Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Fasciculation: Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Uterine Monitoring: Measurement or recording of contraction activity of the uterine muscle. It is used to determine progress of LABOR, OBSTETRIC and assess status of pregnancy. It is also used in conjunction with FETAL MONITORING to determine fetal response to stress of maternal uterine contractions.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Musculocutaneous Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Myofunctional Therapy: Training or retraining of the buccal, facial, labial, and lingual musculature in toothless conditions; DEGLUTITION DISORDERS; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; MALOCCLUSION; and ARTICULATION DISORDERS.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Reticulum: The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Neurofeedback: A technique to self-regulate brain activities provided as a feedback in order to better control or enhance one's own performance, control or function. This is done by trying to bring brain activities into a range associated with a desired brain function or status.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Accessory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Edrophonium: A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Intercostal Nerves: The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Rectus Abdominis: A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Myoelectric Complex, Migrating: A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.
Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (1/7286)Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity. (+info)
Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (2/7286)Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3). (+info)
Receptor mechanisms underlying heterogenic reflexes among the triceps surae muscles of the cat. (3/7286)The soleus (S), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles of the cat are interlinked by rapid spinal reflex pathways. In the decerebrate state, these heterogenic reflexes are either excitatory and length dependent or inhibitory and force dependent. Mechanographic analysis was used to obtain additional evidence that the muscle spindle primary ending and the Golgi tendon organ provide the major contributions to these reflexes, respectively. The tendons of the triceps surae muscles were separated and connected to independent force transducers and servo-controlled torque motors in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. The muscles were activated as a group using crossed-extension reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the caudal cutaneous sural nerve was used to provide a particularly strong activation of MG and decouple the forces of the triceps surae muscles. During either form of activation, the muscles were stretched either individually or in various combinations to determine the strength and characteristics of autogenic and heterogenic feedback. The corresponding force responses, including both active and passive components, were measured during the changing background tension. During activation of the entire group, the excitatory, heterogenic feedback linking the three muscles was found to be strongest onto LG and weakest onto MG, in agreement with previous results concerning the strengths of heteronymous Ia excitatory postsynaptic potentials among the triceps surae muscles. The inhibition, which is known to affect only the soleus muscle, was dependent on active contractile force and was detected essentially as rapidly as length dependent excitation. The inhibition outlasted the excitation and was blocked by intravenous strychnine. These results indicate that the excitatory and inhibitory effects are dominated by feedback from primary spindle receptors and Golgi tendon organs. The interactions between these two feedback pathways potentially can influence both the mechanical coupling between ankle and knee. (+info)
Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling. (4/7286)Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to the directionally insensitive Ext function in both forward and backward pedaling. Other muscles also appear to have contributed to more than one function, which was especially evident in backward pedaling (i.e. , BF, SM, MG, and TA to Flex). We conclude that the phasing of only the Ant and Post biomechanical functions are directionally sensitive. Further, we suggest that task-dependent modulation of the expression of the functions in the motor output provides this biomechanics-based neural control scheme with the capability to execute a variety of lower limb tasks, including walking. (+info)
Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (5/7286)Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking. (+info)
Contribution of sensory feedback to the generation of extensor activity during walking in the decerebrate Cat. (6/7286)In this investigation we have estimated the afferent contribution to the generation of activity in the knee and ankle extensor muscles during walking in decerebrate cats by loading and unloading extensor muscles, and by unilateral deafferentation of a hind leg. The total contribution of afferent feedback to extensor burst generation was estimated by allowing one hind leg to step into a hole in the treadmill belt on which the animal was walking. In the absence of ground support the level of activity in knee and ankle extensor muscles was reduced to approximately 70% of normal. Activity in the ankle extensors could be restored during the "foot-in-hole" trials by selectively resisting extension at the ankle. Thus feedback from proprioceptors in the ankle extensor muscles probably makes a large contribution to burst generation in these muscles during weight-bearing steps. Similarly, feedback from proprioceptors in knee extensor appears to contribute substantially to the activation of knee extensor muscles because unloading and loading these muscles, by lifting and dropping the hindquarters, strongly reduced and increased, respectively, the level of activity in the knee extensors. This conclusion was supported by the finding that partial deafferentation of one hind leg by transection of the L4-L6 dorsal roots reduced the level of activity in the knee extensors by approximately 50%, but did not noticeably influence the activity in ankle extensor muscles. However, extending the deafferentation to include the L7-S2 dorsal roots decreased the ankle extensor activity. We conclude that afferent feedback contributes to more than one-half of the input to knee and ankle extensor motoneurons during the stance phase of walking in decerebrate cats. The continuous contribution of afferent feedback to the generation of extensor activity could function to automatically adjust the intensity of activity to meet external demands. (+info)
Visuomotor processing as reflected in the directional discharge of premotor and primary motor cortex neurons. (7/7286)Premotor and primary motor cortical neuronal firing was studied in two monkeys during an instructed delay, pursuit tracking task. The task included a premovement "cue period," during which the target was presented at the periphery of the workspace and moved to the center of the workspace along one of eight directions at one of four constant speeds. The "track period" consisted of a visually guided, error-constrained arm movement during which the animal tracked the target as it moved from the central start box along a line to the opposite periphery of the workspace. Behaviorally, the animals tracked the required directions and speeds with highly constrained trajectories. The eye movements consisted of saccades to the target at the onset of the cue period, followed by smooth pursuit intermingled with saccades throughout the cue and track periods. Initially, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for direction and period effects in the firing. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was used to fit the average firing from the cue and track periods to a cosine model. Directional tuning as determined by a significant fit to the cosine model was a prominent feature of the discharge during both the cue and track periods. However, the directional tuning of the firing of a single cell was not always constant across the cue and track periods. Approximately one-half of the neurons had differences in their preferred directions (PDs) of >45 degrees between cue and track periods. The PD in the cue or track period was not dependent on the target speed. A second linear regression analysis based on calculation of the preferred direction in 20-ms bins (i.e., the PD trajectory) was used to examine on a finer time scale the temporal evolution of this change in directional tuning. The PD trajectories in the cue period were not straight but instead rotated over the workspace to align with the track period PD. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations occurred. The PD trajectories were relatively straight during most of the track period. The rotation and eventual convergence of the PD trajectories in the cue period to the preferred direction of the track period may reflect the transformation of visual information into motor commands. The widely dispersed PD trajectories in the cue period would allow targets to be detected over a wide spatial aperture. The convergence of the PD trajectories occurring at the cue-track transition may serve as a "Go" signal to move that was not explicitly supplied by the paradigm. Furthermore, the rotation and convergence of the PD trajectories may provide a mechanism for nonstandard mapping. Standard mapping refers to a sensorimotor transformation in which the stimulus is the object of the reach. Nonstandard mapping is the mapping of an arbitrary stimulus into an arbitrary movement. The shifts in the PD may allow relevant visual information from any direction to be transformed into an appropriate movement direction, providing a neural substrate for nonstandard stimulus-response mappings. (+info)
Uncoupling of in vivo torque production from EMG in mouse muscles injured by eccentric contractions. (8/7286)1. The main objective of this study was to determine whether eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury causes impaired plasmalemmal action potential conduction, which could explain the injury-induced excitation-contraction coupling failure. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes on the left common peroneal nerve and with electromyographic (EMG) electrodes on the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The left anterior crural muscles of anaesthetized mice were stimulated to perform 150 eccentric (ECC) (n = 12 mice) or 150 concentric (CON) (n = 11 mice) contractions. Isometric torque, EMG root mean square (RMS) and M-wave mean and median frequencies were measured before, immediately after, and at 1, 3, 5 and 14 days after the protocols. In parallel experiments, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) concentration was measured in TA muscles to determine whether the excitation failure elicited a denervation-like response. 2. Immediately after the ECC protocol, torque was reduced by 47-89 %, while RMS was reduced by 9-21 %; the RMS decrement was not different from that observed for the CON protocol, which did not elicit large torque deficits. One day later, both ECC and CON RMS had returned to baseline values and did not change over the next 2 weeks. However, torque production by the ECC group showed a slow recovery over that time and was still depressed by 12-30 % after 2 weeks. M-wave mean and median frequencies were not affected by performance of either protocol. 3. AChR concentration was elevated by 79 and 368 % at 3 and 5 days, respectively, after the ECC protocol; AChR concentration had returned to control levels 2 weeks after the protocol. At the time of peak AChR concentration in the ECC protocol muscles (i.e. 5 days), AChR concentration in CON protocol muscles was not different from the control level. 4. In conclusion, these data demonstrate no major role for impaired plasmalemmal action potential conduction in the excitation-contraction coupling failure induced by eccentric contractions. Additionally, a muscle injured by eccentric contractions shows a response in AChR concentration similar to a transiently denervated muscle. (+info)
Motor unit activity during isometric and concentric-eccentric contractions of the human first dorsal interosseus muscle<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motor unit activity during isometric and concentric-eccentric contractions of the human first dorsal interosseus muscle. AU - Howell, J. N.. AU - Fuglevand, A. J.. AU - Walsh, M. L.. AU - Bigland-Ritchie, B.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - 1. Motor unit activity was recorded with intramuscular fine wire electrodes during isometric, concentric, and eccentric activity in the human first dorsal interosseus muscle. Twenty-one units from 11 subjects were sampled. 2. During isotonic cycles of shortening and lengthening, 18 of 21 units were recruited during the concentric phase, increased their discharge rates as the concentric movement progressed, then decreased their discharge rate during the eccentric phase, and were derecruited. 3. A different pattern of recruitment was observed in recordings from three units. These units were recruited during the eccentric phase, at a time when other units were decreasing their discharge rate or being derecruited. In two of the units ...
Electromyograph | Article about electromyograph by The Free Dictionary
Concurrent surface electromyography and force myography classification during times of prosthetic socket shift and user fatigue...
Objective: Surface electromyography has been a long-standing source of signals for control of powered prosthetic devices. By contrast, force myography is a more recent alternative to surface electromyography that has the potential to enhance reliability and avoid operational challenges of surface electromyography during use. In this paper, we report on experiments conducted to assess improvements in classification of surface electromyography signals through the addition of collocated force myography consisting of piezo-resistive sensors ...
Calf muscle activity alteration with foot orthoses insertion during walking measured by fine-wire electromyography<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calf muscle activity alteration with foot orthoses insertion during walking measured by fine-wire electromyography. AU - Akuzawa, Hiroshi. AU - Imai, Atsushi. AU - Iizuka, Satoshi. AU - Matsunaga, Naoto. AU - Kaneoka, Koji. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to assess the muscle activity change of the tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and peroneus longus during gait with orthoses. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Activity of each muscle was measured by using fine-wire and surface electromyography. Gait task was performed by the participants barefoot, with footwear and with orthoses. The electromyography data from a stance phase of each gait trial were used for analysis. The stance phase was divided into contact, midstance, and propulsion phases. The data from ten participants were extracted for final analysis, as electromyography measurements were unsuccessful for the other six. [Results] ...
Trunk muscle fatigue during a back extension task in standing<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trunk muscle fatigue during a back extension task in standing. AU - Allison, Garry. AU - Henry, S.M.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - There is some evidence that the fatiguing characteristics during isometric back extension tasks may assist in identifying differences between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). During these tasks, especially in standing, other abdominal trunk muscles are also active. The abdominal trunk muscles acting across multiple segments of the lumbar spine function in isolation or in synergy to create flexion torques. It is suggested that co-activation patterns of the trunk muscles are able to control the axis of rotation of the extension torque and also provide multi-segmental stability of the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue responses in 4 asymptomatic individuals to a sustained isometric extension task of the trunk muscles evaluating the shifts in the median frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) signal. This study ...
Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Non-Invasive Applications | Biomedical Imaging | General & Introductory...
Introduction. Contributors.. 1 BASIC PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOPHYSICS OF EMG SIGNAL GENERATION (T. Moritani, D. Stegeman, R. Merletti).. 1.1 Introduction.. 1.2 Basic Physiology of Motor Control and Muscle Contraction.. 1.3 Basic Electrophysiology of the Muscle Cell Membrane.. References.. 2 NEEDLE AND WIRE DETECTION TECHNIQUES (J. V. Trontelj, J. Jabre, M. Mihelin).. 2.1 Anatomical and Physiological Background of Intramuscular Recording.. 2.2 Recording Characteristics of Needle Electrodes.. 2.3 Conventional Needle EMG.. 2.4 Special Needle Recording Techniques.. 2.5 Physical Characteristics of Needle EMG Signals.. 2.6 Recording Equipment.. References.. 3 DECOMPOSITION OF INTRAMUSCULAR EMG SIGNALS (D. W. Stashuk, D. Farina, K. Søgaard).. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Basic Steps for EMG Signal Decomposition.. 3.3 Evaluation of Performance of EMG Signal Decomposition Algorithms.. 3.4 Applications of Results of the Decomposition of an Intramuscular EMG Signal.. 3.5 Conclusions.. References.. 4 BIOPHYSICS OF THE ...
Robust Classification of Intramuscular EMG Signals to Aid the Diagnosis of Neuromuscular Disorders - EMBS
Objective: This article presents the design and validation of an accurate automatic diagnostic system to classify intramuscular EMG (iEMG) signals into healthy, myopathy, or neuropathy categories to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. Method: First, an iEMG signal is decimated to produce a set of disjoint downsampled signals, which are decomposed by the lifting wavelet transform (LWT). The Higuchis fractal dimensions (FDs) of LWT coefficients in the subbands are computed. The FDs of LWT subband coefficients are fused with one-dimensional local binary pattern derived from each downsampled signal. Next, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) determines the class labels of downsampled signals. Finally, the sequence of class labels is fed to the Boyer-Moore majority vote (BMMV) algorithm, which assigns a class to every iEMG signal. Result: The MLPNN-BMMV classifier was experimented with 250 iEMG signals belonging to three categories. The performance of the classifier was validated ...
Noninvasive High-resolution Pediatric Surface EMG | JPND
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The objective of this proposal is to develop noninvasive surface electromyogram (EMG) examination methods to overcome disadvantages of routine invasive needle EMG for examination of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and other pediatric neuromuscular diseases. There are two planned aims for the proposed study. The first aim is to develop and test noninvasive surface EMG decomposition methods using flexible surface electrode arrays, thus laying the foundation for their broad clinical applications, particularly for pediatric population. This includes validating and refining the developed methods using both computational and experimental approaches. The second aim is to perform a surface EMG examination of the pathological changes in SMA patients, mainly at the motor unit level, using the newly developed noninvasive methods. The approach utilized in the proposed project lie in recent advances in both surface EMG recording and signal processing methods. Our research ...
Motor unit synchronization during fatigue : Described with a novel sEMG method based on large motor unit samples
The amount of documented increase in motor unit (MU) synchronization with fatigue and its possible relation with force tremor varies largely, possibly due to inhomogeneous muscle activation and methodological discrepancies and limitations. The aim of this study was to apply a novel surface electromyographical (EMG) descriptor for MU synchronization based on large MU populations to examine changes in MU synchronization with fatigue at different sites of a muscle and its relation to tremor. Twenty-four subjects performed an isometric elbow flexion at 25% of maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Monopolar EMG signals were recorded using a grid of 130 electrodes above the biceps brachii. Changes in MU synchronization were estimated based on the sub-band skewness of EMG signals and tremor by the coefficient of variation in force. The synchronization descriptor was dependent on recording site and increased with fatigue together with tremor. There was a general association between these two ...
CDC - Mining - Trunk Extension Strength and Muscle Activity in Standing and!! - NIOSH
The effects of posture on trunk muscle strength under isometric and isokinetic conditions in 21 healthy male volunteers and the associated electromyographic activity for eight trunk muscles were investigated. The men performed 12 trunk extension exertions in standing and kneeling postures. Isometric tests were performed at 22.5, 45, and 67.5 degrees of trunk flexion. Isokinetic tests were performed at three velocities: 30, 60, and 90 degrees per second. Electromyographic data were collected from eight trunk muscles to assess muscle recruitment under each condition. A priori orthogonal contrasts were specified for analysis of both torque and electromyographic data. The findings suggest that the kneeling posture was associated with a 15% decrease in peak torque output when contrasted with standing. However, no concomitant change was noted in trunk muscle activity. Trunk hyperflexion and increasing rotational velocity were associated with reduced torque in both postures. Trunk muscle activity was ...
Research Review: Neuromuscular Activation of the Vastus Intermedius Muscle during Isometric Hip Flexion - Fire Fighter Training...
Citation: Saito, A., & Akima, H. (2015). Neuromuscular Activation of the Vastus Intermedius Muscle during Isometric Hip Flexion. PloS one, 10(10), e0141146. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4619471/ Neuromuscular Activation of the Vastus Intermedius Muscle during Isometric Hip Flexion Summary Saito, and Akima (2015) conducted research on the activation of the vastus intermedius versus the rectus femoris during…
Macro electromyography : An update
The macro electromyography method was developed in the 1980s. Since then, technical modifications have been made, and a number of conditions have been explored. This study is a methodological introduction and an update of findings in some nerve-muscle disorders. The spike component of a motor unit potential (MUP) recorded by a concentric or monopolar needle electromyography (EMG) electrode is generated primarily by fibers within 1-2 mm of the needle recording area. Given that a MUPs typical anatomical reach is 5-15 mm in diameter, it follows that conventional EMG is unable to record activity from the entire motor unit. Such information could promote understanding of muscle in health and disease. Macro EMG, with its large recording area, appears to provide this information by recording the activity from most of the fibers in a given motor unit. The value of combining macro EMG with single-fiber EMG and conventional EMG recordings is discussed.. ...
Hierarchical domain adaptation for SEMG signal classification across multiple subjects.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hierarchical domain adaptation for SEMG signal classification across multiple subjects.. AU - Chattopadhyay, Rita. AU - Krishnan, Narayanan C.. AU - Panchanathan, Sethuraman. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Large variations in Surface Electromyogram (SEMG) signal across different subjects make the process of automated signal classification as a generalized tool, challenging. In this paper, we propose a domain adaptation methodology that addresses this challenge. In particular we propose a hierarchical sample selection methodology, that selects samples from multiple training subjects, based on their similarity with the target subject at different levels of granularity. We have validated our framework on SEMG data collected from 8 people during a fatiguing exercise. Comprehensive experiments conducted in the paper demonstrate that the proposed method improves the subject independent classification accuracy by 21% to 23% over the cases without domain adaptation methods and by 14% to 20% ...
Effects of Creatine Loading on Electromyographic Fatigue Threshold in Cycle Ergometry in College-Age Men in: International...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 d of creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMG FT) in college-age men. Sixteen men (age 22.4 ± 2.6 yr, height 177.4 ± 6.8 cm, weight 79.5 ± 10.6 kg; M ± SD) participated in this double-blind study and were randomly placed into either placebo (Pl; 10 g of flavored fructose powder per packet; n = 8) or Cr (5 g dicreatine citrate plus 10 g of flavored fructose powder per packet; n = 8) loading groups. Each participant ingested 1 packet 4 times/d, totaling 20 g/d for 5 days (loading). Before and after loading, each participant performed a discontinuous cycle-ergometer test to determine his EMG FT, using bipolar surface electrodes placed on the vastus lateralis of the right thigh. Four 60-s work bouts (ranging from 200 to 400 W) were completed. Adequate rest was given between bouts to allow for the participants heart rate (HR) to drop within 10 beats of their resting HR. The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s ...
Electromyography | B-health blog
Electromyography or EMG is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the electrical activity in your nerves as they transmit messages to your muscles when the muscles are contracting and when theyre at rest. The purpose of an EMG is to assess the health of your muscles and the nerves that control them. During an Electromyography , a thin needle with an electrode is inserted through your skin into a muscle. The electrode records the electrical activity in your nerve and muscle and transmits it to a receiver that displays the electromyography results on a printout or on a computer screen. The electrical activity recorded during an electromyography may also be broadcast over a speaker for your physician to hear.. An EMG can help diagnose disorders that affect muscle and nerve function, such as muscular dystrophies, and nerve disorders, such as neuropathies.. The activity of your muscles and the nerves that control them produce electrical signals. A healthy, relaxed muscle is electrically silent. When you ...
EMG - Electromyography | Technomed
Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure to assess the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them (motor neurons). The nerves transmit electrical signals that cause muscles to contract. An EMG translates these signals into graphs, sounds or numerical values that a specialist interprets. EMG results can reveal nerve dysfunction, muscle dysfunction or problems with nerve-to-muscle signal transmission. At Technomed we understand the importance of a crystal clear signal, ease of use and patient comfort in EMG. Our EMG Needles are designed to give the optimal balance between needle sharpness and control of movement inside the muscle. For EMGs Technomed has Monopolar and Concentric Needle Electrode and Adhesive Surface Electrodes. A related treatment of EMG is EMG with injection of medication, for example botulinum toxin. This treatment is done in case of unwanted muscle contraction or overstimulated nerves. The nerves are unable to transmit the signal to the muscle (trough the brain).
Insep - Institut national du sport, de l'expertise et de la performance - Adjustment of muscle coordination during an all-out...
Purpose: This study was designed to assess muscle coordination during a specific all-out sprint cycling task (Sprint). The aim was to estimate the EMG activity level of each muscle group by referring to the submaximal cycling condition (Sub150 W) and to test the hypothesis that a maximal activity is reached for all of the muscles during Sprint. Methods: Fifteen well-trained cyclists were tested during submaximal and sprint cycling exercises and a series of maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in isometric and isokinetic modes (MVC at the three lower limb joints). Crank torque and surface EMG signals for 11 lower limb muscles were continuously measured. Results:Results showed that Sprint induced a very large increase of EMG activity level for the hip flexors (multiplied by 7-9 from 150 W to Sprint) and the knee flexors and hip extensors (multiplied by 5-7), whereas plantar flexors and knee extensors demonstrated a lower increase (multiplied by 2-3). During Sprint, EMG activity level failed to reach a
LEE BRANDON, CSCS: Electromyographic Analysis of Abdominal and Low Back Muscle Activity During Core Exercises Performed...
METHODS: Fifty-three adults (30 men, 23 women; 25 + 4.7 y; 74.9 + 13.3 kg; 172.7 + 9.1 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. The electromyography (EMG) activity of the upper and lower regions of the rectus abdominus (URA and LRA, respectively), the external oblique (RO), and paraspinal (PS) muscle was measured during three abdominal exercises performed by each participant on the AI and MT using surface EMG. Surface electrodes were placed on the right and left sides of the trunk for each muscle group. Each participant performed one set of five repetitions for the following three exercies: 1) traditional crunch, 2) split leg scissors, and 3) bilateral heel drops from a table top position. Adequate rest time was allowed between sets to avoid fatigue and the testing order for both exercises and the exercise condition (AI vs MT) was randomized. Paired t-Tests were used to detect differences in relative mean EMG activity between the AI and MT for each exercise, and Bonferroni adjustments were ...
A comparison of an adaptive full-order observer and a reduced-order observer for synchronous reluctance motor drives
Two back-EMF-based position observers are compared for motion-sensorless synchronous reluctance motor drives. The reduced-order observer is of the second order, and the adaptive full-order observer is of the fourth order. The proposed design rules guarantee the stability of the adaptive full-order observer, if the parameter estimates are accurate. The observers are experimentally evaluated using a 6.7-kW synchronous reluctance motor drive in low-speed operation and under parameter errors. The gain selection of the second-order observer is easier, but the adaptive full-order observer is more robust against parameter variations and spatial harmonics ...
Stepping motor drive open-frame GMH 07 ( EUROCARD ) - EUROCARD - STEPPING MOTOR DRIVES AND SWITCHING POWER SUPPLIES - RTA -...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20032678 - Neuromuscular response to cyclic lumbar twisting.
OBJECTIVE: to study the influence of 10 min of cyclic twisting motion on abdominal and back muscle activities. BACKGROUND: repetitive (cyclic) occupational activity was identified by many epidemiological reports to be a risk factor for the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Biomechanical and physiological confirmation, however, is lacking. METHODS: trunk muscle electromyography
Best Electromyography Emg Doctor in Thane, Electromyography Emg Doctors | Credihealth
Do the acute biochemical and neuromuscular responses justify the classification of strength- and hypertrophy-type resistance...
This study aimed to examine a wide profile of acute biochemical and neuromuscular responses to strength (STR) and hypertrophy (HYP) resistance exercise (RE). Seven trained men completed an STR workout (4 × 6 repetitions, 85% 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 5-minute rest periods), an HYP workout (4 × 10 repetitions, 70% 1RM, 90-second rest periods), and a control condition (CON) in a randomized crossover design. Peak force (PF), rate of force development (RFD), and muscle activity were quantified before and after exercise during an isometric squat protocol. Blood samples were taken 20, 10, and 0 minutes before and 0, 10, and 60 minutes after exercise to measure the concentration of blood lactate (BL), pH, and a number of electrolytes that were corrected for plasma volume changes. No differences were observed between the workouts for changes in PF, RFD, or muscle activity. Repeated contrasts revealed a greater (p ≤ 0.05) increase in BL concentration and reduction in pH after the HYP protocol than ...
The determination of an optimum size cylindrical handle by use of electromyography. | Home Modification Information...
An experiment was designed using muscle electromyography to determine if an optimum cylindrical handle size exists. The experiment had two phases. One phase was concerned with an experimental task of gripping a cylindrical handle and performing a simple task routine to evaluate the optimum handle size. The other phase was concerned with a fatigue test utilizing the same cylindrical handles. The experimental variables wore: hand size, weight resistance, and cylindrical handle diameter. Findings indicate that generally the 20 in. diameter handle showed lowest EMG activity. The 1-5 in. diameter handle was found to be the optimum handle size based on the ratio between force applied and the EMG activity measured. The 1.5 in. diameter handle was found to provide the maximum number of completed task cycles before the onset of fatigue.. ...
Changes in surface electromyography signals and kinetics assoc...
Volitional Walking via Upper Limb Muscle-Controlled Stimulation of the Lumbar Locomotor Center in Man | Journal of Neuroscience
Gait disturbance in individuals with spinal cord lesion is attributed to the interruption of descending pathways to the spinal locomotor center, whereas neural circuits below and above the lesion maintain their functional capability. An artificial neural connection (ANC), which bridges supraspinal centers and locomotor networks in the lumbar spinal cord beyond the lesion site, may restore the functional impairment. To achieve an ANC that sends descending voluntary commands to the lumbar locomotor center and bypasses the thoracic spinal cord, upper limb muscle activity was converted to magnetic stimuli delivered noninvasively over the lumbar vertebra. Healthy participants were able to initiate and terminate walking-like behavior and to control the step cycle through an ANC controlled by volitional upper limb muscle activity. The walking-like behavior stopped just after the ANC was disconnected from the participants even when the participant continued to swing arms. Furthermore, additional ...
Engineering Science, School of | Summit
Background: Fear of frailty is a main concern for seniors. Surface electromyography(sEMG) controlled assistive devices for the upper extremities could potentially be usedto augment seniors force while training their muscles and reduce their fear of frailty.In fact, these devices could both improve self confidence and facilitate independentleaving in domestic environments. The successful implementation of sEMG controlleddevices for the elderly strongly relies on the capability of properly determining seniorsactions from their sEMG signals. In this research we investigated the viability ofclassifying hand postures in seniors from sEMG signals of their forearm muscles.Methods: Nineteen volunteers, including seniors (70 years old in average) andyoung people (27 years old in average), participated in this study and sEMG signalsfrom four of their forearm muscles (i.e. Extensor Digitorum, Palmaris Longus, FlexorCarpi Ulnaris and Extensor Carpi Radialis) were recorded. The feature vectors werebuilt by ...
The muscle silent period and reciprocal inhibition in man | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
The mechanical properties of muscle are shown to have a significant influence on the duration of the silent period in the soleus EMG. In contrast to this, the mechanical events have no influence on the duration of the reciprocal inhibition of the anterior tibial muscle. However, a second, delayed cessation of the EMG activity in the anterior tibial muscle is due to mechanical events.. ...
Electromyography | MEDCHROME
Electromyography (EMG) is a medical test performed to evaluate and record the electrical activity (electromyogram) produced by skeletal muscles using an instrument called electromyograph. EMG test is often performed together with another test called nerve conduction study, that measures the conducting function of nerves. The electrical source is the resting membrane potential (RMP) which is about -90 mV for skeletal muscles. Measured EMG potentials range between less than 50 μV and up to 20 to 30 mV depending upon the muscle under observation.. ...
Investigation and management of muscle and nerve disorders.. Siow Neurology, Headache and Pain centres have onsite EMG equipment. This treatment is used for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed with an Electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram. An injection into various muscles will pick up the electrical activity given out by muscles and tell us if there is nerve or muscle disease from this.. EMG is most often used when patients have symptoms of weakness, and examination shows impaired muscle strength. It can help to tell the difference between muscle weakness caused by injury of a nerve attached to a muscle and weakness due to neurological disorders.. There is little or no preparation for EMG. Body lotions are to be avoided prior to the use of EMG as this may reduce the reading. Blood Thinners are also to be avoided as again this may distort the electromyogram reading.. ...
Definition for electromyography
Myoelectric Signal Processing: Optimal Estimation Applied to Electromyography - Part II: Experimental Demonstration of Optimal...
Surface Electromyography (SEMG)<...
Search Results for "muscle activation" | Human Kinetics
Electromyographic (EMG) activities of gluteus maximus (GL), vastus later-alis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA) were measured telemetrically from four world-class athletes during the entire ski jumping performance. Integrated electromyographic activities (IEMG) were calculated from the different phases of jump. TA and GA showed alternate activation during the curve, suggesting that maintenance of the inrun position is a process requiring continuous active control. VL and VM were observed to contribute mostly to the entire takeoff phase whereas GL became strongly active within the last 4 meters of the takeoff. GA was slightly but continuously active during the inrun and showed only a small increase during takeoff. The quick lifting of the skis, as evidenced by the activation of TA, does not seem to allow effective use of GA at the end of the takeoff. Strong continuous activity of the knee extensors and TA dominated the midflight phase whereas the ...
An agonist muscle is one that - IDEA Health & Fitness Association
Neuromuscular activation of the vastus intermedius muscle during isometric hip flexion - Fingerprint - Waseda University
Electrocardiography/Electromyography Shield for Ar
This EKG/EMG shield allows Arduino boards to capture Electrocardiography/Electromyography signals, so you can experiment with biofeedback. You can monitor your heartbeat and log your pulse, or recognize gestures by monitoring and analyzing muscle activity. The shield comes with stackable Arduino headers installed as shown, and also has 0.1
EMG Electromyography | Lifeline Monitoring Services - Neurodiagnostic Services in Fairfield, CT - EMG Electromyography
Simulation and Processing Techniques of Surface Electromyography Signal to Control a Lower Extremity Exoskeleton - IJSER...
Clinical application of electromyography<...
Electromyography in vivo of orthosympathetic control of cat colon]. - Semantic Scholar
Electromyography Guide: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options
Advances in Applied Electromyography | IntechOpen
Evidence against a subcortical gate preventing conscious detection of respiratory load stimuli
Respiratory related evoked potentials (RREP) were used to examine respiratory stimulus gating. RREPs produced by consciously detected vs. undetected loads, near the detection threshold, were compared. Participants (n = 17) were instrumented with EEG and a nasal mask connected to a loading manifold, which presented a range of mid-inspiratory resistive loads, plus a control, in a random block design. Participants were cued prior to the stimulus and signalled detection by a button press. There were statistically significant differences in peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1 RREP peak for detected (mean ± SD; 3.86 ± 1.45 μV; P = 0.020) and undetected loads (3.67 ± 1.27 μV; P = 0.002) vs. control (2.36 ± 0.81 μV), although baseline-to-peak differences were not significantly different. In contrast peak-to-peak P3 amplitude was significantly greater for detected (5.91 ± 1.54 μV; P < 0.001) but not undetected loads (3.33 ± 0.98 μV; P = 0.189) vs. control (3.69 ± 1.46 μV), with the same pattern ...
Freemotion REFLEX T7.7 Treadmill Motor Drive Belt, Model Number VMTL298113 Part Number 264014
EP0793337B1 - Electrical angle detecting device and synchronous motor drive device - Google Patents
When it is found in step S200 that electrical angle detection has already been conducted, the routine passes to step S270 in which voltage is applied across phases selected by a process that will now be explained. Specifically, the processing in S270 is premised on the fact that since electrical angle detection has already been conducted, information is available to the CPU 120 regarding the current speed (reciprocal of the change in electrical angle within a prescribed time period) and acceleration (derivative of the speed) of the synchronous motor 40. Based on this information, the approximate position of the rotor 50 is estimated and a judgment is made regarding the possibility that the estimated position is one at which the current flowing in the coil applied with positive voltage is less than the prescribed value ie. When this possibility is found to exist, voltage is applied across the phases decided beforehand. On the other hand, when it is found that current flowing through the coil ...
Electromyogram | SpringerLink
EMG Studies on muscle groups... - AnabolicMinds.com
Electrophysiological techniques for clinical diagnosis
Electromyography is the measurement and analysis of the electrical activity in skeletal muscles. This technique is useful for ... Electromyography (EMG) has been proposed by multiple researchers as an alternative measurement technique to quantify spasticity ... Mayo Clinic Staff, "Electromyography (EMG)". Retrieved 27 July 2012 Kamen, G. & Gabriel, D. A. (2010). Essentials of ... Electromyography. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Bressler, S. L. and Ding, M. 2006. "Event-Related Potentials". Wiley ...
Signs and symptoms of Graves' disease
Electromyography (EMG) is a tool used to measure the electrical outputs produced by skeletal muscles upon activation. Motor ... The prime mover strategy over time has declined in popularity as it has been found through electromyography studies that no one ... Additionally, not only can electromyography readings differ, but the physical path that joints travel along can be altered as ... Adaptation can be measured in a variety of ways: electromyography, three-dimensional reconstruction of joints, and changes in ...
Tensor tympani muscle
Neuromuscular junction disease
See also: Electromyography § History. The technique of electromyoneurography was first practiced in the late 1970s by the ... Electromyoneurography (EMNG) is the combined use of electromyography and electroneurography This technique allows for the ... The needle is normally attached to a recording device known as an electromyography machine. The results show the appearance of ... electromyography). Their combined use proves to be clinically relevant by allowing for both the source and location of a ...
Neural control of limb stiffness
It is able to be measured using electromyography (EMG) from the contractions that occur. The general mechanism of it is still ... Muscle coactivation is measured using a technique called electromyography(EMG). This is performed by using surface EMG that ... Journal of electromyography and kinesiology. 32: 51-60. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2016.12.004. PMID 28039769. "cocontraction". The ...
Electromyography Guide: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options
Electromyography - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional ... Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies (EMG). What is the test?. Electromyography (EMG) tests analyze nerve and muscle ... Home › Harvard Health Topics A-Z › Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies (EMG) ...
Advances in Applied Electromyography | IntechOpen
Advances in Applied Electromyography. Edited by: Joseph Mizrahi. ISBN 978-953-307-382-8, PDF ISBN 978-953-51-6462-3, Published ... Electromyography of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Rats. By Yolanda Cruz Gómez, Hai-Hong Jiang, Paul Zaszczurynski, Raúl Juárez, Ce ... Advances in Applied Electromyography. Edited by Joseph Mizrahi. Technion Israel Institute of Technology ... Computational Intelligence in Electromyography AnalysisA Perspective on Current Applications and Future ChallengesEdited by ...
Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Non-Invasive Applications | Biomedical Imaging | General & Introductory...
16.2 Electromyography as a Tool in Back and Neck Pain.. 16.3 EMG of the Pelvic Floor: A New Challenge in Neurological ... This item: Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Non-Invasive Applications Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A ... This item: Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Non-Invasive Applications Identification of Nonlinear Physiological ... Electromyography shows how engineering tools such as models and signal processing methods can greatly augment the insight ...
Macro electromyography : An update
Macro electromyography: An update. Stålberg, Erik Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of ... The macro electromyography method was developed in the 1980s. Since then, technical modifications have been made, and a number ... The spike component of a motor unit potential (MUP) recorded by a concentric or monopolar needle electromyography (EMG) ...
Electrocardiography/Electromyography Shield for Ar
Electromyography | B-health blog
An electromyography records this electrical pattern. If the electrical pattern is abnormal when the muscle is at rest or when a ... Electromyography or EMG is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the electrical activity in your nerves as they transmit messages ... During an Electromyography , a thin needle with an electrode is inserted through your skin into a muscle. The electrode records ... Electromyography can be uncomfortable, as the needle electrode may cause muscle pain. But, the pain is usually limited and goes ...
Definition for electromyography
electromyography definition: a technique for assessing and tracking the activation signal of muscle tissue; analysis of ... Definition for "electromyography" *a technique for assessing and tracking the activation… ... How would you define electromyography?. All the definitions on AZdictionary were written by people just like you. Nows your ... Urban Dictionary for "electromyography" *An EMG- a process to evaluate… ...
electromyography - oi
n. continuous recording of the electrical activity of a muscle by means of electrodes inserted into the muscle fibres. The tracing is displayed on an oscilloscope. The technique is used for diagnosing various nerve and muscle disorders and assessing progress in recovery from some forms of paralysis. ...
Concurrent surface electromyography and force myography classification during times of prosthetic socket shift and user fatigue...
Objective: Surface electromyography has been a long-standing source of signals for control of powered prosthetic devices. By ... Concurrent surface electromyography and force myography classification during times of prosthetic socket shift and user fatigue ... Concurrent surface electromyography and force myography classification during times of prosthetic socket shift and user fatigue ... Home / Application / Size & Fit / Concurrent surface electromyography and force myography classification during times of ...
Electromyography | Encyclopedia.com
Electromyography Definition Electromyography (EMG) is an electrical recording of muscle activity that aids in the diagnosis of ... Electromyography Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed. COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Electromyography. Definition. ... Electromyography. Definition. Electromyography (EMG) is an electrical recording of muscle activity that aids in the diagnosis ... Electromyography. Definition. Electromyography (EMG) is used to detect, process, and record electrical muscle activity in order ...
Electromyography: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles. ... Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles. ... Katirji B. Clinical electromyography. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradleys Neurology in Clinical ... Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (electromyelogram)-diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory ...
Functional Electromyography | SpringerLink
Functional Electromyography: Provocative Maneuvers in Electrodiagnosis integrates electrophysiology further into the physical ... Functional electromyography successfully diagnoses some cases of thoracic outlet syndrome, nearly all cases of piriformis ... Functional Electromyography: Provocative Maneuvers in Electrodiagnosis integrates electrophysiology further into the physical ... This widens the scope of electromyography while sharpening physicians diagnostic acuity. The book presents nerve conduction ...
Selected Topics in Surface Electromyography | NIOSH | CDC
Electromyography (EMG) is a tool that can be very valuable in ergonomic studies if it is used correctly and if the associated ... Electromyography (EMG) is a tool that can be very valuable in ergonomic studies if it is used correctly and if the associated ... Selected Topics in Surface Electromyography for Use in the Occupational Setting: Expert Perspectivepdf icon [PDF - 6748 KB] ... Selected Topics in Surface Electromyography for Use in the Occupational Setting: Expert Perspective. ...
... (EMG) measures and records the electrical activity of a muscle. The test can record a muscles electrical ... Medical encyclopedia: electromyography. National Library of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus ... Source URL (retrieved on 10/17/2019 - 01:36): https://www.empowher.com/media/reference/electromyography ...
Electromyography (EMG) | SpringerLink
Beverwyk A.J., Mancuso K., Prabhakar A., Lissauer J., Kaye A.D., Davis S.F. (2020) Electromyography (EMG). In: Davis S., Kaye A ... Nichols GS, Manafov E. Utility of electromyography for nerve root monitoring during spinal surgery. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2012; ... Bindal RK, Ghosh S. Intraoperative electromyography monitoring in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. J ... Evaluation with evoked and spontaneous electromyography during lumbar instrumentation: a prospective study. J Neurosurg. 1997; ...
Macquarie University - Electromyography
Contact Us | The Electromyography (EMG) Laboratory
The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography - 1st Edition
Purchase The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780409950427, ... 11.Electromyography and the Cranial Nerves. 12.Electromyography and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Index. ... The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... although they may not practice electromyography, have an interest in neuromuscular diseases and the place of electromyography ...
electromyography - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for electromyography
The Electromyography (EMG) Laboratory
What is Electromyography? (with pictures)
Electromyography is a type of diagnostic medical test that is used to evaluate skeletal muscle activity. The way ... Electromyography and nerve conduction tests diagnose conditions such as sciatica. No particular preparation is required to ... Electromyography is not a risky procedure. The amount of electrical energy to which a patient is exposed is very weak and poses ... Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic medical test that evaluates skeletal muscle activity. This test often is carried out in ...
Recognition of Handwriting from Electromyography
Pediatric electromyography : concepts and clinical applications (eBook, 2017) [WorldCat.org]
Hugh J McMillan; Peter B Kang;] -- This book describes how to perform nerve conduction studies and electromyography in children ... http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4227822720#Topic\/electromyography<\/a>> # Electromyography<\/span>\n. \ ... including discussions of major neuromuscular diseases amenable to diagnosis via electromyography. Pediatric Electromyography: ... including discussions of major neuromuscular diseases amenable to diagnosis via electromyography. Pediatric Electromyography: ...
Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies: Background, Indications, Contraindications
... and needle electromyography (EMG), that are used to evaluate the conduction of electrical impulses down peripheral nerves. ... encoded search term (Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies) and Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies What to ... Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies. Updated: Aug 20, 2018 * Author: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA; Chief Editor: Jonathan ... Weiss LD, Silver JK, Weiss J. Easy EMG : a guide to performing nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Butterworth- ...
Electromyography (EMG) Laboratory - Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology - Elsevier
Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. Official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology ...
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Recently published articles from Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. * Verification of intramuscular electromyography ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ... Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human ...
Electromyography and neuromuscular disorders : clinical-electrophysiologic correlations (eBook, 2013) [WorldCat.org]
Electromyography and neuromuscular disorders : clinical-electrophysiologic correlations. [David C Preston; Barbara Shapiro ... Electromyography--methods. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Electromyography--methods"@en ;. .. ... Electromyography in special clinical settings --. section VIII. Electronics and instrumentation.. Responsibility:. David C. ... Electromyography and neuromuscular disorders : clinical-electrophysiologic correlations. Author:. David C Preston; Barbara ...
Guide for authors - Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology - ISSN 1050-6411
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology Journal. Check the Author information pack on Elsevier.com ... The Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal ... The Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology aims to provide a single, authoritative forum for the publication of original ...
... Third Edition. Robert Thayer Sataloff. Details:. 256 pages, Illustrated (B/W), Softcover, 6 x 9" 1 ... Laryngeal Electromyography, Third Edition is an easy guide and quick reference for laryngologists, neurologists, physiatrists, ... Appendix I. Laryngeal Electromyography: Summary Outline of Selected and Important Facts. Appendix II. Practice Parameter: ... Thoroughly revised since the previous edition, Laryngeal Electromyography provides the latest advances on electromyographic ...
Hematoma risk after needle electromyography - Boon - 2011 - Muscle & Nerve - Wiley Online Library
Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter Function Profiles: Background, Indications, Contraindications
Anal sphincter electromyography may be clinically useful in the evaluation of patients with urinary, bowel, and sexual ... Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter Function Profiles * Sections Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter ... encoded search term (Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter Function Profiles) and Anal Sphincter Electromyography and ... Anal Sphincter Electromyography and Sphincter Function Profiles. Updated: Dec 19, 2016 * Author: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA; ...
Electromyography Devices Market Size to Grow Steadily during
... Forecast period ( 2017-2027) - published on openPR.com ... Electromyography Devices Market Analysis and Forecast up to 2027 Electromyography devices are powerful and flexible enough ... Electromyography Devices Market - Growth , Opportunities and the Key Forward Electromyography devices are powerful and flexible ... Electromyography Devices Market - Competitive Dynamics and Global Industry Outlo … Electromyography devices are powerful and ...
PatientsLikeMe | Electromyography (EMG) report for patients like you
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Electromyography (EMG) at PatientsLikeMe. 31 patients with ... gastroesophageal reflux disease or bipolar I disorder currently have Electromyography (EMG). ... Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the activation signal of muscles. EMG is performed using an ... Commonly reported side effects and conditions associated with Electromyography (EMG) Side effect. Patients. ...
Online Finger Gesture Recognition Using Surface Electromyography Signals
Q. Li and B. Li, "Online Finger Gesture Recognition Using Surface Electromyography Signals," Journal of Signal and Information ... Y. C. Du, C. H. Lin, L. Y. Shyu and T. Chen, "Portable Hand Motion Classifier for Multi-Channel Surface Electromyography ... X. Chen, Q. Li, J. H. Yang and V. Lantz, "Test-Retest Repeatability of Surface Electromyography Measurement for Hand Gesture," ... "Decoding of Individuated Finger Movements Using Surface Electromyography," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 56 ...
Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) Tests
Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) are electrodiagnostic tests that measure the electrical activity of ... Electromyography (EMG): What It Is and What to Expect. EMG measures muscle response to nerve stimulation and evaluates ... Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) may help your doctor successfully identify your muscle- and/or nerve ... Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) are electrodiagnostic tests that measure the electrical activity of ...
Muscle electromyographyMusclesSurface electromyography signalsGaitClinicalPhysiologyMeasurementsPerspectiveActivitySEMGLaryngeal ElectromyographyJournal of ElectromyographyDisordersMusclesKinesiologySignalsParasternal intercostal muscle electromyographySurfaceIntramuscular electromyographyGeneral anesthesiaDefinitionNeurologyNerve ConduBiofeedbackConduction velocityElectrodiagnostic medicineNeurologistsSymptomsPatientsInsightsDiagnostic testElectroencephalographyMeasurementOverviewPhysiologicalProceduresCarpal tunnel sResults
Surface electromyography signals2
- In an attempt to obtain more objective measurements, we have been performing surface electromyography (sEMG) on masseter muscles, bilaterally, while TMD patients clench their teeth, and have observed different activity patterns. (nova.edu)
- One method that can be used to provide insight into muscle activity in a non-invasive and clinically meaningful manner is the use of surface electromyography (sEMG). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study has developed a technique for identifying the presence of muscle fatigue based on the spatial changes of the normalised mutual information (NMI) between multiple high density surface electromyography (HD-sEMG) channels. (mdpi.com)
- The mDurance ® system is an innovative digital tool that combines wearable surface electromyography (sEMG), mobile computing and cloud analysis to streamline and automatize the assessment of muscle activity. (frontiersin.org)
- The application of surface electromyography (sEMG) has been widely used to measure muscle activity signals, facilitating access to electrophysiological processes that cause the muscle to generate force and produce movement ( De Luca, 1997 ). (frontiersin.org)
- This paper studies the time-dependent power spectral density (PSD) estimation of nonstationary surface electromyography (SEMG) signals and its application to fatigue analysis during isometric muscle contraction. (biomedsearch.com)
- Statement of the Problem: Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is a diagnostic device that senses electrical signals of the muscle using surface electrodes. (omicsonline.org)
- In this paper, we present a new gesture recognition framework which is capable of classifying ten different hand gestures based on the input signals from surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors. (spie.org)
- The surface electromyography signal (sEMG) was collected from the vastus lateralis muscle using a three channel Laplacian electrode. (researchgateway.ac.nz)
- Laryngeal Electromyography, Third Edition is an easy guide and quick reference for laryngologists, neurologists, physiatrists, and others who wish to learn the procedure of laryngeal electromyography in order to evaluate the integrity of the muscles and nerves of the larynx, and to determine the cause of movement disorders of the vocal folds and make a diagnosis. (pluralpublishing.com)
- Thoroughly revised since the previous edition, Laryngeal Electromyography provides the latest advances on electromyographic procedure and diagnostics. (pluralpublishing.com)
- Quantitative laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) using turns analysis can differentiate acute vocal fold paralysis from normal controls. (wiley.com)
- One of their patients underwent laryngeal electromyography showing denervation of the cricothyroid muscle supplied by the superior laryngeal nerve, indicating a vagal neuropathy, supporting their hypothesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Laryngeal electromyography demonstrated 25% decreased recruitment in the right cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Objective measures such as acoustic analysis and laryngeal electromyography (EMG) can provide additional information and serve as a baseline for any future assessments that may be performed following thyroid surgery. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These findings were confirmed by laryngeal electromyography , which revealed a 20% weakness of the left superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 1) Laryngeal electromyography must show increased muscle discharge of the thyroarytenoid or posterior cricoarytenoid muscles at the affected pitch(es). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Findings on laryngeal electromyography (EMG) can be useful in distinguishing between neural and mechanical causes of vocal fold immobility, although we have only level IV evidence to support its use. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Laryngeal electromyography confirmed mild right superior laryngeal nerve paresis and MTD (poor relaxation at rest). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) assesses the function of the nerves supplying the laryngeal musculature. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Laryngeal electromyography revealed a 50% decrease in recruitment of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and a 70 to 80% decrease in the right RLN without significant synkinesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Once a movement disorder of the larynx is identified, laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is ordered to help examine more accurately the integrity of the neuromotor (the nerve and muscle) system. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) can confirm RLN compromise and determine the severity of injury. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Differentiation between an arytenoid dislocation and nerve injury can be difficult in these instances, and diagnosis usually is made with the aid of laryngeal examination, laryngeal electromyography , and computed tomography scanning. (thefreedictionary.com)
- To assess laryngeal muscle activity in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients using laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) and coronal images. (unboundmedicine.com)
- This book is a reference tool for laryngologists, neurologists, and other electrophysiologists interested in adding laryngeal electromyography to their clinical practices. (abebooks.com)
- His areas of interest include neuromuscular electrophysiology, minor head injury, peripheral nerve disorders, laryngeal electromyography, and disability medicine. (abebooks.com)
- He has co-edited three books, Minor Head Injury, The Handbook of Neurology of the Lower Extremities, and Laryngeal Electromyography, and has published more than 100 articles. (abebooks.com)
Journal of Electromyography2
- Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology is the primary source for outstanding original articles on the study of human movement from muscle contraction via its motor units and sensory system to integrated motion through mechanical and electrical detection techniques. (elsevier.com)
- The Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology aims to provide a single, authoritative forum for the publication of original research and clinical studies on muscle contraction and human motion through combined or separate mechanical and electrical detection techniques. (elsevier.com)
- This book is intended not only for practicing electromyographers but also for those neurologists and physiatrists who, although they may not practice electromyography, have an interest in neuromuscular diseases and the place of electromyography in the analysis of these disorders. (elsevier.com)
- Electromyography in conjunction with nerve conduction studies can be used to diagnose a wide range of muscular and nervous disorders. (wisegeek.com)
- Seven chapters range in coverage of clinical applications, to vocal cord mobility disorders and the evolution and literature on electromyography. (pluralpublishing.com)
- Electromyography devices are biofeedback devices and becoming widely used to help patients who are affected by neuromuscular disorders to regain voluntary control of specific muscles. (openpr.com)
- Electromyography devices are employed for training in the rehabilitation of patients affected by the cerebrovascular accident, nerve injury, poliomyelitis, torticollis, bruxism, temporomandibular joint syndrome and other disorders. (openpr.com)
- Ongoing research activities in the area of spinal disorders and cerebral has accelerated the Electromyography devices market. (openpr.com)
- Electromyography (EMG) is a type of biofeedback that provides feedback on muscle tension and works well for people with anxiety disorders or chronic pain. (sharecare.com)
- Used along with an electromyography , nerve conduction studies can help diagnose disorders that affect nerve function, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (bhealthblog.com)
- Nerve conduction studies and electromyography have a diagnostic role in most of the disorders seen by the service. (uhs.nhs.uk)
- Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
- Electromyography and nerve conduction tests can be used to diagnose diseases of the muscles and nerves, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, carpal tunnel syndrome and sciatica . (wisegeek.com)
- The electrical activity of the muscles, as measured by means of electromyography (EMG), is a major expression of muscle contraction. (intechopen.com)
- Electromyography devices are powerful and flexible enough which are used for the re-education of injured muscles, relaxation training of tense muscles as well as training of the necessary muscles to improve incontinence. (openpr.com)
- Electromyography devices appear to be a promising biofeedback treatment technique which is available for home use as well as professional use, and biofeedback sessions can be conducted on a daily basis by the individual who is interested in recovering from the dysfunction and pain caused by tight muscles and also for neuromuscular rehabilitation. (openpr.com)
- Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the activation signal of muscles. (patientslikeme.com)
- Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) are electrodiagnostic tests that measure the electrical activity of muscles and nerves. (spineuniverse.com)
- Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. (intechopen.com)
- Electromyography also looks at the activity of the muscles around nerves to see whether they are spasming and putting pressure on nerves. (sharecare.com)
- Electromyography is a diagnostic test that records the electrical activity of muscles. (sharecare.com)
- An electromyography (EMG) is an outpatient diagnostic test used to evaluate the health of your muscles and nerves. (vanderbilthealth.com)
- Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS) are tests that use electrodes to detect, translate, and record the electrical signals in your muscles and nerve cells while they're active and at rest. (verywellhealth.com)
- Electromyography of the thigh muscles during lifting tasks in kneeling and squatting postures. (cdc.gov)
- This research aimed at proposing an alternative treatment for stress with acupuncture, evaluating by electromyography right and left trapezius muscles of patients under psychological stress one week before evaluations and after acupuncture. (scielo.br)
- In order to verify absence of any voluntary activity of the muscles, surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded. (humankinetics.com)
- The EMG signal was recorded for a period of 10 seconds while subjects completed vertical jumps, using EMG electrodes placed according to recommendations for surface electromyography for the noninvasive assessment of muscles and positioned parallel to the direction of the muscle fibers. (humankinetics.com)
- Electromyography or EMG is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the electrical activity in your nerves as they transmit messages to your muscles when the muscles are contracting and when they're at rest. (bhealthblog.com)
- Electromyography tests the electrical activity of the muscles and nerves of the pelvic floor. (urologyhealth.org)
- Emg (electromyography) is a test of your muscles and nerves. (healthtap.com)
- Accordingly, we recorded, via electromyography (EMG),the supinator and pronator muscles of a common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a western gorilla (Pan gorilla), and a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in order to determine which muscles were principally and otherwise active during manipulation, quadrupedal positional behavior, and suspensory activities. (docme.ru)
- Electromyography (EMG) looks at how your muscles are working. (fvhospital.com)
- To address these issues, this study aims to examine the feasibility of a wearable Electromyography (EMG) sensor to measure the electrical impulses produced by workers' muscles as a means to continuously evaluate workers muscle fatigue without interfering with their ongoing tasks. (springer.com)
- This thesis addressed the reliability of motor unit number estimates (MUNEs) derived using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) from the extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) and abductor hallucis (AH) muscles. (queensu.ca)
- Introduction Measurement of neural respiratory drive, using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography (EMGpara), has previously been shown to relate to pulmonary function impairment and exercise-induced breathlessness in advanced cystic fibrosis (CF). This measure reflects the load on the respiratory system and the capacity of the respiratory muscles and therefore may provide a composite measure of overall lung disease severity. (bmj.com)
- This chapter discusses the use of electromyography (EMG) to study muscles, the physiological basis of EMG, psychophysiological recording procedure, electrodes and electrode placement, typical recordings, common problems associated with EMG, analysis and quantification, and requirements for amplification of EMGs. (oup.com)
- Surface Electromyography of the Masticatory Muscles for Application in Dental Practice. (quintpub.com)
- On the basis of well-founded clinical evaluations and taking into account special methodological recommendations, surface electromyography (EMG) enables the acquisition of valid and reliable quantitative data on the functional condition of the masticatory muscles as a euromuscular functional analysis. (quintpub.com)
- As the official publication of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology , the journal is dedicated to publishing the best work in all areas of electromyography and kinesiology , including: control of movement, muscle fatigue, muscle and nerve properties, joint biomechanics and electrical stimulation. (elsevier.com)
- Q. Li and B. Li, "Online Finger Gesture Recognition Using Surface Electromyography Signals," Journal of Signal and Information Processing , Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 101-105. (scirp.org)
- Electromyography shows how engineering tools such as models and signal processing methods can greatly augment the insight provided by surface EMG signals. (wiley.com)
- This EKG/EMG shield allows Arduino boards to capture Electrocardiography/Electromyography signals, so you can experiment with biofeedback. (microcontrollershop.com)
- Finger motion and arm muscle activity were measured simultaneously with fNIRS signals using motion tracking and electromyography (EMG), respectively. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
Parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography1
- Method Type and frequency of PVA were measured by surface parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography, thoracoabdominal plethysmography and mask pressure during initiation of HMV. (bmj.com)
- X. Chen, Q. Li, J. H. Yang and V. Lantz, "Test-Retest Repeatability of Surface Electromyography Measurement for Hand Gesture," 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai, China, 2008, pp. 1923-1926. (scirp.org)
- Y. C. Du, C. H. Lin, L. Y. Shyu and T. Chen, "Portable Hand Motion Classifier for Multi-Channel Surface Electromyography Recognition Using Grey Relational Analysis," Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2010, pp. 4283-4291. (scirp.org)
- Can Types of TMD Be Distinguished By Surface Electromyography and Bite Force? (nova.edu)
- FREEEMG is a 4G technology device for surface electromyography (EMG) analysis. (btsbioengineering.com)
- The second section provides detailed coverage of surface anatomy for needle electromyography and shows where to place the needles for each muscle. (ovid.com)
- Time-dependent power spectral density estimation of surface electromyography during isometric muscle contraction: methods and comparisons. (biomedsearch.com)
- This physiological study of overnight set-up of non-invasive ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure using surface parasternal electromyography provides a comprehensive assessment of the type and frequency of PVA encountered when initiating home non-invasive ventilation. (bmj.com)
- Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Foraminotomy with Modified Radiofrequency Nerve Stimulator and Continuous Electromyography Under General Anesthesia: Technical Note. (bioportfolio.com)
- These procedures are performed on awake patients or under general anesthesia with continuous electromyography (EMG). (bioportfolio.com)
- The Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) diagnostic tests can be performed on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- To provide a more complete picture of your nerve function, an electromyography is done in conjunction with a nerve conduction study. (bhealthblog.com)
- Who performs the needle electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS)? (stjosephshealth.org)
- Electromyography device helps patients with chronic pain to discover the level of tensions 15 or 20 times normal levels in biofeedback sessions. (openpr.com)
- In recent time, increase in the prevalence of the neurodegenerative disorder among aging population such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, is the key driver of the global Electromyography devices market have proven to be opportunistic for the growth of biofeedback equipment in the upcoming future.Biofeedback equipment is used to serve different purposes like in improving athletic, corporate and academic performances as well to improve one's health and wellness. (openpr.com)
- Growing awareness about physiological and psychological health among population leading the biofeedback electromyography devices market to grow faster. (openpr.com)
- What is electromyography (EMG) biofeedback? (sharecare.com)
- Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) are tests your doctor may order to measure muscle action potential and nerve conduction. (spineuniverse.com)
- Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) may help your doctor successfully identify your muscle- and/or nerve-related spine pain. (spineuniverse.com)
- Muscle fiber conduction velocity is based on the ti me delay estimation between electromyography recording channels. (semanticscholar.org)
- The Outpatient Electromyography (EMG) Laboratory at St. Joseph's, which holds Laboratory Accreditation with Exemplary Status from the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM), provides state-of-the-art diagnostic testing and neuromuscular evaluations. (stjosephshealth.org)
- An invaluable resource for physiatrists, neurologists, orthopedic surgeons, specialists in pain management and other providers, Functional Electromyography: Provocative Maneuvers in Electrodiagnosis represents a major contribution to the field of electrodiagnosis. (springer.com)
- Pediatric Electromyography: Concepts and Clinical Applications is aimed at residents, technologists and staff pediatric neurologists, as a practical guide and exam study guide. (worldcat.org)
- This visually alluring book is an anatomical guide for students and practitioners of electromyography, including neurologists and rehabilitation specialists. (ovid.com)
- Global Market Research Report on Electroencephalography and Electromyography Market 2016 is a professional and in-depth complete study on the current state of the Electroencephalography and Electromyography worldwide. (sbwire.com)
- Electroencephalography (EEG) and an electromyography (EMG) are diagnostic techniques used to measure the electrical activity in human body. (sbwire.com)
- The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography aims to help the clinician involved in the study of diseases of the peripheral nervous system and muscle to better understand the pathophysiological basis for many of the observations derived from electromyography and nerve conduction studies. (elsevier.com)
- Nerve monitoring plays a significant role in the surgery which is also called as intraoperative neuromonitoring or neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) which implementing electrophysiological methods such as electromyography (EMG) and has become an essential part of the surgical team to avoid the situation like irreversible nerve damages caused during surgical procedures. (openpr.com)
Carpal tunnel s1
- Relevant case presentations are included to aid learning, and the authors also focus on the practical applications of the test results, including discussions of major neuromuscular diseases amenable to diagnosis via electromyography. (worldcat.org)
- Results from electromyography can help diagnose a condition that interferes with muscle contractions. (bhealthblog.com)