Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Liquid components of living organisms.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The consumption of liquids.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A condition of metabolic imbalance that is caused by complications of initially feeding a severely malnourished patient too aggressively. Usually occurring within the first 5 days of refeeding, this syndrome is characterized by WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; and DIARRHEA.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste.
A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A sulfamyl diuretic.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.

Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (1/1587)

We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion.  (+info)

Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline. (2/1587)

It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa.  (+info)

O-raffinose cross-linking markedly reduces systemic and renal vasoconstrictor effects of unmodified human hemoglobin. (3/1587)

The hemodynamic effects of a 20% exchange-transfusion with different solutions of highly purified human hemoglobin A-zero (A0) were evaluated. We compared unmodified hemoglobin with hemoglobin cross-linked with O-raffinose. Unmodified hemoglobin increased systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure more than the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solution (by approximately 45% and approximately 14%, respectively). Unmodified hemoglobin markedly reduced cardiac output (CO) by approximately 21%, whereas CO was unaffected by the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solution. Unmodified and O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions increased mean arterial pressure to comparable extents ( approximately 14% and approximately 9%, respectively). Unmodified hemoglobin increased renal vascular resistance 2-fold and reduced the glomerular filtration rate by 58%. In marked contrast, the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin had no deleterious effect on the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, or renal vascular resistance. The extents to which unmodified and O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions inactivated nitric oxide also were compared using three separate in vitro assays: platelet nitric oxide release, nitric oxide-stimulated platelet cGMP production, and endothelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation. Unmodified hemoglobin inactivated or oxidized nitric oxide to a greater extent than the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions in all three assays. In summary, O-raffinose cross-linking substantially reduced the systemic vasoconstriction and the decrease in CO induced by unmodified hemoglobin and eliminated the deleterious effects of unmodified hemoglobin on renal hemodynamics and function. We hypothesize that O-raffinose cross-linking reduces the degree of oxidation of nitric oxide and that this contributes to the reduced vasoactivity of this modified hemoglobin.  (+info)

Mechanism for the posture-specific plasma volume increase after a single intense exercise protocol. (4/1587)

To test the hypothesis that exercise-induced hypervolemia is a posture-dependent process, we measured plasma volume, plasma albumin content, and renal function in seven healthy subjects for 22 h after single upright (Up) or supine (Sup) intense (85% peak oxygen consumption rate) exercise. This posture was maintained for 5 h after exercise. Plasma volume decreased during exercise but returned to control levels by 5 h of recovery in both postures. By 22 h of recovery, plasma volume increased 2.4 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Up but decreased 2.1 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Sup. The plasma volume expansion in Up was accompanied by an increase in plasma albumin content (0.11 +/- 0.04 g/kg; P < 0.05). Plasma albumin content was unchanged in Sup. Urine volume and sodium clearance were lower in Up than Sup (P < 0.05) by 5 h of recovery. These data suggest that increased plasma albumin content contributes to the acute phase of exercise-induced hypervolemia. More importantly, the mechanism by which exercise influences the distribution of albumin between extra- and intravascular stores after exercise is altered by posture and is unknown. We speculate that factors associated with postural changes (e.g., central venous pressure) modify the increase in plasma albumin content and the plasma volume expansion after exercise.  (+info)

Prolonged colonic epithelial hyporesponsiveness after colitis: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase. (5/1587)

Colonic epithelial secretion is an important host defense mechanism. We examined whether a bout of colitis would produce long-lasting changes in epithelial function that persisted after resolution of mucosal inflammation. Colitis was induced in rats with intracolonic trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Six weeks later, colonic damage and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and activity were measured. Segments of distal colon were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of permeability and responsiveness to secretory stimuli. Basal electrolyte transport parameters and permeability were not different from untreated controls. Despite normal macroscopic and histological appearance, secretory responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and carbachol were significantly depressed (by 60-70%) relative to controls. iNOS mRNA expression and enzyme activity were significantly elevated. Dexamethasone reversed epithelial hyporesponsiveness and significantly reduced iNOS mRNA expression. A selective iNOS inhibitor normalized the secretory responses to EFS and IBMX but not to carbachol. These data suggest that ongoing synthesis of nitric oxide by iNOS contributes to chronic suppression of epithelial secretory function after episodes of colitis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans. (6/1587)

Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The two highest doses elicited larger decreases in stroke volume (17 and 21%) but also decreased blood pressure (6 and 14%) and increased heart rate (15 and 38%), such that cardiac output remained unchanged. Hematocrit and plasma protein concentration increased with the three highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including urodilatin) and plasma cGMP increased dose dependently. The urinary excretion rate of albumin was elevated up to 15-fold (37 +/- 17 micrograms/min). Use of a newly developed assay revealed that baseline urinary urodilatin excretion rate was low (<10 pg/min) and that fractional excretion of urodilatin remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate, and that filtered urodilatin is almost completely removed by the renal tubules.  (+info)

Renal and hemodynamic effects of losartan in conscious dogs during controlled mechanical ventilation. (7/1587)

In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received losartan (100 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not. They breathed spontaneously during the 1st and 4th hour and received CMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (mean airway pressure 20 cmH2O) during the 2nd and 3rd hours. In the expansion group, dogs with losartan excreted approximately 18% more sodium (69 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 5 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and 15% more urine during the 2 h of CMV because of a higher glomerular filtration rate (5.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 ml. min-1. kg-1) and the tubular effects of losartan. In the group without expansion, sodium excretion (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and glomerular filtration rate (3.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml. min-1. kg-1) did not change, and urine volume decreased similarly in both groups during CMV. Plasma vasopressin and aldosterone increased in both groups, and plasma renin activity increased from 4.9 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 1.3 ng ANG I. ml-1. h-1 during CMV in nonexpanded dogs without losartan. Mean arterial pressure decreased by 10 mmHg in nonexpanded dogs with losartan. In conclusion, losartan increases sodium excretion and urine volume during CMV if the ECV is expanded. If the ECV is not expanded, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and/or an increase in aldosterone and vasopressin during CMV attenuates the renal effects of losartan.  (+info)

Faecal composition after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. (8/1587)

Diarrhoea and perianal excoriation occur frequently after the endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A new method of faecal analysis was performed on 3-day stool collections in 17 postoperative Hirschsprung patients and in 14 normal children, in order to define the faecal abnormality and to establish the cause of perianal excoriation in these patients. Loose stools in postoperative patients were deficient in dry solid content and contained an excess of extractable faecal water. This also had a raised electrolyte concentration, particularly with respect to sodium. Total daily output of faecal water was normal. Formed stools from postoperative patients were also deficient in drysolids but had a normal extractable water content. Excess extractable faecal water, the main abnormality of loose stools in these patients, is the result of abnormal water absorption from the distal colon. Perianal excoriation in these patients is most closely associated with the concentration of sodium in faecal water.  (+info)

Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) Mitsuru Nagasawa. Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) new book online free download Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) free book download rar Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) books english pdf free download Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) free pdf 2011 handbook Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) books students Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) notebook free epub download Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) new english book level torrent Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) series ebooks free download pdf Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in ...
Perstorp - July 5, 2017 - Did you know that increasing dEB for broilers by 100 milliequivalents (mEq) gives a performance improvement of almost 4% in slaughter weight? This and loads of other information can be found at Perstorps new dietary electrolyte balance calculator on www.feedacidifiers.com which shows the usefulness for nutritionists of calculating the dEB of their diets.
The two main findings of this study were first, that there is no relation between any clinically significant changes in serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, total calcium, and total magnesium and the development of EAMC in ultra-distance runners before or immediately after a race, or during the period of clinical recovery from EAMC; and second, that there is also no relation between the changes in hydration status (measured by changes in body weight, plasma volume, blood volume, or red cell volume) and the development of EAMC in ultra-distance runners during or immediately after a race. The results of our study also show that there is no relation between the development of EAMC in ultra-distance runners and changes in serum osmolality, blood glucose concentration, and the concentration of plasma proteins before and after a race.. The association between skeletal muscle cramping and disturbances of serum electrolyte concentrations has been well documented in a variety of medical conditions. ...
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Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is a synthetic polymer commonly used as precursor base layer in polyelectrolyte multilayer films. However, the biological properties of this cationic macromolecule are poorly understood. The aim of this experimental investigation was to evaluate in vitro the biocompatibility of PEI towards two different human cell lines. The experimental investigation was undertaken on pure titanium (Ti) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy samples with an average surface roughness of Ra=0.3microm. A biological study was undertaken at day 0 (2h after seeding), day 2, day 4 and day 7 to observe the cellular response of fibroblasts and osteoblasts cell lines in terms of morphology, adhesion (as observed by scanning electron microscopy), and viability (Mosmanns test). The results showed that PEI can be successfully deposited onto Ti or NiTi alloy, but generates a detrimental cellular response on both substrates as illustrated by a decrease of both fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion and proliferation
The Aquaculturists blog is part of our International Aquafeed magazine. While the monthly magazine covers aquafeed issues in-depth, the Aquaculturists takes a lighter approach. Our columnists have a keen eye for the most interesting, relevant and lets face it, bizarre aquaculture stories from across the world.. Each weekday we search for top-notch news and package it for your perusal in one neat daily digest. We have welcomed over 34,000 unique visitors this past month! Not to mention that weve passed the big 1 million on total views! Coming up to 1.3 million views is very exciting for us and we hope that you are enjoying the content.. Please feel free to leave comments on the posts or share away on your social media!. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - In-situ analysis of polyelectrolyte complexes by flow cytometry. AU - Strand, Anders. AU - Vähäsalo, L. AU - Ketola, A. AU - Salminen, K. AU - Retulainen, E. AU - Sundberg, Anna. N1 - 3pk. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. KW - Polyelectrolyte complex. KW - CMC. KW - Structural density. KW - Light scattering. KW - cationic starch. KW - Polyelectrolyte complex. KW - CMC. KW - Structural density. KW - Light scattering. KW - cationic starch. KW - Polyelectrolyte complex. KW - CMC. KW - Structural density. KW - Light scattering. KW - cationic starch. U2 - 10.1007/s10570-018-1832-1. DO - 10.1007/s10570-018-1832-1. M3 - Artikel. VL - 25. SP - 3781. EP - 3795. JO - Cellulose. JF - Cellulose. SN - 0969-0239. IS - 7. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
Introduction and aims. Serum electrolyte derangements are common in patients with decompensated cirrhosis hospitalized for hepatic encephalopathy. There are limited data describing the association between electrolyte levels and outcomes in hepatic encephalopathy. We assessed the association between
Solid lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Global Electrolyte Solution Market 2020: Applications Segment Analysis. Application 1, Application 2. Then, the Electrolyte Solution market study report concentrates on global higher leading business players with knowledge such as company profiles, product picture and specifications, sales, market share, and association information. Whats more, the Electrolyte Solution industry development trends and marketing channels are examined.. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into rare key Countries, with production, expenditure, revenue, market share, and growth rate of Electrolyte Solution in these countries, from 2020 to 2025 (forecast), similar North America, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, and China.. In a word, the Electrolyte Solution market report gives important statistics on the state of the Electrolyte Solution industry and is a helpful source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Electrolyte ...
Numerous electrochemical devices are expected to operate in higher output using large amount of active materials and concentrated electrolyte solution in limited volume of each device. Therefore, little amount of concentrated electrolyte solution is penetrated in active materials for electrode. Although a lot of researchers have been investigating for electrolyte solution, the properties of electrolyte solution coexisting with solid materials are not studied very much. It is well-known that the solid surface affects the properties of water nearby the solid/liquid interface1. We have been studying the properties of the coexisting system consisting of an aqueous electrolyte solution and an inorganic powder, and confirmed that various kinds of solutions change its properties depending on a distance from solid surface2. In the present study, we focused on zinc aqueous solution because strong interaction of Zn2+ makes large hydration sphere, therefore interaction from solid surface might be much ...
Table of Contents:. Part I Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Overview. Chapter One Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Overview. 1.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Definition. 1.2 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Classification Analysis. 1.2.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Classification Analysis. 1.2.2 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Classification Share Analysis. 1.3 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Application Analysis. 1.3.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Application Analysis. 1.3.2 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Application Share Analysis. 1.4 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Chain Structure Analysis. 1.5 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Development Overview. 1.5.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Product History Development Overview. 1.5.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Product Market Development Overview. 1.6 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Global Market Comparison Analysis. 1.6.1 ...
Male Ross broiler chicks were grown in a thermoneutral environment from 0 to 14 d. From 14 to 41 d, half the birds remained in the thermoneutral room (22.5 ± 3.5oC) whereas the other half in another room were exposed daily to cyclic stress (22.5 ± 3.5oC for 14 h and 33 ± 2.0oC for 10 h). Chickens were individually caged from 22 to 41 d, with colostomy at 28 to 30 d, to evaluate effects of heat stress (d 41) and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB = Na + K - Cl mEq/kg) on serum electrolytes and on water, electrolyte and nitrogen retention (18 birds, 9/room with 3/treatment therein). The DEB levels were 140, 240, or 340 mEq/kg. The DEB levels fed from 0 to 41 d were obtained by addition of NaCl and NaHCO3, plus KHCO3 or NH4Cl as needed. Feces and urine were collected separately. Nitrogen balance was least (greatest nitrogen excretion) using 140 mEq/kg in the thermoneutral room. For DEB 240, retention of Na increased compared to DEB 140 in the thermoneutral room (5.24 vs 1.75 mEq/bird/d; P < 0.05) ...
Define electrolyte solution therapy. electrolyte solution therapy synonyms, electrolyte solution therapy pronunciation, electrolyte solution therapy translation, English dictionary definition of electrolyte solution therapy. n. 1. A chemical compound that ionizes when dissolved or molten to produce an electrically conductive medium. 2. Physiology Any of various ions, such as...
The ELS2 Electrolyte Level Sensor is a non-invasive level sensor with incorporated temperature monitoring designed for quick installation and easy set up. This system complies with the NERC PRC-005 requirements for electrolyte level inspection. With this sensor, you eliminate unnecessary remote site visits and will eliminate the required quarterly inspection of battery electrolyte level in your battery string. ...
A method for incorporating uncharged, nonpolar polymers, polystyrene and poly[2-(6′-cyano-6′-methyl-heptyloxy)-1,4-phenylene] (CN-PPP), in the stepwise adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers is reported. Polystyrene and CN-PPP adsorbed irreversibly from toluene solution onto polyelectrolyte surfaces. The thickness of the adsorbed nonpolar layer was sufficient to cause the wettability of the surface to change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic but only attenuated subsequent polyelectrolyte adsorption and did not terminate it.
Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.. Excessive administration of potassium-free solutions may result in significant hypokalemia.. In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium ions may result in sodium retention.. The intravenous administration of these solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema.. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of administered parenteral solutions. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of such solutions. ...
During times of severe heat stress, when chickens are panting and drinking a lot of water, they can be given minerals (electrolyte replacement) in their drinking water to help compensate for the loss. Electrolyte replacement is also very useful in cases of severe diarrhea and some other problems.. You find all the background at the website DIETARY ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in POULTRY (DEB). There are several recipes around which can easily be made at home.. This one is from Gail Damerow: The Chicken Encyclopedia, Storey Publishing, 2012. ...
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Anyone thats sick will lose a lot of drinking water. Its common for your body temp to rise due to a fever. By taking an electrolyte tablet, you can help keep yourself hydrated during your disease. This helps you recover from your illness, and keep dehydration at bay. Electrolyte tablets Weak Electrolyte Example , Electrolyte Water Additive , Is C2h5oh A Strong Electrolyte , Electrolyte Panel , Smoothie King Electrolyte Mix , Electrolyte Deficiency Symptoms , Water Electrolyte , What Is A Strong Electrolyte , Electrolyte Mnemonics , Baby Electrolyte Drink , are the best way for those to hydrate themselves. They have got numerous benefits over only drinking water or sports drinks. The particular science behind ORS capsules will guarantee theyre effective. To boost this, they may lead to the side results. Theyre medically safe, and simply perfect for anyone to use ...
Rehydrate and replenish your infants electrolytes with Enfalyte. Our oral electrolytes for infants replaces fluids and electrolytes without artificial colors or flavors.
Effects of charge density and counterions on the assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers. Surface-mediated photoalignment of discotic liquid crystals on azobenzene polymer films
Dynamics of Blood Plasma and Urine Electrolytes at the Stages of Observation in Various Types of Infusion Therapy in Patients with Toxic Shock Syndrome
Pedialyte Freezer Pops Oral Electrolyte Maintenance Solution - Pedialyte Freezer Pops are a cool way to provide your child the fluid and electrolytes needed to hel
Oral Electrolyte Maintenance Solution - Unflavored. No. 1 pediatrician recommended brand. Quickly replaces fluid and electrolytes lost during diarrhea...
Rehidrat Oral Electrolyte Mixture Blackcurrant 6 Sachets supports optimal hydration in the body and replaces lost electrolytes. This makes it perfect for treating dehydration. Contains no artificial sweeteners, colourants or preservatives. Flavours may vary.
Revitilyte Oral Electrolyte Supplement is a ready to mix oral supplement that provides a concentrated source of electrolytes and nutrients. For multiple animal use.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluidity and conductance in aqueous electrolyte solutions. An approach from the glassy state and high-concentration limit. I. Ca(NO3)2 solutions. AU - Angell, Charles. AU - Bressel, R. D.. PY - 1972. Y1 - 1972. N2 - This paper is concerned with a treatment of aqueous electrolyte solution transport properties which differs from conventional approaches by the absence of any initial assignment of separate solute and solvent roles to the constituent particles of the solution. In this approach the embarrassments met by conventional theory on passing to compositions at which there is no longer any recognizable bulk solvent may be avoided. To provide the experimental basis for the treatment, a study of electrical conductance and fluidity of Ca(NO3)2-water solutions in the composition range 0-26 mol % (0-20 m) and temperature range +80 to -60° has been performed. Results are analyzed utilizing concepts and expressions for relaxation processes in glass-forming liquids, of which aqueous ...
Looking for electrolyte homeostasis? Find out information about electrolyte homeostasis. electrical conductor in which current is carried by ions ion, atom or group of atoms having a net electric charge. Positive and Negative Electric Charges A... Explanation of electrolyte homeostasis
Electrolyte pills are the most effective way to maintain your hydration levels by changing both fluids and electrolytes. O. R. S Hydration Tablets contain a precise combo of salts, nutrients, and glucose to restore electrolyte balance. The blood sugar aids the absorption of sodium through the walls of the intestine, repairing the electrolyte balance in the blood circulating the body and allows the body to rehydrate by moving water to where is actually needed the most.water balance tablet formula Salts, nutrients and glucoseImproved electrolytesADVANTAGES OF ELECTROLYTE TABLETSElectrolytes tablet give a complete method of replenishing fluids and are much more convenient for athletes that are undergoing lots of physical stress. If your body is losing normal water at a rapid rate, then youll need to drink a lot of water to counter this. The problem is that water stimulates a high urine flow, so your is going to lose water from sweating, and Electrolyte Mix lose it from proceeding to the toilet ...
Pediatric Oral Electrolyte Market Insights: Global Industry Analysis, Market Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, Applications, Trends And Forecasts 2020-2026
Urine sodium, potassium and chloride excretion, plasma renin activity (PRA) and urine aldosterone excretion (UAE) were measured in seven very low birthweight (VLBW) infants during the first 6 weeks after birth. Hyponatraemia was most common, and major changes in urine electrolyte excretion occurred, during the first 2 weeks. These changes in urine electrolyte excretion appeared to relate to improvement in distal tubular function. PRA did not correlate with urine excretion of either aldosterone or electrolytes. However, UAE correlated significantly with fractional sodium-potassium exchange in the distal tubule in a non-linear fashion (P less than 0.001) which suggested a threshold of aldosterone responsiveness between 70 and 100 nmol/24 h per 1.73 m2 UAE. We conclude that in VLBW infants the distal tubule can respond to aldosterone during the first 2-3 weeks, but that the threshold for responsiveness appears to be higher than it is in fullterm infants. ...
PubMed journal article: The developing electrolytes concentrations of inner ear fluids in guinea pigs. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
What are electrolytes for? Electrolytes play a variety of roles in the human body, from regulating blood volume to assisting with nutrient absorption. Because of electrolytes role in helping muscles contract and release, low electrolyte levels are often thought to contribute to cramping.. Narrowing our focus to endurance, it is important to remind ourselves that endurance sports are essentially muscle contractions (the pull of a swim, the stroke of a pedal, the step of a run, etc.) repeated many, many, many times. Each contraction requires the use of electrolytes, and each contraction produces heat, which raises core body temperature. In effort to cool itself, the sweat glands release a mixture of water and electrolytes (mostly sodium) to rid itself of excess heat.. Lastly, during exercise, the body is burning calories as energy. The longer the duration of the activity, the greater the fluid, caloric and electrolyte loss, and therefore the greater the importance to follow some strategy to ...
Background: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness, and a recognised predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Given this, it is likely that investigating the determinants of PWV will improve our understanding of cardiovascular health. At present, there is disagreement regarding the relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intakes, and PWV. Hence, further research is needed in order to confirm whether dietary sodium and potassium are determinants of PWV. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between dietary sodium and potassium intake, and PWV in the general population. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from Health And Bread Intervention Trial (HABIT). Spot urine samples were used to estimate dietary sodium and potassium intake. Weighed three-day diet records were analysed for self-reported dietary sodium and potassium intake. Brachial blood pressure, and carotid-femoral PWV ...
Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator Box of 30 Singles - Lemon LimeFormulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix free from sugar and artificial sweeteners. Features And Benefits:Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix, free from sugar and artificial sweeteners, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is formulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts. With zero calories per serving, Electrolyte Hydrator tastes great, so you can sip it not just during your workout, but throughout the day to: Replenish electrolytes and minerals Enhance metabolism and alkalinity Provide antioxidant protection Provide antioxidant protection Available in Lemon Lime and Pom-Berry flavors.How To Use:Mix one single sachet of Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator in 1 cup (250 ml) of cold water and drink during exercise to sustain
Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator Box of 30 Singles - Lemon LimeFormulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix free from sugar and artificial sweeteners. Features And Benefits:Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix, free from sugar and artificial sweeteners, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is formulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts. With zero calories per serving, Electrolyte Hydrator tastes great, so you can sip it not just during your workout, but throughout the day to: Replenish electrolytes and minerals Enhance metabolism and alkalinity Provide antioxidant protection Provide antioxidant protection Available in Lemon Lime and Pom-Berry flavors.How To Use:Mix one single sachet of Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator in 1 cup (250 ml) of cold water and drink during exercise to sustain
Are you looking for an electrolyte panel? Order your electrolyte levels test online and complete your testing at a patient service center. Get yours today!
Shifts in volume, osmolality, and electrolyte concentrations can occur independently of each other and typically manifest in profoundly different ways. The severity of symptoms is usually contingent on how rapidly the shifts occur. Changes in volume are most readily apparent on the cardiovascular physical examination. Signs and symptoms attributable to changes in osmolality are primarily neurological, resulting from brain dehydration (in hyperosmolar states) or brain edema (in hypo-osmolar states). Electrolyte changes are more variable and exert their effect primarily on cell membrane potential with resultant cardiac, neurologic, and musculoskeletal dysfunction. See Table 44-1 for a list of serum electrolytes and normal values. ...
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The emphasis in research area 4 lies on liquid electrolytes based on either aqueous or non-aqueous salt solutions. Liquid electrolytes are typical examples of multi-component electrolyte systems requiring a holistic research approach, because they usually consist of an optimized solvent mixture with dissolved binary salts and possibly further electrolyte additives. Hence, this research area comprises of tailored design and development of high-yield synthesis of novel electrolyte components and close coupling of chemical design with theoretical calculations and simulations. Also the understanding of structure/property relationships and correlation to electrochemical data and the impact of chemical design on the relevant properties of electrolyte components are of high interest. Therefore, electrochemical analysis and physico-chemical investigation of new electrolyte candidates as well as comparative screening of electrochemical properties of novel electrolyte components are implemented ...
Zinc (Zn) batteries have attracted more and more attention due to large volumetric capacity, abundance of Zn, and environmental friendliness. When the aqueous electrolytes are considered, Zn batteries provide a promising solution to safety hazards and economic challenges facing prevailing Li-ion batteries. However, the currently available aqueous Zn electrolytes are far from ideal. Aqueous Zn batteries have been struggling with the rapid performance degradation arising from the poor reversibility of Zn anodes and the dissolution of cathodes. A research team led by Prof. CUI Guanglei, from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has proposed a new class of aqueous electrolytes, called hydrated eutectic electrolytes, to ensure better performance of aqueous Zn batteries. The study was published in Joule on July 1. The new aqueous electrolyte was fabricated by coupling a hydrated Zn salt (Zn(ClO4)2·6H2O) exclusively with a neutral ...
According to its official website, one of the reasons why you may feel drained is a depleted electrolyte level.. Electrolytes are needed to maintain proper fluid balance and to optimize your energy levels so you can function at your best, per the website.. These electrolytes conduct electrical impulses in the body and also help maintain your bodys acid base balance for more energy and vitality, per the same source.. A deficiency in one of these electrolytes - or even an imbalance - can cause a wide range of problems, including sluggishness, fatigue, decreased energy, and cramping, per the products website.. Does that sound familiar?. No matter how long youve been into fitness, youve experienced fatigue and cramping. Weve all been there.. One look at the ingredients list of Trace Minerals Electrolyte Stamina Pak, you can see for yourself it has a ton of electrolytes in the form of various minerals.. We get the impression this supplement will get the job done, folks.. First off, we need ...
The functionalization of polyelectrolyte multilayers often implies the use of bulky functional fragments, attached to a standard polyelectrolyte matrix. Despite of the high density of non-charged, often hydrophobic substituents, regular film growth by sequential adsorption proceeds easily when an appropriate polyelectrolyte counter ion is chosen. However, the functional fragments may cluster or aggregate. This complication is particularly evident when using chromophores and fluorophores as bulky pendant groups. Attention has to be paid to this phenomenon for the design of functional polyelectrolyte films, as aggregation may modify crucially the properties. The use of charged spacer groups does not necessarily suppress the aggregation of functional side groups. Still, clustering and aggregation depend on the detailed system employed, and are not obligatory. In the case of cationic poly(acrylamide)s labeled with naphthalene and pyrene fluorophores, for instance, the polymers form intramolecular ...
The bipolar LiAl/FeS{sub 2} battery is being developed to achieve the high performance and long cycle life needed for electric vehicle application. The molten-salt (400 to 440 C operation) electrolyte composition for this battery has evolved to support these objectives. An earlier change to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte is responsible for significantly increased cycle life (up to 1,000 cycles). Recent electrolyte modification has significantly improved cell performance; approximately 50% increased power, with increased high rate capacity utilization. Results are based on power-demanding EV driving profile test at 600 W/kg. The effects of adding small amounts (1--5 mol%) of LiF and LiI to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte are discussed. By cyclic voltammetry, the modified electrolytes exhibit improved FeS{sub 2} electrochemistry. Electrolyte conductivity is little changed, but high current density (200 mA/cm{sup 2}) performance improved by approximately 50%. A specific feature of the LiI addition is an enhanced cell
This thesis has the dual purpose of raising awareness of the importance of the mixing protocol on the end products of polyelectrolyte-oppositely charged surfactant systems, and to contribute to a better understanding of the properties of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes when adsorbed onto interfaces.. In the first part of this thesis work, the effects of the mixing protocol and the mixing procedure on formed polyelectrolyte-oppositely charged surfactant aggregates were investigated. It was shown that the initial properties of the aggregates were highly dependent on the mixing parameters, and that the difference between the resulting aggregates persisted for long periods of time.. The second part of the studies was devoted to the surface properties of a series of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes made of charged segments and segments bearing poly(ethylene oxide) side chains; particular attention was paid to the effect of side chain to charge density ratio of the polyelectrolytes. It was shown that the ...
Electrolytes are necessary for proper blood flow and oxygen utilization. Common signs of electrolyte depletion are sluggishness, headaches and leg cramps or growing pains for kids. We also need electrolytes when fighting a cold or most anytime we dont feel well. Ultima Replenisher is a natural electrolyte drink with no sugar. It contains all eight essential electrolytes: calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, selenium, zinc and phosphorus. Whereas most electrolyte drinks provide an excess of sodium, Ultima Replenisher is formulated with a balance of electrolytes to match a serving of fruit. Ultima is great for kids (even babies), people with GI conditions or diabetes, seniors, athletes, dieters…Everyone! Ultima Replenisher is made in the U.S.A. by Ultima Health Products, an independent company focused on making healthier products using real food extracts rather than engineered ingredients.. ...
Electrolytes are minerals that help fluids reach your cells and keep your body functioning normally. As you sweat, electrolytes are lost in the water that you sweat out of your body. The amount of electrolytes that you actually lose is relatively small, however. Theoretically, if you do sustained exercise (typically over several hours) and replace only the water and not the electrolytes, the sodium in your body can drop to dangerously low levels. This can lead to cramps, and in severe cases serious damage to your body.. You may need additional electrolytes if youre exercising for more than 1 to 1.5 hours, and if youre doing particularly vigorous exercise. If youre sweating a lot, or exercising in hot conditions (which leads to more sweat), youre more likely to need electrolytes. Walking is typically not intense enough to require electrolytes unless youre walking for long periods of time, in very hot weather or are getting really intense.. Note that sports drinks actually dont contain a ton ...
It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve ... Chloride is an essential electrolyte, playing a key role in maintaining cell homeostasis and transmitting action potentials in ... Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O.B. (April 2012). "Chloride: The queen of electrolytes?". European ... Chloride has a major physiological significance, which includes regulation of osmotic pressure, electrolyte balance and acid- ...
... electrolyte and electrolysis, but even the present-day terms for them. Faraday associated electric current in an electrolyte ... Polymer electrolytes showed lower conductivities than glasses, but they were cheaper, much more flexible and could be easier ... Since mid-1980s, a Li-based solid electrolyte is used to separate the electrochromic film (typically WO3) and ion-storing film ... Later models used as electrolyte a film of LiI, which was doped with alumina nanoparticles to increase its conductivity. LiI ...
Bradley's scientific research has focused on thermodynamics and the properties of electrolytes as well as other aqueous ... Bradley, Daniel J.; Pitzer, Kenneth S. (1979-06-01). "Thermodynamics of electrolytes. 12. Dielectric properties of water and ... Ananthaswamy, J.; Atkinson, Gordon (1984-01-01). "Thermodynamics of concentrated electrolyte mixtures. 4. Pitzer-Debye-Hueckel ... "Thermodynamics of electrolytes 12. Dielectric properties of water and Debye-Hueckel parameters to 350.degree.C and 1 kbar". ...
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and vascular ... Electrolytes & Blood Pressure. 13 (1): 7-16. doi:10.5049/EBP.2015.13.1.7. ISSN 1738-5997. PMC 4520886. PMID 26240595. Pilic, ...
Pitzer, K.S.; Kim, J.J. (1974). "Thermodynamics of electrolytes. IV. Activity and osmotic coefficients for mixed electrolytes ... Pitzer, K.S.; Mayorga, G. (1974). "Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. III. Activity and osmotic coefficients for 2-2 electrolytes ... 1 for various types of electrolyte. The treatment can be extended to mixed electrolytes and to include association equilibria. ... For some complex electrolytes, Ge et al. obtained the new set of Pitzer parameters using up-to-date measured or critically ...
"What Are Electrolytes?". MedicineNet. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010. "Adrenal Cortex". ... Restoring blood volume is vital to correcting hypotension, hypovolemia, and addressing electrolyte and metabolic imbalances. ... Differentiation between primary and secondary hypoadrenocorticism can be made by periodically measuring serum electrolytes, ... Treatment is directed towards (1) correcting hypotension, hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic acidosis; (2) ...
He graduated with a BSc in 1926, continuing his studies with a PhD, on 'Optical activity of electrolytes' graduating in 1930. ... Neil, Campbell (1930). "Optical activity of electrolytes". hdl:1842/24076. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) https://www. ...
Walker, James (1904). "Theory of Amphoteric Electrolytes". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 73 (488-496): 155-165. ... amphoteric electrolytes and ampholytic ions, and the catalytic decomposition kinetics of ethyl diazoacetate. As a teacher, he ...
It is an important part of the behavior of charge-carrying fluids, such as ionized gases (classical plasmas), electrolytes, and ... P. Debye and E. Hückel (1923). "The theory of electrolytes. I. Lowering of freezing point and related phenomena" (PDF). ...
"Electrolytes and Anion Gap". Lab Tests Online UK. 9 October 2019. "Mediastinoscopy". Harvard Health. Harvard.edu. October 2016 ... Genetic testing Blood sugar level Liver function testing Calcium testing Testing for electrolytes in the blood, such as Sodium ...
"Electrolyte". www.theelectric.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-29. "Edinburgh International Film Festival unveils 2017 line-up". Screen ...
The Problem of Strong Electrolytes'; 'Correlation of Compound Formation, Ionisation and Solubility in Solution, and in Fused ... of a scholarship he left for the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm to work with Arrhenius on electrolytes. In ...
In the example of a monobasic acid HA, assuming that the background electrolyte is the salt NaNO3, the interaction coefficients ... The summation extends over the other ions present in solution, which includes the ions produced by the background electrolyte. ... Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT theory) is a theory used to estimate single-ion activity coefficients in electrolyte ... It is common practise to determine equilibrium constants in solutions containing an electrolyte at high ionic strength such ...
Typical weak electrolytes are weak acids and weak bases. The concentration of ions in a solution of a weak electrolyte is less ... weak electrolytes, the degree of dissociation of the weak electrolyte becomes proportional to the inverse square root of the ... Thus the electrolyte is treated as if it were like a weak acid and a constant, K, can be derived for the equilibrium A+ + B− ⇌ ... The specific conductance of a solution containing one electrolyte depends on the concentration of the electrolyte. Therefore, ...
Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting; all electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones; and any exogenous ...
The pH of the system could be monitored and the electrolyte was drawn into the tube using a vacuum pump. Sedimentation field ... ISBN 978-0-521-11903-0. Marlow, Bruce J.; Rowell, Robert L. (1985). "Sedimentation potential in aqueous electrolytes". Langmuir ... is the number concentration of electrolyte solution. Ohshima's model was developed in 1984 and was originally used to analyze ... is the electrical conductivity of the bulk electrolyte solution. An improved design cell was developed to determine ...
Choi, Kyu Bok (June 2007). "Hypertensive Hypokalemic Disorders". Electrolytes & Blood Pressure : E & BP. 5 (1): 34-41. doi: ...
The Coagulative Power of Electrolytes'; 'The Ionization of Dilute Solutions at the Freezing Point' (a paper read before the ...
In order to achieve sufficient ion conduction, an SOFC with a YSZ electrolyte must be operated at high temperatures (800 °C- ... This ability to conduct O2− ions makes yttria-stabilized zirconia well suited for application as solid electrolyte in solid ... ISBN 0 471 95627 9. Butz, Benjamin (2011). Yttria-doped zirconia as solid electrolyte for fuel-cell applications : Fundamental ... are in use as solid electrolytes. YSZ has a number of applications: For its hardness and chemical inertness (e.g., tooth crowns ...
Edelman, I.S.; Leibman, J. (August 1959). "Anatomy of body water and electrolytes". The American Journal of Medicine. 27 (2): ...
Pitzer, Kenneth S. (February 1984). "Gilbert N. Lewis and the thermodynamics of strong electrolytes" (PDF). Journal of Chemical ... Lewis, Gilbert N.; Randall, Merle (1921). "The activity coefficient of strong electrolytes". Journal of the American Chemical ... Lewis was the first to propose an empirical equation describing the failure of strong electrolytes to obey the law of mass ... for what he called ionic strength were later confirmed to be in accord with the Debye-Hückel equation for strong electrolytes, ...
... solid electrolytes - energy storage and conversion; piezoelectrics - sonar; semiconducting oxides - environmental monitoring. ...
He and his colleagues pursuant to the development of stable electrolytes to recharge the lithium electrode demonstrated one of ... US patent 4,452,777 Rauh, R. D. (1979). "A Lithium/Dissolved Sulfur Battery with an Organic Electrolyte". Journal of the ... Another contribution of Abraham and his colleagues involved the development of highly conductive gel polymer electrolytes and ... Today such separator-embedded gel polymer electrolytes are used to build the commercially successful lithium-ion polymer ...
Salts, Acids, and Bases: Electrolytes: Stereochemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, 1929. OCLC 1306108 Audrieth, L ...
ISBN 978-81-7764-875-1. Danek, V. (2006). Physico-Chemical Analysis of Molten Electrolytes. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-52116-3. ...
Miner Electrolyte Metab. 22 (1-3): 196-9. PMID 8676818. Walker RP, Paloyan E, Gopalsami C (2004). "Symptoms in patients with ...
Xiaoge, Gregory Zhang (2001-09-30). Silicon/Electrolyte Interface. ISBN 9780306465413. Jaccodine, R J (1963). "Surface Energy ... Microelectromechanical systems Xiaoge, Gregory Zhang (2001-09-30). Silicon/Electrolyte Interface. ISBN 9780306465413. Xiaoge, ...
If symptoms occur, a determination of electrolytes may be helpful in determining the underlying cause.[citation needed] The ... an electrolyte imbalance; neurologic factors; autonomic reflexes; situational factors such as prolonged bed rest; and ...
The cells were of the light-water type; with a fine-wire nickel cathode; a platinum anode; and K2CO3 electrolyte. The ...
Debye, P.; Hückel, E. (1923), "The theory of electrolytes. I. Lowering of freezing point and related phenomena", Physikalische ... stability on the ionic strength of the electrolyte. DLVO theory is the combined effect of van der Waals and double layer force ... the stability of strongly charged lyophobic sols and of the adhesion of strongly charged particles in solutions of electrolytes ...
Liquid electrolytes are typical examples of multi-component electrolyte systems requiring a holistic research approach, because ... Research Area 4 - Liquid electrolytes. The emphasis in research area 4 lies on liquid electrolytes based on either aqueous or ... Hence, this research area comprises of tailored design and development of high-yield synthesis of novel electrolyte components ... Therefore, electrochemical analysis and physico-chemical investigation of new electrolyte candidates as well as comparative ...
Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Pedialyte Oral Electrolyte Solution Grape ... Pedialyte Oral Electrolyte Solution Grape at Walgreens. ...
electrolyte solution therapy synonyms, electrolyte solution therapy pronunciation, electrolyte solution therapy translation, ... English dictionary definition of electrolyte solution therapy. n. 1. A chemical compound that ionizes when dissolved or molten ... electrolyte. (redirected from electrolyte solution therapy). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. e·lec·tro·lyte. ( ... electrolyte - a solution that conducts electricity; "the proper amount and distribution of electrolytes in the body is ...
The developing electrolytes concentrations of inner ear fluids in guinea pigs. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... The developing electrolytes concentrations of inner ear fluids in guinea pigs.. Acta Otolaryngol. 1985 May-Jun; 99(5-6):525-8. ... "The Developing Electrolytes Concentrations of Inner Ear Fluids in Guinea Pigs." Acta Oto-laryngologica, vol. 99, no. 5-6, 1985 ... The Developing Electrolytes Concentrations of Inner Ear Fluids in Guinea Pigs. Acta Otolaryngol. 1985 May-Jun;99(5-6):525-8. ...
Liquid Electrolyte, and Gel Electrolyte), Lithium-ion (Liquid Electrolyte)], and Region(APAC, North America, Europe, South ... 145 Pages Report] Battery Electrolyte Market by Battery Type and State of Electrolyte [Lead-acid ( ... Battery Electrolyte Market, By Battery Type and Its State of Electrolyte. *Lead-acid Battery Electrolyte *Liquid Electrolyte * ... 6.2.1 Liquid Electrolyte. 6.2.2 Gel Electrolyte. 6.3 Lithium-Ion Battery 6.3.1 Liquid Electrolyte. 6.3.2 Solid Electrolyte ...
Keto Electrolyte Powder, 40,000 Volts, ConcenTrace®, Electrolyte Stamina Shot, Electrolyte Stamina Tablets, Endure, and Max- ... Elderberry + Ionic ZincVitamin C + ZincSugar Free PowerPakHydration I.V. Electrolyte Drink PaksKeto Electrolyte PowderSee All ... Electrolytes are needed to maintain proper fluid balance and to optimize your energy levels so you can function at your best.† ... These electrolytes conduct electrical impulses in the body and also help maintain your bodys acid base balance for more energy ...
Allergies Arthritis & Joint Care B Vitamins Calcium Calming Diarrhea Digestive & Urinary Ear & Eye Care Electrolytes & Fluids ... Home»All Dog and Cat Supplies»Pet-A-Lyte Oral Electrolyte Solution ...
... an anode attached to one side of the electrolyte membrane, and a cathode attached to the other side of the electrolyte membrane ... the electrolyte membrane-electrode assembly including a hydrogen-ion conductive polymer electrolyte membrane having its ... electrolyte membrane-electrode assembly inserted between the separator plates, ... A polymer electrolyte fuel cell comprising: a plurality of conductive separator plates, each comprising a corrugated metal ...
What is electrolyte? Meaning of electrolyte as a finance term. What does electrolyte mean in finance? ... Definition of electrolyte in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to electrolyte: Electrolyte imbalance, electrolyte solution. Battery. The use of excessive physical force against ... Any value below or above the following cut off values was considered abnormal indicating electrolyte imbalance.8. Electrolyte ...
... have developed a non-flammable fluorinated electrolyte that supports the most aggressive and high-voltage cathodes in a Li- ... On the cathode side, electrolyte oxidation leads to a cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI), which at high voltage does not ... Though the instantaneous reactions between electrolytes and Li create a passivation layer called the solid electrolyte ... In a paper in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, they report that a battery with their electrolyte shows high cycling stability ...
Strong electrolytes break apart into ions completely. The stronger an electrolyte the greater the voltage produced when used in ... Strong electrolyte(aq) → Cation+(aq) + Anion−(aq) Strong electrolytes conduct electricity only when molten or in aqueous ... Originally, a "strong electrolyte" was defined as a chemical that, when in aqueous solution, is a good conductor of electricity ... For strong electrolytes, a single reaction arrow shows that the reaction occurs completely in one direction, in contrast to the ...
Supporting electrolyte is also sometimes referred to as inert electrolyte or inactive electrolyte. Supporting electrolytes are ... A supporting electrolyte, in electrochemistry, according to an IUPAC definition, is an electrolyte containing chemical species ... the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006-) "supporting electrolyte". doi:10.1351/goldbook.S06149 Joseph Wang, " ... which has an ionic strength and conductivity much larger than those due to the electroactive species added to the electrolyte. ...
Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. ... Electrolytes can be acids, bases, or salts. They can be measured by different blood tests. Each electrolyte can be measured ... You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes. Water does not ... The electrolytes - urine test measures electrolytes in urine. It tests the levels of calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, and ...
This is the second video of a 3-part series on fluid and electrolytes. It is 1 10-minute video. There is a discussion on fluid ... Electrolytes II. This is the second video of a 3-part series on fluid and electrolytes. It is 1 10-minute video. There is a ... You just viewed Electrolytes II, please rate this material. Dont show this message again ... Discussion for Electrolytes II Log in to participate in the discussions or Sign up if you are not already a MERLOT member. ...
... urine test measures specific chemicals called electrolytes in urine. It most often measures the levels of calcium, chloride, ... The electrolytes - urine test measures specific chemicals called electrolytes in urine. It most often measures the levels of ...
Most abundant electrolyte in the ECF 135 to 145 mEq/L Has a major role in controlling water distribution throughout the body ... 38824365 electrolyte-imbalances * 1.  Most abundant electrolyte in the ECF 135 to 145 mEq/L Has a major role in controlling ... Is the major intracellular electrolyte Ranges from 3.5 to 5.1mEq/L 98% of the bodys potassium is inside the cells, the ... Monitor cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, cerebral, renal, and GI status Monitor electrolyte values Administer ...
Fluid and electrolyte balances and ... by tejasree sadhanala 61394 views * Fluid And Electrolytes by MD Specialclass 60621 ... Fluid and electrolyte management by Dhritiman Chakrab... 27598 views * Body Fluid And Electrolyte Balance by mvraveendrambbs ... Fluid & electrolyte balance * 1. PRESENTED BY - DR. SHEETAL KAPSE 2nd YEAR, P.G. STUDENT MODERATORS - DR. SUNIL DUTT C. DR. M. ... Proper fluid & electrolyte state is helpful in reducing morbidity & mortality in certain surgical procedures, hence it is ...
For health professionals : Refer a Patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : ELECTROLYTES, FECAL ...
Electrolytes might sound like some futuristic sci-fi robot, but theyre actually very real compounds that have a great impact ... NATURAL SOURCES OF ELECTROLYTES. While many sports drinks have been branded as a quick fix for replenishing electrolytes (and ... DEHYDRATION AND LOW ELECTROLYTES. Electrolyte imbalances can be common, with dehydration one of the biggest culprits. In fact, ... MORE ABOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL ROLE OF ELECTROLYTES. The simplest definition of electrolytes is: a type of mineral that carries an ...
The main role of electrolytes is to regulate fluid levels in the body and we need the right balance of electrolytes all the ... We get electrolytes from our daily diet and our body puts them to good use without us having to monitor the situation. They are ... What are electrolytes?. We all need electrolytes. But we already have them, most of the time. We get them from our daily diet ... Should you drink electrolytes after exercise?. So we understand that we need the right balance of electrolytes all the time, ...
Electrolyte Tests Definition Electrolytes are positively and negatively charged molecules, called ions, that are found within ... Electrolyte tests, sometimes called an electrolyte panel, measure the levels of electrolytes in the blood. Most electrolyte ... Fluids & Electrolytes, 2nd Ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2006.. Hawkins, W. Rex. Eat Right-Electrolyte: a Nutritional Guide ... In many cases electrolyte tests are run as part of a general health screening. In other cases, electrolyte tests may be done to ...
All posts tagged with electrolytes. * New stable fuel cell could be the breakthrough that makes energy storage economically ...
Sierra Fit, BCAA & Electrolytes, 7G BCAAs, Fruit Punch, 15.34 oz (435 g). ... Emergen-C, Electro Mix, Electrolyte Replacement Drink Mix, Natural Lemon-Lime, 30 Packets, 0.14 oz (4 g) Each. ... Ultima Replenisher, Electrolyte Supplement, Variety Pack, 20 Packets, 2.4 oz (68 g). ... California Gold Nutrition, HydrationUP, Electrolyte Drink Mix, Tropical Fruit, 20 Packets, 0.17 oz (4.8 g) Each. ...
Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes. Authors. * Felix Franks Series Title. Water. Copyright. 1973. Publisher. Springer US ... since a number of excellent texts cover the more general aspects of electrolyte solutions, based on the classical theories of ...
We also use these electrolytes to systematically investigate the effect of electrolyte network structure and mechanical ... or in liquid electrolytes in which halide ions are present at the electrode-electrolyte interface (11, 34⇓⇓-37). Essentially ... cross-linked polymer electrolytes (18, 22, 23), and in ion-conducting polymer electrolytes (24⇓-26), all with mechanical moduli ... Confining electrodeposition of metals in structured electrolytes. Snehashis Choudhury, Duylinh Vu, Alexander Warren, Mukul D. ...
40 CHEMISTRY; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; IONIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTROLYTES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS; POLYETHYLENE ... Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which ... Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which ... This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs. ...
This article takes a detailed look at electrolytes, their functions, the risk of imbalance and possible sources. ... Electrolytes are minerals that are involved in many essential processes in your body. ... Should You Supplement Your Diet With Electrolytes?. Some people drink electrolyte water or supplement with electrolytes like ... What Are Electrolytes?. "Electrolyte" is the umbrella term for particles that carry a positive or negative electric charge (. 5 ...
Other articles where Electrolyte balance is discussed: burn: …salts, not only disturbs their balance in the body but changes ... In nervous system disease: Fluid, mineral, and electrolyte disorders. High or low levels of electrolytes such as sodium, ... Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may be further consequences of homeostatic failure and additional significant manifestations ... constancy of these salts (electrolytes) inside and outside of cells is closely guarded. Even small changes in the serum ...
An electrolyte imbalance can occur if the body is dehydrated or contains too much water. Learn about the possible causes and ... When levels of electrolytes become too high or low, this is an electrolyte imbalance. It is not a disease, but it is a sign of ... What causes an electrolyte imbalance?. An electrolyte imbalance can happen if a person is dehydrated or if they have too much ... People get electrolytes from foods and drinks. The kidneys and liver help keep levels of electrolytes balanced. If a person is ...
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Does anyone have any suggestions for increasing electrolytes? preferably calorie- free. I know ... electrolytes Not sure if this is the proper place to post.. but. Does anyone have any suggestions for increasing electrolytes? ... Why are you trying to get more electrolytes? Electrolytes are mostly salt with minor added stuff so if you can find a way to ... Can you clarify electrolytes? I thought that meant sodium and potassium. When I google it, I get The electrolytes include ...
Our electrolyte system incorporates a unique blend of amino acids which is designed for rapid delivery and increased absorption ... Sportables LLC is a functional beverage company that markets iXL Electrolytes + Amino Acids and WORKOUT™ tea, a new performance ...
... drinks made by Clif and Powerbar and coconut water contain electrolytes. These drinks come in both ready-to-drink bottles as ... Water does not contain electrolytes but is important to drink, says an article at Runners World.com. Drinking electrolytes ... Electrolytes can be acids, bases or salts such as ionized calcium and the minerals listed above found in blood serum, the ... Electrolytes are naturally occurring minerals in bodily fluids that carry an electric charge and affect the amount of water in ...
Selective electrowinning from dilute electrolytes was investigated by the Bureau of Mines. A metal deposit containing 84 pct ... Pure, synthetic nickel electrolytes were used to establish deposition parameters, and to optimize electrolyte velocity or mass ... Key to achieving accelerated deposition rates, in the case of dilute solutions, is the rapid movement of the electrolyte ... Selective electrowinning from dilute electrolytes was investigated by the Bureau of Mines. A metal deposit containing 84 pct ...
Chemistry of Electrolyte Disorders. Br Med J 1962; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5301.384-a (Published 11 August 1962) ...
Electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium can be lost through sweat and need to be replaced ... The body needs electrolytes to regulate nerve and muscle function, maintain acid-base balance and maintain fluid balance. ... Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge. ... Merck: Mineral and electrolytes * National Academy of Sciences ... Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge. The body needs electrolytes to regulate nerve and muscle function, ...
Electrolyte imbalances, from dehydration or excessive sweating, can have serious health consequences. ... Electrolytes are salt minerals that conduct electricity and balance essential body fluids. ... Electrolytes are salt minerals that conduct electricity and balance essential body fluids. Electrolyte imbalances, from ... Potassium is a vital mineral and electrolyte needed for a variety of bodily functions. It is a positively charged electrolyte ...
  • A deficiency of any one of these electrolytes-or even an imbalance-can cause a wide range of problems, including sluggishness, fatigue, decreased energy and cramping. (traceminerals.com)
  • IF you are in good health overall and you eat a balanced diet, you should have no problems with electrolyte imbalance under normal circumstances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Heavy workloads and high temperatures can quickly lead to an electrolyte imbalance. (dynamitespecialty.com)
  • Pedialyte Oral Electrolyte Maintenance Solution helps to prevent dehydration.Pedialyte is designed to promote fluid absorption more effectively than common household beverages.It's quickly replenishes fluid and electrolytes lost during diarrhea.It is help prevent dehydration in infants and children. (gardengrocer.com)
  • https://www.medshopexpress.com/pedialyte-oral-electrolyte-maintenance-solution-freezer-pops-16-pack-assorted-flavors-2-1-oz Dehydration can make your sick child feel even worse. (medshopexpress.com)
  • The electrolytes and water lost through sweating must be replaced following exercise to prevent electrolyte depletion and dehydration. (feedxl.com)
  • Electrolyte deficiencies are associated with fatigue, muscle weakness, lethargy and reduced feed and water intakes, resulting in weight loss and dehydration. (feedxl.com)
  • Quickly replaces fluid and electrolytes lost during diarrhea and vomiting to help prevent dehydration. (gardengrocer.com)
  • Pedialyte Freezer Pops are a cool way to provide your child the fluid and electrolytes needed to help prevent dehydration. (well.ca)
  • We do not only lose fluids-which can be replaced with beverages-but the levels of several electrolytes that are essential to fluid balance and neuromuscular functioning also decrease, especially sodium," says Beatriz Lara, the main author of the study and a researcher at UCJC. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Very simply, electrolytes are minerals, which, when present in a watery solution like body fluids, become positively or negatively charged particles that have the ability to conduct electricity. (feedxl.com)
  • Severe electrolyte deficiencies are a veterinary emergency requiring IV fluids, electrolytes and specialist care so please call your vet immediately if you suspect your horse is acutely dehydrated and electrolyte deficient. (feedxl.com)
  • Rapidly replaces fluids and electrolytes to help restore hydration without artificial ingredients. (enfamil.com)
  • Electrolytes can be found in your blood, urine, and other bodily fluids, as well as in your body's soft tissues. (aminoco.com)
  • Liquid electrolytes are typical examples of multi-component electrolyte systems requiring a holistic research approach, because they usually consist of an optimized solvent mixture with dissolved binary salts and possibly further electrolyte additives. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Our electrolyte powder is the perfect combo of cramp reducing salts, energy and muscle repair ingredients. (turbosuperfoods.com)
  • These salts are unprocessed to avoid the chemical bleaching process used on the salt found in most electrolyte formulas. (turbosuperfoods.com)
  • Most soluble salts , acids , and bases are electrolytes. (kiddle.co)
  • All inorganic acids, bases, and salts are electrolytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also the understanding of structure/property relationships and correlation to electrochemical data and the impact of chemical design on the relevant properties of electrolyte components are of high interest. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Therefore, electrochemical analysis and physico-chemical investigation of new electrolyte candidates as well as comparative screening of electrochemical properties of novel electrolyte components are implemented. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Electrolytes are a medium for carrying out many chemical syntheses and electrochemical production processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 145 Pages Report] The Battery Electrolyte Market was valued at USD 3.70 Billion in 2017 and is projected to reach USD 6.18 Billion by 2023, at a CAGR of 8.1% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Electrolyte Mixes , with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Electrolyte Mixes in 2017 and 2018. (aerospaceindustry24.com)
  • 2, 528 (1934)] limiting law at low electrolyte concentrations. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The data show that the marathon runners who had very high concentrations of electrolytes in their sweat (the 'salty' sweaters) had lower electrolyte levels in their blood despite having properly rehydrated and having eaten the same amount of food with salt as the rest of the runners. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists are still exploring exactly how dietary chloride intake affects blood levels and cellular concentrations, but it's clear that this electrolyte plays an important role in supporting the health of your heart. (aminoco.com)
  • anode)/polymer electrolyte/(I + C + electrolyte )/(cathode) for a constant load of 100 k[OMEGA] at room temperature by Keithley electrometer 5641. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, it has proven exceptionally challenging to construct electrolytes that facilitate reversible charging and discharging, with the repeatable deposition and dissolution of Mg or Ca on to the anode often inhibited by a passivating interfacial layer that forms across the electrode. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For the preparation of 1M salt electrolyte solution, 10.63 g of lithium perchlorate was mixed in 100ml acetonitrile. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the news, researchers report the discovery of a solid state electrolyte (SSE) that shows transport characteristics similar to the liquid electrolyte used in lithium batteries. (eitdigital.eu)
  • The study, now published in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports , demonstrates the importance of maintaining the correct serum electrolyte levels during the race in order to prevent decreased performance as well as the associated health complications. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The research methodology used to estimate and forecast the size of the battery electrolyte market begins with capturing data from the revenues of key vendors. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The offerings of vendors have been taken into consideration to determine the segmentation of the battery electrolyte market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • After arriving at the overall market size, it has been split into several segments and subsegments, which have been later verified through primary research by conducting extensive interviews with key personnel such as chief executive officers, vice presidents, directors, and executives of leading companies operating in the battery electrolyte market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The battery electrolyte market has a diversified ecosystem of upstream players, which includes raw material suppliers, along with downstream stakeholders, vendors of battery electrolyte, end users, and government organizations. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This research report categorizes the battery electrolyte market based on battery type and its state of electrolyte and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The electrolyte composition in the endolymph was already characterized by a high concentration of K and a low concentration of Na by the 49th day of gestation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • For this reason, experts from the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Camilo José Cela University (UCJC) analysed the electrolytes present in the sweat of a group of marathon runners in addition to the concentration of electrolytes in their blood upon completing the race. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This becomes a problem when that excessive loss of electrolytes through sweat is not properly recovered with food or beverages, a scenario that could lead to hyponatraemia (a sodium concentration in the blood of less than 135 mmol/L which, in severe cases, can cause decreased consciousness, hallucinations or coma, brain herniation and even death). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Electrolyte concentration in sweat is an essential factor for predicting sodium requirements during sports activities-especially endurance activities such as marathons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A correct concentration of electrolytes is important to physiology . (kiddle.co)
  • The division of electrolytes into strong and weak electrolytes is somewhat arbitrary, since it reflects not the properties of the electrolytes themselves but their state in solution, which depends on the concentration, on the nature of the solvent, on temperature, and on pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Common table salt contains 39% sodium and 61% chloride and is frequently used as a readily available, palatable and cheap source of these electrolytes in a horse's diet. (feedxl.com)
  • So far only liquid electrolyte has demonstrated the desired efficacy in the transport of charged particles. (eitdigital.eu)
  • PURE Electrolyte Replacement Capsules are formulated to help maintain your body's electrolyte levels and to help replace minerals lost during sustained strenuous exercise. (mont.com.au)
  • Electrolytes are minerals that conduct electricity in the body. (dynamitespecialty.com)
  • Thus, the balance of electrolytes, amino acids, and minerals support that contributes to the proper functioning of the systems is upset. (dynamitespecialty.com)
  • Electrolytes are minerals that take on an electric charge-either positive or negative-when you ingest them. (aminoco.com)
  • A variational theory is developed and applied to study the properties of dielectric spheres immersed in a symmetric electrolyte solution. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Pedialyte Electrolyte Powder Sticks Oral Rehydration Solution Fruit. (well.ca)
  • Pedialyte AdvancedCare Plus Electrolyte Rehydration Solution Berry. (well.ca)
  • Enfalyte is an oral electrolyte solution designed to quickly replace electrolytes and water that may be lost during vomiting and diarrhea to help restore hydration. (enfamil.com)
  • An electrolyte is decomposed when a current passes through it (see electrolysis electrolysis , passage of an electric current through a conducting solution or molten salt that is decomposed in the process. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A distinction is made between strong and weak electrolytes in solution. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The molecules of weak electrolytes in solution are only partially dissociated into ions, which are in dynamic equilibrium with the undissociated molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This lecture will cover the utility of measuring urine electrolytes including a physiology based discussion of what diseases they can be helpful in diagnosis and how they can be used in critical care. (wcea.education)
  • These electrolytes conduct electrical impulses in the body and also help maintain your body's acid base balance for more energy and vitality. (traceminerals.com)
  • So play harder, endure longer and feel replenished with Electrolyte Stamina Power Pak-the right way to revitalize and recharge your body's natural energy source. (traceminerals.com)
  • Electrolytes maintain fluid balance and circulatory function, facilitate muscle contractions, trigger nerve functions and maintain the body's acid-base balance. (feedxl.com)
  • It helps to balance levels of other electrolytes as well as your body's pH levels. (aminoco.com)
  • Enfalyte has a higher level of electrolyte sodium and helps quickly restore hydration during illness. (enfamil.com)
  • Rehidrat Oral Electrolyte Mixture Blackcurrant 6 Sachets supports optimal hydration in the body and replaces lost electrolytes. (firstaidshop.co.za)
  • Electrolytes are needed by cells to regulate the flow of water molecules across cell membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Use this product rather than juices, soda, sports drinks or water, at the first sign of diarrhea and vomiting to help replace lost fluid and electrolytes. (medshopexpress.com)
  • Drinking plenty of water and replacing electrolytes can be a preventative measure that makes a big difference. (dynamitespecialty.com)
  • Turbo Superfoods Electrolyte powder is great to mix in water and drink before, during or after hitting that workout or race. (turbosuperfoods.com)
  • Electrolytes ionize when dissolved in suitable solvents such as water. (kiddle.co)
  • The water in your body contains vital compounds, including different types of cells, proteins, and electrolytes. (aminoco.com)
  • It turns out that most walkers would be fine with plain water, but there are times where you can benefit from electrolytes - particularly on long walks. (mypacer.com)
  • Water is also the best zero-calorie sports drink, and you can make your own electrolyte water by adding some simple ingredients. (mypacer.com)
  • Electrolytes are needed to maintain proper fluid balance and to optimize your energy levels so you can function at your best. (traceminerals.com)
  • Enfalyte is formulated with an optimal balance of carbohydrates to promote fluid and electrolyte absorption. (enfamil.com)
  • The body constantly moves electrolytes through the tissues in order to promote balance in the systems and metabolic functions. (dynamitespecialty.com)
  • In addition to staying hydrated, it's important to ensure you maintain an ideal electrolyte balance. (aminoco.com)
  • The emphasis in research area 4 lies on liquid electrolytes based on either aqueous or non-aqueous salt solutions. (fz-juelich.de)
  • This project will utilise in-situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualise the deposition and dissolution dynamics of these new multivalent electrolytes in order to illuminate the mechanisms that allow them to operate reversibly. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An interesting news comes from MIT where a team of researchers in cooperation with others at Samsung, UCSD and University of Maryland have created a solid state electrolyte that can replace the usual liquid electrolyte in batteries. (eitdigital.eu)
  • Liquid electrolyte is not ideal however, since it can become instabile (if heated or if the battery case is punctured) and because it degrades after several charge-recharge cycles. (eitdigital.eu)
  • All liquid systems in living organisms contain electrolytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • His feeling is that in nursing homes and retirement homes, the salt is restricted (and that is poor qualitysalt anyway) and electrolytes are severely compromised. (dynamitespecialty.com)
  • Electrolyte Mixes history breakdown data from 2014 to 2018, and forecast to 2025. (aerospaceindustry24.com)
  • Chapter 4, the Electrolyte Mixes breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2018. (aerospaceindustry24.com)
  • Weak electrolytes include most organic acids and many organic bases in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. (thefreedictionary.com)