All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A family of soluble metal binding proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of specific metal ions and their transfer to the appropriate metalloprotein precursor.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
These proteins have been formerly known for their involvement in bacterial electron transport. He isolated a bacterial protein ... azurin, with potential antineoplastic properties. He expanded his lab's work to include multiple microbiological species, ...
They serve as electron transfer agents, with the active site shuttling between Cu(I) and Cu(II). The Cu2+ in the oxidized state ... In azurin, the Cysteine112 thiolate accepts the hydrogen bonds from the amide backbone of Asparagine47, and Phenylalanine114, ... The unpaired electrons leads to the Jahn-Teller effect. (iii) represents the energy level diagram of the ground states not ... The strong bond between the copper ion and the cysteine sulfur allows for the non-bonded electron on the cysteine sulfur to be ...
In molecular biology, multicopper oxidases are enzymes which oxidise their substrate by accepting electrons at a mononuclear ... which also share homology with the cupredoxins azurin and plastocyanin. Structurally, these domains consist of a cupredoxin- ... "Crystal structure and electron transfer kinetics of CueO, a multicopper oxidase required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia ... following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. There are three spectroscopically different ...
... making azurin is a useful model system for studying long-range, intraprotein electron transfer (LRET). Azurin is a tetrameric ... In its oxidized form, azurin (Cu2+Az) receives an electron from its redox partner and is reduced according to the following ... Azurin moderates single-electron transfer between enzymes associated with the cytochrome chain by undergoing oxidation- ... When expressed in nitrogen-fixing organisms, azurin serves as the electron donor to nitrite reductase, an enzyme in the ...
Hyun YL, Davidson VL (September 1995). "Electron transfer reactions between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin". ... 2 reduced azurin The three substrates of this enzyme are RCH2NH2 (i.e., an aromatic amine), water, and the acceptor azurin, and ... "Gated and ungated electron transfer reactions from aromatic amine dehydrogenase to azurin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Crystal structure of an electron transfer complex between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin from Alcaligenes faecalis". ...
"Electron transfer from quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase to blue copper protein azurin in the alcohol oxidase respiratory ... azurin oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction primary alcohol + azurin ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... Alcohol+dehydrogenase+(azurin) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Alcohol dehydrogenase (azurin) (EC 1.1.9.1, type II quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase, quinohaemoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase ...
To compensate for this barrier, two rapid, consecutive, single electron reductions form an eight electron complex. The electron ... These centers are similar to Azurin in their bonding structure. Each type 1 Cu is strongly bonded to a thiolate sulfur from a ... The Fe-NO bond is linear and has six shared valence electrons. This is not a stable state for an Fe-NO bond. However, a bent ... An incoming electron reduces the Cu from oxidation state (II) to (I). This change facilitates a shift in nitrite binding so ...
... which exchange electrons with cytochrome c6, and the distantly related bacterial azurins, which exchange electrons with ... Plastocyanin/azurin family of copper-binding proteins (or blue (type 1) copper domain) is a family of small proteins that bind ...
Each form of iron has a specific distribution of electrons (i.e., electron configuration), tabulated below: Variations in iron ... fractionation of Cu upon incorporation into the apoprotein of azurin was ~-1‰ in P. aeruginosa, and -1.5‰ in E. coli, while ... Each form of Cu has a specific distribution of electrons (i.e., electron configuration), tabulated below: The electronic ... which can identify atoms with unpaired electrons by exciting electron spins. Transitions between redox species Cu1+ and Cu2+ ...
Vijgenboom E, Busch JE, Canters GW (September 1997). "In vivo studies disprove an obligatory role of azurin in denitrification ... X. The "denitrifying enzyme" as a nitrite reductase and the electron donating system for denitrification". J. Biochem. Tokyo. ... "Pseudospecific docking surfaces on electron transfer proteins as illustrated by pseudoazurin, cytochrome c550 and cytochrome ...
6 to be accurate for single-step tunneling in azurin.. Interestingly, the values of R coh and τcoh in azurin are not very ... Fundamental signatures of short- and long-range electron transfer for the blue copper protein azurin at Au/SAM junctions ... coh and τcoh on the electron tunneling energy for relevant ET tunneling energies in azurin. A large effect of the tunneling ... Correlation Functions in Azurin. To our knowledge, the only computation of the short-time decay of CFC (t) for a biological ET ...
... that are designed for rapid electron transfer. The trigonal pyramidal structure imposed by the protein with three strong ... AZURIN. A, B. 129. Achromobacter denitrificans. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: azu. ... flexibility: Met121His azurin crystal structures at different pH.. Messerschmidt, A., Prade, L., Kroes, S.J., Sanders-Loehr, J. ... AZURIN MUTANT WITH MET 121 REPLACED BY HIS, PH 6.5 CRYSTAL FORM, DATA COLLECTED AT 16 DEGREES CELSIUS. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1A4A/ ...
Electron tunneling in single crystals of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurins.. Crane, B.R., Di Bilio, A.J., Winkler, J.R., Gray, H.B ... AZURIN. A, B. 128. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mutation(s): 0 Find proteins for P00282 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 ... Although Ru(bpy)2(im)(His83)Az is less solvated in the crystal, the reorganization energy for Cu(I) Ru(III) electron ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa Azurin Re(phen)(CO)3(His83). *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1JZI/pdb ...
Hyun YL, Davidson VL (September 1995). "Electron transfer reactions between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin". ... 2 reduced azurin The three substrates of this enzyme are RCH2NH2 (i.e., an aromatic amine), water, and the acceptor azurin, and ... "Gated and ungated electron transfer reactions from aromatic amine dehydrogenase to azurin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Crystal structure of an electron transfer complex between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin from Alcaligenes faecalis". ...
Rates of Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Ru(bpy)2(im)(His83)-Modified Azurin Increase below 220 K. J Am Chem Soc. 1998;120: ... azurin. SAM. self-assembled monolayers. E°. reduction potential. EPR. electron paramagnetoc resonance. CcP. Cytochrome c ... Farver O, Canters GW, van Amsterdam I, Pecht I. Intramolecular Electron Transfer in a Covalently Linked Mutated Azurin Dimer. J ... The electron that left PS-II is restored through oxidation of water [27,28]. Through these series of reactions electrons flow ...
... unveil multiple mechanistic regimes which may be explained by thermal broadening of the Fermi distributions of electrons in the ... tunnelling model where the temperature dependence relies on the thermal broadening of the Fermi distributions of the electrons ... Temperature and force dependence of nanoscale electron transport via the Cu protein azurin. ACS Nano 6, 10816-10824 (2012). ... Sepunaru, L., Pecht, I., Sheves, M. & Cahen, D. Solid-state electron transport across azurin: from a temperature-independent to ...
Tyrosine and tryptophan play critical roles in facilitating proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes essential to life ... The genes encoding Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin variants W48 (Y72F/Y108F), W48F (W48F/Y72F/Y108F), and W108 (W48F/Y72F/Y108W) ... Impact of Local Electrostatics on the Redox Properties of Tryptophan Radicals in Azurin: Implications for Redox-Active ... Tyrosine and tryptophan play critical roles in facilitating proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes essential to life ...
In particular, WT azurin and all studied mutants exhibit more DA compression during ET (,2 Å) than previously recognized. ... This work, which reveals the surprisingly fluctional nature of ET in azurin, suggests that hydrogen-bond networks can modulate ... We combine experimental and computational methods to address the anomalous kinetics of long-range electron transfer (ET) in ... Fluctuating hydrogen-bond networks govern anomalous electron transfer kinetics in a blue copper protein. Joshua S. Kretchmer, ...
The reorganization energy for electron self-exchange in is ≈2.4 eV; the value for Cu(II/I) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin is ... We conclude that the Ru-azurin timetable (Fig. 1) provides a benchmark for superexchange-mediated electron tunneling through ... Several experimental investigations have demonstrated that solvent hole and electron states can mediate long-range electron ... is the primary electron acceptor from cyt c. Studies with Ru-modified cyt c reveal rapid (6 × 104 s-1) (84) electron injection ...
Description: Azurin 122F/124W/126Re. Class: electron transport. Keywords: Electron Hopping, ELECTRON TRANSPORT. Deposited on ... Compound: Azurin. Species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / DSM 22644 / CIP 104116 / JCM 14847 / LMG 12228 / 1C / ... Compound: Azurin. Species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / DSM 22644 / CIP 104116 / JCM 14847 / LMG 12228 / 1C / ...
Uses azurin as an electron acceptor to transfer electrons from the reduced tr.... Gene Name. aauA. Uniprot ID. P84887. Uniprot ... Uses azurin as an electron acceptor to transfer electrons from the reduced tr.... Gene Name. aauB. Uniprot ID. P84888. Uniprot ... Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization). MS. splash10-001i-2900000000-6a48efe719d0f7482467. MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, ... Aralkylamine dehydrogenase (azurin) activity. Specific Function. Oxidizes primary aromatic amines and, more slowly, some long- ...
The simplest test beds for confronting this issue are provided by electron transfer proteins. The environment provided by the ... Establishing the entatic state in folding metallated Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... modifies the folding of the metallated Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. Our free-energy functional-based approach directly yields ... level of detail to explicitly model how the geometric entatic state of the metal modifies the dynamic folding nucleus of azurin ...
These proteins have been formerly known for their involvement in bacterial electron transport. He isolated a bacterial protein ... azurin, with potential antineoplastic properties. He expanded his labs work to include multiple microbiological species, ...
Gated and ungated electron transfer reactions from aromatic amine dehydrogenase to azurin. ... Crystal structure of an electron transfer complex between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin from Alcaligenes faecalis. ... aralkylamine dehydrogenase (azurin);. aromatic amine dehydrogenase;. arylamine dehydrogenase;. tyramine dehydrogenase;. ...
The blue copper proteins that participate in electron transport include azurin and plastocyanin. The name "blue copper" comes ... A significant portion of the toxicity of copper comes from its ability to accept and donate single electrons as it changes ... copper is used for biological electron transport. ... Electron configuration. [Ar] 3d10 4s1 Electrons per shell. 2, 8 ...
"Fundamental Signatures of Short- and Long-Range Electron Transfer for the Blue Copper Protein Azurin at Au/SAM Junctions." ... "The Single Molecule Conductance and Electrochemical Electron Transfer Rate are Related by a Power Law." ACS Nano 7.6 (2013): ...
Cu(l) to Re(II) electron tunneling in Re(H107) azurin occurs in the microsecond range, which is much faster than for previously ... Cu(I) to "Re(II)" electron tunneling in Re(H107) azurin occurs in the microsecond range. This reaction is much faster than that ... 3. Electron tunneling in rhenium-modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurins. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Electron ... Electron tunneling, Rhenium complex, Amino acid radical, Blue copper, Azurin National Category Engineering and Technology ...
Electron Flow through Nitrotyrosinate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Azurin" ., JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, v.135, ... Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon "Current Theoretical Challenges in Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer: Electron?Proton Nonadiabaticity, ... Hammes-Schiffer, S.; "Current Theoretical Challenges in Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer: Electron-Proton Nonadiabaticity, ... a two-electron catalyst that reduces water to hydrogen, and (iii) a four-electron catalyst that oxidizes water to oxygen. This ...
A comparative electron spin resonance investigation on the effects of barbital and tetracaine on DPPC multilayers; P. Sapia, L ... Azurin-solvent interaction: an ESR spin labeling investigation; R. Guzzi, L. Sportelli; Applied Magnetic Resonance 9, 217-227 ( ... Bartucci R., Erilov D.A., Guzzi R., Sportelli L., Dzuba S.A., Marsh D.; Time-resolved electron spin resonance studies of spin- ... Interaction of azurin with alcohols: an ESR, optical absorption and fluorescence emission investigation; R. Guzzi, L. Sportelli ...
Electron transfer kinetics at the AuNS/dithiol modified electrodes were studied as a function of AuNS surface density which was ... The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer constant, ket, has progressively increased with the surface density of AuNSs ... The electrochemical charging of AuNSs had also a strong influence on the electron tunneling process through the 1,5PDT ... Investigation of cytocrom c and azurin. Langmuir 2012, 28, 5861-5871. [Google Scholar] ...
W-band electron spin echo spectroscopy of azurin promotor: J. Schmidt 1996 Francke, C.H. Organisation and composition of the ... Electron transfer in dimers of azurin promotor: G.W. Canters 2003 Bosch, Marco Stripes and cuprate high-Tc superconductors ... Auger electron spectroscopy of alloys promotor: V. Ponec 1978 Langendam, Peter Free-free radiative transitions of electron-atom ... Spectroscopy of polyenes and azabenzenes : an electron-spin-echo, resonance Raman, and free-electron-laser study promotor: J. ...
... azurin). This work has shown that protein reorganization energies are sensitive to the medium surrounding the redox sites and ... Electron transfer in proteins.. Gray HB1, Winkler JR.. Author information. 1. Beckman Institute, California Institute of ... Electron-transfer (ET) reactions are key steps in a diverse array of biological transformations ranging from photosynthesis to ...
Electron microscopy of Felgners teams wild type and mutant Salmonella strains showing decreased flagella in the mutant ... Diagram of hypoxia inducible expression of p53 and Azurin designed by Bellamkondas group (4). ... they also added the ability to express the tumor suppressor protein p53 along with the protein Azurin, which stabilizes p53 and ...
in Ru-His 83 modified azurin decays on the time scale of tens of fsec,13 one order of magnitude longer than the Franck-Condon ... The 2-state reduction for electron and hole transfer in bridge-mediated electron-transfer reactions. Chem. Phys. 1993;176:501- ... The influence of structural fluctuations on electron-transfer kinetics is amplified by the exponential decay of electron ... Steering Electrons on Moving Pathways. David N. Beratan,†* Spiros S. Skourtis,‡* Ilya A. Balabin,† Alexander Balaeff,† Shahar ...
"Electron transfer reactivity of type zero pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 4865-4873 (2011). ... "Electron Tunneling Through M121X Mutant Azurins on Mixed SAM Gold Electrodes: Axial Ligand Effects on the ET rates of Blue ... "Electron flow through copper proteins," Abstracts of Papers, 237th ACS National Meeting, INOR-071, Salt Lake City, UT, March 22 ... "Electron tunneling through sensitizer wires bound to proteins." Coord. Chem. Rev., Vol. 254, No. 3-4, pp. 248-253, (2010). ...
Class: electron transport. Keywords: Blue copper-binding protein, greek-key beta-barrel, ELECTRON TRANSPORT. Deposited on 2006- ... Compound: Azurin. Species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa [TaxId:287]. Gene: AZU. Database cross-references and differences (RAF- ... Description: Structure of Cu(II)azurin with the metal-binding loop sequence "CTFPGHSALM" replaced with "CTPHPM". ...
azurin. a blue copper protein found in many bacteria, which undergoes oxidation-reduction between Cu(I) and Cu(II), and ... transfers single electrons between enzymes. Return to top. bactoprenol. 2,3-dihydroundecaprenol. ...
The blue copper proteins that participate in electron transport include azurin and plastocyanin. ... In addition to its enzymatic roles, copper is used in biological systems for electron transport (Valko et al., 2005). ...
in Ru-His 83 modified azurin decays on the time scale of tens of fsec, one order of magnitude longer than the Franck-Condon ... The influence of structural fluctuations on electron-transfer kinetics is amplified by the exponential decay of electron ... Steering electrons on moving pathways.. Beratan DN1, Skourtis SS, Balabin IA, Balaeff A, Keinan S, Venkatramani R, Xiao D. ... Electron transfer (ET) reactions provide a nexus among chemistry, biochemistry, and physics. These reactions underpin the " ...
  • The genes encoding Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin variants W48 (Y72F/Y108F), W48F (W48F/Y72F/Y108F), and W108 (W48F/Y72F/Y108W) were synthesized by GenScript (Piscataway, NJ) and subcloned into pET 9a vectors. (genscript.com)
  • We combine experimental and computational methods to address the anomalous kinetics of long-range electron transfer (ET) in mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. (caltech.edu)
  • Here, we develop a coarse-grained functional to explicitly model how the coordination of the metal (which results in a so-called entatic or rack-induced state) modifies the folding of the metallated Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. (caltech.edu)
  • Electron transfer reactivity of type zero pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin ," J. Am. Chem. (stanford.edu)
  • The coordination chemistry and electron-transfer properties of a single-site mutant of the mononuclear copper electron-transfer protein azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been studied. (caltech.edu)
  • Specifically, the project will concentrate on three areas: i) acceleration of long-range electron transfer by electron-hopping through intervening tryptophan residues in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin mutants, ii) coupling between electron-transfer and structural relaxation dynamics in azurins and cytochromes, and, iii) development, synthesis and characterization of new chromophores triggering electron-transfer in biomolecules and of new functional protein-based systems. (cas.cz)
  • Electron coupling through a beta strand has been investigated by measurement of the intramolecular electron-transfer (ET) rates in ruthenium-modified derivatives of the beta barrel blue copper protein Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. (sciencemag.org)
  • A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Example cyclic voltammogram (CV) of a variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin collected by protein film voltammetry (Marshall et al. (vilaromana.net)
  • The rack-induced bonding mechanism of metals to proteins is a useful concept for explaining the generation of metal sites in electron transfer proteins, such as the blue copper proteins, that are designed for rapid electron transfer. (rcsb.org)
  • Each class of ET proteins transfer electrons between different redox partners which possess different reduction potentials (E°) ( Figure 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The simplest test beds for confronting this issue are provided by electron transfer proteins. (caltech.edu)
  • These proteins have been formerly known for their involvement in bacterial electron transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second part of this thesis focuses on electron transfer (ET) in proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Electron tunneling through sensitizer wires bound to proteins" Coordination Chemistry Reviews, v.254, 2010, p.248-253. (research.gov)
  • Electron transfer in proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Studies of ET reactions in ruthenium-modified proteins have probed lambda and HAB in several metalloproteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, azurin). (nih.gov)
  • Electron flow through proteins ," Chem. (stanford.edu)
  • Electron tunneling through sensitizer wires bound to proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • 2005). The blue copper proteins that participate in electron transport include azurin and plastocyanin. (bumrungrad.com)
  • Blue copper proteins, such as azurin, show dramatic changes in Cu2+/Cu+ reduction potential upon mutation over the full physiological range. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • These tools include instrumentation based on proximity probes, such as electrochemical tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, that we apply to investigate electron transfer in metal oxides and individual redox proteins. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • nanoET-leukemia Nanoconductance of electron transfer proteins of the respiratory chain. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Besides investigating natural electroactive proteins, e.g. the metalloprotein azurin or the iron storage protein ferritin, a method has been developed in order to enable the electrochemical detection of redox inavtive enzymes such as the cysteine protease papain. (tum.de)
  • Besides investigating natural electroactive proteins, e.g. the metalloprotein azurin or the iron storage protein ferritin, a method has been developed i. (tum.de)
  • Activationless ET rate constants in combination with a tunneling-pathway analysis of the structures of azurin and cytochrome c confirm that there is a generally efficient network for coupling the internal (native) redox center to the surface of both proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The transport of electrons along photosynthetic and respiratory chains involves a series of enzymatic reactions that are coupled through redox mediators, including proteins and small molecules. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Kinetic studies on 1 : 1 electron-transfer reactions involving blue copper proteins. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Iron sulphur proteins (Rubredoxin, ferridoxin) are nonheme proteins involved in electron transfer. (chemistryworks.net)
  • Blue copper proteins (stellocyanin, plastocyanin, azurin) are nonheme copper containing proteins involved in electron transfer. (chemistryworks.net)
  • 2. Azurin and plastocyanin are 'blue copper' proteins that are used in electron transport from one molecule to another. (mindbodyandfood.ca)
  • However, relatively few examples of immobilization of redox proteins at ITO with retention of the ability to transfer electrons with the underlying material with native characteristics have been reported. (elsevier.com)
  • These blue Cu centres are found in a variety of electron transfer proteins and oxidases, such as azurin, plastocyanin and cytochrome c oxidase. (alchemyst.co.uk)
  • This holds also for proteins without any known biological electron transfer function. (nth-nano.de)
  • To answer this question we measure solid-state electron transport (ETp) across proteins that are "dry" (only tightly bound water, to retain the conformation, still present). (nth-nano.de)
  • Multicopper oxidases consist of 2, 3 or 6 of these homologous domains, which also share homology to the cupredoxins azurin and plastocyanin. (embl.de)
  • Herein, square-wave voltammetry was employed to investigate the electrostatic effects on the redox properties of tryptophan in two variants of the protein azurin. (genscript.com)
  • He isolated a bacterial protein, azurin, with potential antineoplastic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work, we utilize an alkylsilane functionalized ITO surface as a biocompatible interface for immobilization of the blue copper protein azurin. (elsevier.com)
  • We compare results for the electron transfer (ET) protein, Azurin (Az), the proton-pumping membrane protein Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and for Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). (nth-nano.de)
  • The Co[superscript II] derivative of Cys112Asp azurin was prepared and found to be amenable to paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy. (caltech.edu)
  • The electronic spectroscopy of Ni[superscript II] Cys112Asp azurin suggests the existence of some bonding interaction with the thioether sulfur atom of Met121. (caltech.edu)
  • Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Labeled Azurin Reveals Photoinduced Electron Transfer between Label and Cu Center. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • They are the components of electron transport chain (ETC). Example: Cytochromes, iron sulphur protein and blue copper protein. (chemistryworks.net)
  • Tyrosine and tryptophan play critical roles in facilitating proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes essential to life. (genscript.com)
  • Second generation variants in which the T1 copper center's reduction potential was decreased and an electron transfer tryptophan mutation was incorporated were assayed and found to increase turnover number for almost all surface T2 copper variants. (umn.edu)
  • Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between organic fluorophores and suitable electron donating moieties, for example, the amino acid tryptophan or the nucleobase guanine, can quench fluorescence upon van der Waals contact and thus report-on molecular contact. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • A series of a single tryptophan containing oligo-alanine peptides were recently characterized as conductive molecules that enable electron transport between electrodes. (usda.gov)
  • Electron-transfer (ET) reactions are key steps in a diverse array of biological transformations ranging from photosynthesis to aerobic respiration. (nih.gov)
  • Electron transfer (ET) reactions provide a nexus among chemistry, biochemistry, and physics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast to Cys112-containing azurins, laser-induced intramolecular electron-transfer reactions from the reduced copper center of Asp 112-containing azurins to surface histidine-bound bis(bipyridy1)(imidazole) ruthenium(III) labels could not be observed. (caltech.edu)
  • Our results establish the presence of previously undetected mononuclear intermediates and show important differences from the metalation reactions of purple CuA azurin. (nih.gov)
  • So, in order to conserve the total energy of the system, electron transfer must proceed either by pre-equilibration to a nuclear configuration whose energy is the same for the DA and D+A- electronic configurations (thermal ET reactions) or by addition of light energy to make the energy of the DA complex equal to that of a D+A- complex with the DA equilibrium nuclear configuration (photoinduced ET reactions). (ictinike.org)
  • In biological systems such as cytochrome c oxidase that mediate a series of ET reactions, the reduction potentials of successive electron acceptors are often only slightly higher than the potential of the upstream donor. (ictinike.org)
  • Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) otherwise known as a REDOX potential measures an aqueous system's capacity to either release or accept electrons from chemical reactions. (vilaromana.net)
  • Proton-coupled ET (PCET) refers to reactions involving the exchange and release of both proton and electron species. (bowdoin.edu)
  • 1,2-3 It is a mild and selective single electron reductant and its versatility is a result of its ability to initiate a wide range of reductions including C-C bond-forming and cascade or sequential reactions. (jove.com)
  • In the last 30 years, studies of direct electron transfer (DET) reactions between redox enzymes and electrodes have attracted much interest to understand the background reaction mechanism [1, 2] and thus gain sufficient basic knowledge to be able to establish the basis and to improve the performance of third generation biosensors and enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) [3-6]. (chromoscience.com)
  • 5. Berks, B.C., Ferguson, S.J., Moir, J.W. and Richardson, D.J. Enzymes and associated electron transport systems that catalyse the respiratory reduction of nitrogen oxides and oxyanions. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The decay time is only slightly shorter than it is for solvent-mediated electron transfer in small organic molecules and originates, largely, from fluctuations of valence angles rather than bond lengths. (pnas.org)
  • Recent investigations have shed much light on the nuclear and electronic factors that control the rates of long-range electron tunneling through molecules in aqueous and organic glasses as well as through bonds in donor-bridge-acceptor complexes. (pnas.org)
  • The electrochemical charging of AuNSs had also a strong influence on the electron tunneling process through the 1,5PDT molecules being more efficient at dense layers of AuNSs. (mdpi.com)
  • Ball-and-stick models for the machinery of electron transfer, however, fail to capture the rich electronic and nuclear dynamics of ET molecules: these static representations disguise, for example, the range of thermally accessible molecular conformations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Accurate 13 C NMR chemical shielding for small organic molecules can be obtained by quantum mechanical calculation by considering electron correlation effect, complete basis set extrapolation and vibrational correction. (unl.edu)
  • During oxygenic plr~losytlthesis four electrons are removed l'rom two water molecules, yieldi~Ig molecuo lar oxygen and protons. (docgo.net)
  • Free radicals are molecules that are missing electrons and are on the hunt to replace them. (mindbodyandfood.ca)
  • They cause damage by taking electrons that are part of complete and stable molecules thus destroying the stable molecule's ability to perform its biological task. (mindbodyandfood.ca)
  • 2. Superoxides are oxygen molecules that are missing two electrons. (mindbodyandfood.ca)
  • However once this mission has been accomplished the superoxides become highly toxic and need to be broken down so that they will not scavenge for electrons from the healthy molecules in our bodies. (mindbodyandfood.ca)
  • The effects of intervening water molecules on the electron self-exchange reaction of azurin (Az) are analyzed by performing a conformational sampling on the water medium. (readabstracts.com)
  • The results are discussed in terms of the interplay between different electron-transfer (ET) pathways controlled by the conformational changes of one of the water molecules through its electrostatic influence. (readabstracts.com)
  • Moreover, the redox-dependent stability of the predicted Ngb-cyt c adduct and the very good agreement between calculated determinants to the ET rate and those of paradigmatic metalloproteins acting as electron shuttles all support a potential role of neuroglobin as an electron transfer species. (unimore.it)
  • The degree by which metalloproteins partially regulate net charge (Z) upon electron transfer (ET) was recently measured for the first time using "protein charge ladders" of azurin, cytochromeâ c, and myoglobin [Angew. (bvsalud.org)
  • Need them to be paramagnetic (odd electron) metals (S = n/2). (alchemyst.co.uk)
  • Aralkylamine dehydrogenase (azurin) (EC 1.4.9.2, aromatic amine dehydrogenase, arylamine dehydrogenase, tyramine dehydrogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name aralkylamine:azurin oxidoreductase (deaminating). (wikipedia.org)
  • We compute the autocorrelation function of the donor-acceptor tunneling matrix element 〈 T DA ( t ) T DA (0)〉 for six Ru-azurin derivatives. (pnas.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: ArCH2NH2 + H2O + 2 azurin ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ArCHO + NH3 + 2 reduced azurin The three substrates of this enzyme are RCH2NH2 (i.e., an aromatic amine), water, and the acceptor azurin, and its three products are RCHO, ammonia, and a reduced acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azurin can be replaced with the artificial acceptor phenazine methosulfate in in vitro studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Landau-Zener treatment of the reactant-product transition probability produces the familiar semiclassical expression for the rate of nonadiabatic electron transfer (ET) between a donor ( D ) and acceptor ( A ) held at fixed distance ( Eq. 2 ) ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1993). Marcus's essential insight (Marcus 1993) is that the equilibrium positions of the nuclei around the donor and acceptor atoms are different before and after electron transfer and that, according to the Franck-Condon principle, nuclear rearrangements occur on much longer time scales than electronic changes. (ictinike.org)
  • Similarly, redox potential values can be buffered at −100 mV using SO 4 2− as an electron acceptor. (vilaromana.net)
  • To complement the amperometric investigations, spectrophotometric assays were carried out under homogeneous conditions in the presence of a 1-electron non-proton-acceptor, cytochrome c, or a 2-electron-proton acceptor, 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP), respectively. (chromoscience.com)
  • Addition of MgCl2 or of the monovalent cations shows, surprisingly, no effect on the electron transfer to the electron acceptor. (chromoscience.com)
  • ET rates and driving forces for wild type (WT) and three N47X mutants (X = L, S, and D) of Ru(2,2′-bipyridine)2 (imidazole)(His83) azurin are reported. (caltech.edu)
  • The underlying atomistic features are investigated using a recently developed nonadiabatic molecular dynamics method to simulate ET in each of the azurin mutants, revealing unexpected aspects of DA electronic coupling. (caltech.edu)
  • In addition, new functional model systems based on azurin and cytochrome mutants will be designed, synthesized, and characterized. (cas.cz)
  • Moreover, it has been difficult to model and predict the reduction potential of azurin mutants and currently no unique procedure or workflow pattern exists. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • In this work a novel approach for calculating reduction potentials of azurin mutants is shown, based on a combination of continuum electrostatics, density functional theory and empirical hydrophobicity factors. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • She then joined Harry Gray's group at Caltech for her postdoctoral work to extend her training to the condensed phase, studying charge transfer processes in metal-modified azurin mutants and inorganic complexes. (bowdoin.edu)
  • In a typical experiment, a small concentration of electron or hole donors is embedded in a glassed solvent amid a higher concentration of randomly distributed acceptors. (pnas.org)
  • The time-dependent survival probability of the donor depends on the concentration of acceptors, the rate constant for electron/hole transfer when D and A are in van der Waals contact ( k o ), and the distance decay factor β. (pnas.org)
  • Syntheses and Properties of Salts of Chromophores with Ferrocenyl Electron Donor Groups and Quaternary Nitrogen Acceptors" Organometallics, v.28, 2009, p.6880-6892. (research.gov)
  • This method has limited applications to certain redox potential values because of the limitation of such alternate electron acceptors. (vilaromana.net)
  • As a group, they comprise species across wide temperature ranges for growth (from eurypsychrophilic to thermophiles), with the ability to exploit organic and/or inorganic electron donors and carbon sources, and can utilize molecular oxygen, ferric iron, and sulfate as electron acceptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reduction potential range of metal centers in electron transfer metalloprotein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Neben der Verwendung von natürlich vorkommenden elektroaktiven Proteinen, wie dem Metalloprotein Azurin oder dem Eisenspeicherprotein Ferritin, wurde eine Methode entwickelt, um auch redoxinaktive Enzyme, wie die Cysteinprotease Papain, elektrochemisch detektierbar zu machen. (tum.de)
  • Neben der Verwendung von natürlich vorkommenden elektroaktiven Proteinen, wie dem Metalloprotein Azurin oder dem Eisenspeicherprotein Ferritin, wurde. (tum.de)
  • Considering the above diagram, the zinc rod/strip is oxidized to zinc (Zn 2+) ions by direct electron transfer. (vilaromana.net)
  • However, the crystal structures of the Met121His mutant of azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans at pH 6.5 (1.89- and 1.91-A resolutions) and pH 3.5 (2.45-A resolution) show that the preformed metal binding cavity in the protein is more flexible than expected. (rcsb.org)
  • Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Studies of Azurin-I and Azurin-II from Denitrifying Bacterium Alcaligenes xylosoxidans GIFU1051. (kanazawa-u.ac.jp)
  • Intramolecular Electron Transfer Process of Native and Mutant Forms of Blue Copper-Containing Nitrite Reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans . (kanazawa-u.ac.jp)
  • Structure of Azurin I from the Denitrifying Bacterium Alcaligenes xylosoxidans NCIMB 11015 at 2.45 A Resolution. (kanazawa-u.ac.jp)
  • Here, we take advantage of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) to control the Fermi level and nanometric position of the ECSTM probe in order to study electron transport in individual photosystem I (PSI) complexes. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • However, azurin adsorbed at a DTMS covered ITO surface retained native electrochemical properties (E 1/2 = 122 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and could exchange electrons directly with the underlying ITO layer without need for an intervening chemical mediator. (elsevier.com)
  • Ashur, I & Jones, AK 2012, ' Immobilization of azurin with retention of its native electrochemical properties at alkylsilane self-assembled monolayer modified indium tin oxide ', Electrochimica Acta , vol. 85, pp. 169-174. (elsevier.com)
  • Spectroscopic Characterization and Intramolecular Electron Transfer Processes of Native and Type 2 Cu-Depleted Nitrite Reductases. (kanazawa-u.ac.jp)
  • Analysis of the bimolecular kinetic data suggests that the Cys-to-Asp mutation has diminished significantly the electronic coupling between the copper and ruthenium centers in the intramolecular electron-transfer systems. (caltech.edu)
  • ET in Ru-modified azurin is nearly activationless, and the protein is often approximated as being a rigid medium for tunneling because the tunneling pathways traverse a β sheet. (pnas.org)
  • The influence of structural fluctuations on electron-transfer kinetics is amplified by the exponential decay of electron tunneling probabilities with distance, as well as the delicate interference among coupling pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Can energy exchanges between the electron and bridge vibrations generate vibronic signatures that label some of the D-to-A pathway traversed by the electron, thus eliminating unmarked pathways that would otherwise contribute to the DA coupling (as in other "which way" or double-slit experiments)? (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Electron transfer kinetics at the AuNS/dithiol modified electrodes were studied as a function of AuNS surface density which was varied by increasing their self-assembly time from 8 h, 16 h, 24 h to 32 h. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the kinetics of intermolecular protein-protein electron transfer between Cys112Asp and wild-type azurins were recorded by stopped-flow spectrophotometry. (caltech.edu)
  • Ru(III) electron transfer falls in the range (0.6-0.8 eV) determined experimentally for the reaction in solution. (rcsb.org)
  • To study this reaction, an azurin protein scaffold model was used. (umn.edu)
  • There are a number of negafi',ely charged mnino acid residues on the surface of IL'rredoxin m~d Ilavodoxin that play a role in the electron lransfer reaction with the reductase. (docgo.net)
  • A redox reaction is feasible only if the species which has higher potential is reduced i.e., accepts the electrons and the species which has lower reduction potential is oxidized i.e., loses electrons. (vilaromana.net)
  • The electron transfer (ET) reaction between the catalytic and the cytochrome domain, the internal electron transfer (IET) reaction, can be very much dependent on pH, ion strength, and buffer constituents [42]. (chromoscience.com)
  • The active-site cysteine at position 112 was replaced by an aspartate (Cys112Asp) to assess directly the importance of this ligand to the structure-function properties of azurin. (caltech.edu)
  • For azurin, the correlation function is remarkably insensitive to tunneling pathway structure. (pnas.org)
  • A PHS activity assay was adapted to investigate the activities of PHM-Azurin and NiR-Azurin using an already 2 e- reduced peroxide shunt pathway as well as the native O2 as oxidants. (umn.edu)
  • NR fl'onl the Cyallohactel itllll Amd~ em~ an enzyme which inlcracts with l'erredoxill in lhe photosynthetic pathway to receive the electrons requh'¢d for NADP' redu¢lion. (docgo.net)
  • For this purpose, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of bifunctional organic thiols have been extensively used for the chemical binding of metallic nanomaterials to various substrates and studies of electron transport [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This project aims to find and understand new mechanisms and means of controlling long-range electron transfer in protein systems, relevant to development of fotocatalytic systems for artificial photosynthesis, photoenzymes, and protein-based electronic/photonic devices. (cas.cz)
  • The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer constant, k et , has progressively increased with the surface density of AuNSs bonded to the electrodes from 0.65 × 10 −5 cm s −1 (8 h), 1.47 × 10 −5 cm s −1 (16 h), 3.95 × 10 −5 cm s −1 (24 h) to an excellent 85.0 × 10 −5 cm s −1 (32 h). (mdpi.com)
  • The reduction potential (E°) of a metal center is best described as the tendency of the center to acquire electrons and thus to be reduced ( Eq. 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our immune system uses superoxides to hunt and acquire electrons from foreign invaders thus destroying the invaders. (mindbodyandfood.ca)
  • For example, the respiratory chains of many different types of bacteria consist of a series of electron transfer steps. (ictinike.org)
  • Interface Electrostatics dictates the Electron Transport via Bio-electronic Junctions. (biu.ac.il)
  • Tunnelling of electrons across molecular junctions depends on both temperature and applied bias. (nature.com)
  • De retention modeling said Goodwood-plan indicated dat de Britten hun matches molecular molecular body migration fell ControlsNintendo van de Orne rivier, Caen en Used other function achter Caen construction phrase density-density. (atelier-im-revierpark.de)
  • The interplay among nuclear motion and electronic dynamics is the subject of increasing focus in the field of electron transfer (ET) processes ( 1 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • These bioenergetics processes, the most important of which are photosynthesis and respiration, require electron transfer (ET) between different redox partners. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Electron and proton transfer (ET/PT) are two of the most fundamental processes in chemistry. (bowdoin.edu)
  • In a previous work, we collected first evidences of Ngb potentially taking part to electron transfer (ET) processes in vivo, investigating the redox thermodynamics of this globin. (unimore.it)
  • This work, which reveals the surprisingly fluctional nature of ET in azurin, suggests that hydrogen-bond networks can modulate the efficiency of long-range biological ET. (caltech.edu)
  • In addition to its enzymatic roles, copper is used in biological systems for electron transport (Valko et al. (bumrungrad.com)
  • Electron transfer (ET) is central to biological organisms' ability to manage energy. (ictinike.org)
  • The presence of this inverted region indicates that biological systems must modulate - D G and l simultaneously to achieve fast electron transfer. (ictinike.org)
  • Thus far, in only one case has charge replacemem of one of the acidic residues produced an increase in the rate of electron transl~'r, whereas in several other cases a decrease in the rate is observed. (docgo.net)
  • The results have provided the first experimental indication that electron transfer (ET) between aromatic residues can take place on the time scale of approximately [10.sup. (readabstracts.com)
  • Its physiological role is still debated: one hypothesis is that Ngb serves as an electron transfer (ET) species, possibly by reducing cytochrome c and preventing it to initiate the apoptotic cascade. (unimore.it)
  • And, in oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, electron transfer events are coupled to proton transfers that build up the chemiosmotic gradient which drives ATP synthesis. (ictinike.org)
  • Hence they have important functions in electron transfer and oxidation chemistry and may have potential in biotechnology. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Copper supplys the missing electron to the free radical through a process called oxidation reduction or redox and in so doing stabilizes the free radical. (mindbodyandfood.ca)
  • proteomic response to elevated chloride concentrations included the production of osmotic stress regulators that potentially induced production of the compatible solute, ectoine uptake protein, and increased iron oxidation resulting in heightened electron flow to drive proton export by the F 0 F 1 ATPase. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the more positive the reduction potential of a material, the easier it is to accept electrons (or become reduced). (vilaromana.net)
  • Electron microscopy of Felgner's team's wild type and mutant Salmonella strains showing decreased flagella in the mutant rendering them less motile (3). (biotechniques.com)
  • was consistent with electron microscopy, determination of cell viability, and bioleaching capability. (frontiersin.org)
  • Doose S, Neuweiler H, Sauer M. Fluorescence Quenching by Photoinduced Electron Transfer: A Reporter for Conformational Dynamics of Macromolecules. (uni-bielefeld.de)