Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.

Blockade of hippocampal long-term potentiation by sustained tetanic stimulation near the recording site. (1/3000)

Specific patterns of electrical stimulation trigger several forms of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal pyramidal cells, including a long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission. I investigated the effect of commonly used stimulation protocols at different distances from the recording site. Sustained electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 1 s) delivered close to the recording site prevented LTP induction; the same stimulation from a second electrode placed farther away subsequently produced LTP at the same recording site. Strong stimulation near the recording site could also interfere with LTP triggered from a distal site. In contrast to sustained high-frequency stimulation, intermittent stimulation (theta burst pattern) delivered close to the recording site produced normal LTP. These data support the hypothesis that strong stimulation releases a factor that acts locally to prevent LTP.  (+info)

LocaLisa: new technique for real-time 3-dimensional localization of regular intracardiac electrodes. (2/3000)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the 3-dimensional (3D) position of ablation electrodes from fluoroscopic images is inadequate if a systematic lesion pattern is required in the treatment of complex arrhythmogenic substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new technique for online 3D localization of intracardiac electrodes. Regular catheter electrodes are used as sensors for a high-frequency transthoracic electrical field, which is applied via standard skin electrodes. We investigated localization accuracy within the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle by comparing measured and true interelectrode distances of a decapolar catheter. Long-term stability was analyzed by localization of the most proximal His bundle before and after slow pathway ablation. Electrogram recordings were unaffected by the applied electrical field. Localization data from 3 catheter positions, widely distributed within the right atrium, right ventricle, or left ventricle, were analyzed in 10 patients per group. The relationship between measured and true electrode positions was highly linear, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, 0.997, and 0.999 for the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle, respectively. Localization accuracy was better than 2 mm, with an additional scaling error of 8% to 14%. After 2 hours, localization of the proximal His bundle was reproducible within 1.4+/-1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique enables accurate and reproducible real-time localization of electrode positions in cardiac mapping and ablation procedures. Its application does not distort the quality of electrograms and can be applied to any electrode catheter.  (+info)

Synchronization of local neural networks in the somatosensory cortex: A comparison of stationary and moving stimuli. (3/3000)

Spontaneous and stimulus-induced responses were recorded from neighboring groups of neurons by an array of electrodes in the primary (SI) somatosensory cortex of intact, halothane-anesthetized cats. Cross-correlation analysis was used to characterize the coordination of spontaneous activity and the responses to peripheral stimulation with moving or stationary air jets. Although synchronization was detected in only 10% (88 of 880) of the pairs of single neurons that were recorded, cross-correlation analysis of multiunit responses revealed significant levels of synchronization in 64% of the 123 recorded electrode pairs. Compared with spontaneous activity, both stationary and moving air jets caused substantial increases in the rate, proportion, and temporal precision of synchronized activity in local regions of SI cortex. Among populations of neurons that were synchronized by both types of air-jet stimulation, the mean rate of synchronized activity was significantly higher during moving air-jet stimulation than during stationary air-jet stimulation. Moving air jets also produced significantly higher correlation coefficients than stationary air jets in the raw cross-correlograms (CCGs) but not in the shift-corrected CCGs. The incidence and rate of stimulus-induced synchronization varied with the distance separating the recording sites. For sites separated by /=500 microm, only 37% of the multiunit responses were synchronized by discrete stimulation with a single air jet. Measurements of the multiunit CCG peak half-widths showed that the correlated activity produced by moving air jets had slightly less temporal variability than that produced by stationary air jets. These results indicate that moving stimuli produce greater levels of synchronization than stationary stimuli among local groups of SI neurons and suggest that neuronal synchronization may supplement the changes in firing rate which code intensity and other attributes of a cutaneous stimulus.  (+info)

Effect of biphasic shock duration on defibrillation threshold with different electrode configurations and phase 2 capacitances: prediction by upper-limit-of-vulnerability determination. (4/3000)

BACKGROUND: The defibrillation threshold (DFT) may be affected by biphasic shock duration (BSD), electrode configuration, and capacitance. The upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) may be used to estimate the DFT. For different lead configurations and phase 2 capacitances, we investigated in 18 pigs whether the use of ULV may predict waveforms with lowest DFT. METHODS AND RESULTS: -DFT and ULV were determined by up-down protocols for 10 BSDs. ULVs were measured by T-wave scanning during ventricular pacing (cycle length 500 ms). In protocol 1 (n=6), a pectoral "active can" was combined with an electrode in the superior vena cava as common cathode and a right ventricle electrode as anode (AC+SVC). In protocol 2 and protocol 3 (n=6 each), only the "active can" was used as proximal electrode (AC). Capacitance was 150 microF during both phases in protocol 1 and protocol 3 but 150 microF (phase 1) and 300 microF (phase 2) in protocol 2. ULV and DFT demonstrated a linear correlation in each protocol (r=0.78 to 0.84). Lowest DFTs were found at 10 ms for AC+SVC and at 14 ms for AC (P<0.001). At optimal BSDs, voltage DFTs did not differ significantly between AC (527+/-57 V) and AC+SVC (520+/-70 V). Switching capacitors for phase 2 in a way that reduced leading-edge voltage by 50% while doubling capacity did not change BSD for optimal voltage DFT but increased minimum DFT from 527+/-57 V to 653+/-133 V (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The BSD with lowest DFT is shorter for AC+SVC than for AC. There is no significant difference in voltage DFT between both at optimal BSD. A lower phase 2 capacitance reduces DFTs irrespective of BSD. Because strength-duration curves for DFT and ULV correlate for different BSDs, lead systems, and phase 2 capacitances, ULV determination may allow the prediction of waveforms with lowest DFT.  (+info)

Chronic lithium treatment inhibits amiloride-sensitive sodium transport in the rat distal nephron. (5/3000)

Chronic treatment of rats with lithium leads to Na+ loss and a reduced antinatriuretic response to aldosterone, suggesting that lithium reduces conductive Na+ transport in the distal nephron. This was investigated in the present study by measuring the renal response to aldosterone infusion followed by amiloride in chronically instrumented conscious rats given lithium for 3 to 4 weeks to achieve plasma Li+ concentrations of approximately 0.5 mM. A servo-controlled infusion system was used to maintain sodium and water homeostasis, thereby preventing misinterpretation of the findings as a consequence of drug-induced changes in Na+ balance. In a control group of rats, Na+ excretion decreased in response to aldosterone (p <.01) and subsequent amiloride administration led to a marked increase in Na+ excretion (p <.001). In contrast, in the lithium-treated group, there was no significant response to either aldosterone or amiloride. It is concluded that long-term treatment with lithium, even when plasma Li+ concentrations are below 1 mM, reduces aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transport through the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels in the principal cells of the distal nephron.  (+info)

Mapping of atrial activation with a noncontact, multielectrode catheter in dogs. (6/3000)

BACKGROUND: Endocardial mapping of sustained arrhythmias has traditionally been performed with a roving diagnostic catheter. Although this approach is adequate for many tachyarrhythmias, it has limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel noncontact mapping system for assessing atrial tachyarrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mapping system consists of a 9F multielectrode-array balloon catheter that has 64 active electrodes and ring electrodes for emitting a locator signal. The locator signal was used to construct a 3-dimensional right atrial map; it was independently validated and was highly accurate. Virtual electrograms were calculated at 3360 endocardial sites in the right atrium. We evaluated right atrial activation by positioning the balloon catheter in the mid right atrium via a femoral venous approach. Experiments were performed on 12 normal mongrel dogs. The mean correlation coefficient between contact and virtual electrograms was 0.80+/-0.12 during sinus rhythm. Fifty episodes of atrial flutter induced in 11 animals were evaluated. In the majority of experiments, complete or almost complete reentrant circuits could be identified within the right atrium. Mean correlation coefficient between virtual and contact electrograms was 0.85+/-0.17 in atrial flutter. One hundred fifty-six episodes of pacing-induced atrial fibrillation were evaluated in 11 animals. Several distinct patterns of right atrial activation were seen, including single-activation wave fronts and multiple simultaneous-activation wave fronts. Mean correlation coefficient between virtual and contact electrograms during atrial fibrillation was 0.81+/-0.18. The accuracy of electrogram reconstruction was lower at sites >4.0 cm from the balloon center and at sites with a high spatial complexity of electrical activation. CONCLUSIONS: This novel noncontact mapping system can evaluate conduction patterns during sinus rhythm, demonstrate reentry during atrial flutter, and describe right atrial activation during atrial fibrillation. The accuracy of electrogram reconstruction was good at sites <4.0 cm from the balloon center, and thus the system has the ability to perform high-resolution multisite mapping of atrial tachyarrhythmias in vivo.  (+info)

Intraoperative monitoring during surgery for acoustic neuroma: benefits of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode. (7/3000)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode for intraoperative monitoring during acoustic neuroma and other cerebellopontine angle tumour surgery and to define the neurophysiological and surgical factors which influence hearing preservation. METHODS: Twenty two patients, 18 with acoustic neuromas and four with other cerebellopontine angle tumours, underwent intraoperative monitoring during tumour excision. The extratympanic intrameatal electrode (IME) was used to record the electrocochleogram (ECoG) and surface electrodes to record the brainstem auditory evoked response (ABR). RESULTS: The compound action potential (CAP) of the ECoG was two and a half times greater in amplitude than wave I of the ABR and was easily monitored. Virtually instant information was available as minimal averaging was required. Continuous monitoring was possible from the commencement of anaesthesia to skin closure. The IME was easy to place, non-invasive, and did not interfere with the operative field. Operative procedures which affected CAP or wave V latency or amplitude were drilling around the internal auditory meatus, tumour dissection, nerve section, and brainstem and cerebellar retraction. Hearing was achieved in 59% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The IME had significant benefits in comparison with other methods of monitoring. The technique provided information beneficial to preservation of hearing.  (+info)

Non-invasive determination of bacterial single cell properties by electrorotation. (8/3000)

So far, electrorotation and its application to the determination of single cell properties have been limited to eukaryotes. Here an experimental system is described that allows the recording of electrorotation spectra of single bacterial cells. The small physical dimensions of the developed measuring chamber combined with a single frame video analysis made it possible to monitor the rotation of objects as small as bacteria by microscopical observation despite Brownian rotation and cellular movement. Thus physical properties of distinct organelles of E. coli could be simultaneously determined in vivo at frequencies between 1 kHz and 1 GHz. Experimental data were evaluated following a three-shell model of the cell. Electrical conductivities of cytoplasm and outer membrane were determined to 4.4 mS/cm and 25 microS/cm, respectively, that of the periplasmic space was found to increase with the square root of the medium ionic strength. Specific capacitances of inner and outer membrane amounted to 1.4 microF/cm2 and 0.26 microF/cm2, respectively, the thickness of the periplasm to about 50 nm. Heat treatment of the cells lead to a reduction of cytoplasmic conductivity to 0.9 mS/cm, probably caused by an efflux of ions through the permeabilized inner membrane.  (+info)

A pacemaker system includes an electrode lead having a distal tip electrode for supplying stimulation pulses to cardiac tissue and a ring electrode, the electrode lead being connected to a cardiac stimulator. A detector is contained in a stimulator housing and is connected to the electrode lead for detecting electrical cardiac activity between said ring electrode and said tip electrode. Measurement of a signal dependent on physical activity of the subject in whom the pacemaker is implanted is obtained either by applying a voltage on the ring electrode during a predetermined measuring period and measuring a current through the ring electrode during at least a part of this period, or by, after detection of a QRS wave, applying a potential on the ring electrode and measuring the current between the housing and the ring electrode during the measuring period and also applying an alternating current between the tip electrode and the housing and measuring a voltage difference between the tip electrode and the
An electrochemical sensor based on a three-electrode method containing a reference electrode, comprising: A working electrode 2, a counter electrode 3 and a reference electrode 4 formed on an insulating substrate 1; an examining electrode 8 provided to examine an electric potential of the reference electrode 4; a combining layer 20, an immobilized enzyme layer 21 and a diffusion-limiting layer 22 made of a fluororesin provided on voltmeter is provided on these electrodes, between the examining electrode 8 and the reference electrode 4 so that the electric potential of the reference electrode can be examined; to detect an abnormality in the reference electrode immediately after its occurrence, recover a high reliability of measured value by removing the abnormality quickly, make it possible to conduct a continuous measurement for a long time and furthermore try to reduce a running cost.
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA synthesis using tyrosinase-immobilized on electrode surfaces. AU - Rahman, Siti Fauziyah. AU - Gobikhrisnan, Siramulu. AU - Misri, null. AU - Jong, Gwi Taek. AU - Park, Don Hee. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the direct precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. L-DOPA is a well-known neuroprotective agent for the treatment of Parkinsons disease symptoms. L-DOPA was synthesized using the enzyme, tyrosinase, as a biocatalyst for the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA and an electrochemical method for reducing L-DOPAquinone, the product resulting from enzymatic synthesis, to L-DOPA. In this study, three electrode systems were used: A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as working electrode, a platinum, and a Ag/AgCl electrode as auxiliary and reference electrodes, respectively. GCE has been modified using electropolymerization of pyrrole to facilitate the electron transfer process and immobilize tyrosinase. Optimum ...
EEG electrode is a medical device that is used for recording the electrical activity of the brain. Technavios EEG electrodes market analysis considers sales from the adoption of disposable EEG electrodes and reusable EEG electrodes. Our analysis also considers the sales of EEG electrodes in Asia, Europe, North America, and ROW. In 2018, the disposable EEG electrodes segment had a significant market share, and this trend is expected to continue over the forecast period. The benefits of using disposable EEG electrodes including improved safety profile and reduced prices will play a significant role in the disposable EEG electrodes segment to maintain its market position. Also, our global EEG electrodes market report looks at factors such as the increasing prevalence of neurological disorders, rising demand for EEG procedures, and increasing initiatives and support from governments and healthcare organizations. However, high cost of EEG devices and procedures, shortage of skilled professionals, ...
A removable medical electrode system for monitoring electrical activity of selected tissue comprises a flexible member (22) of electrically insulating material shaped to conform to a surface of the tissue (20). It includes a mechanism (32, 34) for articulating the electrode (10) between an expanded and contracted position to place and remove the electrode (10) on the tissue (20), and to hold the electrode (10) in place during an operation. An electrical conductor (42) is fixed to the electrode (10) to carry electrical impulse signals from the nerve tissue (20) to a monitoring system.
In this study an alternative supporting electrolyte was used in enzyme immobilization. Invertase was studied to observe the effect of the supporting electrolyte. Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) was used as the supporting electrolyte during the electrolysis of pyrrole. The results show that the polymeric supporting electrolyte can be used instead of sodium dodecyl sulfate ...
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0138]However, the electrode combination can be shifted distally, i.e., upward in the orientation of FIG. 7. There is room on leads 26A, 26B to shift the electrode combination distally by two shift positions. Hence, if the initial position is shift position 1, shifts can be made to shift position 2 and shift position 3. Each shift may represent a shift in the position of the active electrodes associated with the previous electrode combination such that the electrical stimulation pattern remains identical or substantially similar, e.g., in terms of relative positions and spacing between the active electrodes in both the initial and shifted electrode combination. In addition, the initial and shifted electrode combinations have a common number of electrodes. In the example of FIG. 7, each electrode combination has three electrodes (110C, 110D, and 112C for the first combination), and the electrode combinations have a substantially similar electrode pattern. Active electrodes are those electrodes ...
The present invention relates generally to systems and methods for electrochemical sensing. Particularly, the invention relates to optimizing bias settings in an electrode system to increase oxygen pr
In this study, a sodalite nanozeolite was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Following the morphology evolution of the sodalite nanozeolite in the SEM images illustrates the formation of the spherical particle with a size between 60 and 80 nm. Then, carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by sodalite nanozeolite and Ni2+ ions. The electrocatalytic performance of the fabricated electrode (Ni-SOD/CPE) towards glucose oxidation were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and Chronoamperometry and it was used as anode for the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in 0.1 M of NaOH solution. Also, the electron transfer coefficient, the diffusion coefficient and the mean value of catalytic rate constant for glucose and redox sites of electrode were found to be 0.86, 3.13×10−5 cm2 s−1 and 5.34×106 cm3 mol−1 s−1, respectively. Good catalytic activity, high sensitivity, good choice and the stability and easy preparation enables the modified
Glutathione (GSH) has been detected with an electrochemical sensor. Different types of modified electrode material (screen-printed graphite, graphite-epoxy resin) have been compared. The best results for analytical determination were obtained with screen-printed graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) at a potential of 0.20 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The analytical determination of GSH is based on the oxidation by a t-butylhydroperoxide catalysed by the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in solution, according to: 2GSH + ROOM → GSSG + H2O + ROH. Calibration curves of GSH standard solutions linear up to 30 µM were obtained in a solution of phosphate buffer (0.05 M phosphate ions, pH = 7) and 0.005 M EDTA. This new procedure seems to be highly reproducible and has the distinct advantage of fast response time, linearity up to 30 µM of glutathione and a detection limit of 4 µM.. ...
The invention discloses a kind of preparation method of lithium-sulfur cell electrode material, the present invention uses graphene oxide for carrier, SiO 2 For template, furancarbinol is carbon source, and oxalic acid is catalyst, prepares porous [email protected] composite material, final product is layered structure, by the above-mentioned layered structure porous [email protected] composite material prepared with sulphur powder is compound prepares high-performance lithium-sulphur battery electrode material;The present invention has many advantages, such as that simple preparation method, easy control of reaction conditions, final electrode material charging and discharging capacity are high;Presoma layered structure porous [email protected] composite material structure novel, the electric conductivity of electrode material is promoted using graphene as conductive carrier, porous carbon can play the role of dispersing sulphur and constraint electric discharge intermediate product polysulfide as
How to Apply sEMG Electrodes The MyoTrac Muscle Monitor ships with a starter package of 3 Triode electrodes. If you want to use a different electrode configuration than the Triode Electrode Pad provides, you can order an Extender Cable.. In order to allow bilateral placement on the same muscle group an Extender Cable (available in lengths of 40 or 21) is available. This extender cable plugs into the end of the Triode Electrode head that ships with the MyoTrac and allows a strip of 3 electrodes to be used together for a Frontalis placement or separated for placements on other muscles bilaterally (such as the temporalis, masseter, trapezius, etc. muscle groups).. We have created a series of illustrations to clarify the process preparing the electrodes for placement. Both the Triode Electrode Pads and the Strip of 3 Electrodes are available in packages of 100. They both feature hypoallergenic adhesive surfaces and silver chloride electrodes that do not need gel applied. Both types of electrodes ...
article{e3604934-e3c4-4e2c-8fa9-23566d3e0157, abstract = {The role of the electrode material in the efficiency of direct (non-mediated) bioelectrocatalytic reduction of H2O2, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is studied and discussed. The variations in direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis when coming from carbon/graphite to metal electrodes and oxides, as well as modified electrodes, are analyzed regarding the variations in adsorption/orientation of peroxidase at the electrodes, interfacial electron transfer rates and mechanism of catalysis.}, author = {Ferapontova, Elena}, issn = {1040-0397}, keyword = {Modified electrodes,Silver,Gold,Graphite,Horseradish peroxidase,Bioelectrocatalysis}, language = {eng}, number = {13-14}, pages = {1101--1112}, publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, series = {Electroanalysis}, title = {Direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis on a variety of electrode materials}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elan.200403003}, volume = {16}, year = {2004 ...
A highly reliable biosensor is provided which is reduced in influences of any interfering substance or preexisting oxygen in a sample solution. The biosensor comprises an electrode system including a working electrode, a counter electrode and a third electrode also usable as an interfering substance detecting electrode, a reagent layer containing at least an oxidoreductase and an electron mediator, and an electrically insulating base plate for supporting the electrode system and the reagent layer, wherein the third electrode is arranged at an opposing position to that of at least one of the working electrode and the counter electrode and the reagent layer is arranged at a predetermined position apart from the third electrode.
Abstract The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) at physiological pH7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98×10−3 μM to 62.8μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors
Definition of electrochemical reaction by Electropedia. Meaning of electrochemical reaction. Translations of electrochemical reaction. Equivalent terms for electrochemical reaction.
The radial now microring electrode (RFMRE), a new hydrodynamic ultramicroelectrode, is described. In the RFMRE, solution flows from a capillary nozzle, which is positioned very close to a planar substrate using micro-positioners. The RFMRE can be operated in one of two configurations: either (a) with the ring electrode on the capillary or (b) with the ring electrode positioned in the plane of the substrate directly underneath the capillary. In both arrangements, as fluid leaves the capillary, it is forced into the nozzle/substrate gap and flows radially past the ring electrode. Under these conditions, the RFMRE is effectively analogous to a microband channel electrode. The RFMRE is shown to be characterized by well-defined, variable, and high mass-transfer rates under steady-state voltammetric conditions. Mass-transfer coefficients in excess of 2 cm s(-1) have been readily achieved with the RFMRE operating at relatively low volume now rates (1.67 x 10(-2) cm(3) s(-1)). The device thus has ...
A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-spheres has been fabricated through a simple casting procedure. The modified GCE displays high selectivity and excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA). In the co-existence system, the peak separations between AA and DA, DA and 5-HT, and AA and 5-HT are large up to 230, 180, and 410 mV, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been employed to simultaneously detect DA, 5-HT, and AA, and the linear calibration curves for DA, 5-HT, and AA are obtained in the range of 20.0-150.0 μM, 40.0-750.0 μM and 300.0-2,000.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.0 μM, 0.7 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. The proposed electrode has been applied to detect DA, 5-HT, and AA in real samples using standard addition method with satisfactory results.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensitive and Profitable Electrochemical Detection of Uric Acid in the Presence of Dopamine with a Novel Carbon Paste Electrode Decorated with a Copper(II) Complex. AU - Tamayo, Lenka V.. AU - Torres, Juan F.. AU - Llanos-Penagos, Johisner. AU - Calderón, Jorge A.. AU - Nagles, Edgar. AU - García-Beltrán, Olimpo. AU - Hurtado, John J.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2019 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - A new microcomposite with copper(II) complex and carbon paste (CuC/CPE) was developed to determine the uric acid (UA) content in the presence of dopamine (DP) and was characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed high selectivity for UA compared with DP because the anodic peak currents for DP were near those of a CPE without Cuc and were considerably increased for UA. The UA and DP increases were 86.9 % and 14.3 %, respectively, ...
Abstract: Stable electrode modified by aminylferrocene/L-cysteine(L-Cys) was fabricated successfully by linking aminylferrocene to L-Cys self-assembled monolayer(SAM) with coupling reagent. The modified electrode exhibits a pair of reversible redox peaks in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The electrochemical behaviors of the modified electrode were explored in detail with cyclic voltammetry and a.c. impedance. The apparent electron transfer coefficient and standard rate constant were calculated to be 0.66 and 6.86 s-1 for the modified electrode respectively. The modified electrode shows electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of epinephrine (EP) in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The peak current was proportional to the concentration of EP in the range of 2.0×10-7~1.0×10-5 mol·dm-3. Key words: Aminylferrocene, L-cysteine, Self-assembled monolayer, Electrocatalysis, Epinephrine ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Self-Assembly of Biomolecules on Electrode Surfaces; Oligonucleotides, Amino Acids, and Proteins towards the Single-Molecule Level. AU - Wackerbarth, Hainer. AU - Zhang, Jingdong. AU - Grubb, Mikala. AU - Hansen, Allan Glargaard. AU - Ooi, Bee Lean. AU - Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager. AU - Ulstrup, Jens. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Book chapter. VL - Chapter 15. SP - 485. EP - 516. BT - Electrochemistry of Nucleic Acids and Proteomics. A2 - Palecek, E.. A2 - Scheller, F.. A2 - Wang, J.. PB - Elsevier. CY - Amsterdam. ER - ...
0013]Now referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, two schematic block diagrams and a simplified circuit diagram of an electrode pair and monitor or monitor input circuit may be seen. The sensing electrode for sensing the bio-electric signal VS may be of a conventional monitoring electrode design or a special electrode design fabricated for this specific purpose. The reference electrode design may also be a conventional reference electrode design, if desired, a single electrode or a composite of several electrodes, as is well known in the art of ECG monitoring. It is preferred that the reference electrode be in contact with the body tissue at a greater distance from the bio-electric tissue of interest than the sensing electrode. It is also preferred that the reference electrodes position be constant or experience less motion (less percent change in distance relative to the tissue generating the bio-electric signal of interest) than the sensing electrode. As shown in FIG. 1, the monitor may be a ...
Electrocatalytic mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) on the highly dispersed Au microparticles electrodeposited on the surface of the glass carbon (GC) electrode in the alkaline Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution and the surface characteristics of the Au microparticle-modified glass carbon (Au/GC) electrode were studied with in situ FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the final products of HCHO oxidation is HCOO- at the Au/GC electrode and CO2 at the bulk Au electrode. The difference may be ascribed to the different surface characteristics between the Au/GC electrode and the bulk Au electrode. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
In this study, a carbon electrode electroless polymerization of polypyrrole, which formed a layer of conductive film interface,then absorped a layer of carbon nanotube particles by the way of self-assembled, is studied. The modified electrode is used to electrostatic adherence of formaldehyde dehydrogenase, with Nafion solution capped. Moreover this paper discusses the work of electrode position, PH value and scanning speed on the influence of the electrode response, the response potential is -1.2v, the optimal PH value is 7.5, and we also review the linear range of this electrode, we discovered taht this biosensor have a good linear relationship with the concentration of 1ug/ml-360ug/ml, the Correlation coefficient is 0.9983. In addition,with the stability of this electrode tested, it can be stored 15d at4°C.
Precis of the Global Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) Market 2017 Research Report Explore Professional Survey, Market Professional, and more!. The market research report provides a detailed analysis and data about the Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) market statistical study, the key players, growth dynamics, and geographical analysis. The report provides the information concerning the factors that impel the growth of the Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) global industry. The Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) market constitute of the leading groups which play a vital role in the product sales, manufacturing, production, distribution of the products in order to meet the supply and demand chain. A detailed study of the global market share of the past and the future along with the predictable forecast trends is also mentioned in the present report.. ...
A NEW ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR BASED ON MODIFIED CARBON NANOTUBE-GRAPHITE MIXTURE PASTE ELECTRODE FOR VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF RESORCINOL
TY - CHAP. T1 - Microcoaxial electrode for local nitric oxide measurement in biological systems. AU - Kitamura, Yoshiichiro. AU - Uzawa, Tomoyuki. AU - Oka, Kotaro. AU - Komai, Yutaka. AU - Ogawa, Hiroto. AU - Kobayashi, Hirosuke. AU - Takizawa, Naosada. AU - Tanishita, Kazuo. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - A new nitric oxide (NO) selective electrode was developed. The tip diameter of the NO electrode is less than 10 μm. A working and a reference electrodes are located coaxially at the tip of the NO electrode. A stable NO donor SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine) and a putative NO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) was used to examine the response of the electrode. Considering the instantaneous concentration of NO secretion previously reported in biological systems, 0.1, 1 μM NO solution was used to calibrate the electrode. From the result of the test of the electrode with SNAP and Hb, we confirmed this microcoaxial NO electrode can detect NO released from SNAP directly and continuously. From the ...
A robust pH sensor from Endress+Hauser can now solve the problem of reference contamination commonly experienced during pH measurement in ultra harsh conditions such as mining slurries and paper & pulp applications.. pH measurement within ultra harsh applications that include high solid content poses several challenges. Because of the harmful ions that defuse into the pH electrode reference system and the high solid content, the potential to disable the electrode by blocking the diaphragm under these extreme conditions is high. The surface area of the pH electrode diaphragm therefore needs to be enlarged to avoid blockage. However this increases the risk of reference contamination as the diaphragm is porous and more harmful ions can now enter the reference system of the pH electrode.. Traditionally, these enlarged diaphragms have been made from wood due to its resistance to contamination, but the wooden diaphragm is relatively thick and slows down the electrodes response time. In most critical ...
An electrochemical impedance technique which measures the impedance between two reference electrodes placed on opposite sides of the working electrode, and which can be used for the determination of the effective conductivity in the pore electrolyte in a porous electrode is presented. Information about the electroactive surface area and kinetic parameters can also be obtained from these measurements. A theoretical expression for the evaluation of the experimental results has been derived and analysed. The high frequency intercept of the impedance curve with the real axis will give the external ohmic resistance for electrode materials with an infinitely high conductivity. Even at very low frequencies, some of the current passing through the electrode will pass through the electrode in the solid material. The relative importance of this transfer of current in the solid phase through the electrode can be determined for the general case by the dimensionless quantity λ, which depends on the ...
The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response characteristic. This sensor comprises: an electrically insulating base plate; an electrode system including at least a working electrode and a counter electrode formed on the base plate; and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or in the vicinity of the electrode system, and the reaction layer contains at least one kind of additive selected from the group consisting of gluconic acid and salts thereof.
The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response characteristic. This sensor comprises: an electrically insulating base plate; an electrode system including at least a working electrode and a counter electrode formed on the base plate; and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or in the vicinity of the electrode system, and the reaction layer contains at least one kind of additive selected from the group consisting of gluconic acid and salts thereof.
Cardiology Specialty Multi-Function Electrodes, with a low viscosity gel that provides the best skin coupling, are designed to virtually eliminate dermal damage in special procedure areas of the hospital.. Radiolucent Multi-Function Electrodes are designed to provide an unobstructed view of the coronary arteries during x-ray studies. Available in solid or liquid gel.. Biphasic Multi-Function Electrodes are part of the complete Rectilinear Biphasic™ system -ZOLLs breakthrough technology-proven to achieve superior results in cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Lower energy levels combined with the unique liquid gel technology virtually eliminate post-procedural dermal damage.. Sterile Multi-Function Electrodes, with a unique two-pouch system that allows placement of the posterior electrode prior to surgery, are optimal for use in the operating room. They are also available with 10-foot (3-meter) lead wires.. Pacing Only Electrodes are long-term pacing electrodes proven to work with ZOLLs ...
A review. The data reported in literature demonstrate that screen-printed carbon electrodes are very suitable for supporting nucleic-acid layers and to transduce effectively the DNA recognition event and many works have been devoted to developing self contained screen-printed DNA chips. In an effort to develop a rapid and efficient scheme for immobilizing nucleic acids onto carbon screen-printed transducers, many authors took advantage of the strong adsorptive accumulation of these biomols. at the screen-printed carbon surfaces. In particular, many of them reported that electrochem. adsorption (adsorption controlled by a pos. potential) enhances the stability of the probe and this technique was preferentially chosen. Thus, this review will focus on an electrochem. genosensor developed using carbon screen-printed electrodes as the transducers; the methods to immobilize DNA probes onto carbon based surfaces will be reviewed and special emphasis will be given to the description of the electrochem. ...
Electrode combinations.Red electrodes are used for current injunction, and green electrodes are used for voltage measurement. The combinations can be divided in
Get the most from your R Series® resuscitation platform with OneStep Electrodes for adults and pediatrics. OneStep Complete Electrodes for adults offer high-current defibrillation and capture CPR quality. These electrodes can also be used for monitoring and for cardioversion, and to deliver constant-current pacing-without the need for a separate three-lead ECG cable.. OneStep Pediatric CPR Electrodes provide the only CPR support for children under 55 pounds, while also enabling defibrillation, pacing, and cardioversion. When pediatric electrodes are attached, the R Series automatically reduces the starting energy to 50 joules to ensure safe defibrillation.. OneStep Electrodes can remain pre-connected, even during a 30-joule shock test, because of a patented dual-circuit design. There is no need to disconnect the electrodes to test the defibrillator, meaning readiness is not compromised.. ...
Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers (PEMEs) are the key to integrating renewable energy generation with energy storage to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change. The commercialization of large PEME systems, however, requires improvements to electrode design, performance, and reduction of material costs. In particular, reducing the precious metal loading at the oxygen producing electrode (anode) is critical to making PEME commercially competitive. Measuring the electrode potentials separately is imperative to understanding and improving cell performance. A reliable reference electrode (RE) can provide much more precise information about the anode performance. A RE was developed for PEME application. The efficacy of the RE was confirmed by two parametric studies. The first parametric study served to demonstrate that the combined individual electrode potentials measured with the RE were exactly consistent with the overall potential difference of the cell. A ...
A defibrillation pulse generator and lead system particularly adapted to allow for implant in a single incision and subcutaneous pocket. The electrode system consists of a right ventricular electrode and a combined, subcutaneously implanted pulse generator housing and flexible periprerally extending electrode. The flexible electrode extends in a generally co-planar relation with respect to the major surfaces of the device housing and may comprise a plurality of electrode segments electrically connected in common with the device housing and distributed over a flexible electrode pad.
METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) electrodes (n=4) were submerged in 37°C +/-0.5°C 1X phosphate buffered saline and incubated over ~200 hours during which EIS and CV were performed 3X daily using a three electrode system. During EIS, a sinusoidal stimulation with amplitude of 10 mV with respect to the open circuit potential was applied at frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. CV was completed by sweeping the potential on the working electrode from an initial voltage and upper limit of 0.8 V to a lower limit of -0.6 V using a scan rate of 1000 mV/s. The mean CSCc of the four experimental electrodes was then calculated and differences were quantified using a linear regression model. The initial 10 hours of incubation time during testing were excluded from models to focus on long term stability as opposed to initial electrode fluctuations ...
Lithium-ion battery technology remains to be the heart in operating the majority of new commercial mobile devices and electrical vehicles. Thus, even though it is more than 25 years ago Sony introduced the worlds first commercial Li-ion battery, there is still today a demand for cheaper and safer battery materials with higher energy density. In order to meet this demand, an increased fundamental understanding of the detailed structural and microstructural transformations and electrochemical reactions taking place in Li-ion batteries is needed. For this purpose we have developed special capillary-based micro-battery cells allowing diffraction information to be obtained from only the active electrode material during battery operation. We have used the cell to study structural and microstructural changes during battery operation by in situ / operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Operando XRPD studies of both cathode and anode materials will be presented as examples of the ...
Ceramic proton conductors have the potential to become an essential part of future clean energy systems - from fuel cells to steam electrolysers and catalytic membrane reactors. The project gathers world-leading industry (CoorsTek), high research excellence institute (SINTEF) and university (UiO FASE) to develop innovative segmented-in-series proton conducting ceramic cells integrating novel composite glass-ceramic interconnects and nanostructured electrodes for stable operation of highly efficient steam methane reforming reactors. To tackle this ambitious objective, the project builds on the core expertise of the partners and addresses two distinct research activities underpinning the development of these novel reactors: hierarchically porous electrodes with a nanostructured porous network for improved catalytic activity confined in a macroporous network ensuring fast mass transport; and development of an integrated composite interconnect and seal ensuring dual functions of gas tightness and ...
Dealing with complete cells is a lot to think about at once. Chemists recognized this and developed the notion that they could theoretically separate the anode and cathode parts of the cell (impossible in practice, or a complete circuit wouldnt be present). Using this assumption, they could consider only the oxidation or reduction reaction, one at a time. So the concept of an electrode potential value was born. The conventional standard conditions mentioned above express this as a standard electrode potential. Even then, as in all of thermodynamics, chemists cannot readily establish absolute values. All standard electrode potential values are established relative to a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is defined as having a potential of 0.000 volts. Students should consult their textbooks for details on the construction of a standard hydrogen electrode. The AP Chemistry Examination is unlikely to address this subject.. For student reference, the AP Chemistry Exam includes a table ...
In this study, Pt-Ir binary electrodes were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical techniques, and CO stripping. The effect of Ir loading in electrocatalytic activity was also explored. It was found that Ir doping up to 80 % resulted in an increase of the electrochemically active surface (EAS) area and better electrocatalytic performance toward methanol electrooxidation reaction (MOR). The above conclusion was confirmed by CO stripping experiments as well as during oxidation of methanol where the electrodes were used as anodes in a one-compartment cell. The electrode with the lower Pt loading (i.e., 20 %) exhibited better electrocatalytic activity than the pure Pt anode. The observed higher performances of Ir loading electrodes were attributed to the enhanced EAS of the Pt-Ir binary electrodes and the electronic interactions between Pt and Ir atoms.. Keywords: Pt-Ir electrodes ; Methanol oxidation ...
It is shown, for the first time, that a bare carbon paste electrode can be used for the simultaneous quantification of anti-inflammatory drugs: naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DCF) and acetaminophen (ACT) in aqueous media. The analytical features are: 19 ± 7, 4.1 ± 1.9 and 3.7 ± 1.5 μM as detection limits of DCF
An enzyme electrode based on a glass electrode for measuring penicillin-V concentration is described. In preparing this electrode, penicillinase is immobilized by cross-linking with a very fine film of glutaraldehyde, which is sprayed directly over the sensitive end of a pH glass electrode. The penicillin sensor was used for the determination of penicillin-V concentrations in phosphate buffer, fermentation broth and dairy milk, the ranges of concentrations detected being 1.5-15, 2.5-15 and 2-12 mM, respectively. The linearity, stability, sensitivity, reversibility and pH and buffer strength dependence of the electrode were examined and are discussed. An extremely short response time of less than 10 s is obtained with electrodes made in this manner.
Covalent tethering of PPh2NC6H4C [[triple bond, length as m-dash]] CH2 ligands (PPh2NC6H4C [[triple bond, length as m-dash]] CH2 = 1,5-di-(4-ethynylphenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) to planar, azide-terminated glassy carbon electrode surfaces has been accomplished using a CuI-catalyzed al... Earth Abundant Element Compounds in Homogeneous Catalysis
Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide production via cathodic reduction of oxygen on self-made gas diffusion electrode was studied in an undivided system. The effects of mass ratio between graphite and PTFE, cathodic potential, pH, and gas flow rate on hydrogen peroxide output were investigated. When the mass ratio between graphite and PTFE was 2:1, pH=3, Na2SO4 concentration was 0.1 mol•L−1, oxygen flow rate was 0.4 L•min−1, and cathodic potential was −0.55 V (vs SCE), hydrogen peroxide concentration could reach about 60 mg•L−1 after 2 h. It had a good hydrogen peroxide output and current efficiency. The pH values applicable to hydrogen peroxide production could be extended to a wide range in this undivided system and this novel gas diffusion electrode system is expected to be applicable in waste water treatment. Key words: Gas diffusion electrode, Cathodic potential, Oxygen reduction, Hydrogen peroxide, Current efficiency ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in biphasic electrode impedance with protein adsorption and cell growth. AU - Newbold, Carrie. AU - Richardson, Rachael. AU - Millard, Rodney. AU - Huang, Christie. AU - Milojevic, Dusan. AU - Shepherd, Robert. AU - Cowan, Robert. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of protein adsorption and cell growth to increases in electrode impedance that occur immediately following implantation of cochlear implant electrodes and other neural stimulation devices. An in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface was used. Radiolabelled albumin in phosphate buffered saline was added to planar gold electrodes and electrode impedance measured using a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse. The polarization impedance component increased with protein adsorption, while no change to access resistance was observed. The maximum level of protein adsorbed was measured at 0.5 μg cm-2, indicating a tightly packed monolayer of albumin molecules ...
CarboGraphite Group was establishe in 1992, 27 years of production experience,which is one of the earliest and biggest suppliers of high-quality Graphite Electrode and carbon products in China.Which is specialized in R&D, manufactures and sales of various graphite electrodes. Including Electrodes For Sales Uhp,Uhp Graphite Electrode With Nipples,UHP Graphite Electrode,Price Uhp Graphite Electrode,Graphite Electrode Uhp For Arc Furnace, Uhp Graphite Electrode Spot. The company has a production capacity of 50,000 tons of graphite electrode,200,000 tons of Electrode Paste,150,000 tons of refined petroleumcoke,100,000 tons of pre-baked anode, 50,000 tons of carbon brick,special sealing paste, 50,000 tons of Refractory material. Our company has domestic advanced quality inspection system and perfect after-sales service team, to the masses of customers to provide quality products and good technical services, and is willing to cooperate sincerely with new and old friends. Raw Materials:Needle ...
In this paper, an electrochemical application of bismuth film modified glassy carbon electrode for azo-colorants determination was investigated. Bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) was prepared by ex-situ depositing of bismuth onto glassy carbon electrode. The plating potential was −0.78 V (vs. SCE) in a solution of 0.15 mg mL−1 Bi(III) and 0.05 mg mL−1 KBr for 180 s. In the next step, a thin film of chitosan was deposited on the surface of bismuth modified glassy carbon electrode, thus the bismuth-chitosan thin film modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi-CHIT/GCE) was fabricated and compared with bare GCE and bismuth modified GCE.Azo-colorants such as Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine were determined on these electrodes by differential pulse voltammetry. Due to overlapping peaks of Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine, simultaneous determination of them is not possible, so net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) was used for this determination. The results showed that coated chitosan can enhance ...
A process for producing an electrode material for a rechargeable lithium battery, comprising the steps of mixing a metal compound (a) of a metal (a′) capable of being electrochemically alloyed with lithium, a transition metal compound (b) of a transition metal (b′) and a complexing agent (c) with a solvent (d) to obtain a mixed solution, mixing a reducing agent (e) with said mixed solution to obtain a mixture, and oxidizing said reducing agent in said mixture to reduce ion of said metal (a′) and ion of said transition metal (b′) to obtain an amorphous alloy material capable of being electrochemically alloyed with lithium as said electrode material. An electrode structural body in which said electrode material is used, and a rechargeable lithium battery in which said electrode material is used.
2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of ...
CarboGraphite Group is specialized in R&D, manufaturing and marketing of various graphite electrodes.The company was established in 1992, 27 years of production experience,which is one of the earliest and biggest suppliers of high-quality Graphite Electrode and carbon products in China. We produce Size 450 Plus 2100 Mm,HP 450 Graphite Electrode,HP 500 Graphite Electrode,HP 550 Graphite Electrode,HP 600 Graphite Electrode.The products has exported to Italy,Russia,Egypt,Singpore,Iran,Pakistan,Ukraine. The company has a production capacity of 50,000 tons of graphite electrode , 150,000 tons of refined petroleumcoke, 100,000 tons of pre-baked anode, 50,000 tons of carbon brick, 200,000 tons of Electrode Paste, special sealing paste, 50,000 tons of Refractory material. ...
Eight randomized placebo-controlled trials provide further evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) may benefit motor function of the paretic upper limb in patients with chronic stroke, say authors of a meta-analysis published online in Journal of Hand Therapy. Prior reviews on the effects of a-tDCS have shown the effectiveness of a-tDCS on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals but nonsignificant effect in participants with stroke. To summarize and evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of a-tDCS in the treatment of upper limb motor impairment after stroke, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared a-tDCS with placebo and change from baseline.. A pooled analysis showed a significant increase in scores in favor of a-tDCS (standard mean difference [SMD]=0.40, compared with baseline). A similar effect was observed between a-tDCS and sham (SMD=0.49). APTA members Margaret Shuster, PT, Kevin Hurley, ...
Enhancement of pinch force in the lower leg by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Differential capacitances were measured in 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (PMIBF4) ionic liquid at three different electrode substrates (Hg, GC (glassy carbon) and Au) as a function of potential. Essentially different capacitance-potential curves were obtained at different electrodes. From the parabolic electrocapillary curve measured at dropping Hg electrode in PMIBF4, the potential of zero charge (PZC) was found to be −0.31 V vs. Ag/AgCl (wire). However, the capacitance-potential curve at Hg electrode was found not to show any valley related to the PZC, whereas at GC and Au electrodes a minimum was observed at 0.29 and −0.51 V, respectively. The results are in disagreement with the recent theoretical study which implies that the capacitance-potential curve should be of bell shape with the maximum value of capacitance at PZC. The parabolic capacitance-potential curve similar to those obtained in inorganic molten salts was also observed for the first time at GC electrode. Probable
The polarographic measurement of tissue oxygenation is one of the most widely used methods in clinical practice for the quantification of tumour hypoxia. However, due to the particular features of the electrode measuring process, the results of the measurements do not accurately reflect the tumour oxygenation. This study aimed to find a correlation between the electrode measurements and the tumour oxygenation in an attempt to improve the accuracy of the predictions regarding the response to treatment based on electrode measurements. A previously developed computer model that allows the simulation of tumour tissue and electrode measurements was used. The oxygenation of a large number of tumours with biologically relevant distributions of blood vessels was theoretically calculated. Simulations of electrode measurements allowed the comparison between the real tissue oxygenation and the results obtained with the electrode. A semi-empirical relationship between the hypoxic fraction measured by the ...
Orient Carbon Industry is one the largest carbon, graphite electrode supplier and manufacturer in the north of China. They are the only products that can sustain high heat levels. Graphite electrodes come into RP Graphite electrodes, HP Graphite electrodes.
The ability of alkali-substituted binders for composite Si and graphite negative electrodes to minimize capacity fade for lithium ion batteries is investigated. Polymer films and electrodes are described and characterized by FTIR following immersion in electrolyte (1:2 EC:DMC) for 24 h. FTIR analysis following electrode formation displayed similar alkali-ion dependent shifts in peak location suggesting that changes in the vibrational structure of the binder are maintained after electrode formation. The Si and graphite composite electrodes prepared using the alkali-substituted polyacrylates were also exposed to electrochemical cycling and it has been found that the performance of the Na-substituted binder is superior to a comparable density K-substituted system. However, in comparing performance across many different electrode densities attention needs to be placed on making comparisons at similar densities, as low density electrodes tend to exhibit lower capacity fade over cycling. This is ...
A fuel cell electrode material comprising a cermet which comprises metal particles consisting of cobalt and nickel and electrolyte particles consisting of solid oxides, wherein the metal particles comprise 20 to 90 mol % cobalt and the residue of nickel in terms of CoO and NiO, respectively, and a solid oxide fuel cell battery comprising a fuel cell which comprises a solid electrolyte base, a fuel electrode formed on a fuel compartment side of the base, and an air electrode formed on an air compartment side of the base, wherein the fuel electrode is formed from the electrode material of the present invention.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrocatalytic oxidation of dihydronicotineamide adenine dinucleotide on gold electrode modified with catechol-terminated alkanethiol self-assembly. AU - Nakano, Koji. AU - Ohkubo, Kimihiko. AU - Taira, Hiroaki. AU - Takagi, Makoto. AU - Imato, Toshihiko. N1 - Funding Information: This work was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture of Japan. Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/6/30. Y1 - 2008/6/30. N2 - Synthesis of a mercaptoundecaneamide derivative having a terminus of catechol is described. FT-IR spectroscopic characterization showed that the new molecular entry simply undergoes molecular self-assembly on Au substrate surfaces promoting intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form well-packed monolayers. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements on the monolayer-modified Au electrode revealed that the surface adlayer possesses specific electrochemical ...
The aim of this thesis work has been to study textile and screen printed smartware electrodes for electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements both in terms of their electrode properties and possibility to further improve their robustness to movement induced noise by using signal processing. Smartware electrodes for ECG measurements have previously been used in various applications but basic electrical electrode properties have not sufficiently been looked into. Furthermore, we believe that there is a possibility to reduce disturbances in the smartware ECG by adding redundant sensors and applying sensor fusion signal processing.. Electrical properties of conductive textiles have been evaluated in terms of stability and electrode impedance. Three yarns and textile electrode surfaces were tested. The electrodes made from pure stainless steel and 50\% stainless steel/ 50\% polyester showed acceptable stability of electrode potentials. All electrode measurements were performed on skin.. Furthermore, we ...
Electrodeposition of Silver Amalgam Particles on Screen-Printed Silver Electrodes in Voltammetric Detection of 4-Nitrophenol and Artificial Nucleosides dTPT3 and d5SICS
In addition to the two parallel plate electrodes (denoted as Counter and Working electrode), a third voltage reference electrode is placed close to the polarization layer and measures the voltage difference of the polarization double layer capacity to the working electrode. In contrast to dielectric, conductivity and impedance material spectroscopy where all electrodes are made of inert metal as e.g. gold, stainless steel or platinum, this applies for the electrochemical cell only for the counter electrode feeding current into the electrolyte.. The working electrode consists of the metal to be characterized in combination with the electrolyte. The reference electrode is usually an open tipped glass capillary filled with a standard electrolyte coupled to a standard metal in order to create a defined electrochemical potential to the electrolyte.. The total potential drop across the cell is summed up by all contributions of the chemical process like mass transport, chemical and adsorption steps, ...
Electrodes used only with LIFEPAK EXPRESS AED, LIFEPAK CR Plus AED, LIFEPAK 1000 defibrillator, or LIFEPAK 500 Biphasic AED with a pink connector. AUDIENCE: Risk Manager, Emergency Medicine. ISSUE: Physio-Control announced it is launching a voluntary field action for specific production lots of Infant/Child Reduced Energy Defibrillation Electrodes (defibrillation electrodes) produced by Cardinal Health. The company is notifying customers of an issue with the artwork on the defibrillation electrodes, as manufactured by Cardinal Health, which shows incorrect electrode placement for an infant. There is no issue with the performance or function of the defibrillation electrodes; this is limited to incorrect artwork on the defibrillation electrodes within the packaging.. If the user incorrectly places the defibrillation electrodes, it may result in ineffective energy delivery to the patient and serious injury or death.. BACKGROUND: The defibrillation electrodes are used only with LIFEPAK EXPRESS AED, ...
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a phenomenon in which force exerted on a dielectric particle when it is subjected to a nonuniform electric field. There are many applications of dielectrophoresis and one of them is the separation of particles. In this paper, castellated and straight electrodes are being introduced for negative dep filter of an artificial kidney. In order to avoid the filters from clogging, negative dep will take part to repel the particles. Thus, a simulation by using COMSOL Multiphysics had been done to compare the electrical performances of electrodes. The intensities of electric field were stimulated on the planar electrodes from top to bottom and left to right. Electrodes are made of aluminum and both have thickness of 50μm. Distance between the castellated electrodes are 100μm while the straight electrodes are 300μm. Three graph of electric field vs. length had been compared. The first comparison shows that both designs have similar flow of electric field. The second graphs ...
Autori: Radoi, A, Litescu, SC, Eremia, SAV, Miu, M, Danila, M, Dinescu, A, Radu, GL. Editorial: MICROCHIMICA ACTA, 175, p.97-104 , 2011.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: Carbon nanotubes; (Poly)crystalline gold; Glassy carbon electrode; NADH. ...
In this work, a TiO2 nanoparticle modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was employed as a sensitive sensor for the investigation of the electrochemical behavior of indomethacin (IND). This nanocomposite sensor has been fabricated by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles and the ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate (HPFP). The surface of the electrode was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for quantification of sub-micromolar amounts of IND. Electrochemical parameters of the electrode reaction of IND, including the electron transfer coefficient (α) and the electron-transfer number (n), were calculated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) methods. Under selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear for the concentration of IND in the broad range of 1.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 M with the detection limit of 2.1× 10-8 M. Moreover, the analytical performance of the proposed method for the determination of IND content in plasma
The present invention is generally directed to various methods of controlling gate electrode doping, and various systems for accomplishing same. In one illustrative embodiment, the method disclosed herein comprises performing at least one process operation to form a doped layer of gate electrode material, measuring a sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material and adjusting at least one parameter of at least one process if the measured sheet resistance does not fall within acceptable limits. In one embodiment, the system is comprised of a process tool for performing at least one process operation to form a doped layer of gate electrode material, a metrology tool for measuring a sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material and a controller for adjusting at least one parameter of at least one process operation if the measured sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material does not fall within acceptable limits.
The response time of thermal electrolytic Ag/AgCl reference electrodes is defined by the porous structure that limits the rate at which traces of any previous solution are diluted by any new solution environment. The electrode stabilisation time when transferred from one electrolyte to another has been shown to change when different structural designs to the conventional sphere of Ag/AgCl are used. Electrodes fabricated with cylindrical architectures of Ag/AgCl have shown improved stability and reach equilibrium faster than spherical electrodes. This work has positive implications for the accuracy and throughput of primary pH measurements made using the Harned cell.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
In the present work, an electrochemical sensor for detection of paracetamol was fabricated by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) decorated with bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) based on using the drop dry technique. The prepared composite electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square wave voltammetry (SWV) were used to study the behavior of paracetamol. The modification process improved the redox kinetics of paracetamol as shown by increased peak currents. The peak current varied linearly with increment of paracetamol concentration in the range of 0.02 to 28 μM with a sensitivity of 1.133 μA μM−1. A detection limit of 0.0052 μM was obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of paracetamol in biological samples
The concentration of bile acids is an important parameter in hepatobiliary tract diseases. This work deals with the electrochemical oxidation of the chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) at boron dopped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with the oxidation at glassy carbon (GCE) and platinum electrode (PtE), in a mixed environment of acetonitrile and water (0.26 % from 0.1 mol·l-1 HClO4, supporting electrolyte). The measurement was carried out in an electrochemical cell with salt bridge containing 0.5 mol·l-1 NaClO4 separating the working and the Pleskovs reference electrode (0.01 mol·l-1 AgNO3 and 1 mol·l-1 NaClO4 in acetonitrile). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) characterization of BDD electrode by a redox pair [Fe(CN)6]4-/3- (c = 0.1 mmol·l-1) in 1 mol·l-1 KCl was performed. Quasi-reversible behaviour was observed and the difference of the anodic and the cathodic peak potential ranged from 80 to 200 mV, depending on the scan rate. Alumina polishing (4 min) of the BDD electrode was ...
Lithium-ion batteries have become the rechargeable energy storage system of choice for portable electronic devices due to their high energy density and specific energy capacity compared to other commercial battery technologies. They have enabled important development possible especially in portable consumer electronics such as smart phones, laptop computers since their first use in 1991. However, even the best batteries available provide insufficient energy density and durability for emerging electric transportation systems, including hybrid and fully electric vehicles (EVs). One way to address the capacity and cycle requirement of batteries for EVs is to pursue the development of new electrode materials.. Commercial lithium-ion batteries use graphite as anode material, which has a theoretical specific capacity of only 372 mAh g-1. Lithium (Li) reacts with graphite via intercalation mechanism, which is the insertion/extraction of Li ions in interstitial sites of the host lattice. In contrast, ...
The Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode makes the measure of potassium ions portable. When used with a Vernier LabQuest 2, the Potassium ISE can be used to take readings in the field at lakes or streams. This sensor is easier to set up and use than other methods of measuring potassium ion concentration in aqueous solutions. Because it is a stick-style sensor, its use is similar to using a conductivity probe or a pH sensor in a laboratory setting or in the field. Ion-Selective Electrodes require good chemical technique and careful calibration to obtain accurate results. They are not recommended for middle school or elementary students. We recommend that you do not purchase Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode replacement modules too far in advance of their expected time of use; degradation occurs while replacement modules are stored on the shelf.
The Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode makes the measure of potassium ions portable. When used with a Vernier LabQuest 2, the Potassium ISE can be used to take readings in the field at lakes or streams. This sensor is easier to set up and use than other methods of measuring potassium ion concentration in aqueous solutions. Because it is a stick-style sensor, its use is similar to using a conductivity probe or a pH sensor in a laboratory setting or in the field.. Ion-Selective Electrodes require good chemical technique and careful calibration to obtain accurate results. They are not recommended for middle school or elementary students.. We recommend that you do not purchase Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode replacement modules too far in advance of their expected time of use; degradation occurs while replacement modules are stored on the shelf. ...
An electrolytic cell is provided that can include: a first electrode plate including a first surface that can include a graphite material; a second electrode plate including a second surface that can include a graphite material opposing the first surface; an electrolytic reaction zone between the first surface and the second surface; and an inlet to and an outlet from the electrolytic reaction zone. The first electrode plate and the second electrode plate can include resin-impregnated monolithic graphite plates. The first electrode plate and the second electrode plate can form opposite internal walls of a chamber for the electrolytic reaction and thus can be provided without a container for containing the electrode plates. Methods are also provided for flow-through-resin-impregnating porous, monolithic graphite plates to form electrode plates.
In this paper, the behavior of the salicylate anion-selective electrode was studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. Considering the diagram of the charge transfer resistance and -logarithm of the double layer capacitance versus -logarithm of the concentration, linear range concentration increased to 1.0×10^{-8}-1.0×10^{-1} M and 1.0×10^{-9}-1.0×10^{-1} M, respectively. Among the other characteristics of this study, it can be pointed out a wide pH range of 4.0-10.0. Then one-impedance for one-concentration method was used to measure the salicylate ion at the linear range of 1.0×10^{-8}-1.0×10^{-1} M. Finally, the impedance spectra of this electrode were simulated in which the obtained results of this simulation indicate proximity of experimental and simulation data.
Working with Prof. Barsoums group, we have investigated MXenes as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. MXenes have an advantage over other electrode materials, which is an excellent ability to handle high cycling rates. Also, we have studied some of the MXene materials as electrodes for supercapacitors and their performance is highlighted by high volumetric capacitance.. ...
Optical roughness of a pyrolytic graphite electrode with basal (PGEb) and edge orientation (PGEe), a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and the same electrodes modified with mercury (MFE) was studied by an optical diffractive element (DOE) based sensor. Electrochemical characterisation of these electrodes used was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and capacitance measurements (C-E curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS). The kinetics of phase transients of adenosine adsorbed on PGEb, and GCE modified with mercury layer of different thicknesses (thickness was changed from 0.02 to 2 mum) was studied by chronoamperometry (j-t curves) and capacitance measurements (C-E curves). In acidic (pH 5) solution adenosine forms two different two-dimensional (2D) physisorbed condensed layers on the MFE. The first of these (region 1) is located at more positive potential; the centre of this adlayer is situated around -0.4 V. The second 2D physisorbed film (region 111) is formed at more negative ...
A hydrogen-occlusion electrode and a method of manufacturing the electrode are described. The hydrogen-occlusion electrode comprises from about 42-84 vol. % of a hydrogen-occlusion alloy, from about 3-13 vol. % of a bonding material, from about 3-15 vol. % of an electroconductive material, and has residual pores in an amount of 10-30 vol. %. The electroconductive material has an average particle size of 1.3 .mu.m or less. The bonding material is preferably polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdf). In manufacturing the foregoing hydrogen-occlusion electrode, a formed electrode plate body including PVdF as a bonding material is heat-treated in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 160.degree. C. to about 200.degree. C. An electrode is thereby obtained wherein the alloy particles are prevented from separating from the electrode resulting in an improvement of mechanical strength and electroconductivity in the electrode. When the
Horiba Chloride Ion Electrode - 8002-10C Horiba Ion Selective Electrodes This electrode is for measuring the chloride ion concentration in aqueous samples. The measurement range is 0.35 to 35,000 mg/L Cl-.
Standard electrode potentials (reduction potentials)[edit]. Each half-reaction has a standard electrode potential (E0. cell), ... The battery is made out of a zinc electrode in a ZnSO4 solution connected with a wire and a porous disk to a copper electrode ... and the anode is a standard hydrogen electrode where hydrogen is oxidized: ​1⁄2 H2 → H+ + e−.. The electrode potential of each ... Electrode potential values from: Petrucci, Ralph H.; Harwood, William S.; Herring, F. Geoffrey (2002). General chemistry: ...
DEP-well electrodes[edit]. These electrodes were developed [37] to offer a high-throughput yet low-cost alternative to ... Electrode geometries[edit]. At the start, electrodes were made mainly from wires or metal sheets. Nowadays, the electric field ... This electrode geometry showed that the electrical field was highest at the middle of the inter-electrode gaps.[35] ... These small electrodes allow the handling of small bioparticles. The most used electrode geometries are isometric, polynomial, ...
Dry-contact electrode ear-EEG[edit]. Dry-contact electrode ear-EEG is a method in which no gel is applied between the electrode ... the mechanical design of the electrode, the surface properties of the electrode, and how the electrode is retained against the ... When using dry-contact electrodes, the interface between the skin and the electrodes are mainly defined by the electrochemical ... typically by placing electrodes on the scalp. In ear-EEG, the electrodes are exclusively placed in or around the outer ear, ...
Standard electrode potentials (reduction potentials)[edit]. Each half-reaction has a standard electrode potential (E0. cell), ... The battery is made out of a zinc electrode in a ZnSO4 solution connected with a wire and a porous disk to a copper electrode ... and the anode is a standard hydrogen electrode where hydrogen is oxidized: ​1⁄2 H2 → H+ + e−.. The electrode potential of each ... Electrode potential values from Petrucci, R. H.; Harwood, W. S.; Herring, F. G. (2002). General Chemistry (8th ed.). Prentice- ...
Calomel electrode[edit]. Main article: Saturated calomel electrode. Mercurous chloride is employed extensively in ... The calomel electrode is a reference electrode, especially in older publications. Over the past 50 years, it has been ... Other electrodes can vary by 70 to 100 millivolts.[citation needed] Photochemistry[edit]. Mercurous chloride decomposes into ... Although the mercury electrodes have been widely abandoned due to the dangerous nature of mercury, many chemists believe they ...
VEP Electrode Placement[edit]. Electrode placement is extremely important to elicit a good VEP response free of artifact. In a ... one electrode is placed 2.5 cm above the inion and a reference electrode is placed at Fz. For a more detailed response, two ... Brainstem auditory evoked potentials are small AEPs that are recorded in response to an auditory stimulus from electrodes ... additional electrodes can be placed 2.5 cm to the right and left of Oz. ...
Electrodes[edit]. Electrodes in cells are mostly coke which has been purified at high temperatures. Pitch resin or tar is used ... Oxidation of the carbon anode increases the electrical efficiency at a cost of consuming the carbon electrodes and producing ...
Properties of NMC electrodes[edit]. The cell voltage of lithium ion batteries with NMC is 3.6-3.7 V.[23] Manthiram discovered ... In 2001, Zhonghua Lu and Jeff Dahn filed a patent[11] for the NMC class of positive electrode materials, based on the solid ... US US6677082, Thackeray, M; Amine, K. & Kim, J. S., "Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries" ... US US6680143, Thackeray, M; Amine, K. & Kim, J. S., "Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries" ...
These type of electrode sensors can be used for in situ and real-time monitoring of oxygen production in water-splitting ... Its two electrodes provide an output voltage corresponding to the quantity of oxygen in the exhaust relative to that in the ... The Clark-type electrode is the most used oxygen sensor for measuring oxygen dissolved in a liquid. The basic principle is that ... The sensor element is a ceramic cylinder plated inside and outside with porous platinum electrodes; the whole assembly is ...
Multiplate multiple electrode aggregometry[edit]. In the Multiplate analyzer, anticoagulated whole blood is mixed with saline ... The increase in impedance between the electrodes as platelets aggregate onto them, is measured and visualized as a curve.[ ... and a platelet agonist in a single use cuvette with two pairs of electrodes. ...
"Vodex Electrodes". UKWelder forum. "Lex: The first column to appear in the FT". FT.com. October 1945. "FT 30 - the UK's oldest ... In the 1930s, Murex made large quantities of electrodes at their factory in Waltham Cross, and many ships including HMS Ark ...
"Adhesive Electrodes... , Zeo Sleep Manager". January 7, 2012. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved ... The state of sleep was detected by a headband, essentially comprising three long-lasting electrodes made of electrically ... Users had reported before the company closed that disposable adhesive gel ECG electrodes with offset press-stud connections ...
Platinum electrodes with a radius of 5 μm are commercially available and electrodes with critical dimension of 0.1 μm have been ... These electrodes are frequently used with in vivo voltammetry. Every electrode has a range of scan rates called the linear ... These distortions ultimately limit the scan rate for which an electrode is useful. For example, a working electrode with a ... The low ratio of diffusion layer volume to electrode surface area means regular stationary electrodes can not be dropped low ...
The positive electrode is nickel hydroxide, and the negative electrode is hydrogen ions, or protons. The hydrogen ions are ... On the positive electrode, nickel oxyhydroxide, NiO(OH), is formed: Ni(OH)2 + OH− ⇌ NiO(OH) + H2O + e−. The metal M in the ... The negative electrode reaction occurring in a NiMH cell is H2O + M + e− ⇌ OH− + MH. The charge reaction is read left-to-right ... By using an improved electrode separator and improved positive electrode, manufacturers claim the cells retain 70-85% of their ...
Each electrode is connected to one input of a differential amplifier (one amplifier per pair of electrodes); a common system ... 4: Common reference electrode's artifact caused by bad contact between reference electrode and skin. Huge wave similar in all ... When the wave of ions reaches the electrodes on the scalp, they can push or pull electrons on the metal in the electrodes. ... 2: Electrode's artifact caused by bad contact (and thus bigger impedance) between P3 electrode and skin. 3: Swallowing artifact ...
Electrodes and leads[edit]. Proper placement of the limb electrodes. The limb electrodes can be far down on the limbs or close ... However, "leads" can also be formed between a physical electrode and a virtual electrode, known as the Wilson's central ... Electrodes are the actual conductive pads attached to the body surface. Any pair of electrodes can measure the electrical ... Lead II is the voltage between the (positive) left leg (LL) electrode and the right arm (RA) electrode: ...
After platinization, the electrode should be rinsed and stored in distilled water. The electrode loses its catalytic properties ... It is used in many ways; as a thin film electrode, a fuel cell membrane catalyst, or as a catalytic ignition of flammable gases ... Platinum black is widely used as a thin film covering solid platinum metal, forming platinum electrodes for applications in ... The process of covering platinum electrodes with such a layer of platinum black is called "platinization of platinum". The ...
Note: electrode naming for diodes is always based on the direction of the forward current (that of the arrow, in which the ... The electrode through which conventional current flows the other way, into the device, is termed an anode. Conventional current ... Some examples are electrodes in neon lights, cold-cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) used as backlights in laptops, thyratron ... The positively charged electrode attracts the electrons, causing some electrons to leave the cathode's surface. This process is ...
Nikolskii, B. P.; Tolmacheva, T. A. Theory of the glass electrode. III. Transfer from the hydrogen electrode function into the ... He derived equations that describe properties of glass electrodes as well as other types of ion-selective electrodes depending ... Nikolskii, B. P.; Tolmacheva, T. A. Theory of the glass electrode. II. Effect of boric anhydride and aluminum oxide on the ... Nikolskii, B. P.. Theory of the glass electrode. I. Theoretical. // J. Phys. Chem. (U.S.S.R.) (1937), 10, 495-503. ...
A typical cell has four main components: positive electrode, negative electrode, separator and electrolyte. The separator ... To prevent the electrodes from touching each other directly, a microporous separator is in between which allows only the ions ... In addition to this, the positive electrode can be further divided into three parts: the lithium-transition-metal-oxide (such ... Electrodes and Electrolytes. North Holland Publishers, Amsterdam. Murata, Kazuo; Izuchi, Shuichi; Yoshihisa, Youetsu (3 January ...
Because an electrochemical capacitor is composed out of two electrodes, electric charge in the Helmholtz layer at one electrode ... large electrode plate surface areas A and a small distance d between plates. Because activated carbon electrodes have a very ... One layer is within the solid electrode (at the surfaces of crystal grains from which it is made that are in contact with the ... If both electrodes have approximately the same capacitance value, as in symmetrical supercapacitors, the total value is roughly ...
"ITIDA , STDF , advanced Nanoscience , Nanotechnology , IBM Egypt , Silicon Photovoltaics , Carbon-Based Electrodes , IBM ... Graphene Transparent Electrode and Nano-Biotechnology. List of nanotechnology organizations "Archived copy". Archived from the ...
The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes ... Chelated platinum Iron-platinum nanoparticle List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum ... Feltham, A. M.; Spiro, Michael (1971). "Platinized platinum electrodes". Chemical Reviews. 71 (2): 177-193. doi:10.1021/ ... Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance ...
Zhang, W.; Ristein, J.; Ley, L. (2008). "Hydrogen-terminated diamond electrodes. II. Redox activity". Physical Review E. 78 (4 ...
The fiber also finds use in filtration of high-temperature gases, as an electrode with high surface area and impeccable ... to make carbon-fiber disk microelectrode or the fiber is cut to a length of 75-150 μm to make carbon-fiber cylinder electrode. ... "Fabrication of Amperometric Electrodes". Journal of Visualized Experiments (27). doi:10.3791/1040. PMC 2762914 ...
Ionspecific electrodes, ionspecific membrands Ionic conductivity Radiometry Nuclear radiation Absorption spectra Spectroscopy ...
This third electrode is used to give a rewarding electrical stimulus to the brain when the rat makes the correct move to the ... The electrodes do not move the animal directly, as if controlling a robot; rather, they signal a direction or action desired by ... Graham-Rowe, D. (2002). ""Robo-rat" controlled by brain electrodes". New Scientist. Retrieved 10 December 2013.. ... Some applications require electrodes to be implanted in the animal's nervous system connected to a receiver which is usually ...
Electrode (#101) Voltorb and Electrode are some of the least popular Pokémon because of their Poké Ball-inspired designs. Even ... Electrode Marumain (マルマイン) 101 Electric Voltorb (#100) End of evolution Exeggcute Tamatama (タマタマ) 102 Grass Psychic Beginning ... That's why it is nicknamed the "Bomb Ball" In the video games, Voltorb and Electrode are typically used as landmine traps by ... the slightest bit of electricity can make an Electrode explode. ...
Pike, Carolyn M.; Grabner, Chad P.; Harkins, Amy B. (4 May 2009). "Fabrication of Amperometric Electrodes". Journal of ... to make carbon-fiber disk microelectrode or the fiber is cut to a length of 75-150 μm to make carbon-fiber cylinder electrode. ...
PEMFCs are built out of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) which include the electrodes, electrolyte, catalyst, and gas ... Electronics portal Energy portal Dynamic hydrogen electrode Gas diffusion electrode Glossary of fuel cell terms Hydrogen ... An electrode typically consists of carbon support, Pt particles, Nafion ionomer, and/or Teflon binder. The carbon support ... An ink of catalyst, carbon, and electrode are sprayed or painted onto the solid electrolyte and carbon paper is hot pressed on ...
The working electrode is often used in conjunction with an auxiliary electrode, and a reference electrode in a three electrode ... The working electrode is the electrode in an electrochemical system on which the reaction of interest is occurring.[1][2][3] ... Depending on whether the reaction on the electrode is a reduction or an oxidation, the working electrode is called cathodic or ... and mercury drop and film electrodes. Chemically modified electrodes are employed for the analysis of both organic and ...
To see the interfering effect of Na+ to a pH-electrode: E. =. E. 0. +. R. T. F. ln. ⁡. (. a. H. +. +. k. H. +. ,. Na. +. a. Na ... The pH electrode is an example of a glass electrode that is sensitive to hydrogen ions. Glass electrodes play an important part ... internal electrode, usually silver chloride electrode or calomel electrode. *internal solution, usually a pH=7 buffered ... The most common glass electrode is the pH-electrode. Only a few chalcogenide glass electrodes are sensitive to double-charged ...
Electrodes for Your Face Bring Your Emotions to Augmented and Virtual Reality. Tracking facial expressions can make VR and AR ... Advanced Electrodes for Better Li-Ion Batteries. Nanotube anodes could lead to higher-energy, faster-charging batteries for ... Eric Leuthardt believes that in the near future we will allow doctors to insert electrodes into our brains so we can ... Controlling Prosthetic Limbs with Electrode Arrays. A new nerve-cell-support design could give amputees better control over ...
The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition cross-linking. ... Electron transport between the electrode (12) and the mediator film (24) is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination ... 4. An electrode according to claim 2 in which the electrode further contains an effective amount of a catalyst capable of ... 1, a typical photoelectrochemical cell 10 comprises a p-type semiconductor electrode 12, and a counter-electrode 14 disposed in ...
A sheet-like electrode of this type may be used as a substitute for the commonly-used graphite electrodes in cell structures of ... The electrode sheets at either end of the tank are connected to bus bars and function as terminal electrodes. The remaining ... As the electrode wears away and hence the gap between the electrodes increases, there is an increase in the electrical ... Additionally, graphite electrodes are inherently less efficient electrically than metal electrodes. In view of the above- ...
Cutting Products has launched a new web site to highlight its family of 7018 stick electrodes. ... Vistors to the site can receive a complimentary sample of new Atom Arc Acclaim stick electrodes.. ... the product that set the industry standard for 7018 stick electrodes; the new Atom Arc Acclaim that offers all the qualities of ... To find the electrode that best fits your application, visit the site at http://www.esabna.com/7018. ...
However, the electrodes have to be coated with platinum to catalyse the fuel cells reactions, and a way of doing that using ... Read the full platinum nanotube electrode patent application.. Justin Mullins, New Scientist consultant. ...
I wanted to clarify some things on calculating the electrode size. To recap, one of the parameters of tDCS is ... ... that showed a more robust effect with a larger electrode compared to a smaller electrode, so a smaller electrode with a higher ... My question is, which should be taken as the electrode size for calculation? the actual electrode sponge dimensions or the ... A much larger cathodal electrode may be used as the reference electrode when anodal stimulation is desired. In theory, larger ...
One case of OrthoTrode TENS electrodes contains ten packs of four electrodes each; a total of forty (40) electrodes per case. ... How important are TENS Electrodes?. OrthoCos is proud of its OrthoTrode line of reusable TENS Electrodes. TENS stands for ... The electrodes, which are applied to the skin, deliver intermittent simulation to surface nerves to block the transmission of ... Some patients actually need a number of TENS electrodes pads when using multi-channel TENS units. While OrthoCo ships ...
... pair of transparent sustain and discharge electrodes and an address electrode. An alternating current is applied continuously ... to the sustain electrode, the voltage of this current carefully chosen to be just below the threshold of a plasma discharge. ... Other articles where Discharge electrode is discussed: television: Plasma display panels: … ... pair of transparent sustain and discharge electrodes and an address electrode. An alternating current is applied continuously ...
It can be divided into two categories on the basis of the nature of the indicator electrode.… ... The potential of the indicator electrode varies, depending on the concentration of the analyte, while the potential of the ... reference electrode is constant. Potentiometry is probably the most frequently used electroanalytical method. ... potential is applied to the indicator electrode relative to the reference electrode. The analyte electrochemically reacts at ...
100-μm-long three-dimensional nanoscale-tipped microneedle-electrodes. Moreover, they demonstrated the needle penetrations into ... Intracellular recordings using nanotower electrodes Nanoscale-tipped high-aspect-ratio vertical microneedle electrodes for ... Intracellular recordings using nanotower electrodes. Toyohashi University of Technology. Journal. Small. Funder. Japan Science ... On the other hand, our NTE, which is 120-μm-long cone-shaped electrode, has sufficient stiffness to punch tissues and cells", ...
Electrically stimulating specific parts of the brain using an implanted electrode can help severely depressed patients, ... An x-ray shows the position of the electrode leads in the brain of one patient.. "This is a very promising therapy for severe ... Brain Electrodes Help Treat Depression. Studies suggest that deep brain stimulation could effectively treat depression. ... Stimulating brains: Electric currents delivered via electrodes surgically implanted into the brain alleviate depression in some ...
Keating, M.Y.; Rechnitz, G.A. (1983). Cortisol Electrode. Analyst (London) 108: 766-768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Solsky, R.L.; Rechnitz, G.A. (1981). Preparation and Properties of an Antibody-Selective Membrane Electrode. Anal. Chim. Acta ... This class of membrane electrodes respond to specific antibodies through modulation of a background potential fixed by a marker ... Boitieux, J.-L.; Desmet, G.; Thomas, D. (1979). An "Antibody Electrode," Preliminary Report on a New Approach in Enzyme ...
Pushing electrodes deep into the brain allows precision targeting but requires risky surgery. Placing electrodes on the surface ... So while surgery is needed, it is a safer procedure: a hole is drilled in the skull and a tape with several electrodes on ... With this technique, rather than placing the electrodes inside the brain, they are put on its surface. ...
The electrode terminal (front) of a pacemaker is located at the front of the electrode tip in the inferior aspect of the heart ...
... diffuse layer distance drop effect electrochemical reaction electrochemistry electrode kinetics electrode reaction electrode ... reactant reaction coordinate reaction layer reactions in solution reduction reversible ring electrode rotating disc electrode ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electrode_kinetics.html?id=EY00AAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElectrode ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electrode_kinetics.html?id=EY00AAAAMAAJ ...
... are thin and flexible for easier placement and to conform to the curvature of the cortical ... Integra Epilepsy Grid Electrodes. Features. Cortical Grid Electrode with Cylindrical Connector. Standard spacing between ... Integra Epilepsy Flex Connector Grid Electrodes. 11. Integra Epilepsy Gates/Dunn Electrodes. ... Integra Epilepsy grid electrodes are thin and flexible for easier placement and to conform to the curvature of the cortical ...
Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis ... Classification of ISEs Crystalline ISE Glass ISE ISE Ion-Selective Electrode Ionophore-Based ISE Membrane Potential Theory ... Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis ... 1., Ion-Selective Electrode LaboratorySt. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia ...
I seem to have had an allergic reaction to something in the electrodes that were attached to my skin, but Im not 100% sure. ... This morning when I removed them, the places where the electrodes - or rather the gel on them - touched my skin were red. The ... When the technician first attached the electrodes, they stung and burned, with a little itching. This continued but decreased ... Could it be that you are just allergic to the mild adhesive that is in the electrodes? ...
... 09.05.2014. Freiburg researchers develop new method for lowering high blood pressure without ... Now that the scientists have determined that a cuff with electrodes is feasible in principle, they have begun to develop a ... Josef Zentner from the Medical Center - University of Freiburg to develop a new cuff equipped with electrodes that can lower ... The device starts by determining which electrode is closest to the nerve fibers that transmit the blood pressure signal. Then ...
Interhemispheric Grid Electrode with 16 Contact Leads; Cortical Grid Electrode with 16 Contact Leads; Pediatric Grid Electrode ... Dual-sided, Interhemispheric Grid Electrode with 16 Contact Leads; Cortical Grid Electrode with 16 Contact Leads; Pediatric ... Grid Electrode with Flex Connector, 0.5 cm spacing. Info. Integra LifeSciences Corporation. Customer Service: (800) 654-2873. ...
Fatigue-free and biocompatible electrodes. Chuan Fei Guo, Qihan Liu, Guohui Wang, Yecheng Wang, Zhengzheng Shi, Zhigang Suo, ... Fatigue-free and biocompatible electrodes. Chuan Fei Guo, Qihan Liu, Guohui Wang, Yecheng Wang, Zhengzheng Shi, Zhigang Suo, ... Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes. Chuan Fei Guo, Qihan Liu, Guohui Wang, Yecheng ... A metal mesh that conducts electricity, is biocompatible, and is completely free of fatigue will be an ideal electrode not only ...
Fuel cell electrodes and method of making the same. US3236693 *. 11 Oct 1963. 22 Feb 1966. Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc. Electrode ... Method for making electrodes. WO2007072096A1 *. 22 Dec 2006. 28 Jun 2007. Thalesnano Zrt.. Electrode for electrochemical cell ... Electrochemical electrode. US3423247 *. 19 May 1964. 21 Jan 1969. Union Carbide Corp. Porous conductive electrode having at ... Air was passed on one side of the oxidizing electrode and kerosene vapors were passed on one `side of the fuel electrode. The - ...
Rasi Electrodes Director Report, Rasi Electrodes updates and more at Business Standard news. ... Quick Links for Rasi Electrodes:. * News. Announcements Brokerage Reports Business Earnings Sector ... Rasi Electrodes Ltd. (RASIELECTRODES) - Director Report. p{text-transform:none}. Company director report. ... The production of welding electrodes was 1479.980 MTs as against 1699.156 MTsachieved during the previous year. The production ...
The United States International Trade Commission is an independent, nonpartisan, quasi-judicial federal agency that fulfills a range of trade-related mandates. We provide high-quality, leading-edge analysis of international trade issues to the President and the Congress. The Commission is a highly regarded forum for the adjudication of intellectual property and trade disputes.
... the respective locations of at least some of the electrodes of these patterns being staggered relative to electrodes on other ... sets of electrodes on respective spring legs comprising distinctive geometrical patterns, over the ventricle-contacting span of ... legs in the manner to reduce lateral clumping, thus to permit the numerous electrodes to be housed in a catheter sized to be ... the legs, such that the active sets of electrodes provide recognizable patterns when within a ventricle of the heart and viewed ...
... and one or more flexible electrodes attached to the leads, so that the electrodes may be bent around the portion of the body to ... The leads and the portion of the electrode not to be in contact with the body are encapsulated in a substance substantially ... An improved electrode for implantation into a body including one or more electrical conductor leads adapted to be connected to ... An electrode 12 is connected to lead 10, while another electrode 13 is connected to lead 11. Electrodes l2 and 13 are shown in ...
Medline Industries, Inc. All rights reserved. Advancing the Health of Healthcare is a trademark and Medline is a registered trademark of Medline Industries, Inc ...
... Revenue, Price, Development Trend and Key Manufacturers Analysis 2017 - ... Figure India Therapeutic Electrodes Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022). Figure Global Therapeutic Electrodes ... Figure Global Therapeutic Electrodes Major Players Product Capacity (K Units) (2012-2017). Table Global Therapeutic Electrodes ... Figure Global Therapeutic Electrodes Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2016. Figure Global Therapeutic Electrodes ...
  • 57] ABSTRACT [30] Foreign A li tion Priority D t A bipolar electrode structure includes an anode face. (google.com)
  • A. Kundu, K. R. Harreby, K. Yoshida, T. Boretius, T. Stieglitz and W. Jensen ACCESS PAPER DATA READ FULL ARTICLE ON IEEE XPLORE Abstract Neural prostheses are limited by the availability of peripheral neural electrodes to record the user's intention or provide sensory feedback through functional. (embs.org)
  • Now that the scientists have determined that a cuff with electrodes is feasible in principle, they have begun to develop a completely implantable system. (innovations-report.com)
  • A metal mesh that conducts electricity, is biocompatible, and is completely free of fatigue will be an ideal electrode not only for flexible electronics, but also for implantable electronics. (pnas.org)
  • 11/084440 e Mrarazs IMPLATABLE ELECTRODE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Implantable electro-medical devices are now well known in the art. (google.co.uk)
  • The structure of the electrodes which connect the electrical signals from an implantable device to a desired portion of the body, has been found to be highly important to those skilled in the art. (google.co.uk)
  • A review of the above mentioned application and patent will indicate that numerous advantages and disadvantages arise from the structure selected for the implantable electrode. (google.co.uk)
  • These are just a few of the problems involved in the structure of implantable electrodes. (google.co.uk)
  • An expandable electrode cuff of an implantable stimulation system that includes a base member, a first flange member extending from a proximal end along a first side wall of the base member to a first distal end, and a second flange member extending from a proximal end along a second side wall of the. (google.de)
  • The invention relates generally to an implantable stimulation system for stimulating and monitoring soft tissue in a patient, and more particularly, the invention relates to an expandable electrode cuff for positioning an electrode of an implantable stimulation system about a nerve for stimulation and/or monitoring of nerve tissue. (google.de)
  • 13G-120) This invention relates to improved fuel cells and more partciularly to novel fuel cell electrodes which are particularly well suited for high temperature operations. (google.com.au)
  • The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. (osti.gov)
  • Some researchers have been attempting to "read" speech centers in the brain using electrodes placed on the scalp. (latimes.com)
  • For this report, the Therapeutic Electrodes market value is provided for 2016 in USD millions, an expected CAGR % as well as USD million worth of industry in 2022. (openpr.com)
  • Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. (springer.com)
  • Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. (springer.com)
  • Precisely measure with ion-selective electrodes using this sleeve-type Ag/AgCl reference electrode. (fishersci.com)
  • Fisherbrand™ accumet™ ISE and pH Reference Electrodes - Mercury - Free is specially designed for superb stability with ion-selective electrodes. (fishersci.com)
  • If small electrodes are used, a high current density develops, which leads to a high temperature in the vicinity of the electrode. (google.de)
  • This is a pain management technique in which small electrodes are placed on the skin and used to administer low intensity, rapid electrical pulses. (wikihow.com)
  • We have developed a process to manufacture small electrodes that also preserves the biocompatibility of the materials. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Because of the ion-exchange nature of the glass membrane, it is possible for some other ions to concurrently interact with ion-exchange centers of the glass and to distort the linear dependence of the measured electrode potential on pH or other electrode function. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8. The endocardial electrode assembly of claim 7 wherein the size of electrodes of a given leg differs from the size of the electrodes on the legs adjacent to said leg in the array. (google.co.uk)
  • The most common application of ion-selective glass electrodes is for the measurement of pH . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glass electrodes play an important part in the instrumentation for chemical analysis and physico-chemical studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first studies of glass electrodes (GE) found different sensitivities of different glasses to change of the medium's acidity (pH), due to effects of the alkali metal ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • her design was the predecessor of many of the glass electrodes used today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glass electrodes are commonly used for pH measurements . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also specialized ion sensitive glass electrodes used for determination of the concentration of lithium, sodium, ammonium, and other ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glass electrodes have been utilized in a wide range of applications including pure research, control of industrial processes, analysis of foods and cosmetics, measurement of environmental indicators, and microelectrode measurements such as cell membrane electrical potential and soil acidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a few chalcogenide glass electrodes are sensitive to double-charged ions, like Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ and some others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technomed's Disposable Ag/AgCl EEG+ Cup Electrode due to a larger dome holds a higher volume of conductive material. (bio-medical.com)
  • Additionally, graphite electrodes are inherently less efficient electrically than metal electrodes. (google.com)
  • PolyPlus Battery Company, in collaboration with SCHOTT Glass, will develop flexible, solid-electrolyte-protected lithium metal electrodes made by the lamination of lithium metal foil to thin solid electrolyte membranes that are highly conductive. (energy.gov)
  • These self-supporting, carbon-free nanostructures were observed to be more active and stable than those used in conventional electrodes. (cea.fr)
  • Get results three to five times more precise than those obtained with conventional electrodes with the Thermo Scientific™ Orion™ 8101BNWP ROSS™ Half-Cell Electrode. (fishersci.com)
  • The researcher therefore sees the metallized leaves as an alternative to conventional electrodes for solar cells. (idw-online.de)
  • 18. A method of forming a modified electrode comprising the step of depositing by in situ polymerization a film of electrolyte permeable, charge-mediating conductive polymer containing quaternized bipyridyl groups and cross-links between unsaturated groups on different polymer chains on the surface of a conductive substrate. (google.com)
  • The oxidizing gas is adsorbed in the pores of the oxygen electrode and de-adsorbed therefrom migrating as ions into the electrolyte leaving behind two positive charges. (google.com.au)
  • The fuel gas is similarly adsorbed and de-adsorbed from the pores of the fuel electrode migrating into the electrolyte as H+ ions, in the case of hydrogen fuel, leaving behind a negative charge. (google.com.au)
  • One particular aim of modern research is the development of an eliicient electrochemically stable electrode Awhich is not detrimentally attacked, even at high temperatures, by the electrolyte of the cell. (google.com.au)
  • The electrode in one preferred embodiment comprises a porous cermet consisting of two layers in intimate contact with each other, the layer fronting the electrolyte consisting of zinc oxide bonded with metallic silver and the layer fronting the fuel consisting of alumina or aluminum silicate impregnated with an activating metal. (google.com.au)
  • 4. The process of claim 1, wherein an electrolyte is placed in the borehole and flows into the effective electrode. (google.de)
  • 50ml bottle of 3M KCI is required electrolyte refilling and the recommed storaging solution for all our pH electrodes. (sartorius.com)
  • A lithium salt dissolved in an organic solvent acts as an electrolyte, carrying lithium ions between the two electrodes. (pcworld.com)
  • These thin and flexible solid electrolyte membranes will be laminated to lithium metal foils, which can then be used to replace the graphite electrode and separators in commercial Li-ion batteries. (energy.gov)
  • Greger believes the accuracy can be improved by using more electrodes, and the team is now working with grids of 121 sensors. (latimes.com)
  • Temporary tattoo electrodes are the most recent development in the field of cutaneous sensors. (nature.com)
  • The working mechanism of these dry sensors is investigated through the modeling of the skin/electrode impedance for better understanding of the biosignals transduction at this interface. (nature.com)
  • The pH electrode is an example of a glass electrode that is sensitive to hydrogen ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The voltage of the glass electrode, relative to some reference value, is sensitive to changes in the activity of certain type of ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • where E is the emf, E 0 the standard electrode potential , z the ionic valency including the sign, a the activity , i the ion of interest, j the interfering ions and k ij is the selectivity coefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The positive and negative ions unit to form a neutral molecule in the solution while the charges on the electrodes are utilized as electrical energy. (google.com.au)
  • Again, Hittorf has shown that the effect of a cyanide round a copper electrode is to combine with the copper ions. (yourdictionary.com)
  • This conductive and permeable carbonized material serves as an electrode of enlarged radius for further electroheating of the formation. (google.de)
  • These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. (mdpi.com)
  • A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. (mdpi.com)
  • The researchers have coated leaf veins with copper and thus transformed them into electrically conductive and optically transparent electrodes. (idw-online.de)
  • The leaf skeletons became transparent, conductive electrodes. (idw-online.de)
  • In addition, the research team believes that the electrically conductive and optically transparent electrodes made of natural materials could open up new possibilities for the construction of batteries and supercondesators as well as for the design of novel LEDs or displays. (idw-online.de)
  • These wet electrodes establish a reliable contact with the skin by means of a conductive gel. (nature.com)
  • In this way, the leaf skeletons became transparent, conductive electrodes, because the network of veins still lets light through. (electronica.de)
  • The Classic electrodes incorporate a silver ink/carbon film conductive layer, proven to efficiently disperse electrical current over the entire surface of the electrode. (cardinalhealth.com)
  • The electrode ink composition is chosen according to the final application and the selectivity and sensitivity required for the analysis.2,5,6 The electrode manufacturing process involves the sequential deposition of different layers of conductive and/or insulating inks on the substrates of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • For electric arc welding with stick electrodes, an electric arc is generated between the stick electrode and the base material. (voestalpine.com)
  • Each type of steel needs a different stick electrode. (voestalpine.com)
  • Because variables such as storage techniques, electrode diameter and flux composition all contribute to stick electrode selection and performance, arming yourself with some basic knowledge can help you minimize confusion and better ensure stick welding success. (millerwelds.com)
  • Codes take the form of numbers and letters printed on the side of each stick electrode, and each represents specific electrode properties. (millerwelds.com)
  • The history of biosensor started in 1962 with the development of first enzyme-based glucose sensing device by Clark and Lyons using a thin layer of glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped over an oxygen electrode via semipermeable dialysis membrane for the measurements of the O 2 consumed by the enzyme-catalyzed reaction [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ten times more power than lithium ion -- but still ten years off: A fluffy carbon electrode has brought scientists at Cambridge University a step closer to producing a workable lithium-air battery, but many technical challenges remain. (pcworld.com)
  • The atmospheric problem is still unsolved, but in a paper published in the journal Science on Friday, researchers at Cambridge University describe how they have solved some of the stability and efficiency problems by adding lithium iodide and using a fluffy carbon electrode made of sheets of graphene. (pcworld.com)
  • In the lithium-air battery developed by Tao Liu, Clare P. Grey and colleagues at Cambridge, the carbon electrode is made of a porous form of graphene. (pcworld.com)
  • CEA-Liten, a CEA Tech institute, helped develop a novel carbon-free, platinum-nanotube electrode to reduce the amount of platinum in PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) and augment the fuel cells' performance. (cea.fr)
  • 10. An electrochemical cell according to claim 9 further comprising an auxiliary electrode. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. An electrode according to claim 12 in which the semiconductor has a band gap from 1.0 eV to 2.0 eV. (google.com)
  • However, a stretchable transparent electrode, which can be made of metal and is a key element in stretchable electronics, needs high stability at large strains. (pnas.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Warwick have developed a gold plated window as the transparent electrode for organic solar cells. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Organic solar cells have long relied on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass as the transparent electrode, although this is largely due to the absence of a suitable alternative. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The analyte electrochemically reacts at the indicator electrode . (britannica.com)
  • Therefore, it is an object of the instant invention to provide an improved electrode which is electrochemically stable when employed in a fuel cell operated at high temperatures. (google.com.au)
  • 3 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures 1 DISPOSABLE ELECTRODE BACKGROUND or THE INVENTION In present electrosurgical techniques such as cautery, fulguration, and electrocoagulation, a metal plate must be used to ground the patient. (google.com.au)
  • Disposable Webbed EEG Electrodes are designed to increase patient comfort while providing quality recordings that can last through both night and day studies and for multiple days. (bio-medical.com)
  • As a disposable electrode, remove the risk of cross contamination by using it once and throw it away. (bio-medical.com)
  • 10 pack of high quality GRASS disposable AG/AGCI EEG deep cup electrodes. (bio-medical.com)
  • These high quality disposable electrodes are to be used to measure EEG, ECG and EMG. (bio-medical.com)
  • The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition cross-linking. (google.com)
  • The electrodes, which are applied to the skin, deliver intermittent simulation to surface nerves to block the transmission of pain signals. (prweb.com)
  • Placing electrodes on the surface of the scalp carries little-to-no health risk, but it cannot be focused on an area of less than 4 square centimetres. (newscientist.com)
  • With this technique, rather than placing the electrodes inside the brain, they are put on its surface. (newscientist.com)
  • a hole is drilled in the skull and a tape with several electrodes on it is slid over the brain's surface membrane, the dura mater. (newscientist.com)
  • Integra Epilepsy grid electrodes are thin and flexible for easier placement and to conform to the curvature of the cortical surface. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It is another object of the invention to provide an electrode which is economical to produce containing a highly active surface. (google.com.au)
  • Thus a greater surface contact area is provided between the electrode and the nerve, and the connection can be properly fitted to avoid trauma. (google.co.uk)
  • A guarded electrode configuration may be used with the apparatus of this invention, in which case it is preferable to have the surface area of the electrode being guarded equal to the combined surface area of the guarding electrodes. (google.co.uk)
  • When studying the brain by means of electrodes, these are either placed on the scalp (electroencephalography - EEG), under the surface of the scalp and skull directly on the brain's surface (electrocorticography), or into specific brain areas. (greenfacts.org)
  • and each elongated electrode having a width less than the width of the respective clamping surface and being flanked by a portion of the respective clamping surface. (google.ca)
  • 6 . The apparatus of claim 1 in which the each electrode is generally centrally located relative to the width of the respective clamping surface. (google.ca)
  • Adsorbed CO is known to interact with Pt electrodes, causing a relaxation of Pt surface atoms and a weakening of the Pt-Pt bond. (eurekalert.org)
  • The presence of these Pt vacancies as well as the observed fluctuations at the Pt steps show that even under very benign conditions, i.e., for the particularly stable Pt(111) electrode surface in the CO pre-oxidation regime, the presence of CO can induce some structural degradation. (eurekalert.org)
  • 12. A shroud according to claim 1, further comprising an elongated conductor coupled to one of a major surface of the electrode and a peripheral portion of the major electrode. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A gate electrode is then formed on the gate dielectric on the top surface of the semiconductor body and adjacent to the gate dielectric on the first and second laterally opposite sidewalls of the semiconductor body. (google.es)
  • For your most demanding applications, our 2660 and 2670 monitoring electrodes offer a full coverage surface area in order to provide improved trace quality. (3m.com)
  • Surface EMG/EKG/ECG & biofeedback electrode. (bio-medical.com)
  • A major benefit of the PolyPlus concept is that the lithium electrode is bonded to a "nearly flawless" glass surface which is devoid of grain boundaries or sufficiently large surface defects through which dendrites can initiate and propagate. (energy.gov)
  • The fabrication procedure allows 32 electrodes to be placed onto a very small surface. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Gold ink has less use due to Screen-printed electrodes offer several advantages such as low cost, flexibility of their design, great reproducibility of the process and of the electrodes obtained, the possibility of manufacturing them with different materials and the wide capacity of modification of the work surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classic electrodes feature an intuitive lift tab for easy removal of the electrode after application. (cardinalhealth.com)
  • Lillo-Ródenas, J. Ibañez, and J. M. Rojo, "New carbon monoliths for supercapacitor electrodes. (hindawi.com)
  • Functionalized exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO) for supercapacitor electrodes have been synthesized by simple chemical methods from the exfoliated graphite (EG) as precursor. (scirp.org)
  • P. Karthika, N. Rajalakshmi and K. Dhathathreyan, "Functionalized Exfoliated Graphene Oxide as Supercapacitor Electrodes," Soft Nanoscience Letters , Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 59-66. (scirp.org)
  • Polymer nanofiber-guided uniform lithium deposition for battery electrodes. (nih.gov)
  • Its capacity is highly dependent on the rate of charge and discharge, and it is still susceptible to the formation of dendrites, fibers of pure lithium that can short-circuit the battery's electrode and cause an explosion. (pcworld.com)
  • New types of high-performance separators and electrodes built with solid-state ion conductors could simultaneously improve the energy density and safety of lithium ion batteries by removing the most flammable battery components, and also improving the driving range and durability of electric vehicles. (energy.gov)
  • Cognex provides coating quality inspection and coating width gauging solutions to ensure that electrode sheets meet exacting specifications before they are separated by an insulator and-depending on manufacturer and form type-rolled, wound, or stacked into a lithium-ion cell. (cognex.com)
  • The liquid junction area of reference electrodes should always be kept clean since they readily tend to become dirty, resulting in fluctuation of the liquid junction potential. (horiba.com)
  • The snap connector built into each electrode allows for easy installation and removal: they snap directly into the MyoWare Muscle Sensor. (pololu.com)
  • A simple cell comprises a housing, a fuel electrode, an oxidizing electrode, and an external means for drawing off electrical current. (google.com.au)
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly described, the apparatus of this invention comprises one or more flexible electrodes connected to leads which are adapted to be connected to a source of electrical signal. (google.co.uk)
  • The gate electrode comprises a metal film formed directly adjacent to the gate dielectric layer. (google.es)
  • In neurophysiology, the cortical pyramidal neurons, activated with a certain degree of coordination, generate an electrical field that is detected by means of electrodes placed on the scalp. (nature.com)
  • The composition of the different inks (carbon, silver, gold, platinum) used in the manufacture of the electrode determines its selectivity and sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These electrodes are intended for use with the MyoWare Muscle Sensor from Advancer Technologies. (pololu.com)
  • MyoWare Muscle Sensor with electrodes attached, top view. (pololu.com)
  • latex-free) provides enough electrodes for two applications when used with the MyoWare Muscle Sensor . (pololu.com)
  • For instructions on how to use the electrodes with the MyoWare Muscle Sensor, please refer to the MyoWare datasheet available on the muscle sensor product page . (pololu.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment where electrodes are implanted in certain areas of the brain and are stimulated using an electric pulse generator. (greenfacts.org)
  • The electrodes are stable at high voltage and amperage. (acs.org)
  • A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 120 micrometer 'nanotower' electrode is punching a cell membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • This class of membrane electrodes respond to specific antibodies through modulation of a background potential fixed by a marker ion. (springer.com)
  • Keating and Rechnitz (1983, 1984) found that cortisol-ionophore and digoxin-ionophore membrane electrodes are specific to their corresponding antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Potentiometric Digoxin Antibody Measurements with Antigen-Ionophore Based Membrane Electrodes. (springer.com)
  • Preparation and Properties of an Antibody-Selective Membrane Electrode. (springer.com)
  • Keating M.Y. (1987) Selective Antibody Responsive Membrane Electrodes. (springer.com)
  • Many biosensors have been developed for the determination of analytes in the biological samples, namely, spectrometry, potentiometry with application of pH sensitive electrode or an ion selective electrode or an ion sensitive field effective transistor, conductometry, coulometry, amperometry, and inductometry [ 1 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we present the performance of inkjet-printed conducting polymer tattoo electrodes in clinical electroencephalography and their compatibility with magnetoencephalography. (nature.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called EEG Electrode Placement in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • Lateral view of head of male showing proper EEG electrode placement. (smartdraw.com)
  • Known to be bulky and stiff, these electrodes cause obstructions during their placement and discomfort to the patient. (nature.com)
  • Common electrode positions in ECT include the bitemporal, right unilateral (also known as the d'Elia placement), and bifrontal positions. (medscape.com)
  • [ 42 ] Bitemporal electrode placement is often referred to as bilateral electrode placement. (medscape.com)
  • With unilateral electrode placement, one electrode is typically placed over the nondominant frontotemporal area, and the other electrode is placed just lateral to the midline vertex on the nondominant side. (medscape.com)
  • [ 42 ] As the left hemisphere is dominant in most people, unilateral electrode placement is almost always over the right hemisphere and is commonly referred to as right unilateral ECT. (medscape.com)
  • In the bifrontal position, the placement of an electrode on each side of the head is more frontal than in bitemporal placement. (medscape.com)
  • Electrically stimulating specific parts of the brain using an implanted electrode can help severely depressed patients, according to two studies published this month. (technologyreview.com)
  • According to a new study, deep brain electrode implantation may be used as an alternative to the WADA test which is used prior to epilepsy surgery. (medindia.net)
  • International researchers have collaborated on the creation of biocompatible electrodes that could be used to treat neurological disorders including epilepsy. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Rotating Electrode Methods and Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts provides the latest information and methodologies of rotating disk electrode and rotating ring-disk electrode (RDE/RRDE) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). (elsevier.com)
  • In general, a silver-silver chloride electrode is used as the internal electrode. (horiba.com)
  • Superior silver/silver chloride technology and quality construction produce an electrode that performs every time. (bio-medical.com)
  • The potential of the indicator electrode varies, depending on the concentration of the analyte, while the potential of the reference electrode is constant. (britannica.com)
  • 8. An electrode according to claim 2 in which the polymer has a molecular weight from 10 3 to 10 6 . (google.com)
  • 9. An electrode according to claim 2 in which the polymer is selected from polymers of the formula: ##STR8## where n is an integer from 10 to 1,000 and R is aliphatic or aromatic groups selected from ##STR9## where m is an integer from 1 to 20, p is an integer from 1 to 3 and q is an integer from 1 to 5. (google.com)
  • Organic conducting polymer modified electrodes (OCPMEs) have emerged as potential candidates for electrochemical biosensors due to their easy preparation methods along with unique properties, like stability in air and being compatible with biological molecules in a neutral aqueous solution. (hindawi.com)
  • Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings. (osti.gov)
  • The sheet resistance is two orders of magnitude lower - and thus the electrical performance is correspondingly better - than with conventional ITO (indium tin oxide) thin films, which are used for transparent electrodes in touch screens or thin-film solar cells, for example. (idw-online.de)
  • The transparent wires made of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) that cross an LCD screen are electrodes. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Eric Leuthardt believes that in the near future we will allow doctors to insert electrodes into our brains so we can communicate directly with computers and each other. (technologyreview.com)
  • Micro electrodes have been planted into the brains of these pigeons to control their movement left, right, up, and down during flight. (engadget.com)
  • Scientists said they had, for the first time, helped women with severe anorexia through electrodes implanted into their brains. (businessinsider.com)
  • 3. What are the differences between 6010, 6011, 6012 and 6013 electrodes and when should they be used? (millerwelds.com)
  • 6011 electrodes can also be used for all-position welding using an alternating current (AC) welding power source. (millerwelds.com)
  • Like 6010 electrodes, 6011 electrodes produce a deep, penetrating arc that cuts through corroded or unclean metals. (millerwelds.com)
  • Many welders choose 6011 electrodes for maintenance and repair work when a DC power source is unavailable. (millerwelds.com)
  • 6010 electrodes deliver deep penetration and have the ability to "dig" through rust, oil, paint or dirt, making them popular among pipe welders. (millerwelds.com)
  • 6010 electrodes can only be used with direct current (DC) power sources. (millerwelds.com)
  • However, 6010 electrodes feature an extremely tight arc, which can make them difficult for novice welders to use. (millerwelds.com)
  • In a first step toward helping severely paralyzed people communicate more easily, Utah researchers have shown that it is possible to translate recorded brain waves into words, using a grid of electrodes placed directly on the brain. (latimes.com)
  • 14. An electrode according to claim 13 in which the semiconductor is selected from silicon and compounds of gallium, molybdenum or tungsten. (google.com)
  • iridium and well doped semiconductor electrodes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • American Elements specializes in producing high purity uniform shaped Brass Electrodes with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in semiconductor, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Metallic-Organic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). (americanelements.com)
  • A pair of source and drain regions are then formed in the semiconductor body on opposite sides of the gate electrode. (google.es)
  • 7018 electrodes contain a thick flux with high powder content and are one of the easiest electrodes to use. (millerwelds.com)
  • ESAB Welding & Cutting Products has launched a new web site to highlight its family of 7018 stick electrodes. (prweb.com)
  • To find the electrode that best fits your application, visit the site at http://www.esabna.com/7018 . (prweb.com)
  • 7018 electrodes produce strong welds with high impact properties and can be used on high strength steel base metals. (millerwelds.com)
  • 4. What are the differences between 7014, 7018 and 7024 electrodes and when should they be used? (millerwelds.com)
  • Many welders use 7018 electrodes to weld thick metals such as structural steel. (millerwelds.com)
  • 7018 electrodes also produce strong welds with high impact properties (even in cold weather) and can be used on carbon steel, high-carbon, low-alloy or high-strength steel base metals. (millerwelds.com)
  • I notice most ppl talk about the current, and duration but not much about the type, and electrode sizes, especially if you want to follow the research papers. (reddit.com)
  • One type is a double-pin type, and the other is a hook or J-shaped type of electrode. (ehow.com)
  • PlatinumLINE electrodes offer fast and accurate results with high quality materials, low resitance Type A glass membranes and Platinuium junction with patented sealed Silver/SilverChloride reference system to name a few of superior features. (sartorius.com)
  • Find here all products of stick electrodes for different type of steel. (voestalpine.com)
  • BÖHLER electrodes for under water welding are a special type namely rutile acid (RA). (voestalpine.com)
  • The fourth digit represents the coating type and the type of welding current (AC, DC or both) that can be used with the electrode. (millerwelds.com)
  • Electrode type: H135SG Covidien. (bio-medical.com)
  • But researchers have been reluctant to implant electrodes in the speech centers for fear of causing irreversible damage. (latimes.com)
  • Conventional PEMFC electrodes are made from platinum nanoparticles deposited onto carbon. (cea.fr)
  • Depending on whether the reaction on the electrode is a reduction or an oxidation, the working electrode is called cathodic or anodic , respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining sheets function as bipolar electrodes each having one face cathodic and one face anodic in successive unit cells. (google.com)
  • Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) are electrochemical measurement devices that are manufactured by printing different types of ink on plastic or ceramic substrates, allowing quick in-situ analysis with high reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy. (wikipedia.org)