technique for obtaining detailed 3D structures of sub-cellular, macro-molecular, or ... criterion X-ray computed tomography tomviz tomography software imod tomography software X-ray diffraction computed tomography R ...
... is underdeveloped in non-light microscopes.[citation needed] X-ray and electron microscopes typically have a ... Tomography, which is particularly well developed for transmission electron microscopy. Qian, Jia; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yao, ... Although similar physics guides the focusing process, Scanning probe microscopes and scanning electron microscopes are not ... With no modification to the microscope, i.e. with a simple wide field light microscope, the quality of optical sectioning is ...
The skeleton was analyzed using radiography and a scanning electron microscope. These findings were published in the Public ... normalization Disseminated disease Micrometastasis Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis Positron emission tomography (PET) ... Once the cancerous tissue is examined under a microscope to determine the cell type, a doctor can usually tell whether that ...
The amount of radiation required to collect an image of a specimen in the electron microscope is high enough to be a potential ... An application of cryo-EM is cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), where a 3D reconstruction of the sample is created from tilted ... In addition, the high vacuum required on the column of an electron microscope makes the environment for the sample quite harsh ... Transmission electron cryomicroscopy (CryoTEM), commonly known as cryo-EM, is a form of cryogenic electron microscopy, more ...
Hoppe, W. (1983) Electron Diffraction with the Transmission Electron Microscope as a Phase-Determining Diffractometer-From ... including computer tomography in medicine and internal investigation of materials. He was acutely aware of electron damage ... Computer Processing of Electron Microscope Images. Springer-Verlag; Heidelberg: 1980. pp. 127-186. ... a negatively stained electron microscope preparation containing the object of interest) recorded over a wide range of tilt ...
... comparable to a scanning electron microscope, via a neural lens, and with positron-emission tomography and fluorescence ... Combining a super-resolution microscope with an electron microscope enables the visualization of contextual information, with ... A 4Pi microscope is a laser-scanning fluorescence microscope with an improved axial resolution. The typical value of 500-700 nm ... which called for using a 4Pi microscope as a confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscope where the light is focused from ...
... of this new tool will allow scientists and biologists to make 3D images of cells and tissues for electron tomography, which ... two tungsten needles would allow sectioning of very thin slices of biological matter for imaging under an electron microscope. ... The whole cutting process is currently limited by electron charging of polymeric specimen in the SEM, which makes it difficult ...
... electron microscopy and materials science, including the 3DXRD microscope. A form of discrete tomography also forms the basis ... Tomography applet by Christoph Dürr PhD thesis on discrete tomography (2012): Tomographic segmentation and discrete tomography ... Geometric tomography Herman, G. T. and Kuba, A., Discrete Tomography: Foundations, Algorithms, and Applications, Birkhäuser ... In discrete tomography the domain of the function may be either discrete or continuous, and the range of the function is a ...
Using a light microscope, it is just barely possible to see tiny green granules-which were named grana. With electron ... Another model known as the 'bifurcation model', which was based on the first electron tomography study of plant thylakoid ... Electrons are often removed from the electron transport chains to charge NADP+ with electrons, reducing it to NADPH. Like ATP ... In the transmission electron microscope, thylakoid membranes appear as alternating light-and-dark bands, 8.5 nanometers thick. ...
... still remains the holy grail of electron microscopy. However, the physics of electron scattering and electron microscope image ... This technique is called electron tomography. One of the difficulties with high resolution transmission electron microscopy is ... High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is an imaging mode of specialized transmission electron microscopes that ... The information limit of current state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopes is well below 1 Å. The TEAM project at ...
... brings them close to the delay between the invention by Ernst Ruska of the electron microscope (1933) - also in the field of ... database Electron diffraction Grazing incidence diffraction Inelastic neutron scattering X-ray diffraction computed tomography ... Furthermore, there is no need for an atomic form factor to describe the shape of the electron cloud of the atom and the ... Magnetic scattering does require an atomic form factor as it is caused by the much larger electron cloud around the tiny ...
"Electron microscope tomography: Transcription in three dimensions". Science. 220 (4596): 498-500. Bibcode:1983Sci...220..498O. ... In his later life, Levy worked on electron tomography of large biological complexes, particularly those transcribing DNA. Levy ...
Mastronarde, D. N. Automated electron microscope tomography using robust prediction of specimen movements. J. Struct. Biol. 152 ... MotionCor2: anisotropic correction of beam-induced motion for improved cryo-electron microscopy. Nat. Methods 14, 331-332 (2017 ... For SMG1, cryo-EM data collection was performed at Center of Cryo-Electron Microscopy (CCEM), Zhejiang University. All the cryo ... In this study, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of human SMG1 and SMG1C complex. The atomic ...
Mastronarde, D. N. Automated electron microscope tomography using robust prediction of specimen movements. J. Struct. Biol. 152 ... The electron density reconstructions and final 2RbcL-2RbcS-SSUL model have been deposited in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank ... MotionCor2: anisotropic correction of beam-induced motion for improved cryo-electron microscopy. Nat. Methods 14, 331-332 (2017 ... PyTom: a python-based toolbox for localization of macromolecules in cryo-electron tomograms and subtomogram analysis. J. Struct ...
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) tomography provides three-dimensional structural information from tilt series with ... About 50 electron volts of photon energy are required to generate each electron-hole pair in a typical amorphous selenium x-ray ... As the electron window energy loss is approximately inversely proportional to the electron beam energy, the power loadability ... the limit to loadability is set by energy deposited in the electron window by inelastic electron scattering. Removal of this ...
2005) Automated electron microscope tomography using robust prediction of specimen movements Journal of Structural Biology 152: ... Grids were clipped and loaded into a 300 keV Titan Krios microscope (FEI) equipped with a K2 Summit direct electron detector ( ... 2015) CTFFIND4: Fast and accurate defocus estimation from electron micrographs Journal of Structural Biology 192:216-221. ... 2007) EMAN2: an extensible image processing suite for electron microscopy Journal of Structural Biology 157:38-46. ...
The cryo-electron microscopy structures of an LRRC8C chimera with native channel properties reveal the diverse oligomeric ... 2005) Automated electron microscope tomography using robust prediction of specimen movements Journal of Structural Biology 152: ... Samples were imaged using a 300 kV FEI Krios G3i microscope equipped with a Gatan K3 direct electron camera. Movies containing ... Samples were imaged using a 300 kV FEI Krios G4 microscope equipped with a Gatan K3 direct electron camera. Movies containing ...
Mastronarde, D. N. Automated electron microscope tomography using robust prediction of specimen movements. J Struct Biol 152, ... All chimeric Sec complex datasets were acquired on an FEI Titan Krios G3i electron microscope operating at an acceleration of ... The yeast Sec complex dataset (1,578 movies) was acquired on FEI Talos Arctica electron microscope operated at an acceleration ... We thank Dan Toso for support for electron microscope operation, Guanghui Zong for ipomoeassin F synthesis, Philippe Mathys and ...
Scanning electron microscope observations of hemp shiv revealed microstructural features. A computed tomography (CT) scan ...
600,000 direct electron detector on its cryo-electron microscope in January. This advanced, direct electron detector will yield ... near-atomic resolution of macromolecules and 3-D tomography of cells or tissue slices. ... The "resolution revolution" arrives with $600,000 cryo-electron microscope detector installation Imaging of biomolecules is ...
Browse the equipment available for use in the Electron Microscopy Facility at the University of Leicester. ... Tomography. *Immunogold labelling. *CLEM. Zeiss Gemini 360 FEGSEM. *Field Emission Gun Scanning electron Microscope ...
The Chang lab is specialized in utilizing cryo-electron tomography to image microbial pathogens in 3 dimensions at molecular ... under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The SEM and FIB processes are precisely guided by a fluorescence module that is ... She is also a Faculty Director for the Electron Microscopy Resource Laboratory and Beckman Center for Cryo-Electron Microscopy ... rendering them imageable by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET; a high resolution 3-dimensional imaging method) ...
The JEM-2100 Plus Transmission Electron Microscope is a multipurpose 200kV LaB6 TEM that provides solutions for a range of ... Crystallographic Micro Electron Diffraction option.. *Tomography-capable offering a large range of tilt (¬+80°) and the ability ... The standard incorporation of the objective mini lens means that Lorentz microscopy is a standard feature of this microscope. A ...
The light microscopy investigations were augmented using high-resolution images of an electron microscope. At the Chair of ... Medical Biophysics the scientists also deployed micro computer tomography to represent the interface region in three dimensions ... Using multiscale microscope technology, dozens of images were taken and compiled into a single, large image. "In this way, we ... Fluorescence microscope image of the transition from tendon (lower left) to bone (upper right). The fine fibers of collagen ...
This means you need for example a scanning electron microscope to define powder quality, a CMM to understand the influences of ... post-print heat treatment and part removal on the final quality, X-ray computed tomography to detect defects and analyze the ...
... characterisation of carbon-based materials conducted using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography. ... as well as electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning ... Current studies and further potential applications of the FIB-SEM 3D tomography for carbon-based materials are discussed. The ... as well as suggestions for the adoption and improvement of the FIB-SEM tomography system for broad carbon-based research. The ...
The tetrapod with four fold symmetry in the DD phase can be directly visualized by transmittance electron microscope tomography ...
... to complement other existing varied length-scale microscopy facilities such as Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope (( ... Atom probe tomography (APT) complements the above techniques with precise quantitative data at the atomic scale. Thus, a ... The aberration correction in the electron beam as a probe has enabled to obtain high-quality atomic-level chemical identity and ... The best combination of electron optics, ultra-sensitive detectors ensure that even the lightest, most sensitive materials can ...
... microscope with a Field Emission Gun and maximum operating voltage up to 200 KV and equipped for cellular electron tomography ... Electron Microscopes:. *Thermo Fisher Scientific Tecnai G² F20-TWIN transmission electron ... Thermo Fisher Scientific Helios NanoLab G3 DualBeam electron microscope with Oxford EDS detector, MAPS software, Auto Slice & ... Zeiss GeminiSEM 460 field emission scanning electron microscope equipped for high-speed large area image acquisition using ...
SEM-analyses were performed with a Zeiss EVO 60 scanning electron microscope. ... tomography using a GE v,tome,x 240 d with a nanofocus-tube. Only the testing area in ... Furthermore, an X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT) analysis is carried out to visualize the pores formed during the L-PBF process ... Quantification and characterisation of porosity in selectively laser melted Al-Si10-Mg using X-ray computed tomography. Mater. ...
The FEI Helios Nanolab DualBeam Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), equipped with Energy dispersive X-ray ... preparation of selected regions for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic probe tomography (APT). ... Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscope (Helios 600 - Dual Beam) Located in EMSL , Stewarded by Odeta Qafoku ... The FEI Helios Nanolab DualBeam Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray ...
From electron-microscopes to computerized axial tomography and the hidden video cameras that have created some of the most ... From electron-microscopes to computerized axial tomography and the hidden video cameras that have created some of the most ...
In recent years, focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) has been widely adopted in battery research, from ... Large-area 2D imaging was paired with 3D tomography to reveal critical microstructural details for thick Li-ion electrodes ... Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), for example, provides high-resolution 2D images of electrodes, and can be paired with ... Additional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging provided finer details at the sub-100-nm level, such as electrolyte ...
Iterative methods in large field electron microscope tomography Siam Journal On Scientific Computing. 35: S402-S419. DOI: ... Correlated 3D Light and Electron Microscopy: Use of High Voltage Electron Microscopy and Electron Tomography for Imaging Large ... Electron tomography of mitochondria after the arrest of protein import associated with Tom19 depletion. European Journal of ... Informatics Resources for Electron Tomography Microscopy and Microanalysis. 9: 1164-1165. DOI: 10.1017/S1431927603445820 0.657 ...
Using 3D STEM (scanning transmission electron microscope) tomography at Berkeley Labs Molecular Foundry, Ting Xu and her team ...
... under a scanning electron microscope) fundamental structural principles and derive an underlying design.. 3D models created ... using computer tomography formed the basis for 36 modules - with every one of them being unique. The task now, taking into ...
Cryogenic transmission electron microscope with tomography, JEM-2200FS. Viveka Alfredsson (Manager). Department of Chemistry. ...
... in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A ... The backscattered electron images show the side and top view of the melt pool. Local property measurements show the thermal ... The backscattered electron images show the side and top view of the melt pool. Local property measurements show the thermal ... To advance the understanding of how degradation proceeds, we use the latest developments in cryo-atom probe tomography, ...
Atomic Force Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, X-ray computed tomography and the Radio telescope open up new dimensions ... of the building are bonded to its fabric by the atomic forces that have now been unlocked by the Atomic Force Microscope. ...
  • Scanning electron microscope observations of hemp shiv revealed microstructural features. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • This can perform volume imaging on cryogenic samples using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) module without the need for extraneous contrast enhancing reagents, thus preserving the native cellular architecture for biological samples. (upenn.edu)
  • This means you need for example a scanning electron microscope to define powder quality, a CMM to understand the influences of post-print heat treatment and part removal on the final quality, X-ray computed tomography to detect defects and analyze the inner structure of parts and optical 3D scanning for dimensional and surface quality inspection. (sme.org)
  • The first paper in this Special Issue presents an overview of the recent advances of the three-dimensional (3D) characterisation of carbon-based materials conducted using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography. (hindawi.com)
  • The envisaged FIM will be interconnected to complement other existing varied length-scale microscopy facilities such as Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope ((S)TEM) which can image 1D, 2D and 3D defects along with near-atomic scale 3D elemental distribution and precise composition analysis capability of Atom Probe Tomography (APT). (iitm.ac.in)
  • The FEI Helios Nanolab DualBeam Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector (EDX), combines important high-resolution microscopy tools. (pnnl.gov)
  • Helios NanoLab allows for sample preparation by FIB for scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) imaging or fabrication purposes, such as welding to a TEM sample grid without breaking the vacuum within the instrument. (pnnl.gov)
  • In recent years, focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) has been widely adopted in battery research, from interfacial analysis via 2D cross-sectioning to 3D tomography for quantitative characterization and modeling. (techbriefs.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), for example, provides high-resolution 2D images of electrodes, and can be paired with focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning to produce a series of sequential 2D cross-section images that are recombined into a 3D representation of the electrode. (techbriefs.com)
  • Using 3D STEM (scanning transmission electron microscope) tomography at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry, Ting Xu and her team mapped out the precise placement of nanoparticles in a self-assembling material. (berkeley.edu)
  • The arrangement and geometrical form within the shell of the beetle vary so greatly (depending on the specific loads involved), that comparative observations of various different species of beetle were required in order to identify (under a scanning electron microscope) fundamental structural principles and derive an underlying design. (kuka.com)
  • The composition and structure of the defects in thermoelectric materials will be well characterized by a combination of electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). (mpie.de)
  • Atomic Force Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, X-ray computed tomography and the Radio telescope open up new dimensions, as more dimensions are unveiled, more realities are modelled and more truths envisioned. (i-dat.org)
  • It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode. (lookformedical.com)
  • The Thermo Scientific Talos F200i (S)TEM is a 20-200 kV field emission (scanning) transmission electron microscope uniquely designed for performance and productivity across a wide range of Materials Science samples and applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • The scanning electron microscope is used in various fields to go beyond diffraction limits of the optical microscope. (mydented.com)
  • To directly observe large and fully hydrophilic samples without pretreatment, the atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) is needed. (mydented.com)
  • In our laboratories, you can use both standard microscope techniques, like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), as well as infra-red based analysis techniques and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). (lu.se)
  • This inverted confocal microscope includes a motorized stage and a two channel confocal scanning head with spectral detection. (lu.se)
  • In the group we are very interested in finding new methods for answering outstanding questions within planetary geoscience, and we employ modern techniques such as scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction and neutron tomography. (lu.se)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for these lesions, as it can detect subtle bony defects. (medscape.com)
  • Crystallographic Micro Electron Diffraction option. (jeolusa.com)
  • Micro electron diffraction, or microED, is a technique aimed at solving structures of biological macromolecules by electron diffraction. (jeolusa.com)
  • Its standard X-Twin pole piece gap-giving the highest flexibility in applications-combined with a reproducibly performing electron column opens opportunities for high-resolution 2D and 3D characterization, in situ dynamic observations, and diffraction applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • Atom probe tomography (APT) complements the above techniques with precise quantitative data at the atomic scale. (iitm.ac.in)
  • For transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) with a wider gap pole piece (an approx. (illinois.edu)
  • In this study, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of human SMG1 and SMG1C complex. (nature.com)
  • Here, we present a series of cryo-electron microscopy structures of chicken BEST1, determined at 3.1 Å resolution or better, that represent the channel's principal gating states. (elifesciences.org)
  • Imaging of biomolecules is taking a leap forward at UAB, which installed a $600,000 direct electron detector on its cryo-electron microscope in January. (uab.edu)
  • High resolution structure determination by electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) and Single Particle Analysis (SPA) has progressed to the point where structures can be determined routinely to better than 2Å on a 300 kV microscope. (jeolusa.com)
  • A single-tilt holder for cryo transfer and tomography of thin-film frozen-hydrated/vitrified specimens. (illinois.edu)
  • The FEI Vitrobot (Vitrification Robot) Mark III (Type FP 5350/61) is a fully PC-controlled cryo-plunger for vitrification (= rapid cooling) of aqueous samples used later in cryo-electron microscopy (typically in JEOL JEM-2100 TEM). (illinois.edu)
  • Recent advances in cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) have provided a new approach for determining the 3D structures of the intact virus, the HIV capsid, and the envelope glycoproteins located on the viral surface. (tmc.edu)
  • New cryo-light microscopy techniques like LIGHTNING and TauSense fluorescence lifetime-based tools reveal structures for cryo-electron microscopy. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • This article describes the major steps of the cryo-electron tomography workflow including super-resolution cryo-confocal microscopy. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Find out how the seamless cryo-electron tomography workflow Coral Cryo uses confocal super resolution to target your structure of interest more precisely. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Cryo-electron tomography (CryoET) is used to resolve biomolecules within their cellular environment down to an unprecedented resolution below one nanometer. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • The FEI Titan Krios is a 300keV ultra-high- performance, automated, three condenser transmission electron microscope is designed specifically for cryo electron microscopy and is capable of delivering 1.8Angstrom atomic resolution structures. (edu.au)
  • Cryo-electron tomography (CET) was used to examine the native cellular organization of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. (nebraska.edu)
  • Cellular electron cryo-tomography revealed a protein layer showing two distinct hexagonal lattices at its membrane-proximal and membrane-distant faces, respectively. (princeton.edu)
  • This course covers the fundamental principles underlying cryo-electron microscopy starting with the basic anatomy of electron microscopes, an introduction to Fourier transforms, and the principles of image formation. (freevideolectures.com)
  • Confocal Microscope Platform at MultiParkLeica SP8 confocal microscope for imaging of fixed tissue and cells. (lu.se)
  • Defining the ultrastructure of the hematopoietic stem cell niche by correlative light and electron microscopy. (neurotree.org)
  • SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography , but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower. (lookformedical.com)
  • Fluorescence microscope image of the transition from tendon (lower left) to bone (upper right). (tum.de)
  • PhD student Lara Kuntz at the fluorescence microscope. (tum.de)
  • The SIM-E is a fluorescence super-resolution microscope, the Ti2 is a fluorescence microscope for live imaging of pathogens, BSL2-compliant and the TE-300 is a fluorescence wide-field microscope. (lu.se)
  • The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image. (lookformedical.com)
  • The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. (lookformedical.com)
  • This advanced, direct electron detector will yield near-atomic resolution of macromolecules and 3-D tomography of cells or tissue slices. (uab.edu)
  • We developed an electron filter unit and an electron detector unit for implementation of the ASEM. (mydented.com)
  • The electron detector unit collected the backscattered electrons. (mydented.com)
  • The CTIC-EM is a highly specialized resource offering full service for routine and advanced (immunolabeling, large area, and 3D imaging) electron microscopy techniques, individual consultations on project set-up, optimization, and initiation and guidance on image analysis as requested and in conjunction with the Center for Bioimage Informatics . (stjude.org)
  • a high resolution 3-dimensional imaging method) under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). (upenn.edu)
  • The Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy divisions within the center collaborate on correlated imaging for projects that require individual samples to be imaged using both techniques. (stjude.org)
  • Functionally, the instrument includes high-resolution SEM imaging based on a field-emission-gun electron source and computer-controlled ion-beam micromachining based on a Ga liquid-metal ion source. (pnnl.gov)
  • To this end, we use a wide range of X-ray imaging methods at different synchrotrons, including MAX IV in Lund, X-ray free-electron lasers, including European XFEL, as well as lab source systems. (lu.se)
  • Fluorescence microscopes and live cell imaging for microbiology at Dept. of Biology. (lu.se)
  • Live Cell Imaging Platform at MultiParkNikon Ti-E is a fully motorised research microscope with Spectra X light engine and EMCCD, suitable for imaging of fluorescence labelling, such as DAPI, CFP, GFP, YFP, mCherry and Cy5. (lu.se)
  • Facilities for 3D optical imaging and electron microscopy at Materials Engineering with instruments including E-SEM FEI Quanta 200 MKII with analytical system Pegasus (EBSD+EDS) from EDAX and optical microscope Keyence VHX-6000. (lu.se)
  • Because clinical samples from the 2 patients were negative for all pathogens tested, urine and throat swab specimens were added to epithelial cells, and virus isolates detected were characterized by molecular analysis and electron microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation. (lookformedical.com)
  • Coral workflows by Leica Microsystems help users correlate fluorescence and electron microscopy (CLEM) data. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • The best combination of electron optics, ultra-sensitive detectors ensure that even the lightest, most sensitive materials can be characterized at sub-angstrom scale. (iitm.ac.in)
  • The aberration correction in the electron beam as a probe has enabled to obtain high-quality atomic-level chemical identity and bonding-state information in materials by simultaneous X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). (iitm.ac.in)
  • preparation of ultrathin samples and materials for other analysis-e.g, preparation of selected regions for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic probe tomography (APT). (pnnl.gov)
  • Spectre suggests that the Schauraum is such an architecture and that the memories of the building are bonded to its fabric by the atomic forces that have now been unlocked by the Atomic Force Microscope. (i-dat.org)
  • The advances of FIB-SEM 3D reconstruction are highlighted to reveal the high and accurate resolution of internal structures of carbon-based materials, as well as suggestions for the adoption and improvement of the FIB-SEM tomography system for broad carbon-based research. (hindawi.com)
  • For instance, X-ray tomography is capable of generating 3D reconstructions of whole electrode volumes, but its limited resolution makes it difficult to resolve porous electrode structures and other phases within the electrode, such as binder and carbon. (techbriefs.com)
  • STED microscope from Abberior Instruments combined with FLIM and polarization. (lu.se)
  • In his later life, Levy worked on electron tomography of large biological complexes, particularly those transcribing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it differs in a fundamental way in that electrons are used, which, owing to the substantially larger scattering cross-section of electrons with biological matter, means much smaller crystals can be used. (jeolusa.com)
  • Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. (lookformedical.com)
  • Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. (lookformedical.com)
  • In-line holography exploits the unique capabilities of MAX IV and the exceptionally small focus of NanoMAX beamline to bridge the capabilities of optical and electron microscopes. (lu.se)
  • Nikon SIM-E Microscope, Nikon Ti2 Pathogen Live Microscope and Nikon TE-300 Microscope at IKVL, Nordenfelt Lab (Quantitative infection biology). (lu.se)
  • The samples prepared using FIB are analyzed by high resolution surface and bulk sensitive electron capabilities including APT, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and TEM. (pnnl.gov)
  • This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography , where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures. (lookformedical.com)
  • Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology. (lookformedical.com)
  • Its mission is to provide offers access to a broad spectrum of sophisticated technologies for light microscopy, electron microscopy and image analysis. (stjude.org)
  • 3D visualization of HIV virions by cryoelectron tomography. (tmc.edu)
  • Tomography-capable offering a large range of tilt (¬+80°) and the ability to acquire 3D images with simple operation. (jeolusa.com)
  • Using multiscale microscope technology, dozens of images were taken and compiled into a single, large image. (tum.de)
  • The light microscopy investigations were augmented using high-resolution images of an electron microscope. (tum.de)
  • The backscattered electron images show the side and top view of the melt pool. (mpie.de)
  • Backscattered electron images in SEM show that the post-sintering annealing leads to a tenfold increase in grain size: 0.23 ± 0.12 μm to 2.38 ± 1.65 μm. (mpie.de)
  • A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy. (lookformedical.com)
  • The pre-filter Falcon 3 device's counting mode and drift correction produce high signal-to-noise and high-resolution images for tomography and single particle data. (edu.au)
  • The tetrapod with four fold symmetry in the DD phase can be directly visualized by transmittance electron microscope tomography ( i.e. , 3D TEM) and further identified by small angle x-ray scattering with fitting of effective sphere model for two-node dihedral texture. (aps.org)
  • World Leaders in Coordinate Measuring Machines with Optics - Multisensor Systems and Innovators in Computed Tomography Quality, precision and innovation are the basis of success at Werth Metrology, part of Werth Messtechnik GmbH With over 60 years serving industry the company has built an admired tradition in fine mechanics and optics. (gtma.co.uk)
  • The electron density reconstructions and final 2RbcL-2RbcS-SSUL model have been deposited in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) and wwPDB under accession codes EMD-0180 and 6HBC , respectively. (nature.com)
  • Thick electrodes are being explored as a practical solution that can effectively improve energy density, but the increased thickness also results in mass transport limitation and increased electron impedance. (techbriefs.com)
  • Customized microscope suites are providing stable environmental conditions to demonstrate 0.65 Angstrom point resolution. (edu.au)
  • At the Chair of Medical Biophysics the scientists also deployed micro computer tomography to represent the interface region in three dimensions. (tum.de)
  • 3D models created using computer tomography formed the basis for 36 modules - with every one of them being unique. (kuka.com)
  • Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image. (lookformedical.com)
  • Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image. (lookformedical.com)
  • The SEM and FIB processes are precisely guided by a fluorescence module that is integrated into the microscope. (upenn.edu)
  • Current studies and further potential applications of the FIB-SEM 3D tomography for carbon-based materials are discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • We have the knowledge and microscopes to prepare your samples for further studies by synchrotron methods at MAX IV. (lu.se)