Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Liquid components of living organisms.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The consumption of liquids.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A condition of metabolic imbalance that is caused by complications of initially feeding a severely malnourished patient too aggressively. Usually occurring within the first 5 days of refeeding, this syndrome is characterized by WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; and DIARRHEA.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste.
A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A sulfamyl diuretic.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.

Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (1/1587)

We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion.  (+info)

Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline. (2/1587)

It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa.  (+info)

O-raffinose cross-linking markedly reduces systemic and renal vasoconstrictor effects of unmodified human hemoglobin. (3/1587)

The hemodynamic effects of a 20% exchange-transfusion with different solutions of highly purified human hemoglobin A-zero (A0) were evaluated. We compared unmodified hemoglobin with hemoglobin cross-linked with O-raffinose. Unmodified hemoglobin increased systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure more than the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solution (by approximately 45% and approximately 14%, respectively). Unmodified hemoglobin markedly reduced cardiac output (CO) by approximately 21%, whereas CO was unaffected by the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solution. Unmodified and O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions increased mean arterial pressure to comparable extents ( approximately 14% and approximately 9%, respectively). Unmodified hemoglobin increased renal vascular resistance 2-fold and reduced the glomerular filtration rate by 58%. In marked contrast, the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin had no deleterious effect on the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, or renal vascular resistance. The extents to which unmodified and O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions inactivated nitric oxide also were compared using three separate in vitro assays: platelet nitric oxide release, nitric oxide-stimulated platelet cGMP production, and endothelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation. Unmodified hemoglobin inactivated or oxidized nitric oxide to a greater extent than the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions in all three assays. In summary, O-raffinose cross-linking substantially reduced the systemic vasoconstriction and the decrease in CO induced by unmodified hemoglobin and eliminated the deleterious effects of unmodified hemoglobin on renal hemodynamics and function. We hypothesize that O-raffinose cross-linking reduces the degree of oxidation of nitric oxide and that this contributes to the reduced vasoactivity of this modified hemoglobin.  (+info)

Mechanism for the posture-specific plasma volume increase after a single intense exercise protocol. (4/1587)

To test the hypothesis that exercise-induced hypervolemia is a posture-dependent process, we measured plasma volume, plasma albumin content, and renal function in seven healthy subjects for 22 h after single upright (Up) or supine (Sup) intense (85% peak oxygen consumption rate) exercise. This posture was maintained for 5 h after exercise. Plasma volume decreased during exercise but returned to control levels by 5 h of recovery in both postures. By 22 h of recovery, plasma volume increased 2.4 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Up but decreased 2.1 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Sup. The plasma volume expansion in Up was accompanied by an increase in plasma albumin content (0.11 +/- 0.04 g/kg; P < 0.05). Plasma albumin content was unchanged in Sup. Urine volume and sodium clearance were lower in Up than Sup (P < 0.05) by 5 h of recovery. These data suggest that increased plasma albumin content contributes to the acute phase of exercise-induced hypervolemia. More importantly, the mechanism by which exercise influences the distribution of albumin between extra- and intravascular stores after exercise is altered by posture and is unknown. We speculate that factors associated with postural changes (e.g., central venous pressure) modify the increase in plasma albumin content and the plasma volume expansion after exercise.  (+info)

Prolonged colonic epithelial hyporesponsiveness after colitis: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase. (5/1587)

Colonic epithelial secretion is an important host defense mechanism. We examined whether a bout of colitis would produce long-lasting changes in epithelial function that persisted after resolution of mucosal inflammation. Colitis was induced in rats with intracolonic trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Six weeks later, colonic damage and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and activity were measured. Segments of distal colon were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of permeability and responsiveness to secretory stimuli. Basal electrolyte transport parameters and permeability were not different from untreated controls. Despite normal macroscopic and histological appearance, secretory responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and carbachol were significantly depressed (by 60-70%) relative to controls. iNOS mRNA expression and enzyme activity were significantly elevated. Dexamethasone reversed epithelial hyporesponsiveness and significantly reduced iNOS mRNA expression. A selective iNOS inhibitor normalized the secretory responses to EFS and IBMX but not to carbachol. These data suggest that ongoing synthesis of nitric oxide by iNOS contributes to chronic suppression of epithelial secretory function after episodes of colitis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans. (6/1587)

Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The two highest doses elicited larger decreases in stroke volume (17 and 21%) but also decreased blood pressure (6 and 14%) and increased heart rate (15 and 38%), such that cardiac output remained unchanged. Hematocrit and plasma protein concentration increased with the three highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including urodilatin) and plasma cGMP increased dose dependently. The urinary excretion rate of albumin was elevated up to 15-fold (37 +/- 17 micrograms/min). Use of a newly developed assay revealed that baseline urinary urodilatin excretion rate was low (<10 pg/min) and that fractional excretion of urodilatin remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate, and that filtered urodilatin is almost completely removed by the renal tubules.  (+info)

Renal and hemodynamic effects of losartan in conscious dogs during controlled mechanical ventilation. (7/1587)

In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received losartan (100 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not. They breathed spontaneously during the 1st and 4th hour and received CMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (mean airway pressure 20 cmH2O) during the 2nd and 3rd hours. In the expansion group, dogs with losartan excreted approximately 18% more sodium (69 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 5 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and 15% more urine during the 2 h of CMV because of a higher glomerular filtration rate (5.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 ml. min-1. kg-1) and the tubular effects of losartan. In the group without expansion, sodium excretion (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and glomerular filtration rate (3.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml. min-1. kg-1) did not change, and urine volume decreased similarly in both groups during CMV. Plasma vasopressin and aldosterone increased in both groups, and plasma renin activity increased from 4.9 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 1.3 ng ANG I. ml-1. h-1 during CMV in nonexpanded dogs without losartan. Mean arterial pressure decreased by 10 mmHg in nonexpanded dogs with losartan. In conclusion, losartan increases sodium excretion and urine volume during CMV if the ECV is expanded. If the ECV is not expanded, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and/or an increase in aldosterone and vasopressin during CMV attenuates the renal effects of losartan.  (+info)

Faecal composition after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. (8/1587)

Diarrhoea and perianal excoriation occur frequently after the endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A new method of faecal analysis was performed on 3-day stool collections in 17 postoperative Hirschsprung patients and in 14 normal children, in order to define the faecal abnormality and to establish the cause of perianal excoriation in these patients. Loose stools in postoperative patients were deficient in dry solid content and contained an excess of extractable faecal water. This also had a raised electrolyte concentration, particularly with respect to sodium. Total daily output of faecal water was normal. Formed stools from postoperative patients were also deficient in drysolids but had a normal extractable water content. Excess extractable faecal water, the main abnormality of loose stools in these patients, is the result of abnormal water absorption from the distal colon. Perianal excoriation in these patients is most closely associated with the concentration of sodium in faecal water.  (+info)

Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) Mitsuru Nagasawa. Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) new book online free download Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) free book download rar Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) books english pdf free download Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) free pdf 2011 handbook Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) books students Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) notebook free epub download Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) new english book level torrent Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in Chemical Physics) series ebooks free download pdf Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions (Advances in ...
The literature reports dealing with the dietary electrolyte ratio (K+Cl)/ Na are rare, although the concept has been proposed by Mongin in 1981. Thus, its application appears to be limited as a nutritional strategy in feed formulation, which usually meets only the minimum nutritional recommendations in Na, K and Cl. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of broilers submitted to different dietary electrolyte balances (DEB) Na+K-Cl and dietary electrolyte ratio (DER) from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 1575 male 1-d old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 9 replicates of 35 chicks each. The treatments consisted of diets with 5 relation of electrolytes, arising from combinations DEB/DER 150/3, 250/2, 250/3, 250/4 and 350/3, with use of NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl, K2SO4 and CaCl2. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) requirements. Chicks had ad libitum access to feed and water in floor pens with wood shavings as ...
Perstorp - July 5, 2017 - Did you know that increasing dEB for broilers by 100 milliequivalents (mEq) gives a performance improvement of almost 4% in slaughter weight? This and loads of other information can be found at Perstorps new dietary electrolyte balance calculator on www.feedacidifiers.com which shows the usefulness for nutritionists of calculating the dEB of their diets.
The two main findings of this study were first, that there is no relation between any clinically significant changes in serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, total calcium, and total magnesium and the development of EAMC in ultra-distance runners before or immediately after a race, or during the period of clinical recovery from EAMC; and second, that there is also no relation between the changes in hydration status (measured by changes in body weight, plasma volume, blood volume, or red cell volume) and the development of EAMC in ultra-distance runners during or immediately after a race. The results of our study also show that there is no relation between the development of EAMC in ultra-distance runners and changes in serum osmolality, blood glucose concentration, and the concentration of plasma proteins before and after a race.. The association between skeletal muscle cramping and disturbances of serum electrolyte concentrations has been well documented in a variety of medical conditions. ...
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Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is a synthetic polymer commonly used as precursor base layer in polyelectrolyte multilayer films. However, the biological properties of this cationic macromolecule are poorly understood. The aim of this experimental investigation was to evaluate in vitro the biocompatibility of PEI towards two different human cell lines. The experimental investigation was undertaken on pure titanium (Ti) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy samples with an average surface roughness of Ra=0.3microm. A biological study was undertaken at day 0 (2h after seeding), day 2, day 4 and day 7 to observe the cellular response of fibroblasts and osteoblasts cell lines in terms of morphology, adhesion (as observed by scanning electron microscopy), and viability (Mosmanns test). The results showed that PEI can be successfully deposited onto Ti or NiTi alloy, but generates a detrimental cellular response on both substrates as illustrated by a decrease of both fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion and proliferation
Find reviews from parents like you on Pedialyte Oral Electrolyte Solutions, and make sure youre getting the best gear for your baby. Pedialyte Oral Electrolyte Maintenance Solution With Grape use to quickly replace fluids and electrolytes lost during diarrhea and vomiting to help prevent dehydration in infants and children, for maintenance of water and electrolytes following corre...
The Aquaculturists blog is part of our International Aquafeed magazine. While the monthly magazine covers aquafeed issues in-depth, the Aquaculturists takes a lighter approach. Our columnists have a keen eye for the most interesting, relevant and lets face it, bizarre aquaculture stories from across the world.. Each weekday we search for top-notch news and package it for your perusal in one neat daily digest. We have welcomed over 34,000 unique visitors this past month! Not to mention that weve passed the big 1 million on total views! Coming up to 1.3 million views is very exciting for us and we hope that you are enjoying the content.. Please feel free to leave comments on the posts or share away on your social media!. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - In-situ analysis of polyelectrolyte complexes by flow cytometry. AU - Strand, Anders. AU - Vähäsalo, L. AU - Ketola, A. AU - Salminen, K. AU - Retulainen, E. AU - Sundberg, Anna. N1 - 3pk. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. KW - Polyelectrolyte complex. KW - CMC. KW - Structural density. KW - Light scattering. KW - cationic starch. KW - Polyelectrolyte complex. KW - CMC. KW - Structural density. KW - Light scattering. KW - cationic starch. KW - Polyelectrolyte complex. KW - CMC. KW - Structural density. KW - Light scattering. KW - cationic starch. U2 - 10.1007/s10570-018-1832-1. DO - 10.1007/s10570-018-1832-1. M3 - Artikel. VL - 25. SP - 3781. EP - 3795. JO - Cellulose. JF - Cellulose. SN - 0969-0239. IS - 7. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
Introduction and aims. Serum electrolyte derangements are common in patients with decompensated cirrhosis hospitalized for hepatic encephalopathy. There are limited data describing the association between electrolyte levels and outcomes in hepatic encephalopathy. We assessed the association between
Rebound Oral Electrolyte Solution is a highly palatable electrolyte solution for dogs and cats. Ready-to-use formulation for the treatment and prevention of dehydration due gastrointestinal upset, surgical procedures and physical activity.
Solid lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Global Electrolyte Solution Market 2020: Applications Segment Analysis. Application 1, Application 2. Then, the Electrolyte Solution market study report concentrates on global higher leading business players with knowledge such as company profiles, product picture and specifications, sales, market share, and association information. Whats more, the Electrolyte Solution industry development trends and marketing channels are examined.. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into rare key Countries, with production, expenditure, revenue, market share, and growth rate of Electrolyte Solution in these countries, from 2020 to 2025 (forecast), similar North America, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, and China.. In a word, the Electrolyte Solution market report gives important statistics on the state of the Electrolyte Solution industry and is a helpful source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Electrolyte ...
Numerous electrochemical devices are expected to operate in higher output using large amount of active materials and concentrated electrolyte solution in limited volume of each device. Therefore, little amount of concentrated electrolyte solution is penetrated in active materials for electrode. Although a lot of researchers have been investigating for electrolyte solution, the properties of electrolyte solution coexisting with solid materials are not studied very much. It is well-known that the solid surface affects the properties of water nearby the solid/liquid interface1. We have been studying the properties of the coexisting system consisting of an aqueous electrolyte solution and an inorganic powder, and confirmed that various kinds of solutions change its properties depending on a distance from solid surface2. In the present study, we focused on zinc aqueous solution because strong interaction of Zn2+ makes large hydration sphere, therefore interaction from solid surface might be much ...
Table of Contents:. Part I Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Overview. Chapter One Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Overview. 1.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Definition. 1.2 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Classification Analysis. 1.2.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Classification Analysis. 1.2.2 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Classification Share Analysis. 1.3 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Application Analysis. 1.3.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Application Analysis. 1.3.2 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Main Application Share Analysis. 1.4 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Chain Structure Analysis. 1.5 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Industry Development Overview. 1.5.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Product History Development Overview. 1.5.1 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Product Market Development Overview. 1.6 Blood Gas And Electrolyte Analyzers Global Market Comparison Analysis. 1.6.1 ...
Male Ross broiler chicks were grown in a thermoneutral environment from 0 to 14 d. From 14 to 41 d, half the birds remained in the thermoneutral room (22.5 ± 3.5oC) whereas the other half in another room were exposed daily to cyclic stress (22.5 ± 3.5oC for 14 h and 33 ± 2.0oC for 10 h). Chickens were individually caged from 22 to 41 d, with colostomy at 28 to 30 d, to evaluate effects of heat stress (d 41) and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB = Na + K - Cl mEq/kg) on serum electrolytes and on water, electrolyte and nitrogen retention (18 birds, 9/room with 3/treatment therein). The DEB levels were 140, 240, or 340 mEq/kg. The DEB levels fed from 0 to 41 d were obtained by addition of NaCl and NaHCO3, plus KHCO3 or NH4Cl as needed. Feces and urine were collected separately. Nitrogen balance was least (greatest nitrogen excretion) using 140 mEq/kg in the thermoneutral room. For DEB 240, retention of Na increased compared to DEB 140 in the thermoneutral room (5.24 vs 1.75 mEq/bird/d; P < 0.05) ...
Define electrolyte solution therapy. electrolyte solution therapy synonyms, electrolyte solution therapy pronunciation, electrolyte solution therapy translation, English dictionary definition of electrolyte solution therapy. n. 1. A chemical compound that ionizes when dissolved or molten to produce an electrically conductive medium. 2. Physiology Any of various ions, such as...
The ELS2 Electrolyte Level Sensor is a non-invasive level sensor with incorporated temperature monitoring designed for quick installation and easy set up. This system complies with the NERC PRC-005 requirements for electrolyte level inspection. With this sensor, you eliminate unnecessary remote site visits and will eliminate the required quarterly inspection of battery electrolyte level in your battery string. ...
A method for incorporating uncharged, nonpolar polymers, polystyrene and poly[2-(6′-cyano-6′-methyl-heptyloxy)-1,4-phenylene] (CN-PPP), in the stepwise adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers is reported. Polystyrene and CN-PPP adsorbed irreversibly from toluene solution onto polyelectrolyte surfaces. The thickness of the adsorbed nonpolar layer was sufficient to cause the wettability of the surface to change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic but only attenuated subsequent polyelectrolyte adsorption and did not terminate it.
Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.. Excessive administration of potassium-free solutions may result in significant hypokalemia.. In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium ions may result in sodium retention.. The intravenous administration of these solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema.. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of administered parenteral solutions. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of such solutions. ...
During times of severe heat stress, when chickens are panting and drinking a lot of water, they can be given minerals (electrolyte replacement) in their drinking water to help compensate for the loss. Electrolyte replacement is also very useful in cases of severe diarrhea and some other problems.. You find all the background at the website DIETARY ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in POULTRY (DEB). There are several recipes around which can easily be made at home.. This one is from Gail Damerow: The Chicken Encyclopedia, Storey Publishing, 2012. ...
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Anyone thats sick will lose a lot of drinking water. Its common for your body temp to rise due to a fever. By taking an electrolyte tablet, you can help keep yourself hydrated during your disease. This helps you recover from your illness, and keep dehydration at bay. Electrolyte tablets Weak Electrolyte Example , Electrolyte Water Additive , Is C2h5oh A Strong Electrolyte , Electrolyte Panel , Smoothie King Electrolyte Mix , Electrolyte Deficiency Symptoms , Water Electrolyte , What Is A Strong Electrolyte , Electrolyte Mnemonics , Baby Electrolyte Drink , are the best way for those to hydrate themselves. They have got numerous benefits over only drinking water or sports drinks. The particular science behind ORS capsules will guarantee theyre effective. To boost this, they may lead to the side results. Theyre medically safe, and simply perfect for anyone to use ...
Rehydrate and replenish your infants electrolytes with Enfalyte. Our oral electrolytes for infants replaces fluids and electrolytes without artificial colors or flavors.
Effects of charge density and counterions on the assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers. Surface-mediated photoalignment of discotic liquid crystals on azobenzene polymer films
Dynamics of Blood Plasma and Urine Electrolytes at the Stages of Observation in Various Types of Infusion Therapy in Patients with Toxic Shock Syndrome
Pedialyte Freezer Pops Oral Electrolyte Maintenance Solution - Pedialyte Freezer Pops are a cool way to provide your child the fluid and electrolytes needed to hel
Oral Electrolyte Maintenance Solution - Unflavored. No. 1 pediatrician recommended brand. Quickly replaces fluid and electrolytes lost during diarrhea...
Enfalyte Oral Electrolyte Maintenance Solution designed to be fed to infants and children for the maintenance of water and electrolytes that might otherwise be lost during vomiting and diarrhea.
Rehidrat Oral Electrolyte Mixture Blackcurrant 6 Sachets supports optimal hydration in the body and replaces lost electrolytes. This makes it perfect for treating dehydration. Contains no artificial sweeteners, colourants or preservatives. Flavours may vary.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluidity and conductance in aqueous electrolyte solutions. An approach from the glassy state and high-concentration limit. I. Ca(NO3)2 solutions. AU - Angell, Charles. AU - Bressel, R. D.. PY - 1972. Y1 - 1972. N2 - This paper is concerned with a treatment of aqueous electrolyte solution transport properties which differs from conventional approaches by the absence of any initial assignment of separate solute and solvent roles to the constituent particles of the solution. In this approach the embarrassments met by conventional theory on passing to compositions at which there is no longer any recognizable bulk solvent may be avoided. To provide the experimental basis for the treatment, a study of electrical conductance and fluidity of Ca(NO3)2-water solutions in the composition range 0-26 mol % (0-20 m) and temperature range +80 to -60° has been performed. Results are analyzed utilizing concepts and expressions for relaxation processes in glass-forming liquids, of which aqueous ...
Looking for electrolyte homeostasis? Find out information about electrolyte homeostasis. electrical conductor in which current is carried by ions ion, atom or group of atoms having a net electric charge. Positive and Negative Electric Charges A... Explanation of electrolyte homeostasis
Darnitsas product portfolio is replenished with the new medicinal product Plasmoven, infusion solution used to correct electrolyte balance disorders.. Plasmoven is an isotonic electrolyte solution with the concentrations of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium ions) corresponding to their plasma concentrations. Anionic composition of the medicinal product is a balanced combination of chlorides, acetates and malates, which prevents the occurrence of metabolic acidosis.. Infusion therapy is a cornerstone of modern medicine, as infusion therapy is an integral part of any treatment of any serious disease. During infusion therapy in the inpatient setting, saline solutions are used to detoxify, normalize electrolyte and acid-alkali balance, rehydrate and so on. According to the current guidelines, when conducting infusion therapy preference should be given to balanced solutions, with the electrolyte composition close to the electrolyte composition of blood plasma. In cases where ...
Electrolyte pills are the most effective way to maintain your hydration levels by changing both fluids and electrolytes. O. R. S Hydration Tablets contain a precise combo of salts, nutrients, and glucose to restore electrolyte balance. The blood sugar aids the absorption of sodium through the walls of the intestine, repairing the electrolyte balance in the blood circulating the body and allows the body to rehydrate by moving water to where is actually needed the most.water balance tablet formula Salts, nutrients and glucoseImproved electrolytesADVANTAGES OF ELECTROLYTE TABLETSElectrolytes tablet give a complete method of replenishing fluids and are much more convenient for athletes that are undergoing lots of physical stress. If your body is losing normal water at a rapid rate, then youll need to drink a lot of water to counter this. The problem is that water stimulates a high urine flow, so your is going to lose water from sweating, and Electrolyte Mix lose it from proceeding to the toilet ...
Pediatric Oral Electrolyte Market Insights: Global Industry Analysis, Market Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, Applications, Trends And Forecasts 2020-2026
Urine sodium, potassium and chloride excretion, plasma renin activity (PRA) and urine aldosterone excretion (UAE) were measured in seven very low birthweight (VLBW) infants during the first 6 weeks after birth. Hyponatraemia was most common, and major changes in urine electrolyte excretion occurred, during the first 2 weeks. These changes in urine electrolyte excretion appeared to relate to improvement in distal tubular function. PRA did not correlate with urine excretion of either aldosterone or electrolytes. However, UAE correlated significantly with fractional sodium-potassium exchange in the distal tubule in a non-linear fashion (P less than 0.001) which suggested a threshold of aldosterone responsiveness between 70 and 100 nmol/24 h per 1.73 m2 UAE. We conclude that in VLBW infants the distal tubule can respond to aldosterone during the first 2-3 weeks, but that the threshold for responsiveness appears to be higher than it is in fullterm infants. ...
PubMed journal article: The developing electrolytes concentrations of inner ear fluids in guinea pigs. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
What are electrolytes for? Electrolytes play a variety of roles in the human body, from regulating blood volume to assisting with nutrient absorption. Because of electrolytes role in helping muscles contract and release, low electrolyte levels are often thought to contribute to cramping.. Narrowing our focus to endurance, it is important to remind ourselves that endurance sports are essentially muscle contractions (the pull of a swim, the stroke of a pedal, the step of a run, etc.) repeated many, many, many times. Each contraction requires the use of electrolytes, and each contraction produces heat, which raises core body temperature. In effort to cool itself, the sweat glands release a mixture of water and electrolytes (mostly sodium) to rid itself of excess heat.. Lastly, during exercise, the body is burning calories as energy. The longer the duration of the activity, the greater the fluid, caloric and electrolyte loss, and therefore the greater the importance to follow some strategy to ...
In patients with T2DM, canagliflozin was generally associated with small mean percent changes in serum electrolytes. Infrequent episodes of potassium elevation occurred with canagliflozin 300 mg, but occurred more often in patients with reduced eGFR.
Background: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness, and a recognised predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Given this, it is likely that investigating the determinants of PWV will improve our understanding of cardiovascular health. At present, there is disagreement regarding the relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intakes, and PWV. Hence, further research is needed in order to confirm whether dietary sodium and potassium are determinants of PWV. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between dietary sodium and potassium intake, and PWV in the general population. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from Health And Bread Intervention Trial (HABIT). Spot urine samples were used to estimate dietary sodium and potassium intake. Weighed three-day diet records were analysed for self-reported dietary sodium and potassium intake. Brachial blood pressure, and carotid-femoral PWV ...
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Finish Line® Electrolytes and Trace Minerals help promote healthy hydration in your horse by replacing electrolytes lost during daily activity. This electrolyte/mineral replacement replenishes electrolytes. Apple-A-Day™ was the original apple-flavored, no sugar electrolyte! It is a cost-effective product that contains no fillers, no sugars, and no artificial colors! This proven electrolyte promotes healthy water consumption and replenishes electrolyte salts in your horse which are necessary for proper hydration, better appetites, nerve, and muscle function.APPLE-A-DAY™ has the following benefits for your horse:Supports healthy hydration for the horse.Formulated to replace electrolytes lost through daily activities, such as sweating, urination, and defecation.NO sugar, artificial colors or fillers, means our product is healthier than all of those sugar-filled electrolytes and will last longer since you feed less!
Most people are confused about electrolyte testing. If a blood test comes back within normal ranges, they think that everything is peachy. But thats not how it works. Electrolyte panels measure electrolytes in the blood, but they dont tell you if youre getting enough of a given electrolyte through diet and supplementation. This is so important that it bears repeating. Electrolyte blood tests DO NOT assess your nutritional status for a given electrolyte. When an electrolyte test is out of range, it means something funky is going on. Im talking about situations like kidney failure, heart failure, medications, and illnesses that cause diarrhea or vomiting. A diet low or high in electrolytes may contribute to an out-of-range result, but its rarely the primary driver. The real problem is folks taking comfort in their in-range results. It seems to suggest that electrolytes are squared away. Can you blame people for thinking that? I cant. Many doctors dont explain this stuff. And some dont even fully
Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator Box of 30 Singles - Lemon LimeFormulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix free from sugar and artificial sweeteners. Features And Benefits:Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix, free from sugar and artificial sweeteners, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is formulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts. With zero calories per serving, Electrolyte Hydrator tastes great, so you can sip it not just during your workout, but throughout the day to: Replenish electrolytes and minerals Enhance metabolism and alkalinity Provide antioxidant protection Provide antioxidant protection Available in Lemon Lime and Pom-Berry flavors.How To Use:Mix one single sachet of Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator in 1 cup (250 ml) of cold water and drink during exercise to sustain
Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator Box of 30 Singles - Lemon LimeFormulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix free from sugar and artificial sweeteners. Features And Benefits:Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is a natural, alkaline-forming drink mix, free from sugar and artificial sweeteners, Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator is formulated with all the essential electrolytes your body needs to stay hydrated during workouts. With zero calories per serving, Electrolyte Hydrator tastes great, so you can sip it not just during your workout, but throughout the day to: Replenish electrolytes and minerals Enhance metabolism and alkalinity Provide antioxidant protection Provide antioxidant protection Available in Lemon Lime and Pom-Berry flavors.How To Use:Mix one single sachet of Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator in 1 cup (250 ml) of cold water and drink during exercise to sustain
Seventeen infants with acute gastroenteritis have been studied. These patients were divided into 2 groups, 1 receiving high sodium loads (average 18 mEq./kg.) and the other low loads (6 to 7 mEq./kg.) during the first 24 hours following admission to the hospital. Adequate fluids and potassium were also administered and the acidbase balance, serum electrolyte concentrations, and total chloride were obtained in most instances at the time of admission, at 24 hours and at 72 following admission. From 24 hours to 72 hours maintenance fluid and electrolyte were given to all patients.. Patients receiving high initial loads of sodium demonstrated persistent acidosis at 24 hours and a trend towards hypokalemia and/or metabolic alkalosis at 72 hours.. The administration of low initial sodium loads was associated with a more consistent reduction of acidosis at 24 hours and the finding of normal serum chemical values at 72 hours. It is pointed out that if diarrhea does not abate after admission, the ...
Electrolyte imbalance[edit]. Administering a too-diluted or too-concentrated solution can disrupt the patient's balance of ... It is essential to correct these imbalances if they occur, as they can lead to the clinical symptoms of electrolyte imbalance, ... Intravenous therapy may be used for fluid replacement (such as correcting dehydration), to correct electrolyte imbalances, to ... A continuous infusion is primarily used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances. This is as opposed to intermittent ...
Electrolytes. As there frequently is initially acidosis, the potassium level may be normal, even though large losses have ... Muscle cramping and weakness, altered consciousness, seizures, or even coma due to electrolyte imbalances are common, ... Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.[2] This may result in ... it can result in life-threatening dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.[14] Estimates of the ratio of asymptomatic to ...
In ionic liquids/electrolytes[edit]. Main article: Conductivity (electrolytic). In electrolytes, electrical conduction happens ... In metals and semiconductors, electrons are the current carriers; in electrolytes and ionized gases, positive and negative ions ... The resistivity of ionic solutions (electrolytes) varies tremendously with concentration - while distilled water is almost an ...
Electrolyte balance[edit]. Cortisol increases glomerular filtration rate, and renal plasma flow from the kidneys thus ... Knight RP, Kornfeld DS, Glaser GH, Bondy PK (February 1955). "Effects of intravenous hydrocortisone on electrolytes of serum ... Golf SW, Happel O, Graef V, Seim KE (November 1984). "Plasma aldosterone, cortisol and electrolyte concentrations in physical ...
Electrolyte[edit]. Acidic drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid at a high concentration which turns a piece of pH paper ... It has a wide range of end applications including in domestic acidic drain cleaners,[11] as an electrolyte in lead-acid ... Sulfuric acid acts as the electrolyte in lead-acid batteries (lead-acid accumulator): ... and platinum/graphite anode are used with the cathode near the surface and the anode is positioned at bottom of the electrolyte ...
Other electrolytes[edit]. Calcium is not the only electrolyte that influences the formation of kidney stones. For example, by ... Halabe, A; Sperling, O (1994). "Uric acid nephrolithiasis". Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism. 20 (6): 424-31. ISSN 0378-0392 ...
Electrolyte[edit]. Acidic drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid at a high concentration which turns a piece of pH paper ... It has a wide range of end applications including in domestic acidic drain cleaners,[10] as an electrolyte in lead-acid ... Sulfuric acid acts as the electrolyte in lead-acid batteries (lead-acid accumulator): ...
In ionic liquids/electrolytes[edit]. Main article: Conductivity (electrolytic). In electrolytes, electrical conduction happens ... The resistivity of ionic solutions (electrolytes) varies tremendously with concentration - while distilled water is almost an ...
There is only enough electrolyte in the mat to keep it wet, and if the battery is punctured the electrolyte will not flow out ... or by the flow of a liquid electrolyte medium. Since the electrolyte density is greater when the sulfuric acid concentration is ... Gelled electrolytes[edit]. Main article: VRLA battery § Gel battery. During the 1970s, researchers developed the sealed version ... As electrolyte is lost, VRLA cells "dry-out" and lose capacity. This can be detected by taking regular internal resistance, ...
Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Prolonged and excessive vomiting depletes the body of water (dehydration), and may alter ... the electrolyte status. Gastric vomiting leads to the loss of acid (protons) and chloride directly. Combined with the resulting ...
Solutions correcting water, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances[edit]. Oral[edit]. *Oral rehydration salts ...
Human saliva comprises 99.5⁠% water plus electrolytes, mucus, white blood cells, epithelial cells (from which DNA can be ... Produced in salivary glands, human saliva is 99.5% water, but also contains many important substances, including electrolytes, ...
Urea and Electrolytes. This test is performed to measure the function of kidney.. ...
It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve ... Chloride is an essential electrolyte, playing a key role in maintaining cell homeostasis and transmitting action potentials in ... Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O.B. (April 2012). "Chloride: The queen of electrolytes?". European ... Chloride has a major physiological significance, which includes regulation of osmotic pressure, electrolyte balance and acid- ...
Serum electrolytes - The kidney is one of the main regulators of electrolytes in the human body and measuring the different ... "Electrolytes". MedlinePlus. November 20, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2020. "Creatinine Blood Test". MedlinePlus. July 15, 2017 ... Schrier, Robert W. (2010). Renal and Electrolyte Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 559-560. ISBN 978-1-60831-072-2 ... Schrier, Robert W. (2010-01-01). Renal and Electrolyte Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 560. ISBN 9781608310722. ...
Each electrode consists of an electrically conductive electrolyte gel and a silver/silver chloride conductor.[20] The gel ... Assessing severity of electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyperkalemia. *Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening in adolescents as ...
This effect is due to a change in conductivity, which in turn is due to the formation of an electrolyte. When electrical ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Audrieth, L. F.; Birr, E. J. (1933). "Anomalous Electrolytes. I. The Electrical ... conductivity of ICN is compared with that of iodine-pyridine solutions, the formation of the electrolyte in ICN proceeds much ...
... electrolyte and electrolysis, but even the present-day terms for them. Faraday associated electric current in an electrolyte ... Polymer electrolytes showed lower conductivities than glasses, but they were cheaper, much more flexible and could be easier ... Since mid-1980s, a Li-based solid electrolyte is used to separate the electrochromic film (typically WO3) and ion-storing film ... Later models used as electrolyte a film of LiI, which was doped with alumina nanoparticles to increase its conductivity. LiI ...
Weak electrolytes. A weak electrolyte is one that is not fully dissociated. As such it has a dissociation constant. The ... Nonsymmetrical electrolytes require another term with ψ2. For symmetrical electrolytes, this reduces to the modified spherical ... In an ideal electrolyte solution the activity coefficients for all the ions are equal to one. Ideality of electrolyte solution ... A snapshot of a 2-dimensional section of an idealized electrolyte solution is shown in the picture. The ions are shown as ...
Fluid balance involves keeping the fluid volume stabilized, and also keeping the levels of electrolytes in the extracellular ...
Potassium, an electrolyte (heart and nerve functions). *Sodium, an electrolyte; common in food and manufactured beverages, ... 2005). "Fluid, electrolyte, and renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption". Int J Sport Nutr ... Chloride; electrolyte; see sodium, below. *Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, ... Some have roles as cofactors, while others are electrolytes.[73] Elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) greater than ...
The time required depends generally on the electrolyte. Solid electrolytes drop faster than non-solid electrolytes but remain ... Electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolyte age as the electrolyte evaporates. This evaporation depends on temperature ... with solid Manganese dioxide electrolyte. Aluminum oxide Al. 2O. 3. Tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, Niobium pentoxide Nb. 2O. 5. ... with solid Polymer electrolyte (Polymer capacitors). Aluminum oxide Al. 2O. 3,. Tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, Niobium pentoxide Nb ...
Fluids & Electrolytes: A 2-in-1 Reference for Nurses. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. p. 122. ISBN 9781582554259. Archived ... Electrolyte abnormalities, poisoning, drowning, accidental hypothermia, hyperthermia, asthma, anaphylaxis, cardiac surgery, ...
Electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalance (E86-E87, 276). Volume status. *Volume contraction (dehydration/hypovolemia) ...
... is an electrolyte disorder in which there is a low level of phosphate in the blood.[1] Symptoms may include ... a report on an under-diagnosed electrolyte anomaly. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12264 ...
... is the most commonly seen water-electrolyte imbalance.[15] The disorder is more frequent in females, the elderly, ... Diringer, M. (2017). "Neurologic manifestations of major electrolyte abnormalities". Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 141: 705- ... Prolonged exercise and sweating, combined with drinking water without electrolytes is the cause of exercise-associated ... Schürer, Ludwig; Wolf, Stefan; Lumenta, Christianto B. (2010). "Water and Electrolyte Regulation". In Lumenta, Christianto B.; ...
Feld, Leonard G.; Kaskel, Frederick J. (2009-12-15). Fluid and Electrolytes in Pediatrics: A Comprehensive Handbook. Springer ... Metheny, Norma M. (2011-01-07). Fluid and Electrolyte Balance. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 148. ISBN 9780763781644. .. ...
Relation to activity coefficient of an electrolyte and its solvation shell number[edit]. The solvation shell number of an ... dissolved electrolyte can be linked to the statistical component of the activity coefficient of the electrolyte and to the ... 1 Relation to activity coefficient of an electrolyte and its solvation shell number ... ratio between the apparent molar volume of a dissolved electrolyte in a concentrated solution and the molar volume of the ...
Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Prolonged and excessive vomiting depletes the body of water (dehydration), and may alter ... Aspiration, electrolyte and water loss, damage to the enamel of the teeth, tear of the esophageal mucosa. ... the electrolyte status. Gastric vomiting leads to the loss of acid (protons) and chloride directly. Combined with the resulting ...
Liquid electrolytesEdit. Liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries consist of lithium salts, such as LiPF. 6, LiBF. 4 or ... Solid electrolytesEdit. Recent advances in battery technology involve using a solid as the electrolyte material. The most ... 6 electrolyte. The value for ε, the porosity of the electrolyte, is 0.724.[159] ... ElectrolytesEdit. Electrolyte degradation mechanisms include hydrolysis and thermal decomposition.[189]. At concentrations as ...
... have developed a non-flammable fluorinated electrolyte that supports the most aggressive and high-voltage cathodes in a Li- ... On the cathode side, electrolyte oxidation leads to a cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI), which at high voltage does not ... Though the instantaneous reactions between electrolytes and Li create a passivation layer called the solid electrolyte ... In a paper in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, they report that a battery with their electrolyte shows high cycling stability ...
Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. ... Electrolytes can be acids, bases, or salts. They can be measured by different blood tests. Each electrolyte can be measured ... You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes. Water does not ... The electrolytes - urine test measures electrolytes in urine. It tests the levels of calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, and ...
This is the second video of a 3-part series on fluid and electrolytes. It is 1 10-minute video. There is a discussion on fluid ... Electrolytes II. This is the second video of a 3-part series on fluid and electrolytes. It is 1 10-minute video. There is a ... You just viewed Electrolytes II, please rate this material. Dont show this message again ... Discussion for Electrolytes II Log in to participate in the discussions or Sign up if you are not already a MERLOT member. ...
... urine test measures specific chemicals called electrolytes in urine. It most often measures the levels of calcium, chloride, ... The electrolytes - urine test measures specific chemicals called electrolytes in urine. It most often measures the levels of ...
Getting the right amount of electrolytes is key to peak athletic performance, avoiding cramps, and preventing dehydration. ... What are Electrolytes?. Electrolytes are, at their most basic, minerals found in your blood, sweat and urine. The ones youll ... Which Electrolyte Is Most Important? Magnesium and potassium are often discussed, and they are important, Baker says, but the ... Six Things You Always Wanted to Know About Electrolytes (But Were Too Afraid to Ask). 6 Things You Always Wanted to Know About ...
Most abundant electrolyte in the ECF 135 to 145 mEq/L Has a major role in controlling water distribution throughout the body ... 38824365 electrolyte-imbalances * 1.  Most abundant electrolyte in the ECF 135 to 145 mEq/L Has a major role in controlling ... Is the major intracellular electrolyte Ranges from 3.5 to 5.1mEq/L 98% of the bodys potassium is inside the cells, the ... Monitor cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, cerebral, renal, and GI status Monitor electrolyte values Administer ...
Fluid and electrolyte balances and ... by tejasree sadhanala 61394 views * Fluid And Electrolytes by MD Specialclass 60621 ... Fluid and electrolyte management by Dhritiman Chakrab... 27598 views * Body Fluid And Electrolyte Balance by mvraveendrambbs ... Fluid & electrolyte balance * 1. PRESENTED BY - DR. SHEETAL KAPSE 2nd YEAR, P.G. STUDENT MODERATORS - DR. SUNIL DUTT C. DR. M. ... Proper fluid & electrolyte state is helpful in reducing morbidity & mortality in certain surgical procedures, hence it is ...
For health professionals : Refer a Patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : ELECTROLYTES, FECAL ...
Electrolytes might sound like some futuristic sci-fi robot, but theyre actually very real compounds that have a great impact ... NATURAL SOURCES OF ELECTROLYTES. While many sports drinks have been branded as a quick fix for replenishing electrolytes (and ... DEHYDRATION AND LOW ELECTROLYTES. Electrolyte imbalances can be common, with dehydration one of the biggest culprits. In fact, ... MORE ABOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL ROLE OF ELECTROLYTES. The simplest definition of electrolytes is: a type of mineral that carries an ...
The main role of electrolytes is to regulate fluid levels in the body and we need the right balance of electrolytes all the ... We get electrolytes from our daily diet and our body puts them to good use without us having to monitor the situation. They are ... What are electrolytes?. We all need electrolytes. But we already have them, most of the time. We get them from our daily diet ... Should you drink electrolytes after exercise?. So we understand that we need the right balance of electrolytes all the time, ...
Electrolyte Tests Definition Electrolytes are positively and negatively charged molecules, called ions, that are found within ... Electrolyte tests, sometimes called an electrolyte panel, measure the levels of electrolytes in the blood. Most electrolyte ... Fluids & Electrolytes, 2nd Ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2006.. Hawkins, W. Rex. Eat Right-Electrolyte: a Nutritional Guide ... In many cases electrolyte tests are run as part of a general health screening. In other cases, electrolyte tests may be done to ...
NutriBiotic, Hydration & Electrolytes 1 Results (showing 1 - 1) Visit Manufacturers Website » Ways to Replenish Electrolytes ... Brands A-Z NutriBiotic Hydration & Electrolytes Categories Sports Nutrition Sports Supplements Hydration & Electrolytes ...
All posts tagged with electrolytes. * New stable fuel cell could be the breakthrough that makes energy storage economically ...
Sierra Fit, BCAA & Electrolytes, 7G BCAAs, Fruit Punch, 15.34 oz (435 g). ... Emergen-C, Electro Mix, Electrolyte Replacement Drink Mix, Natural Lemon-Lime, 30 Packets, 0.14 oz (4 g) Each. ... Ultima Replenisher, Electrolyte Supplement, Variety Pack, 20 Packets, 2.4 oz (68 g). ... California Gold Nutrition, HydrationUP, Electrolyte Drink Mix, Tropical Fruit, 20 Packets, 0.17 oz (4.8 g) Each. ...
Aqueous Solutions of Simple Electrolytes. Authors. * Felix Franks Series Title. Water. Copyright. 1973. Publisher. Springer US ... since a number of excellent texts cover the more general aspects of electrolyte solutions, based on the classical theories of ...
We also use these electrolytes to systematically investigate the effect of electrolyte network structure and mechanical ... or in liquid electrolytes in which halide ions are present at the electrode-electrolyte interface (11, 34⇓⇓-37). Essentially ... cross-linked polymer electrolytes (18, 22, 23), and in ion-conducting polymer electrolytes (24⇓-26), all with mechanical moduli ... Confining electrodeposition of metals in structured electrolytes. Snehashis Choudhury, Duylinh Vu, Alexander Warren, Mukul D. ...
40 CHEMISTRY; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; IONIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTROLYTES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS; POLYETHYLENE ... Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which ... Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which ... This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs. ...
This article takes a detailed look at electrolytes, their functions, the risk of imbalance and more. ... Electrolytes are minerals that are involved in many essential processes in your body. ... Should You Supplement Your Diet With Electrolytes?. Some people drink electrolyte water or supplement with electrolytes like ... What Are Electrolytes?. "Electrolyte" is the umbrella term for particles that carry a positive or negative electric charge (. 5 ...
Other articles where Electrolyte balance is discussed: burn: …salts, not only disturbs their balance in the body but changes ... In nervous system disease: Fluid, mineral, and electrolyte disorders. High or low levels of electrolytes such as sodium, ... Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may be further consequences of homeostatic failure and additional significant manifestations ... constancy of these salts (electrolytes) inside and outside of cells is closely guarded. Even small changes in the serum ...
An electrolyte imbalance can occur if the body is dehydrated or contains too much water. Learn about the possible causes and ... When levels of electrolytes become too high or low, this is an electrolyte imbalance. It is not a disease, but it is a sign of ... What causes an electrolyte imbalance?. An electrolyte imbalance can happen if a person is dehydrated or if they have too much ... People get electrolytes from foods and drinks. The kidneys and liver help keep levels of electrolytes balanced. If a person is ...
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Does anyone have any suggestions for increasing electrolytes? preferably calorie- free. I know ... electrolytes Not sure if this is the proper place to post.. but. Does anyone have any suggestions for increasing electrolytes? ... Why are you trying to get more electrolytes? Electrolytes are mostly salt with minor added stuff so if you can find a way to ... Can you clarify electrolytes? I thought that meant sodium and potassium. When I google it, I get The electrolytes include ...
Our electrolyte system incorporates a unique blend of amino acids which is designed for rapid delivery and increased absorption ... Sportables LLC is a functional beverage company that markets iXL Electrolytes + Amino Acids and WORKOUT™ tea, a new performance ...
... drinks made by Clif and Powerbar and coconut water contain electrolytes. These drinks come in both ready-to-drink bottles as ... Water does not contain electrolytes but is important to drink, says an article at Runners World.com. Drinking electrolytes ... Electrolytes can be acids, bases or salts such as ionized calcium and the minerals listed above found in blood serum, the ... Electrolytes are naturally occurring minerals in bodily fluids that carry an electric charge and affect the amount of water in ...
Selective electrowinning from dilute electrolytes was investigated by the Bureau of Mines. A metal deposit containing 84 pct ... Pure, synthetic nickel electrolytes were used to establish deposition parameters, and to optimize electrolyte velocity or mass ... Key to achieving accelerated deposition rates, in the case of dilute solutions, is the rapid movement of the electrolyte ... Selective electrowinning from dilute electrolytes was investigated by the Bureau of Mines. A metal deposit containing 84 pct ...
Chemistry of Electrolyte Disorders. Br Med J 1962; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5301.384-a (Published 11 August 1962) ...
Electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium can be lost through sweat and need to be replaced ... The body needs electrolytes to regulate nerve and muscle function, maintain acid-base balance and maintain fluid balance. ... Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge. ... Merck: Mineral and electrolytes * National Academy of Sciences ... Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge. The body needs electrolytes to regulate nerve and muscle function, ...
Electrolyte imbalances, from dehydration or excessive sweating, can have serious health consequences. ... Electrolytes are salt minerals that conduct electricity and balance essential body fluids. ... Electrolytes are salt minerals that conduct electricity and balance essential body fluids. Electrolyte imbalances, from ... Potassium is a vital mineral and electrolyte needed for a variety of bodily functions. It is a positively charged electrolyte ...
  • You'll find the other electrolytes in most sports drinks, just in smaller concentrations, because you don't lose magnesium and potassium at the same rate as sodium. (bicycling.com)
  • High or low levels of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as disorders of acid-base metabolism, also have neurological effects such as confusion, seizures, muscle weakness, tetany (spasm and irritability of muscles), and cramps. (britannica.com)
  • Even small changes in the serum concentrations of these electrolytes (e.g., sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate) elicit prompt responses from the endocrine system in order to restore normal concentrations. (britannica.com)
  • Electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium can be lost through sweat and need to be replaced through the diet. (livestrong.com)
  • Gatorade contains sodium, potassium and chloride to help replenish lost electrolytes and keep your body running smoothly and efficiently, especially during exercise and sport. (livestrong.com)
  • Potassium is a vital mineral and electrolyte needed for a variety of bodily functions. (livestrong.com)
  • Sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium and potassium are the most common electrolytes in the human body. (howstuffworks.com)
  • According to MedlinePlus, electrolytes are minerals such as sodium, potassium and magnesium that are present in the blood, urine and body fluids. (reference.com)
  • Consuming foods that are rich in minerals, such as potassium and sodium, helps replenish electrolytes, says About.com. (reference.com)
  • Diabetic coma is treated with insulin, intravenous fluids and electrolytes, such as potassium, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • For example, when you exercise heavily, you lose electrolytes in your sweat , particularly sodium and potassium. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The present file contains analyte data for urine electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride) and creatinine. (cdc.gov)
  • Urine electrolytes sodium, potassium and chloride are principally used as nutritional indicators in healthy persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Potassium is one of the primary ions of electrolytes in our blood. (tudelft.nl)
  • 4. The system of claim 3 wherein said electrolyte solution comprises an aqueous solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride hexahydrate, sodium acetate, and sodium gluconate. (google.com)
  • Electrolyte imbalances can be common, with dehydration one of the biggest culprits. (care2.com)
  • Use of oral sodium phosphate for bowel cleansing of patients can create electrolyte imbalances. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Electrolyte imbalances often occur due to dehydration caused by excess heat, vomiting or diarrhea. (healthline.com)
  • Some illnesses, including kidney disease, eating disorders and injuries like severe burns, can cause electrolyte imbalances as well ( 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (healthline.com)
  • Electrolyte imbalances most commonly occur when people are severely dehydrated due to vomiting, diarrhea or excessive sweating. (healthline.com)
  • Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may be further consequences of homeostatic failure and additional significant manifestations of disease. (britannica.com)
  • Studies have found that older adults may be more susceptible to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances than younger adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Electrolyte imbalances can be dangerous. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Electrolyte imbalances, from dehydration or excessive sweating, can have serious health consequences. (livestrong.com)
  • Learn about electrolyte imbalances on the next page. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Imbalances can quickly turn into life-threatening situations and it is imperative to fine tune your knowledge and skills to recognize subtle signs and symptoms and intervene appropriately when an issue with fluids and electrolytes arises. (nursingcenter.com)
  • A rapid loss of bodily fluids caused by illness, burns, or excessive sweating can cause electrolyte imbalances if they're not replaced. (healthline.com)
  • This accessible guide explains, clearly and concisely, the key elements underlying fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and imbalances. (aacc.org)
  • The scientific literature suggests that athletes and recreational enthusiasts will not incur detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalances if they consume CB in moderation and eat a typical U.S. diet. (nih.gov)
  • Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You must replace them by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Any time your body loses fluids, you ll also lose electrolytes, which is why restoring them is important and why knowing natural sources of them is essential. (care2.com)
  • Magnesium is another electrolyte responsible for regulating fluids in the body. (care2.com)
  • when the body sweats or uses up fluids, it also eliminates any electrolytes found within them. (care2.com)
  • Electrolytes are positively and negatively charged ions that are found within the cells and extracellular fluids, including blood plasma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • disproportionately greater than loss of electrolytes (salt), the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluids becomes higher than in the cells. (britannica.com)
  • Retention of large amounts of electrolytes, particularly sodium, accompanies the increase in the amount of body fluids. (britannica.com)
  • If a person is eating a variety of foods and drinking enough fluids, electrolytes usually stay at the right levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Children have a higher risk of dehydration than adults because of their smaller size and faster metabolism of fluids and electrolytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Electrolytes are naturally occurring minerals in bodily fluids that carry an electric charge and affect the amount of water in the body, muscle function and other important metabolic processes such as nerve and heart function. (reference.com)
  • The body loses these minerals through perspiration and must be replaced by drinking fluids with electrolytes. (reference.com)
  • Electrolytes are salt minerals that conduct electricity and balance essential body fluids. (livestrong.com)
  • The foods we eat and fluids we drink contain mineral salts, which form electrolytes when they dissolve in the fluids in our bodies. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Can you explain fluids and electrolytes? (reference.com)
  • Electrolytes possess an electric charge and are introduced to the body through ingestion of fluids and foods. (reference.com)
  • An imbalance of body fluids due to overhydration or dehydration directly affects the body's electrolyte levels, which can lead to a variety of illnesses and complications. (reference.com)
  • WebMD also explains that dehydration occurs when the body loses more fluids and electrolytes than it takes in. (reference.com)
  • Postoperative surgery patients are prone to electrolyte derangements related to the loss of blood and bodily fluids, the stress response to surgery, intravenous fluid administration, blood transfusion, and the underlying surgical disease. (uptodate.com)
  • Fluid therapy - Electrolyte abnormalities observed in the postoperative period often result from the administration of intravenous fluids, fluid shifts, transfusion, and parenteral nutritional support (when indicated). (uptodate.com)
  • Our journal articles, CE and easy guide will help you master fluids and electrolytes quickly so you can get back to what matters most - the patient. (nursingcenter.com)
  • These electrolytes must be replaced to keep the electrolyte concentrations of your body fluids constant. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Again, these electrolytes and the fluids must be replaced to prevent dehydration and seizures. (howstuffworks.com)
  • How are fluids and electrolytes managed in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)? (medscape.com)
  • In some instances, electrolyte beverages such as sports drinks may be a good way for you to quickly replace fluids, carbohydrates, and electrolytes that you lost during extreme activity. (healthline.com)
  • In order for your cells, muscles, and organs to work properly, you need both fluids and electrolytes. (healthline.com)
  • In addition to regulating fluids, electrolytes have many functions. (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes are found in the blood and tissue fluids of the body. (dictionary.com)
  • Electrolyte solutions are used to replenish fluids and calories. (reuters.com)
  • Fluids and Electrolytes Demystified makes everything so easy to understand, you?ll feel like you?re learning through osmosis. (aacc.org)
  • Complete with end-of-chapter quizzes to test your knowledge, this book will teach you the fundamentals of fluids and electrolytes in no time at all. (aacc.org)
  • Simple enough for a beginner, but challenging enough for an advanced student, Fluids and Electrolytes Demystified is your shortcut to mastering this essential topic. (aacc.org)
  • Dr. Squiers has assembled the leading nurses in the country on the management of fluids and electrolytes to write state-of-the-art reviews on this important topic. (elsevier.com)
  • Those who experience higher than average sweating, either through recreational activities such as long-distance running, professional athletics, or mining, construction work, and the armed forces, need to replace both their fluids and their electrolytes (especially sodium and chloride) to maintain a healthy balance. (traceminerals.com)
  • Magnesium is another electrolyte that is routinely measured. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unflavored electrolyte powder with magnesium and without sodium? (metafilter.com)
  • Recommendations for unflavored, no-sodium electrolyte powder with magnesium? (metafilter.com)
  • Electrolytes can be acids, bases, or salts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. (osti.gov)
  • constancy of these salts (electrolytes) inside and outside of cells is closely guarded. (britannica.com)
  • Electrolytes can be acids, bases or salts such as ionized calcium and the minerals listed above found in blood serum, the liquid of the blood that doesn't contain cells. (reference.com)
  • The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. (osti.gov)
  • The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. (osti.gov)
  • Salts and other electrolytes help regulate cell function and nerve impulses, so when you sweat them out, you need to replace them. (backpacker.com)
  • Bonus: When you drink your electrolytes, you don't have to worry as much about the balance of salts and water in your body. (backpacker.com)
  • Liquid electrolytes are typical examples of multi-component electrolyte systems requiring a holistic research approach, because they usually consist of an optimized solvent mixture with dissolved binary salts and possibly further electrolyte additives. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Electrolyte is a 'medical/scientific' term for salts, specifically ions. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Molten salts can also be electrolytes as, for example, when sodium chloride is molten, the liquid conducts electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, ionic liquids, which are molten salts with melting points below 100 °C, [5] are a type of highly conductive non-aqueous electrolytes and thus have found more and more applications in fuel cells and batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of lithium salts to polymers like PEO enables them to be used as solid polymer electrolytes. (newelectronics.co.uk)
  • Strong acids, strong bases and soluble ionic salts that are not weak acids or weak bases are strong electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these minerals dissolve in a fluid, they form electrolytes - positive or negative ions used in metabolic processes. (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes are found in ions of po. (reference.com)
  • Aqueous electrolyte solutions containing multivalent ions exhibit various intriguing properties, including attraction between like-charged colloidal particles, which results from strong ion-ion correlations. (mit.edu)
  • An electrolyte in a solution may be described as "concentrated" if it has a high concentration of ions, or "diluted" if it has a low concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline earth metals form hydroxides that are strong electrolytes with limited solubility in water, due to the strong attraction between their constituent ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applying an electric field across an electrolyte causes the anions and cations to move in opposite directions, thereby conducting electrical current while gradually separating the ions. (dictionary.com)
  • Strong electrolytes produce large numbers of ions, which results in high conductivity values. (vernier.com)
  • The problem with PEO is that it conducts lithium ions poorly in comparison to liquid electrolytes. (newelectronics.co.uk)
  • A substance whose aqueous solution or molten state decomposed into ions by passing electricity is known as electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong electrolytes break apart into ions completely. (wikipedia.org)
  • These positive and negatively charged ions can conduct electricity, and are thus referred to as "electrolytes. (traceminerals.com)
  • Adhering to a healthier nutrition plan will naturally ensure that proper levels of electrolytes like those listed above are a regular part of your diet. (care2.com)
  • The kidneys and liver help keep levels of electrolytes balanced. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When levels of electrolytes become too high or low, this is an electrolyte imbalance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Taking in high levels of electrolytes without a doctor's guidance can create another imbalance and lead to health complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The levels of electrolytes in the body's fluid compartments are controlled by the movement of electrolytes into or out of those compartments. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. (osti.gov)
  • This chapter reviews state-of-the-art development in the field of solid polymer electrolytes for supercapacitors and discusses their specific features. (oreilly.com)
  • The main themes discussed are based on individual series of solid polymer electrolytes such as ion exchange resins, polyethers, polymer gels and nanocomposites, followed by supercapacitor types, electrode types and supercapacitors reported under various kinds of solid electrolytes. (oreilly.com)
  • Sweat electrolytes is a test that measures the level of chloride in sweat. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • When you sweat, you lose both water and electrolytes, especially sodium and chloride. (healthline.com)
  • Sodium and chloride -- the two electrolytes that make up table salt -- are present in foods together and work in the body to maintain fluid balance for proper cell function. (livestrong.com)
  • Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte found primarily on the outside of cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride , under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually a package deal, sodium and chloride are the major extracellular electrolytes in the human body, sodium providing the positive charge and chloride the negative charge. (traceminerals.com)
  • Sodium and chloride also happen to be the main electrolytes lost in sweat, especially during prolonged exertion in warm and hot environments. (traceminerals.com)
  • Though the average American consumes substantially more than enough sodium chloride, there are some individuals and situations in which these electrolytes should be supplemented. (traceminerals.com)
  • Therefore, adding sodium and chloride to the water of individuals who regularly sweat will not only replace the loss of these essential electrolytes, but will also help maintain proper blood osmolality, assuring thirst and kidney mechanisms to maintain adequate blood volume and hydration (Maughan and Shirreffs, 1997). (traceminerals.com)
  • Opt for low-carb soup for a nutritious way to replenish lost electrolytes. (wikihow.com)
  • So, I must ask you this: Is there a natural food or drink that can quickly replenish lost electrolytes? (exrx.net)
  • So we understand that we need the right balance of electrolytes all the time, and a supplement is probably beneficial to ensuring this, but what about after we exercise? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Having the right balance of electrolytes is fundamental to maintaining your blood pH level ( 10 ). (healthline.com)
  • If a person has been sick with a short bout of vomiting or diarrhea, or has been sweating heavily, drinking water or an over-the-counter electrolyte solution can help restore the balance of electrolytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Maybe you are referring to the sports drinks that say they replenish electrolytes. (fitday.com)
  • Which sports drinks contain electrolytes? (reference.com)
  • Sports drinks such as Gatorade, Powerade, Propel, Cytomax, drinks made by Clif and Powerbar and coconut water contain electrolytes. (reference.com)
  • Electrolyte replacement, proper hydration and energy are some benefits of sports drinks. (reference.com)
  • Sodium is one of the major electrolytes found in Gatorade as well as other sports drinks. (livestrong.com)
  • An article in the November 2009 issue of 'Nutrition Bulletin' suggests it may be the only electrolyte needed in sports drinks for exercise rehydration. (livestrong.com)
  • The 5.5 percent ABV, 165-calorie pale ale contains as much electrolyte-replenishing sodium as many standard sports drinks, along with vitamin C-packed black currants which are supposed to boost kidney and gut health. (ibtimes.com)
  • Sports drinks like Gatorade are marketed as a source of body-boosting electrolytes, which begs the question: What exactly is an electrolyte, and why are they so important? (mentalfloss.com)
  • Commercial electrolyte solutions are available, particularly for sick children (such as oral rehydration solution, Suero Oral , or Pedialyte ) and athletes ( sports drinks ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of electrolytes is to regulate fluid levels in the body, which is essential for a properly functioning heart, brain, kidney, muscles. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Here's what you need to know about canine hydration and the important role of electrolytes! (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • The right amount of electrolytes in your system can make your head feel clearer, your body feel fresher and keep your hydration levels where they need to be. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Therefore, you need to get an adequate amount of electrolytes from your diet to keep your body functioning as it should. (healthline.com)
  • The electrolytes - urine test measures electrolytes in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The electrolytes - urine test measures specific chemicals called electrolytes in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Electrolytes are, at their most basic, minerals found in your blood, sweat and urine. (bicycling.com)
  • The measurement of electrolytes in urine via ion-selective electrode (ISE) is an established and widely used procedure in routine clinical laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 71 ] Therefore, fluid and electrolyte management must be individualized on the basis of clinical course, changes in weight, urine output, and the results of serum electrolyte and renal function studies. (medscape.com)
  • Electrolytes leave the body through sweat and urine. (healthline.com)
  • Serum electrolyte levels may reveal further evidence of glomerular and tubular dysfunction in polycystic kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • 001016 - Serum Calcium is a measure of the amount of calcium in your blood, and it is considered one of the electrolytes. (mcssl.com)
  • In this weeks episode, we discuss what is hydration, what are electrolytes, why both are needed, when and some tips for electrolyte replacements. (buzzsprout.com)
  • Roctane Electrolyte capsules have been engineered to work in conjunction with GU's hydration drink products, to keep you hydrated and feeling ready for anything. (mec.ca)
  • In this experiment, you will discover some properties of strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and non-electrolytes by observing the behavior of these substances in aqueous solutions. (vernier.com)
  • For strong electrolytes, a single reaction arrow shows that the reaction occurs completely in one direction, in contrast to the dissociation of weak electrolytes, which both ionize and re-bond in significant quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong electrolyte(aq) → Cation+(aq) + Anion−(aq) Strong electrolytes conduct electricity only when molten or in aqueous solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water does not contain electrolytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Water does not contain electrolytes but is important to drink, says an article at Runner's World.com. (reference.com)
  • Eat a balanced, healthy diet which includes foods that contain electrolytes. (healthline.com)
  • The body needs electrolytes to regulate nerve and muscle function, maintain acid-base balance and maintain fluid balance. (livestrong.com)
  • Hormones (like antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone and parathyroid hormone) also help regulate electrolyte balance. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Electrolytes help regulate the balance of fluid in the body. (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes are needed by cells to regulate the flow of water molecules across cell membranes. (dictionary.com)
  • To sort the myths from the facts, we've asked Lindsay Baker, a principal scientist at the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, to demystify electrolytes, and explain why they really do matter. (bicycling.com)
  • A running or triathlon store will sell electrolyte tablets that you can use instead of gatorade or any of the high-calorie drinks. (fitday.com)
  • Popular brands such as Gatorade, Powerade, Gu Electrolyte Brew and Cytomax all come in convenient, ready-to-drink liquid form. (reference.com)
  • Gatorade is a sports drink containing electrolytes, simple carbohydrates and water. (reference.com)
  • What is a good way for a diabetic to restore electrolytes besides drinking Gatorade? (reference.com)
  • Sure, it's got electrolyte-replenishing ingredients like Gatorade. (askmen.com)
  • HQ-115 (lithium bis-trifluoromethanesulfonimide) is a high purity electrolyte salt for use in lithium batteries. (3m.com)
  • Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. (osti.gov)
  • This invention relates to primary electrochemical cells utilizing an electrolyte comprising a solid polymer. (google.co.uk)
  • Athletes also sweat, and sodium is the primary electrolyte lost in sweat," says Baker. (bicycling.com)
  • Do You Need More Electrolytes If You Sweat a Lot? (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes are lost from the body through sweat-but seeing as how we get plenty from food, should we really guzzle sugary athletic beverages after a tough workout? (mentalfloss.com)
  • If you sweat a lot, exercise in hot weather, or work out vigorously for more than an hour or two, you may benefit from drinking electrolyte beverages before, during, and after your workout. (healthline.com)
  • Many drink water but when you workout you sweat, containing water plus electrolytes, which have numerous vital functions in the body (e.g. sodium is key for storing water). (chainreactioncycles.com)
  • With PowerBar 5ELECTROLYTES Tablets you can mix yourself a zero calorie sports drink which provides the body with the 5 main electrolytes in the same ratio they are lost through sweat. (chainreactioncycles.com)
  • The changes occur due to the movement of the electrolyte sodium across the nerve cell membrane. (healthline.com)
  • Key to achieving accelerated deposition rates, in the case of dilute solutions, is the rapid movement of the electrolyte through the electrowinning cell. (cdc.gov)
  • Tables of experimental data are presented in a wide range of temperatures and mass contents of electrolytes in solution. (begellhouse.com)
  • Tables of experimental data on dynamic and kinematic viscosities and diffusion coefficients are given for a wide range of mass contents of electrolytes in aqueous solutions and for wide temperature and pressure ranges. (begellhouse.com)
  • The properties of electrolytes may be exploited using electrolysis to extract constituent elements and compounds contained within the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important aspects are bulk and interfacial properties of electrolytes and their ageing in long term electrochemical cycling. (uu.se)
  • Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge. (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes are minerals in the blood, tissues, and elsewhere throughout the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When you're following a ketogenic diet, your body loses minerals, which are called electrolytes, faster than other people because you urinate more often. (wikihow.com)
  • Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electrical charge. (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals. (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help the body maintain optimal function. (healthline.com)
  • Environmental factors, such as a sharp decrease in the amount of minerals people now consume in their drinking water or eat in their foods, especially when too much sodium is consumed, can move more people into an electrolyte imbalance. (traceminerals.com)
  • Calcium is the most widely distributed and abundant electrolyte in the human body. (care2.com)
  • All known multicellular lifeforms require a subtle and complex electrolyte balance between the intracellular and extracellular environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the first step towards maintaining proper electrolyte balance is simply to make sure that you are staying hydrated on a consistent basis. (care2.com)
  • The human body, the amazing self-regulating organism that it is, has a number of mechanisms in place to maintain proper electrolyte balance. (traceminerals.com)
  • The Statistical Mechanics & Thermodynamics Group of the Royal Society of Chemistry would like to draw your attention to the group's annual meeting titled "Solving the electrolyte problem" taking place in the University of Manchester, 9th-11th January 2019. (rsc.org)
  • If an imbalance is severe, a person may need to receive electrolytes through an intravenous, or IV, line in a hospital. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Reuters) - Hospira Inc is recalling one lot of an intravenous electrolyte solution after the discovery of the presence of a substance that was consistent with mold, U.S. health regulators said on Monday. (reuters.com)
  • What you want to remember, Baker says, is that you need both water and a bit of sugar to help the body actually absorb the electrolytes (and, of course, to rehydrate! (bicycling.com)
  • Body fluid electrolytes disturbances 4. (slideshare.net)
  • Electrolytes might sound like some futuristic sci-fi robot, but they re actually very real compounds that have a great impact on the human body. (care2.com)
  • As such, the body requires electrolytes in order to maintain proper functionality. (care2.com)
  • It s important to remember that just a single type of electrolyte isn t enough to maintain a healthy body. (care2.com)
  • Electrolytes play a vital role in many essential processes in the body, but do you need to supplement them? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Electrolytes are involved in many essential processes in your body. (healthline.com)
  • An electrolyte imbalance can occur if the body has too much or too little water. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An electrolyte imbalance can happen if a person is dehydrated or if they have too much water in their body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The body responds to an electrolyte imbalance in a variety of ways. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our electrolyte system incorporates a unique blend of amino acids which is designed for rapid delivery and increased absorption, so when 'hydrates my body quickly' scored so high on the surveys it made total sense. (globenewswire.com)
  • Powerade is a sports drink designed to rehydrate the body by adding electrolytes. (reference.com)
  • The body has to perform delicate balancing acts to keep water and electrolyte levels just right. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The drink is also made with Himalayan sea salt, which is supposed to help your body replenish electrolytes. (ibtimes.com)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic, hyponatremia is a condition that is caused by low levels of sodium electrolytes in the body. (reference.com)
  • Your kidneys work to keep the electrolyte concentrations in your blood constant despite changes in your body. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It's also made with coriander and pink Himalayan sea salt, which helps your body replenish electrolytes, which is pretty important if you run a lot. (askmen.com)
  • Electrolytes spark cell function throughout the body. (healthline.com)
  • Electrolytes need to exist in the body within a specific range. (healthline.com)
  • I regularly drink around 1,5 to 2 litres of water, but then I upped the intake to even 4 litres and I felt that I lost every electrolyte from my body. (exrx.net)
  • Make sure your body is getting the electrolytes it needs to take full advantage of your training. (mec.ca)
  • If your body doesn't succeed in regulating electrolytes correctly, you need regular blood checks. (tudelft.nl)
  • Caffeine, body fluid-electrolyte balance, and exercise performance. (nih.gov)
  • This is the second video of a 3-part series on fluid and electrolytes. (merlot.org)
  • It would be useful to any healthcare professional student learning about fluid and electrolytes. (merlot.org)
  • As an aid in correcting dehydration and electrolyte imbalance during periods of severe stress, scouring or other enteric diseases that may cause dehydration. (drugs.com)
  • Sodium in particular is the main electrolyte in your plasma, and helps draw water into that space," says Baker. (bicycling.com)
  • Water is always a good bet , but coconut water is even better since it has natural electrolytes. (care2.com)
  • Do I really need electrolytes or is water sufficient? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Even if you're not an elite athlete, once you understand how they work, it makes sense to add electrolytes to your water anyway. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Electrolytes improve the absorption of water into our systems, making that glass of water up to three times more effective,' explains Mayo. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Tests that measure the concentration of electrolytes are needed for both the diagnosis and management of renal, endocrine, acid-base, water balance, and many other conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Osmosis is a process where water moves through the wall of a cell membrane from a dilute solution (more water and fewer electrolytes) toward a more concentrated solution (less water and more electrolytes). (healthline.com)
  • Many of these brands also make powders that can be mixed with water, while some brands offer something extra beyond electrolytes. (reference.com)
  • Chug wisely Hikers who drink a lot of water but neglect to replace electrolytes can suffer from low blood sodium concentration (hyponatremia), which can cause cells to swell (including in the brain). (backpacker.com)
  • A variety of Pump water containing electrolytes from coconut water is now available in Australia. (ausfoodnews.com.au)
  • The new 'Pump+ natural electrolytes' consists of spring water, electrolytes from coconut water and. (ausfoodnews.com.au)
  • An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent , such as water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of a delivery mishap, we ended up with some Whole Foods store-brand electrolyte water that has done an incredible, better-than-regular-water, better-than-tea job of solving my dehydration-related tension headaches. (metafilter.com)
  • I am definitely not interested in hearing how I don't need electrolyte water. (metafilter.com)
  • I found the same thing when camping in the desert - you're drinking so much water and sweating that you feel like you have an electrolyte depletion. (exrx.net)
  • Salt and water will replenish electrolytes. (exrx.net)
  • A water-soluble premix of vitamins and electrolytes formulated to be a nutritional supplement for poultry, swine, ruminants and horses. (jefferspet.com)
  • A water-soluble premix of vitamins and electrolytes. (jefferspet.com)
  • I have started mixing electrolytes/vitamins in their water as I don't want them to get sick in the cold. (backyardchickens.com)
  • A concentrated solution of this strong electrolyte has a lower vapor pressure than that of pure water at the same temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The literature indicates that caffeine consumption stimulates a mild diuresis similar to water, but there is no evidence of a fluid-electrolyte imbalance that is detrimental to exercise performance or health. (nih.gov)
  • Originally, a "strong electrolyte" was defined as a chemical that, when in aqueous solution, is a good conductor of electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • If levels become too high or low, an electrolyte imbalance can occur. (healthline.com)
  • Here, we report a non-flammable electrolyte that demonstrates excellent stability toward both a Li-metal anode and high-voltage/ high-capacity cathodes. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Unlike the previously reported fluorinated electrolytes, which suffered from increasing impedance at the anode side, this all-fluorinated electrolyte enables a high Li plating/stripping Coulombic efficiency of 99.2% and suppresses dendrites without raising the interfacial impedance. (greencarcongress.com)
  • In almost every case, the electrolytes are reported to be substantially more effective than anticipated by early theories in improving uniformity of deposition and lifetime of the metal anode. (pnas.org)
  • These observations have been speculated to reflect the effect of electrolyte structure in regulating ion transport to the metal electrolyte interface, thereby stabilizing metal electrodeposition processes at the anode. (pnas.org)
  • When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). (unt.edu)
  • Hydrated eutectic electrolytes were highly suitable for the Zn-organic batteries from both anode and cathode aspects. (eurekalert.org)
  • State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. (mendeley.com)
  • However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. (mendeley.com)
  • In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested. (mendeley.com)
  • If not, a good liver treatment (because of the antibiotics) like sedochol, electrolytes, vitamins, herbal tea, good nutrition and training, could be the best way to get the birds in condition. (pipa.be)
  • I got a package of durvet electrolyte and vitamins when at the feed store today, when I picked up feed, feeders, ect. (backyardchickens.com)
  • I will go back to using Vitamins & Electrolytes PLUS, 4 oz pkg Item #A2V5 which is about 15% salt/sodium. (jefferspet.com)
  • Electrolytes/ Vitamins in Winter? (backyardchickens.com)
  • As you might guess from their name, electrolytes are electrically charged, which means that they can conduct electrical impulses. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Weak electrolytes result in low conductivity, and non-electrolytes should result in no conductivity. (vernier.com)
  • The emphasis in research area 4 lies on liquid electrolytes based on either aqueous or non-aqueous salt solutions. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Typically, lithium-ion batteries feature liquid electrolytes, but research is focusing on polymeric electrolytes, which are known to be more stable, less flammable, and less volatile. (newelectronics.co.uk)
  • Dr Remco Hartkamp, expert in computational chemical physics at the Department of Process & Energy, has developed a new method, together with researchers from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France and the NTT Basic Research Laboratories in Japan, that will make it easier to measure the concentration of different electrolytes in the blood using a nanotransistor. (tudelft.nl)
  • Drinking electrolytes maintains the body's ability to process carbohydrates such as glucose more effectively, increasing energy and endurance. (reference.com)
  • Electrolytes, particularly sodium, help maintain fluid balance through osmosis. (healthline.com)
  • In essence, diagnosis and management of a patient with an electrolyte disturbance is best served by measuring all four electrolytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you have a mild electrolyte disturbance, you probably won't experience any symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • These electrolytes are required for various bodily processes, including proper nerve and muscle function, maintaining acid-base balance and keeping you hydrated. (healthline.com)