Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Measurement or recording of contraction activity of the uterine muscle. It is used to determine progress of LABOR, OBSTETRIC and assess status of pregnancy. It is also used in conjunction with FETAL MONITORING to determine fetal response to stress of maternal uterine contractions.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Manner or style of walking.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.
A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The position or attitude of the body.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Training or retraining of the buccal, facial, labial, and lingual musculature in toothless conditions; DEGLUTITION DISORDERS; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; MALOCCLUSION; and ARTICULATION DISORDERS.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
A technique to self-regulate brain activities provided as a feedback in order to better control or enhance one's own performance, control or function. This is done by trying to bring brain activities into a range associated with a desired brain function or status.
The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
An increase in the rate of speed.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (1/7286)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (2/7286)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Receptor mechanisms underlying heterogenic reflexes among the triceps surae muscles of the cat. (3/7286)

The soleus (S), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles of the cat are interlinked by rapid spinal reflex pathways. In the decerebrate state, these heterogenic reflexes are either excitatory and length dependent or inhibitory and force dependent. Mechanographic analysis was used to obtain additional evidence that the muscle spindle primary ending and the Golgi tendon organ provide the major contributions to these reflexes, respectively. The tendons of the triceps surae muscles were separated and connected to independent force transducers and servo-controlled torque motors in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. The muscles were activated as a group using crossed-extension reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the caudal cutaneous sural nerve was used to provide a particularly strong activation of MG and decouple the forces of the triceps surae muscles. During either form of activation, the muscles were stretched either individually or in various combinations to determine the strength and characteristics of autogenic and heterogenic feedback. The corresponding force responses, including both active and passive components, were measured during the changing background tension. During activation of the entire group, the excitatory, heterogenic feedback linking the three muscles was found to be strongest onto LG and weakest onto MG, in agreement with previous results concerning the strengths of heteronymous Ia excitatory postsynaptic potentials among the triceps surae muscles. The inhibition, which is known to affect only the soleus muscle, was dependent on active contractile force and was detected essentially as rapidly as length dependent excitation. The inhibition outlasted the excitation and was blocked by intravenous strychnine. These results indicate that the excitatory and inhibitory effects are dominated by feedback from primary spindle receptors and Golgi tendon organs. The interactions between these two feedback pathways potentially can influence both the mechanical coupling between ankle and knee.  (+info)

Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling. (4/7286)

Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to the directionally insensitive Ext function in both forward and backward pedaling. Other muscles also appear to have contributed to more than one function, which was especially evident in backward pedaling (i.e. , BF, SM, MG, and TA to Flex). We conclude that the phasing of only the Ant and Post biomechanical functions are directionally sensitive. Further, we suggest that task-dependent modulation of the expression of the functions in the motor output provides this biomechanics-based neural control scheme with the capability to execute a variety of lower limb tasks, including walking.  (+info)

Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (5/7286)

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

Contribution of sensory feedback to the generation of extensor activity during walking in the decerebrate Cat. (6/7286)

In this investigation we have estimated the afferent contribution to the generation of activity in the knee and ankle extensor muscles during walking in decerebrate cats by loading and unloading extensor muscles, and by unilateral deafferentation of a hind leg. The total contribution of afferent feedback to extensor burst generation was estimated by allowing one hind leg to step into a hole in the treadmill belt on which the animal was walking. In the absence of ground support the level of activity in knee and ankle extensor muscles was reduced to approximately 70% of normal. Activity in the ankle extensors could be restored during the "foot-in-hole" trials by selectively resisting extension at the ankle. Thus feedback from proprioceptors in the ankle extensor muscles probably makes a large contribution to burst generation in these muscles during weight-bearing steps. Similarly, feedback from proprioceptors in knee extensor appears to contribute substantially to the activation of knee extensor muscles because unloading and loading these muscles, by lifting and dropping the hindquarters, strongly reduced and increased, respectively, the level of activity in the knee extensors. This conclusion was supported by the finding that partial deafferentation of one hind leg by transection of the L4-L6 dorsal roots reduced the level of activity in the knee extensors by approximately 50%, but did not noticeably influence the activity in ankle extensor muscles. However, extending the deafferentation to include the L7-S2 dorsal roots decreased the ankle extensor activity. We conclude that afferent feedback contributes to more than one-half of the input to knee and ankle extensor motoneurons during the stance phase of walking in decerebrate cats. The continuous contribution of afferent feedback to the generation of extensor activity could function to automatically adjust the intensity of activity to meet external demands.  (+info)

Visuomotor processing as reflected in the directional discharge of premotor and primary motor cortex neurons. (7/7286)

Premotor and primary motor cortical neuronal firing was studied in two monkeys during an instructed delay, pursuit tracking task. The task included a premovement "cue period," during which the target was presented at the periphery of the workspace and moved to the center of the workspace along one of eight directions at one of four constant speeds. The "track period" consisted of a visually guided, error-constrained arm movement during which the animal tracked the target as it moved from the central start box along a line to the opposite periphery of the workspace. Behaviorally, the animals tracked the required directions and speeds with highly constrained trajectories. The eye movements consisted of saccades to the target at the onset of the cue period, followed by smooth pursuit intermingled with saccades throughout the cue and track periods. Initially, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for direction and period effects in the firing. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was used to fit the average firing from the cue and track periods to a cosine model. Directional tuning as determined by a significant fit to the cosine model was a prominent feature of the discharge during both the cue and track periods. However, the directional tuning of the firing of a single cell was not always constant across the cue and track periods. Approximately one-half of the neurons had differences in their preferred directions (PDs) of >45 degrees between cue and track periods. The PD in the cue or track period was not dependent on the target speed. A second linear regression analysis based on calculation of the preferred direction in 20-ms bins (i.e., the PD trajectory) was used to examine on a finer time scale the temporal evolution of this change in directional tuning. The PD trajectories in the cue period were not straight but instead rotated over the workspace to align with the track period PD. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations occurred. The PD trajectories were relatively straight during most of the track period. The rotation and eventual convergence of the PD trajectories in the cue period to the preferred direction of the track period may reflect the transformation of visual information into motor commands. The widely dispersed PD trajectories in the cue period would allow targets to be detected over a wide spatial aperture. The convergence of the PD trajectories occurring at the cue-track transition may serve as a "Go" signal to move that was not explicitly supplied by the paradigm. Furthermore, the rotation and convergence of the PD trajectories may provide a mechanism for nonstandard mapping. Standard mapping refers to a sensorimotor transformation in which the stimulus is the object of the reach. Nonstandard mapping is the mapping of an arbitrary stimulus into an arbitrary movement. The shifts in the PD may allow relevant visual information from any direction to be transformed into an appropriate movement direction, providing a neural substrate for nonstandard stimulus-response mappings.  (+info)

Uncoupling of in vivo torque production from EMG in mouse muscles injured by eccentric contractions. (8/7286)

1. The main objective of this study was to determine whether eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury causes impaired plasmalemmal action potential conduction, which could explain the injury-induced excitation-contraction coupling failure. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes on the left common peroneal nerve and with electromyographic (EMG) electrodes on the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The left anterior crural muscles of anaesthetized mice were stimulated to perform 150 eccentric (ECC) (n = 12 mice) or 150 concentric (CON) (n = 11 mice) contractions. Isometric torque, EMG root mean square (RMS) and M-wave mean and median frequencies were measured before, immediately after, and at 1, 3, 5 and 14 days after the protocols. In parallel experiments, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) concentration was measured in TA muscles to determine whether the excitation failure elicited a denervation-like response. 2. Immediately after the ECC protocol, torque was reduced by 47-89 %, while RMS was reduced by 9-21 %; the RMS decrement was not different from that observed for the CON protocol, which did not elicit large torque deficits. One day later, both ECC and CON RMS had returned to baseline values and did not change over the next 2 weeks. However, torque production by the ECC group showed a slow recovery over that time and was still depressed by 12-30 % after 2 weeks. M-wave mean and median frequencies were not affected by performance of either protocol. 3. AChR concentration was elevated by 79 and 368 % at 3 and 5 days, respectively, after the ECC protocol; AChR concentration had returned to control levels 2 weeks after the protocol. At the time of peak AChR concentration in the ECC protocol muscles (i.e. 5 days), AChR concentration in CON protocol muscles was not different from the control level. 4. In conclusion, these data demonstrate no major role for impaired plasmalemmal action potential conduction in the excitation-contraction coupling failure induced by eccentric contractions. Additionally, a muscle injured by eccentric contractions shows a response in AChR concentration similar to a transiently denervated muscle.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Tracking motor unit action potentials in the tibialis anterior during fatigue. AU - Beck, R.B.. AU - OMalley, M.J.. AU - Stegeman, D.F.. AU - Houtman, C.J.. AU - Connolly, S.. AU - Zwarts, M.J.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - New surface electromyogram (SEMG) techniques offer the potential to advance knowledge of healthy and diseased motor units. Conduction velocity (CV) estimates, obtained from indwelling electrodes, may provide diagnostic information, but the standard method of CV estimation from SEMG may be of only limited value. We developed a motor unit (MU) tracking algorithm to extract motor unit conduction velocity (MUCV) and motor unit action potential (MUAP) amplitude estimates from SEMG. The technique is designed to provide a noninvasive means of accessing fatigue and recruitment behavior of individual MUs. We have applied this MU tracking algorithm to SEMG data recorded during isometric fatiguing contractions of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in nine healthy subjects, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motor unit activity during isometric and concentric-eccentric contractions of the human first dorsal interosseus muscle. AU - Howell, J. N.. AU - Fuglevand, A. J.. AU - Walsh, M. L.. AU - Bigland-Ritchie, B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - 1. Motor unit activity was recorded with intramuscular fine wire electrodes during isometric, concentric, and eccentric activity in the human first dorsal interosseus muscle. Twenty-one units from 11 subjects were sampled. 2. During isotonic cycles of shortening and lengthening, 18 of 21 units were recruited during the concentric phase, increased their discharge rates as the concentric movement progressed, then decreased their discharge rate during the eccentric phase, and were derecruited. 3. A different pattern of recruitment was observed in recordings from three units. These units were recruited during the eccentric phase, at a time when other units were decreasing their ...
Looking for electromyograph? Find out information about electromyograph. An instrument used for making electromyograms Explanation of electromyograph
Objective: Surface electromyography has been a long-standing source of signals for control of powered prosthetic devices. By contrast, force myography is a more recent alternative to surface electromyography that has the potential to enhance reliability and avoid operational challenges of surface electromyography during use. In this paper, we report on experiments conducted to assess improvements in classification of surface electromyography signals through the addition of collocated force myography consisting of piezo-resistive sensors ...
High-pass filtering (HPF) is a fundamental signal processing method for the attenuation of low-frequency noise contamination, namely baseline noise and movement artefact noise, in human surface electromyography (sEMG) research. Despite this, HPF is largely overlooked in equine sEMG research, with many studies not applying, or failing to describe, the application of HPF. An optimal HPF cut-off frequency maximally attenuates noise while minimally affecting sEMG signal power, but this has not been investigated for equine sEMG signals. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off frequency for attenuation of low-frequency noise in sEMG signals from the Triceps Brachii and Biceps Femoris of 20 horses during trot and canter. sEMG signals were HPF with cut-off frequencies ranging from 0-80 Hz and were subjected to power spectral analysis and enveloped using RMS to calculate spectral peaks, indicative of motion artefact, and signal loss, respectively. Processed signals consistently ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calf muscle activity alteration with foot orthoses insertion during walking measured by fine-wire electromyography. AU - Akuzawa, Hiroshi. AU - Imai, Atsushi. AU - Iizuka, Satoshi. AU - Matsunaga, Naoto. AU - Kaneoka, Koji. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to assess the muscle activity change of the tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and peroneus longus during gait with orthoses. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Activity of each muscle was measured by using fine-wire and surface electromyography. Gait task was performed by the participants barefoot, with footwear and with orthoses. The electromyography data from a stance phase of each gait trial were used for analysis. The stance phase was divided into contact, midstance, and propulsion phases. The data from ten participants were extracted for final analysis, as electromyography measurements were unsuccessful for the other six. [Results] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trunk muscle fatigue during a back extension task in standing. AU - Allison, Garry. AU - Henry, S.M.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - There is some evidence that the fatiguing characteristics during isometric back extension tasks may assist in identifying differences between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). During these tasks, especially in standing, other abdominal trunk muscles are also active. The abdominal trunk muscles acting across multiple segments of the lumbar spine function in isolation or in synergy to create flexion torques. It is suggested that co-activation patterns of the trunk muscles are able to control the axis of rotation of the extension torque and also provide multi-segmental stability of the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue responses in 4 asymptomatic individuals to a sustained isometric extension task of the trunk muscles evaluating the shifts in the median frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) signal. This study ...
ORCID: 0000-0002-1552-8647 (2016) Electromyographic evaluation of hindlimb muscle activity patterns in elite and non- elite jumping athletes: a preliminary report on surface electromyography data. In: International Conference on Canine and Equine Locomotion 2016, 17-19 August, London. ...
This paper presents findings from a study of five healthy subjects performing 50% maximum voluntary contraction until complete fatigue of the muscle. An overlapping window technique was used to find the values for mean frequency (MNF), median frequency (MDF) of the power spectrum, root mean square (RMS) and muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV). The surface electromyography signal (sEMG) was collected from the vastus lateralis muscle using a three channel Laplacian electrode. The results show the MNF and MDF values showed a consistent trend with each other where they remained at steady values between 20-30% and 75-80% of the signal after which they fell 15-30% of this value. The RMS showed a linear increase in value. The MFCV showed a similar trend to that found in the MNF and MDF values ...
Introduction. Contributors.. 1 BASIC PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOPHYSICS OF EMG SIGNAL GENERATION (T. Moritani, D. Stegeman, R. Merletti).. 1.1 Introduction.. 1.2 Basic Physiology of Motor Control and Muscle Contraction.. 1.3 Basic Electrophysiology of the Muscle Cell Membrane.. References.. 2 NEEDLE AND WIRE DETECTION TECHNIQUES (J. V. Trontelj, J. Jabre, M. Mihelin).. 2.1 Anatomical and Physiological Background of Intramuscular Recording.. 2.2 Recording Characteristics of Needle Electrodes.. 2.3 Conventional Needle EMG.. 2.4 Special Needle Recording Techniques.. 2.5 Physical Characteristics of Needle EMG Signals.. 2.6 Recording Equipment.. References.. 3 DECOMPOSITION OF INTRAMUSCULAR EMG SIGNALS (D. W. Stashuk, D. Farina, K. Søgaard).. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Basic Steps for EMG Signal Decomposition.. 3.3 Evaluation of Performance of EMG Signal Decomposition Algorithms.. 3.4 Applications of Results of the Decomposition of an Intramuscular EMG Signal.. 3.5 Conclusions.. References.. 4 BIOPHYSICS OF THE ...
Objective: This article presents the design and validation of an accurate automatic diagnostic system to classify intramuscular EMG (iEMG) signals into healthy, myopathy, or neuropathy categories to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. Method: First, an iEMG signal is decimated to produce a set of disjoint downsampled signals, which are decomposed by the lifting wavelet transform (LWT). The Higuchis fractal dimensions (FDs) of LWT coefficients in the subbands are computed. The FDs of LWT subband coefficients are fused with one-dimensional local binary pattern derived from each downsampled signal. Next, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) determines the class labels of downsampled signals. Finally, the sequence of class labels is fed to the Boyer-Moore majority vote (BMMV) algorithm, which assigns a class to every iEMG signal. Result: The MLPNN-BMMV classifier was experimented with 250 iEMG signals belonging to three categories. The performance of the classifier was validated ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The objective of this proposal is to develop noninvasive surface electromyogram (EMG) examination methods to overcome disadvantages of routine invasive needle EMG for examination of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and other pediatric neuromuscular diseases. There are two planned aims for the proposed study. The first aim is to develop and test noninvasive surface EMG decomposition methods using flexible surface electrode arrays, thus laying the foundation for their broad clinical applications, particularly for pediatric population. This includes validating and refining the developed methods using both computational and experimental approaches. The second aim is to perform a surface EMG examination of the pathological changes in SMA patients, mainly at the motor unit level, using the newly developed noninvasive methods. The approach utilized in the proposed project lie in recent advances in both surface EMG recording and signal processing methods. Our research ...
The amount of documented increase in motor unit (MU) synchronization with fatigue and its possible relation with force tremor varies largely, possibly due to inhomogeneous muscle activation and methodological discrepancies and limitations. The aim of this study was to apply a novel surface electromyographical (EMG) descriptor for MU synchronization based on large MU populations to examine changes in MU synchronization with fatigue at different sites of a muscle and its relation to tremor. Twenty-four subjects performed an isometric elbow flexion at 25% of maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Monopolar EMG signals were recorded using a grid of 130 electrodes above the biceps brachii. Changes in MU synchronization were estimated based on the sub-band skewness of EMG signals and tremor by the coefficient of variation in force. The synchronization descriptor was dependent on recording site and increased with fatigue together with tremor. There was a general association between these two ...
The effects of posture on trunk muscle strength under isometric and isokinetic conditions in 21 healthy male volunteers and the associated electromyographic activity for eight trunk muscles were investigated. The men performed 12 trunk extension exertions in standing and kneeling postures. Isometric tests were performed at 22.5, 45, and 67.5 degrees of trunk flexion. Isokinetic tests were performed at three velocities: 30, 60, and 90 degrees per second. Electromyographic data were collected from eight trunk muscles to assess muscle recruitment under each condition. A priori orthogonal contrasts were specified for analysis of both torque and electromyographic data. The findings suggest that the kneeling posture was associated with a 15% decrease in peak torque output when contrasted with standing. However, no concomitant change was noted in trunk muscle activity. Trunk hyperflexion and increasing rotational velocity were associated with reduced torque in both postures. Trunk muscle activity was ...
Citation: Saito, A., & Akima, H. (2015). Neuromuscular Activation of the Vastus Intermedius Muscle during Isometric Hip Flexion. PloS one, 10(10), e0141146. Retrieved from Neuromuscular Activation of the Vastus Intermedius Muscle during Isometric Hip Flexion Summary Saito, and Akima (2015) conducted research on the activation of the vastus intermedius versus the rectus femoris during…
The macro electromyography method was developed in the 1980s. Since then, technical modifications have been made, and a number of conditions have been explored. This study is a methodological introduction and an update of findings in some nerve-muscle disorders. The spike component of a motor unit potential (MUP) recorded by a concentric or monopolar needle electromyography (EMG) electrode is generated primarily by fibers within 1-2 mm of the needle recording area. Given that a MUPs typical anatomical reach is 5-15 mm in diameter, it follows that conventional EMG is unable to record activity from the entire motor unit. Such information could promote understanding of muscle in health and disease. Macro EMG, with its large recording area, appears to provide this information by recording the activity from most of the fibers in a given motor unit. The value of combining macro EMG with single-fiber EMG and conventional EMG recordings is discussed.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of age on antagonist muscle activation during maximum voluntary efforts of the knee extensors and flexors. AU - Unnithan, V.. AU - Kellis, E.. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. N2 - The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children demonstrate greater antagonist activity levels compared to adults. Nine girls(age 12.7 ± 0.7 years) and nine (age 22.7 ± 2.3) females performed maximum eccentric and concentric efforts of knee extensors and flexors on a Biodex dynamometer at 30°·s-1. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis and hamstrings was also recorded. The EMG was full-wave rectified and integrated (IEMG) over 10 ms intervals. The antagonist IEMG was normalized as a percentage of the IEMG activity of the same muscle group when acting as agonist, at the same angular velocity, angular position and muscle action. The mean and standard deviation of the normalized IEMG of the hamstrings in 23 years old was 16.8 ± 7.1% and 19.56 ±8.4% under ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hierarchical domain adaptation for SEMG signal classification across multiple subjects.. AU - Chattopadhyay, Rita. AU - Krishnan, Narayanan C.. AU - Panchanathan, Sethuraman. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Large variations in Surface Electromyogram (SEMG) signal across different subjects make the process of automated signal classification as a generalized tool, challenging. In this paper, we propose a domain adaptation methodology that addresses this challenge. In particular we propose a hierarchical sample selection methodology, that selects samples from multiple training subjects, based on their similarity with the target subject at different levels of granularity. We have validated our framework on SEMG data collected from 8 people during a fatiguing exercise. Comprehensive experiments conducted in the paper demonstrate that the proposed method improves the subject independent classification accuracy by 21% to 23% over the cases without domain adaptation methods and by 14% to 20% ...
years) were recruited. On two separate occasions, subjects visited a garden plot to perform digging, raking, troweling, weeding, and hoeing; all tasks were performed three times with 20 s intervals for each trial. To measure muscle activation during the five gardening tasks, surface EMG was used. Bipolar surface EMG electrodes were attached to eight upper limb muscles (bilateral anterior deltoid, biceps brachialis, brachioradialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris) or eight lower limb muscles (bilateral vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius) on both sides of the body, for a total of 16 muscles. During the five tasks, photographs were taken of movement phases using a digital video camera. The right flexor carpi ulnaris and brachioradialis showed higher activation than the other upper and lower limb muscles measured during the tasks. All 16 upper and lower limb muscles were actively used only during digging. According to movement analysis of each activity, digging was ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 d of creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMG FT) in college-age men. Sixteen men (age 22.4 ± 2.6 yr, height 177.4 ± 6.8 cm, weight 79.5 ± 10.6 kg; M ± SD) participated in this double-blind study and were randomly placed into either placebo (Pl; 10 g of flavored fructose powder per packet; n = 8) or Cr (5 g dicreatine citrate plus 10 g of flavored fructose powder per packet; n = 8) loading groups. Each participant ingested 1 packet 4 times/d, totaling 20 g/d for 5 days (loading). Before and after loading, each participant performed a discontinuous cycle-ergometer test to determine his EMG FT, using bipolar surface electrodes placed on the vastus lateralis of the right thigh. Four 60-s work bouts (ranging from 200 to 400 W) were completed. Adequate rest was given between bouts to allow for the participants heart rate (HR) to drop within 10 beats of their resting HR. The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s ...
Electromyography or EMG is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the electrical activity in your nerves as they transmit messages to your muscles when the muscles are contracting and when theyre at rest. The purpose of an EMG is to assess the health of your muscles and the nerves that control them. During an Electromyography , a thin needle with an electrode is inserted through your skin into a muscle. The electrode records the electrical activity in your nerve and muscle and transmits it to a receiver that displays the electromyography results on a printout or on a computer screen. The electrical activity recorded during an electromyography may also be broadcast over a speaker for your physician to hear.. An EMG can help diagnose disorders that affect muscle and nerve function, such as muscular dystrophies, and nerve disorders, such as neuropathies.. The activity of your muscles and the nerves that control them produce electrical signals. A healthy, relaxed muscle is electrically silent. When you ...
Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure to assess the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them (motor neurons). The nerves transmit electrical signals that cause muscles to contract. An EMG translates these signals into graphs, sounds or numerical values that a specialist interprets. EMG results can reveal nerve dysfunction, muscle dysfunction or problems with nerve-to-muscle signal transmission. At Technomed we understand the importance of a crystal clear signal, ease of use and patient comfort in EMG. Our EMG Needles are designed to give the optimal balance between needle sharpness and control of movement inside the muscle. For EMGs Technomed has Monopolar and Concentric Needle Electrode and Adhesive Surface Electrodes. A related treatment of EMG is EMG with injection of medication, for example botulinum toxin. This treatment is done in case of unwanted muscle contraction or overstimulated nerves. The nerves are unable to transmit the signal to the muscle (trough the brain).
Purpose: This study was designed to assess muscle coordination during a specific all-out sprint cycling task (Sprint). The aim was to estimate the EMG activity level of each muscle group by referring to the submaximal cycling condition (Sub150 W) and to test the hypothesis that a maximal activity is reached for all of the muscles during Sprint. Methods: Fifteen well-trained cyclists were tested during submaximal and sprint cycling exercises and a series of maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in isometric and isokinetic modes (MVC at the three lower limb joints). Crank torque and surface EMG signals for 11 lower limb muscles were continuously measured. Results:Results showed that Sprint induced a very large increase of EMG activity level for the hip flexors (multiplied by 7-9 from 150 W to Sprint) and the knee flexors and hip extensors (multiplied by 5-7), whereas plantar flexors and knee extensors demonstrated a lower increase (multiplied by 2-3). During Sprint, EMG activity level failed to reach a
METHODS: Fifty-three adults (30 men, 23 women; 25 + 4.7 y; 74.9 + 13.3 kg; 172.7 + 9.1 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. The electromyography (EMG) activity of the upper and lower regions of the rectus abdominus (URA and LRA, respectively), the external oblique (RO), and paraspinal (PS) muscle was measured during three abdominal exercises performed by each participant on the AI and MT using surface EMG. Surface electrodes were placed on the right and left sides of the trunk for each muscle group. Each participant performed one set of five repetitions for the following three exercies: 1) traditional crunch, 2) split leg scissors, and 3) bilateral heel drops from a table top position. Adequate rest time was allowed between sets to avoid fatigue and the testing order for both exercises and the exercise condition (AI vs MT) was randomized. Paired t-Tests were used to detect differences in relative mean EMG activity between the AI and MT for each exercise, and Bonferroni adjustments were ...
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Two back-EMF-based position observers are compared for motion-sensorless synchronous reluctance motor drives. The reduced-order observer is of the second order, and the adaptive full-order observer is of the fourth order. The proposed design rules guarantee the stability of the adaptive full-order observer, if the parameter estimates are accurate. The observers are experimentally evaluated using a 6.7-kW synchronous reluctance motor drive in low-speed operation and under parameter errors. The gain selection of the second-order observer is easier, but the adaptive full-order observer is more robust against parameter variations and spatial harmonics ...
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OBJECTIVE: to study the influence of 10 min of cyclic twisting motion on abdominal and back muscle activities. BACKGROUND: repetitive (cyclic) occupational activity was identified by many epidemiological reports to be a risk factor for the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Biomechanical and physiological confirmation, however, is lacking. METHODS: trunk muscle electromyography
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This study aimed to examine a wide profile of acute biochemical and neuromuscular responses to strength (STR) and hypertrophy (HYP) resistance exercise (RE). Seven trained men completed an STR workout (4 × 6 repetitions, 85% 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 5-minute rest periods), an HYP workout (4 × 10 repetitions, 70% 1RM, 90-second rest periods), and a control condition (CON) in a randomized crossover design. Peak force (PF), rate of force development (RFD), and muscle activity were quantified before and after exercise during an isometric squat protocol. Blood samples were taken 20, 10, and 0 minutes before and 0, 10, and 60 minutes after exercise to measure the concentration of blood lactate (BL), pH, and a number of electrolytes that were corrected for plasma volume changes. No differences were observed between the workouts for changes in PF, RFD, or muscle activity. Repeated contrasts revealed a greater (p ≤ 0.05) increase in BL concentration and reduction in pH after the HYP protocol than ...
An experiment was designed using muscle electromyography to determine if an optimum cylindrical handle size exists. The experiment had two phases. One phase was concerned with an experimental task of gripping a cylindrical handle and performing a simple task routine to evaluate the optimum handle size. The other phase was concerned with a fatigue test utilizing the same cylindrical handles. The experimental variables wore: hand size, weight resistance, and cylindrical handle diameter. Findings indicate that generally the 20 in. diameter handle showed lowest EMG activity. The 1-5 in. diameter handle was found to be the optimum handle size based on the ratio between force applied and the EMG activity measured. The 1.5 in. diameter handle was found to provide the maximum number of completed task cycles before the onset of fatigue.. ...
Changes in surface electromyography signals and kinetics associated with progression of fatigue at two speeds during wheelchair propulsion.: The purpose of this
Gait disturbance in individuals with spinal cord lesion is attributed to the interruption of descending pathways to the spinal locomotor center, whereas neural circuits below and above the lesion maintain their functional capability. An artificial neural connection (ANC), which bridges supraspinal centers and locomotor networks in the lumbar spinal cord beyond the lesion site, may restore the functional impairment. To achieve an ANC that sends descending voluntary commands to the lumbar locomotor center and bypasses the thoracic spinal cord, upper limb muscle activity was converted to magnetic stimuli delivered noninvasively over the lumbar vertebra. Healthy participants were able to initiate and terminate walking-like behavior and to control the step cycle through an ANC controlled by volitional upper limb muscle activity. The walking-like behavior stopped just after the ANC was disconnected from the participants even when the participant continued to swing arms. Furthermore, additional ...
Background: Fear of frailty is a main concern for seniors. Surface electromyography(sEMG) controlled assistive devices for the upper extremities could potentially be usedto augment seniors force while training their muscles and reduce their fear of frailty.In fact, these devices could both improve self confidence and facilitate independentleaving in domestic environments. The successful implementation of sEMG controlleddevices for the elderly strongly relies on the capability of properly determining seniorsactions from their sEMG signals. In this research we investigated the viability ofclassifying hand postures in seniors from sEMG signals of their forearm muscles.Methods: Nineteen volunteers, including seniors (70 years old in average) andyoung people (27 years old in average), participated in this study and sEMG signalsfrom four of their forearm muscles (i.e. Extensor Digitorum, Palmaris Longus, FlexorCarpi Ulnaris and Extensor Carpi Radialis) were recorded. The feature vectors werebuilt by ...
The mechanical properties of muscle are shown to have a significant influence on the duration of the silent period in the soleus EMG. In contrast to this, the mechanical events have no influence on the duration of the reciprocal inhibition of the anterior tibial muscle. However, a second, delayed cessation of the EMG activity in the anterior tibial muscle is due to mechanical events.. ...
Electromyography (EMG) is a medical test performed to evaluate and record the electrical activity (electromyogram) produced by skeletal muscles using an instrument called electromyograph. EMG test is often performed together with another test called nerve conduction study, that measures the conducting function of nerves. The electrical source is the resting membrane potential (RMP) which is about -90 mV for skeletal muscles. Measured EMG potentials range between less than 50 μV and up to 20 to 30 mV depending upon the muscle under observation.. ...
Investigation and management of muscle and nerve disorders.. Siow Neurology, Headache and Pain centres have onsite EMG equipment. This treatment is used for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed with an Electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram. An injection into various muscles will pick up the electrical activity given out by muscles and tell us if there is nerve or muscle disease from this.. EMG is most often used when patients have symptoms of weakness, and examination shows impaired muscle strength. It can help to tell the difference between muscle weakness caused by injury of a nerve attached to a muscle and weakness due to neurological disorders.. There is little or no preparation for EMG. Body lotions are to be avoided prior to the use of EMG as this may reduce the reading. Blood Thinners are also to be avoided as again this may distort the electromyogram reading.. ...
electromyography definition: a technique for assessing and tracking the activation signal of muscle tissue; analysis of neuromuscular disorders with the use of an electromyograph; an approach for assessing…
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TY - GEN. T1 - User-independent hand motion classification with electromyography. AU - Gibson, Alison E.. AU - Ison, Mark R.. AU - Artemiadis, Panagiotis. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Electromyographic (EMG) processing is an important research area with direct applications to prosthetics, exoskeletons and human-machine interaction. Current state of the art decoding methods require intensive training on a single user before it can be utilized, and have been unable to achieve both userindependence and real-time performance. This paper presents a real-time EMG classification method which generalizes across users without requiring an additional training phase. An EMGembedded sleeve quickly positions and records from EMG surface electrodes on six forearm muscles. An optimized decision tree classifies signals from these sensors into five distinct movements for any given user using EMG energy synergies between muscles. This method was tested on 10 healthy subjects using leave-one-out validation, ...
This paper (Part II of two) presents an experimental demonstration of the performance achieved by implementing the mathematically derived optimal myoproces
Electromyography: Electromyography or EMG is a diagnostic test that understands the physiological of muscles thereby assessing their health.
Principal Investigator:NAKAHIRA MAYA, Project Period (FY):2017-04-01 - 2020-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), Research Field:Rehabilitation science/Welfare engineering
SEMG is the study of muscle status (activity) using surface electrodes. Fremont Dentist Preet Sahota believes this tool can be valuable in diagnosing...
Electromyographic (EMG) activities of gluteus maximus (GL), vastus later-alis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA) were measured telemetrically from four world-class athletes during the entire ski jumping performance. Integrated electromyographic activities (IEMG) were calculated from the different phases of jump. TA and GA showed alternate activation during the curve, suggesting that maintenance of the inrun position is a process requiring continuous active control. VL and VM were observed to contribute mostly to the entire takeoff phase whereas GL became strongly active within the last 4 meters of the takeoff. GA was slightly but continuously active during the inrun and showed only a small increase during takeoff. The quick lifting of the skis, as evidenced by the activation of TA, does not seem to allow effective use of GA at the end of the takeoff. Strong continuous activity of the knee extensors and TA dominated the midflight phase whereas the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combinations of muscle synergies in the construction of a natural motor behavior. AU - DAvella, Andrea. AU - Saltiel, Philippe. AU - Bizzi, Emilio. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - A central issue in motor control is how the central nervous system generates the muscle activity patterns necessary to achieve a variety of behavioral goals. The many degrees of freedom of the musculoskeletal apparatus provide great flexibility but make the control problem extremely complex. Muscle synergies - coherent activations, in space or time, of a group of muscles - have been proposed as building blocks that could simplify the construction of motor behaviors. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a new method to extract invariant spatiotemporal components from the simultaneous recordings of the activity of many muscles. We used this technique to analyze the muscle patterns of intact and unrestrained frogs during kicking, a natural defensive behavior. Here we show that combinations of ...
Synchrony of coupled oscillations of ipsilateral hand and foot may be achieved by controlling the interlimb phase difference through a crossed kinaesthetic feedback between the two limbs, or by an independent linkage of each limb cycle to a common clock signal. These alternative models may be experimentally challenged by comparing the behaviour of the two limbs when they oscillate following an external time giver, either alone or coupled together. Ten subjects oscillated their right hand and foot both alone and coupled (iso- or antidirectionally), paced by a metronome. Wrist and ankle angular position and Electromyograms (EMG) from the respective flexor and extensor muscles were recorded. Three phase delays were measured: i) the clk-mov delay, between the clock (metronome beat) and the oscillation peak; ii) the neur (neural) delay, between the clock and the motoneurone excitatory input, as inferred from the EMG onset; and iii) the mech (mechanical) delay between the EMG onset and the corresponding point
Just look up the definitions of agonist and agonist muscle. Doing the research for yourself will engrave this knowledge into your brain. Enjoy your studies ...
An electromyogram test, EMG, electromyography is a test that is used to record the electrical activity of muscles. Contact City Xray & Scan Clinic for EMG test booking.
While both the Barbell Press and the Dumbell Press activate the same group of muscles, Dumbell Press requires more stabilization.. This means you wont be able to do as much total weight, but Dumbells have their advantages.. A 2013 study from the Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research sought to determine whether shoulder pressing with dumbells or barbells activated more muscle.. Its worth mentioning that the researchers in this study used electromyogram activity (EMG) as the metric for measuring total muscle engagement.. [alert color=blue] EMG really measures the electrical activity produced in muscles when they contract. This method is fairly accurate for measuring total muscle engagement, but its not dead on.. Some variation should be expected…. [/alert] The researchers concluded that, while muscle recruitment was similar between these two exercises, the Dumbbell Press was shown to activate the muscles in the shoulder more than the Barbell Press. This doesnt mean dumbbells are ...
Dynamic electromyography[edit]. Is the study of patterns of muscle activity during gait. ...
Electromyography[edit]. Electromyography is a research technique that allows researchers to look at muscle recruitment in ...
Electromyography. It is useful if a systemic vasculitis is suspected and neuromuscular symptoms are present. Arteriography. ...
Electromyography is the measurement and analysis of the electrical activity in skeletal muscles. This technique is useful for ... Electromyography (EMG) has been proposed by multiple researchers as an alternative measurement technique to quantify spasticity ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Mayo Clinic Staff, "Electromyography (EMG)". Retrieved 27 July 2012 Kamen, G. & Gabriel ... D. A. (2010). Essentials of Electromyography. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Bressler, S. L. and Ding, M. 2006. "Event-Related ...
Laryngeal electromyography plays an important role in determining whether or not a nerve problem is the cause of a vocal ... Laryngeal electromyography is a test that measures the electrical signals from the voice box muscles (laryngeal muscles) during ... If the disorder is found to be nerve related through electromyography the nerve in question may need to be replaced or the ... "Laryngeal Electromyography (LEMG)". The Voice Foundation. Retrieved 17 December 2020. "Bogart-Bacall Syndrome". YouTube. ...
Electromyography or (EMG). This procedure determines if nerve or muscle cells are damaged. Since a common symptom of Nemaline ...
1963;32:145; Electromyography in thyrotoxicosis. Ramsay ID, Q J Med. 1965;34(135) 255. Cutaneous manifestations of thyroid ...
Electromyography (EMG) is a tool used to measure the electrical outputs produced by skeletal muscles upon activation. Motor ... The prime mover strategy over time has declined in popularity as it has been found through electromyography studies that no one ... Additionally, not only can electromyography readings differ, but the physical path that joints travel along can be altered as ... Adaptation can be measured in a variety of ways: electromyography, three-dimensional reconstruction of joints, and changes in ...
Eleanor Criswell (2011). "Somatics and Surface Electromyography". In Cram, James (ed.). Cram's Introduction to Surface ... Electromyography. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 193. ISBN 9780763732745. Retrieved 1 March 2015. Samuel, Geoffrey (2008). The ...
ISBN 0-7216-9412-8. Barry DT (1992). "Vibrations and sounds from evoked muscle twitches". Electromyography and Clinical ...
Needle electromyography studies generally reveal no signs of denervation. Megavitamin-B6 syndrome is characterized mainly by ... Scott, K.; Zeris, S.; Kothari, M. J. (2008). "Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies". Electromyography and Clinical ...
Electromyography test is negative. In direct trauma, fracture of the humerus, gun shot, glass pieces injuries and more, can ... Electromyography test shows slight neural damage at the biceps and the brachialis muscles with slower motor and sensory ...
Murphy BA, Dawson NJ, Slack JR (March 1995). "Sacroiliac joint manipulation decreases the H-reflex". Electromyography and ...
Electromyography (EMG). *Nerve conduction studies. *Exercise testing. *Single-fiber EMG. Treatment[edit]. Symptomatic treatment ...
See also: Electromyography § History. The technique of electromyoneurography was first practiced in the late 1970s by the ... Electromyoneurography (EMNG) is the combined use of electromyography and electroneurography[1] This technique allows for the ... The needle is normally attached to a recording device known as an electromyography machine. The results show the appearance of ... electromyography). Their combined use proves to be clinically relevant by allowing for both the source and location of a ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 9 (2): 97-103. doi:10.1016/s1050-6411(98)00041-8. PMID 10098710. Retrieved ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 18 (2): 188-196. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2007.06.004. PMID 17761436. Larsson, Lars; ...
... wound care and electromyography. Neurological rehabilitation is in particular a rapidly emerging field. PTs practice in many ... Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 22 (5): 643-7. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.11.014. PMC 3461123. PMID 22197083. " ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 21 (1): 41-8. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2010.04.006. PMID 20580571. Szeto, Grace P.Y ...
... electromyography suggests that it consists of at least seven groups that can be independently coordinated by the nervous system ... Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 17 (1): 57-73. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.10.007. PMID 16458022. Avis, Duncan; ...
Kosonogov, Vladimir (2011). "Listening to action-related sentences impairs postural control". Journal of Electromyography and ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 20 (5): 973-979. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2010.03.011. PMID 20409733. Lametti, Daniel ...
... and such cases are classified according to their symptoms and signs and electromyography, MRI and laboratory findings. It can ... unhealthy muscle changes on electromyography; and biopsy findings of (i) muscle cell degeneration and regeneration and (ii) ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23 (4): 872-8. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.02.010. PMID 23541330. Ritzmann R, ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 24 (3): 367-74. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.03.002. hdl:11250/284479. PMID 24717406 ... Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 24 (3): 375-79. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.03.004. PMID 24717405. Starrett, Kelly ...
Tassinary; Cacioppo (2000). "The Skeletomotor system: surface electromyography". In Cacioppo, John T.; Tassinary, Luois G.; ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 16 (2): 158-166. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.04.002. ISSN 1050-6411. PMID 16126412 ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 25 (2): 310-15. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.09.005. PMID 25262160. Freeman, ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 17 (1): 57-73. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.10.007. PMID 16458022. Azizi, E.; ...
Devedeux, Dominique; Marque, Catherine; Mansour, Souheil; Germain, Guy; Duchêne, Jacques (1993). "Uterine electromyography: A ...
Electromyography Definition Electromyography (EMG) is an electrical recording of muscle activity that aids in the diagnosis of ... Electromyography Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed. COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Electromyography. Definition. ... Electromyography. Definition. Electromyography (EMG) is an electrical recording of muscle activity that aids in the diagnosis ... Electromyography. Definition. Electromyography (EMG) is used to detect, process, and record electrical muscle activity in order ...
Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles. ... Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles. ... Katirji B. Clinical electromyography. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradleys Neurology in Clinical ... Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (electromyelogram)-diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory ...
Electromyography (EMG) is a tool that can be very valuable in ergonomic studies if it is used correctly and if the associated ... Electromyography (EMG) is a tool that can be very valuable in ergonomic studies if it is used correctly and if the associated ... Selected Topics in Surface Electromyography for Use in the Occupational Setting: Expert Perspectivepdf icon [PDF - 6748 KB] ... Selected Topics in Surface Electromyography for Use in the Occupational Setting: Expert Perspective. ...
... (EMG) measures and records the electrical activity of a muscle. The test can record a muscles electrical ... Medical encyclopedia: electromyography. National Library of Medicine website. Available at: ... Source URL (retrieved on 10/17/2019 - 01:36): ...
... and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) are tests your doctor may order to measure muscle action potential ...
Beverwyk A.J., Mancuso K., Prabhakar A., Lissauer J., Kaye A.D., Davis S.F. (2020) Electromyography (EMG). In: Davis S., Kaye A ... Nichols GS, Manafov E. Utility of electromyography for nerve root monitoring during spinal surgery. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2012; ... Bindal RK, Ghosh S. Intraoperative electromyography monitoring in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. J ... Evaluation with evoked and spontaneous electromyography during lumbar instrumentation: a prospective study. J Neurosurg. 1997; ...
Electromyography. Authors: Robert Mannell and John Bernard. These notes are based on course notes originally written by John ... Bibliographic Referencing: Mannell, R. and Bernard, J., Electromyography Workshop Notes, Macquarie University, 2006 ...
Single fiber electromyography assesses the delay between the contractions of individual muscle fibers within a motor unit and ... Electromyography at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Kobylarz, Jhonatan; Bird, Jordan J.; ... The first actual recording of this activity was made by Marey in 1890, who also introduced the term electromyography. In 1922, ... Surface electromyography is increasingly used for recording from superficial muscles in clinical or kinesiological protocols, ...
The Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) diagnostic tests can be performed on an outpatient basis or as part ...
Facial electromyography (fEMG) refers to an electromyography (EMG) technique that measures muscle activity by detecting and ... Proponents of Facial EMG point to the following advantages: Facial Electromyography (or fEMG) is a precise and sensitive method ... Durso, F.T., Geldbach, K.M. and Cotbalis, P., "Detecting Confusion Using Facial Electromyography", Human Factors, Vol. 54, No. ... Certain medicines that act on the nervous system, such as muscle relaxants and anticholinergics, can change electromyography ( ...
Purchase The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780409950427, ... 11.Electromyography and the Cranial Nerves. 12.Electromyography and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Index. ... The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... although they may not practice electromyography, have an interest in neuromuscular diseases and the place of electromyography ...
Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies are tests that measure the electrical activity of muscles and nerves. They ... What are electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies?. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies are tests ... Electromyography; p. 250-251.. *Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2019. ... Quick Facts: Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Studies; [updated 2018 Sep; cited 2019 Dec 17]; [about 4 screens]. ...
Single fibre electromyography in various processes affecting the anterior horn cell. J Neurol Sci. 1975 Apr. 24(4):403-15. [ ... Single-fiber electromyography. A pair of action potentials recorded from a patient with myasthenia gravis during voluntary ... Single-fiber electromyography. A pair of action potentials recorded from a patient with myasthenia gravis during voluntary ... Single-fiber electromyography. Action potentials recorded from 2 muscle fibers with normal jitter during voluntary muscle ...
Find electromyography information, treatments for electromyography and electromyography symptoms. ... MedHelps electromyography Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for electromyography. ...
... The Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the bodys nerve and ...
Electromyography - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional ... Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies (EMG). What is the test?. Electromyography (EMG) tests analyze nerve and muscle ... Home › Harvard Health Topics A-Z › Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies (EMG) ...
Mining Publication: Electromyography of the Thigh Muscles during Lifting Tasks in Kneeling and Squatting Postures. Keywords: ... Lifting in Stooped and Kneeling Postures: Effects on Lifting Capacity, Metabolic Cost, and Electromyography of Eight Trunk ...
Electromyography is a type of diagnostic medical test that is used to evaluate skeletal muscle activity. The way ... Electromyography and nerve conduction tests diagnose conditions such as sciatica. No particular preparation is required to ... Electromyography is not a risky procedure. The amount of electrical energy to which a patient is exposed is very weak and poses ... Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic medical test that evaluates skeletal muscle activity. This test often is carried out in ...
Electromyography Is the Subject Area "Electromyography" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Hugh J McMillan; Peter B Kang;] -- This book describes how to perform nerve conduction studies and electromyography in children ... http:\/\/\/entity\/work\/data\/4227822720#Topic\/electromyography<\/a>> # Electromyography<\/span>\n. \ ... including discussions of major neuromuscular diseases amenable to diagnosis via electromyography. Pediatric Electromyography: ... including discussions of major neuromuscular diseases amenable to diagnosis via electromyography. Pediatric Electromyography: ...
... and needle electromyography (EMG), that are used to evaluate the conduction of electrical impulses down peripheral nerves. ... encoded search term (Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies) and Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies What to ... Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies. Updated: Aug 20, 2018 * Author: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA; Chief Editor: Jonathan ... Weiss LD, Silver JK, Weiss J. Easy EMG : a guide to performing nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Butterworth- ...
Electromyography (EMG) Laboratory. The EMG laboratory is a state-of-art facility specializing in diagnosis of muscle and nerve ...
Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. Official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology ...
Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Recently published articles from Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. * Verification of intramuscular electromyography ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ...
Electromyography and neuromuscular disorders : clinical-electrophysiologic correlations. [David C Preston; Barbara Shapiro ... Electromyography--methods. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Electromyography--methods"@en ;. .. ... Electromyography in special clinical settings --. section VIII. Electronics and instrumentation.. Responsibility:. David C. ... Electromyography and neuromuscular disorders : clinical-electrophysiologic correlations. Author:. David C Preston; Barbara ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology Journal. Check the Author information pack on ... The Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal ... The Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology aims to provide a single, authoritative forum for the publication of original ...
... Third Edition. Robert Thayer Sataloff. Details:. 256 pages, Illustrated (B/W), Softcover, 6 x 9" 1 ... Laryngeal Electromyography, Third Edition is an easy guide and quick reference for laryngologists, neurologists, physiatrists, ... Appendix I. Laryngeal Electromyography: Summary Outline of Selected and Important Facts. Appendix II. Practice Parameter: ... Thoroughly revised since the previous edition, Laryngeal Electromyography provides the latest advances on electromyographic ...
Advances in Applied Electromyography. Edited by: Joseph Mizrahi. ISBN 978-953-307-382-8, PDF ISBN 978-953-51-6462-3, Published ... Electromyography of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Rats. By Yolanda Cruz Gómez, Hai-Hong Jiang, Paul Zaszczurynski, Raúl Juárez, Ce ... Advances in Applied Electromyography. Edited by Joseph Mizrahi. Technion Israel Institute of Technology ... Computational Intelligence in Electromyography AnalysisA Perspective on Current Applications and Future ChallengesEdited by ...
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Anal sphincter electromyography may be clinically useful in the evaluation of patients with urinary, bowel, and sexual ... Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter Function Profiles * Sections Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter ... encoded search term (Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter Function Profiles) and Anal Sphincter Electromyography and ... Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter Function Profiles. Updated: Dec 19, 2016 * Author: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA; ...
  • In an attempt to obtain more objective measurements, we have been performing surface electromyography (sEMG) on masseter muscles, bilaterally, while TMD patients clench their teeth, and have observed different activity patterns. (
  • One method that can be used to provide insight into muscle activity in a non-invasive and clinically meaningful manner is the use of surface electromyography (sEMG). (
  • This study has developed a technique for identifying the presence of muscle fatigue based on the spatial changes of the normalised mutual information (NMI) between multiple high density surface electromyography (HD-sEMG) channels. (
  • The mDurance ® system is an innovative digital tool that combines wearable surface electromyography (sEMG), mobile computing and cloud analysis to streamline and automatize the assessment of muscle activity. (
  • The application of surface electromyography (sEMG) has been widely used to measure muscle activity signals, facilitating access to electrophysiological processes that cause the muscle to generate force and produce movement ( De Luca, 1997 ). (
  • The study was carried out over 5 weeks, in the morning (9 AM-12 AM). The first one was used for familiarization with the maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric strength (MIS), and surface electromyography (sEMG) experimental procedures. (
  • This paper studies the time-dependent power spectral density (PSD) estimation of nonstationary surface electromyography (SEMG) signals and its application to fatigue analysis during isometric muscle contraction. (
  • Statement of the Problem: Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is a diagnostic device that senses electrical signals of the muscle using surface electrodes. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine if mechanical force, manually-assisted (MFMA) spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) affects paraspinal muscle strength assessed using surface electromyography (sEMG). (
  • Laryngeal Electromyography, Third Edition is an easy guide and quick reference for laryngologists, neurologists, physiatrists, and others who wish to learn the procedure of laryngeal electromyography in order to evaluate the integrity of the muscles and nerves of the larynx, and to determine the cause of movement disorders of the vocal folds and make a diagnosis. (
  • Thoroughly revised since the previous edition, Laryngeal Electromyography provides the latest advances on electromyographic procedure and diagnostics. (
  • Quantitative laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) using turns analysis can differentiate acute vocal fold paralysis from normal controls. (
  • One of their patients underwent laryngeal electromyography showing denervation of the cricothyroid muscle supplied by the superior laryngeal nerve, indicating a vagal neuropathy, supporting their hypothesis. (
  • Laryngeal electromyography demonstrated 25% decreased recruitment in the right cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles. (
  • Objective measures such as acoustic analysis and laryngeal electromyography (EMG) can provide additional information and serve as a baseline for any future assessments that may be performed following thyroid surgery. (
  • These findings were confirmed by laryngeal electromyography , which revealed a 20% weakness of the left superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves. (
  • 1) Laryngeal electromyography must show increased muscle discharge of the thyroarytenoid or posterior cricoarytenoid muscles at the affected pitch(es). (
  • Findings on laryngeal electromyography (EMG) can be useful in distinguishing between neural and mechanical causes of vocal fold immobility, although we have only level IV evidence to support its use. (
  • Laryngeal electromyography confirmed mild right superior laryngeal nerve paresis and MTD (poor relaxation at rest). (
  • Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) assesses the function of the nerves supplying the laryngeal musculature. (
  • Laryngeal electromyography revealed a 50% decrease in recruitment of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and a 70 to 80% decrease in the right RLN without significant synkinesis. (
  • Once a movement disorder of the larynx is identified, laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is ordered to help examine more accurately the integrity of the neuromotor (the nerve and muscle) system. (
  • Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) can confirm RLN compromise and determine the severity of injury. (
  • Differentiation between an arytenoid dislocation and nerve injury can be difficult in these instances, and diagnosis usually is made with the aid of laryngeal examination, laryngeal electromyography , and computed tomography scanning. (
  • To assess laryngeal muscle activity in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients using laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) and coronal images. (
  • This book is a reference tool for laryngologists, neurologists, and other electrophysiologists interested in adding laryngeal electromyography to their clinical practices. (
  • His areas of interest include neuromuscular electrophysiology, minor head injury, peripheral nerve disorders, laryngeal electromyography, and disability medicine. (
  • He has co-edited three books, Minor Head Injury, The Handbook of Neurology of the Lower Extremities, and Laryngeal Electromyography, and has published more than 100 articles. (
  • Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human movement from muscle contraction via its motor units and sensory system to integrated motion through mechanical and electrical detection techniques. (
  • As the official publication of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology , the journal is dedicated to publishing the best work in all areas of electromyography and kinesiology , including: control of movement, muscle fatigue, muscle and nerve properties, joint biomechanics and electrical stimulation. (
  • The Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology aims to provide a single, authoritative forum for the publication of original research and clinical studies on muscle contraction and human motion through combined or separate mechanical and electrical detection techniques. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. (
  • Electromyography and nerve conduction tests can be used to diagnose diseases of the muscles and nerves, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, carpal tunnel syndrome and sciatica . (
  • The electrical activity of the muscles, as measured by means of electromyography (EMG), is a major expression of muscle contraction. (
  • Electromyography devices are powerful and flexible enough which are used for the re-education of injured muscles, relaxation training of tense muscles as well as training of the necessary muscles to improve incontinence. (
  • Electromyography devices are biofeedback devices and becoming widely used to help patients who are affected by neuromuscular disorders to regain voluntary control of specific muscles. (
  • Electromyography devices appear to be a promising biofeedback treatment technique which is available for home use as well as professional use, and biofeedback sessions can be conducted on a daily basis by the individual who is interested in recovering from the dysfunction and pain caused by tight muscles and also for neuromuscular rehabilitation. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the activation signal of muscles. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) are electrodiagnostic tests that measure the electrical activity of muscles and nerves. (
  • Electromyography also looks at the activity of the muscles around nerves to see whether they are spasming and putting pressure on nerves. (
  • Electromyography is a diagnostic test that records the electrical activity of muscles. (
  • An electromyography (EMG) is an outpatient diagnostic test used to evaluate the health of your muscles and nerves. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS) are tests that use electrodes to detect, translate, and record the electrical signals in your muscles and nerve cells while they're active and at rest. (
  • This research aimed at proposing an alternative treatment for stress with acupuncture, evaluating by electromyography right and left trapezius muscles of patients under psychological stress one week before evaluations and after acupuncture. (
  • In order to verify absence of any voluntary activity of the muscles, surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded. (
  • The EMG signal was recorded for a period of 10 seconds while subjects completed vertical jumps, using EMG electrodes placed according to recommendations for surface electromyography for the noninvasive assessment of muscles and positioned parallel to the direction of the muscle fibers. (
  • Our primary outcomes included surface electromyography (EMG) muscle activation of the vastus lateralis, soleus, tibialis anterior, and fibularis longus muscles during dynamic balance exercises. (
  • Electromyography or EMG is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the electrical activity in your nerves as they transmit messages to your muscles when the muscles are contracting and when they're at rest. (
  • 22 hemiplegic subjects and 15 clinically healthy subjects were submitted to electromyography of the flexor and extensor carpi ulnaris muscles during wrist flexion and extension. (
  • Electromyography tests the electrical activity of the muscles and nerves of the pelvic floor. (
  • Emg (electromyography) is a test of your muscles and nerves. (
  • Accordingly, we recorded, via electromyography (EMG),the supinator and pronator muscles of a common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a western gorilla (Pan gorilla), and a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in order to determine which muscles were principally and otherwise active during manipulation, quadrupedal positional behavior, and suspensory activities. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) looks at how your muscles are working. (
  • To address these issues, this study aims to examine the feasibility of a wearable Electromyography (EMG) sensor to measure the electrical impulses produced by workers' muscles as a means to continuously evaluate workers muscle fatigue without interfering with their ongoing tasks. (
  • Together, the electrode and recorder are called an electromyography machine. (
  • Electrode setup for single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG) during intramuscular axonal stimulation. (
  • Recording position of the single-fiber electromyography electrode during jitter analysis with voluntary muscle activation. (
  • The spike component of a motor unit potential (MUP) recorded by a concentric or monopolar needle electromyography (EMG) electrode is generated primarily by fibers within 1-2 mm of the needle recording area. (
  • During an Electromyography , a thin needle with an electrode is inserted through your skin into a muscle. (
  • The electrode records the electrical activity in your nerve and muscle and transmits it to a receiver that displays the electromyography results on a printout or on a computer screen. (
  • Electromyography can be uncomfortable, as the needle electrode may cause muscle pain. (
  • This book is intended not only for practicing electromyographers but also for those neurologists and physiatrists who, although they may not practice electromyography, have an interest in neuromuscular diseases and the place of electromyography in the analysis of these disorders. (
  • Electromyography in conjunction with nerve conduction studies can be used to diagnose a wide range of muscular and nervous disorders. (
  • Seven chapters range in coverage of clinical applications, to vocal cord mobility disorders and the evolution and literature on electromyography. (
  • Electromyography devices are employed for training in the rehabilitation of patients affected by the cerebrovascular accident, nerve injury, poliomyelitis, torticollis, bruxism, temporomandibular joint syndrome and other disorders. (
  • Ongoing research activities in the area of spinal disorders and cerebral has accelerated the Electromyography devices market. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) is a type of biofeedback that provides feedback on muscle tension and works well for people with anxiety disorders or chronic pain. (
  • Used along with an electromyography , nerve conduction studies can help diagnose disorders that affect nerve function, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (
  • Nerve conduction studies and electromyography have a diagnostic role in most of the disorders seen by the service. (
  • The general purpose of this research project is to use surface electromyography to compare the effect of Active Release Technique versus Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation on the electrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle at rest and during contraction. (
  • Q. Li and B. Li, "Online Finger Gesture Recognition Using Surface Electromyography Signals," Journal of Signal and Information Processing , Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 101-105. (
  • X. Chen, Q. Li, J. H. Yang and V. Lantz, "Test-Retest Repeatability of Surface Electromyography Measurement for Hand Gesture," 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai, China, 2008, pp. 1923-1926. (
  • Y. C. Du, C. H. Lin, L. Y. Shyu and T. Chen, "Portable Hand Motion Classifier for Multi-Channel Surface Electromyography Recognition Using Grey Relational Analysis," Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2010, pp. 4283-4291. (
  • Can Types of TMD Be Distinguished By Surface Electromyography and Bite Force? (
  • Electromyography shows how engineering tools such as models and signal processing methods can greatly augment the insight provided by surface EMG signals. (
  • Overweight or obese subjects were also excluded, as fatty tissue, acting as a low-pass filter, could interfere with the surface electromyography (EMG) signals. (
  • muscle spasticity, surface electromyography, hemiplegia. (
  • FREEEMG is a 4G technology device for surface electromyography (EMG) analysis. (
  • The second section provides detailed coverage of surface anatomy for needle electromyography and shows where to place the needles for each muscle. (
  • Time-dependent power spectral density estimation of surface electromyography during isometric muscle contraction: methods and comparisons. (
  • This EKG/EMG shield allows Arduino boards to capture Electrocardiography/Electromyography signals, so you can experiment with biofeedback. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) are tests your doctor may order to measure muscle action potential and nerve conduction. (
  • The Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) diagnostic tests can be performed on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital. (
  • The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography aims to help the clinician involved in the study of diseases of the peripheral nervous system and muscle to better understand the pathophysiological basis for many of the observations derived from electromyography and nerve conduction studies. (
  • Electromyography and nerve conduction tests diagnose conditions such as sciatica. (
  • This book describes how to perform nerve conduction studies and electromyography in children, and explains the relevant physiology and anatomy crucial to making a diagnosis. (
  • Electrodiagnostic testing encompasses a range of specialized tests, including nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle electromyography (EMG), that are used to evaluate the conduction of electrical impulses along peripheral nerves. (
  • Section I. Overview of nerve conduction studies and electromyography -- section II. (
  • Detailed nerve conduction studies -- section V. Fundamentals of electromyography -- section VI. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) may help your doctor successfully identify your muscle- and/or nerve-related spine pain. (
  • Electromyography is a test of nerve conduction. (
  • Muscle fiber conduction velocity is based on the ti me delay estimation between electromyography recording channels. (
  • To provide a more complete picture of your nerve function, an electromyography is done in conjunction with a nerve conduction study. (
  • Who performs the needle electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS)? (
  • The first section of the manual describes each nerve conduction study, including placement of electrodes, typical electromyography equipment settings, normal values, and pearls and pitfalls. (
  • What is the definition or description of: nerve conduction and electromyography? (
  • These are called nerve conduction studies and electromyography (EMG). (
  • This widens the scope of electromyography while sharpening physicians' diagnostic acuity. (
  • Featuring contributions from key innovators working in the field today, Electromyography reveals the broad applications of EMG data in areas as diverse as neurology, ergonomics, exercise physiology, rehabilitation, movement analysis, biofeedback, and myoelectric control of prosthesis. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) is the study of muscle behaviour via electronic means, and is thus a technique fundamental to ergonomics, physiology and biomechanics. (
  • In recent time, increase in the prevalence of the neurodegenerative disorder among aging population such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, is the key driver of the global Electromyography devices market have proven to be opportunistic for the growth of biofeedback equipment in the upcoming future.Biofeedback equipment is used to serve different purposes like in improving athletic, corporate and academic performances as well to improve one's health and wellness. (
  • Increasing mergers and acquisitions and rapid product launches between government associations and manufacturing companies are some of the trends in the global electromyography devices. (
  • The report additionally displays unmistakable experience and information related to global Electromyography (EMG) Devices market. (
  • The brachialis muscle (BR) represents an important elbow flexor and its activity has so far mainly been measured with intramuscular electromyography (EMG). (
  • The recording of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) in response to spontaneous or electrically stimulated cranial nerve, spinal nerve, or ventral root activation is known as intraoperative electromyography (EMG). (
  • Evaluation with evoked and spontaneous electromyography during lumbar instrumentation: a prospective study. (
  • Brooklyn, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 04/19/2018 -- The global market for Electromyography (EMG) Devices has been seen on a few perspectives that are for all intents and purposes there, and have fixed up the market circumstance to the epic degree. (
  • Electromyography device helps patients with chronic pain to discover the level of tensions 15 or 20 times normal levels in biofeedback sessions. (
  • Growing awareness about physiological and psychological health among population leading the biofeedback electromyography devices market to grow faster. (
  • What is electromyography (EMG) biofeedback? (
  • The Outpatient Electromyography (EMG) Laboratory at St. Joseph's, which holds Laboratory Accreditation with Exemplary Status from the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM), provides state-of-the-art diagnostic testing and neuromuscular evaluations. (
  • An invaluable resource for physiatrists, neurologists, orthopedic surgeons, specialists in pain management and other providers, Functional Electromyography: Provocative Maneuvers in Electrodiagnosis represents a major contribution to the field of electrodiagnosis. (
  • Pediatric Electromyography: Concepts and Clinical Applications is aimed at residents, technologists and staff pediatric neurologists, as a practical guide and exam study guide. (
  • This visually alluring book is an anatomical guide for students and practitioners of electromyography, including neurologists and rehabilitation specialists. (
  • Anal sphincter electromyography may be clinically useful in the evaluation of patients with urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. (
  • The Michigan Headache and Neurological Institute (MHNI) acclaims that Electromyography devices involve in therapy improve symptoms of a headache and migraine approximately in 40 to 60 percent of patients. (
  • These procedures are performed on awake patients or under general anesthesia with continuous electromyography (EMG). (
  • In recent years, insights from the field of engineering have illuminated the vast potential of electromyography (EMG) in biomedical technology. (
  • The Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the body's nerve and muscle function and assesses a potential neurological disease. (
  • Global Market Research Report on Electroencephalography and Electromyography Market 2016 is a professional and in-depth complete study on the current state of the Electroencephalography and Electromyography worldwide. (
  • Electroencephalography (EEG) and an electromyography (EMG) are diagnostic techniques used to measure the electrical activity in human body. (
  • Nerve monitoring plays a significant role in the surgery which is also called as intraoperative neuromonitoring or neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) which implementing electrophysiological methods such as electromyography (EMG) and has become an essential part of the surgical team to avoid the situation like irreversible nerve damages caused during surgical procedures. (
  • This book aims at providing an updated overview of the recent developments in electromyography from diverse aspects and various applications in clinical and experimental research. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) is an electrical recording of muscle activity that aids in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, which affects muscle and peripheral nerves. (
  • Benatar M, Hammad M, Doss-Riney H. Concentric-needle single-fiber electromyography for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. (
  • Relevant case presentations are included to aid learning, and the authors also focus on the practical applications of the test results, including discussions of major neuromuscular diseases amenable to diagnosis via electromyography. (
  • By employing quantitative methods of electromyography, more positive results were obtained, thus reducing the sampling data. (
  • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 87:215-226 (1992) Electromyography of Pronators and Supinators in Great Apes RUSSELL H. TUTTLE, JOHN R. HOLLOWED, AND JOHN V. BASMAJIAN Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (R.H.T., J.R.H. (
  • Electromyography device with wireless probes for the dynamic analysis of muscle activity. (
  • Certain medicines that act on the nervous system, such as muscle relaxants and anticholinergics, can change electromyography (EMG) results. (
  • Results from electromyography can help diagnose a condition that interferes with muscle contractions. (
  • Neurophysiological monitoring of lumbosacral spinal roots during spinal surgery: continuous intraoperative electromyography (EMG). (
  • Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Foraminotomy with Modified Radiofrequency Nerve Stimulator and Continuous Electromyography Under General Anesthesia: Technical Note. (
  • Modified electromyography-assisted optimization approach for predicting lumbar spine loading while walking with backpack loads. (