Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.

Blockade of hippocampal long-term potentiation by sustained tetanic stimulation near the recording site. (1/3000)

Specific patterns of electrical stimulation trigger several forms of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal pyramidal cells, including a long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission. I investigated the effect of commonly used stimulation protocols at different distances from the recording site. Sustained electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 1 s) delivered close to the recording site prevented LTP induction; the same stimulation from a second electrode placed farther away subsequently produced LTP at the same recording site. Strong stimulation near the recording site could also interfere with LTP triggered from a distal site. In contrast to sustained high-frequency stimulation, intermittent stimulation (theta burst pattern) delivered close to the recording site produced normal LTP. These data support the hypothesis that strong stimulation releases a factor that acts locally to prevent LTP.  (+info)

LocaLisa: new technique for real-time 3-dimensional localization of regular intracardiac electrodes. (2/3000)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the 3-dimensional (3D) position of ablation electrodes from fluoroscopic images is inadequate if a systematic lesion pattern is required in the treatment of complex arrhythmogenic substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new technique for online 3D localization of intracardiac electrodes. Regular catheter electrodes are used as sensors for a high-frequency transthoracic electrical field, which is applied via standard skin electrodes. We investigated localization accuracy within the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle by comparing measured and true interelectrode distances of a decapolar catheter. Long-term stability was analyzed by localization of the most proximal His bundle before and after slow pathway ablation. Electrogram recordings were unaffected by the applied electrical field. Localization data from 3 catheter positions, widely distributed within the right atrium, right ventricle, or left ventricle, were analyzed in 10 patients per group. The relationship between measured and true electrode positions was highly linear, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, 0.997, and 0.999 for the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle, respectively. Localization accuracy was better than 2 mm, with an additional scaling error of 8% to 14%. After 2 hours, localization of the proximal His bundle was reproducible within 1.4+/-1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique enables accurate and reproducible real-time localization of electrode positions in cardiac mapping and ablation procedures. Its application does not distort the quality of electrograms and can be applied to any electrode catheter.  (+info)

Synchronization of local neural networks in the somatosensory cortex: A comparison of stationary and moving stimuli. (3/3000)

Spontaneous and stimulus-induced responses were recorded from neighboring groups of neurons by an array of electrodes in the primary (SI) somatosensory cortex of intact, halothane-anesthetized cats. Cross-correlation analysis was used to characterize the coordination of spontaneous activity and the responses to peripheral stimulation with moving or stationary air jets. Although synchronization was detected in only 10% (88 of 880) of the pairs of single neurons that were recorded, cross-correlation analysis of multiunit responses revealed significant levels of synchronization in 64% of the 123 recorded electrode pairs. Compared with spontaneous activity, both stationary and moving air jets caused substantial increases in the rate, proportion, and temporal precision of synchronized activity in local regions of SI cortex. Among populations of neurons that were synchronized by both types of air-jet stimulation, the mean rate of synchronized activity was significantly higher during moving air-jet stimulation than during stationary air-jet stimulation. Moving air jets also produced significantly higher correlation coefficients than stationary air jets in the raw cross-correlograms (CCGs) but not in the shift-corrected CCGs. The incidence and rate of stimulus-induced synchronization varied with the distance separating the recording sites. For sites separated by /=500 microm, only 37% of the multiunit responses were synchronized by discrete stimulation with a single air jet. Measurements of the multiunit CCG peak half-widths showed that the correlated activity produced by moving air jets had slightly less temporal variability than that produced by stationary air jets. These results indicate that moving stimuli produce greater levels of synchronization than stationary stimuli among local groups of SI neurons and suggest that neuronal synchronization may supplement the changes in firing rate which code intensity and other attributes of a cutaneous stimulus.  (+info)

Effect of biphasic shock duration on defibrillation threshold with different electrode configurations and phase 2 capacitances: prediction by upper-limit-of-vulnerability determination. (4/3000)

BACKGROUND: The defibrillation threshold (DFT) may be affected by biphasic shock duration (BSD), electrode configuration, and capacitance. The upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) may be used to estimate the DFT. For different lead configurations and phase 2 capacitances, we investigated in 18 pigs whether the use of ULV may predict waveforms with lowest DFT. METHODS AND RESULTS: -DFT and ULV were determined by up-down protocols for 10 BSDs. ULVs were measured by T-wave scanning during ventricular pacing (cycle length 500 ms). In protocol 1 (n=6), a pectoral "active can" was combined with an electrode in the superior vena cava as common cathode and a right ventricle electrode as anode (AC+SVC). In protocol 2 and protocol 3 (n=6 each), only the "active can" was used as proximal electrode (AC). Capacitance was 150 microF during both phases in protocol 1 and protocol 3 but 150 microF (phase 1) and 300 microF (phase 2) in protocol 2. ULV and DFT demonstrated a linear correlation in each protocol (r=0.78 to 0.84). Lowest DFTs were found at 10 ms for AC+SVC and at 14 ms for AC (P<0.001). At optimal BSDs, voltage DFTs did not differ significantly between AC (527+/-57 V) and AC+SVC (520+/-70 V). Switching capacitors for phase 2 in a way that reduced leading-edge voltage by 50% while doubling capacity did not change BSD for optimal voltage DFT but increased minimum DFT from 527+/-57 V to 653+/-133 V (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The BSD with lowest DFT is shorter for AC+SVC than for AC. There is no significant difference in voltage DFT between both at optimal BSD. A lower phase 2 capacitance reduces DFTs irrespective of BSD. Because strength-duration curves for DFT and ULV correlate for different BSDs, lead systems, and phase 2 capacitances, ULV determination may allow the prediction of waveforms with lowest DFT.  (+info)

Chronic lithium treatment inhibits amiloride-sensitive sodium transport in the rat distal nephron. (5/3000)

Chronic treatment of rats with lithium leads to Na+ loss and a reduced antinatriuretic response to aldosterone, suggesting that lithium reduces conductive Na+ transport in the distal nephron. This was investigated in the present study by measuring the renal response to aldosterone infusion followed by amiloride in chronically instrumented conscious rats given lithium for 3 to 4 weeks to achieve plasma Li+ concentrations of approximately 0.5 mM. A servo-controlled infusion system was used to maintain sodium and water homeostasis, thereby preventing misinterpretation of the findings as a consequence of drug-induced changes in Na+ balance. In a control group of rats, Na+ excretion decreased in response to aldosterone (p <.01) and subsequent amiloride administration led to a marked increase in Na+ excretion (p <.001). In contrast, in the lithium-treated group, there was no significant response to either aldosterone or amiloride. It is concluded that long-term treatment with lithium, even when plasma Li+ concentrations are below 1 mM, reduces aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transport through the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels in the principal cells of the distal nephron.  (+info)

Mapping of atrial activation with a noncontact, multielectrode catheter in dogs. (6/3000)

BACKGROUND: Endocardial mapping of sustained arrhythmias has traditionally been performed with a roving diagnostic catheter. Although this approach is adequate for many tachyarrhythmias, it has limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel noncontact mapping system for assessing atrial tachyarrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mapping system consists of a 9F multielectrode-array balloon catheter that has 64 active electrodes and ring electrodes for emitting a locator signal. The locator signal was used to construct a 3-dimensional right atrial map; it was independently validated and was highly accurate. Virtual electrograms were calculated at 3360 endocardial sites in the right atrium. We evaluated right atrial activation by positioning the balloon catheter in the mid right atrium via a femoral venous approach. Experiments were performed on 12 normal mongrel dogs. The mean correlation coefficient between contact and virtual electrograms was 0.80+/-0.12 during sinus rhythm. Fifty episodes of atrial flutter induced in 11 animals were evaluated. In the majority of experiments, complete or almost complete reentrant circuits could be identified within the right atrium. Mean correlation coefficient between virtual and contact electrograms was 0.85+/-0.17 in atrial flutter. One hundred fifty-six episodes of pacing-induced atrial fibrillation were evaluated in 11 animals. Several distinct patterns of right atrial activation were seen, including single-activation wave fronts and multiple simultaneous-activation wave fronts. Mean correlation coefficient between virtual and contact electrograms during atrial fibrillation was 0.81+/-0.18. The accuracy of electrogram reconstruction was lower at sites >4.0 cm from the balloon center and at sites with a high spatial complexity of electrical activation. CONCLUSIONS: This novel noncontact mapping system can evaluate conduction patterns during sinus rhythm, demonstrate reentry during atrial flutter, and describe right atrial activation during atrial fibrillation. The accuracy of electrogram reconstruction was good at sites <4.0 cm from the balloon center, and thus the system has the ability to perform high-resolution multisite mapping of atrial tachyarrhythmias in vivo.  (+info)

Intraoperative monitoring during surgery for acoustic neuroma: benefits of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode. (7/3000)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode for intraoperative monitoring during acoustic neuroma and other cerebellopontine angle tumour surgery and to define the neurophysiological and surgical factors which influence hearing preservation. METHODS: Twenty two patients, 18 with acoustic neuromas and four with other cerebellopontine angle tumours, underwent intraoperative monitoring during tumour excision. The extratympanic intrameatal electrode (IME) was used to record the electrocochleogram (ECoG) and surface electrodes to record the brainstem auditory evoked response (ABR). RESULTS: The compound action potential (CAP) of the ECoG was two and a half times greater in amplitude than wave I of the ABR and was easily monitored. Virtually instant information was available as minimal averaging was required. Continuous monitoring was possible from the commencement of anaesthesia to skin closure. The IME was easy to place, non-invasive, and did not interfere with the operative field. Operative procedures which affected CAP or wave V latency or amplitude were drilling around the internal auditory meatus, tumour dissection, nerve section, and brainstem and cerebellar retraction. Hearing was achieved in 59% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The IME had significant benefits in comparison with other methods of monitoring. The technique provided information beneficial to preservation of hearing.  (+info)

Non-invasive determination of bacterial single cell properties by electrorotation. (8/3000)

So far, electrorotation and its application to the determination of single cell properties have been limited to eukaryotes. Here an experimental system is described that allows the recording of electrorotation spectra of single bacterial cells. The small physical dimensions of the developed measuring chamber combined with a single frame video analysis made it possible to monitor the rotation of objects as small as bacteria by microscopical observation despite Brownian rotation and cellular movement. Thus physical properties of distinct organelles of E. coli could be simultaneously determined in vivo at frequencies between 1 kHz and 1 GHz. Experimental data were evaluated following a three-shell model of the cell. Electrical conductivities of cytoplasm and outer membrane were determined to 4.4 mS/cm and 25 microS/cm, respectively, that of the periplasmic space was found to increase with the square root of the medium ionic strength. Specific capacitances of inner and outer membrane amounted to 1.4 microF/cm2 and 0.26 microF/cm2, respectively, the thickness of the periplasm to about 50 nm. Heat treatment of the cells lead to a reduction of cytoplasmic conductivity to 0.9 mS/cm, probably caused by an efflux of ions through the permeabilized inner membrane.  (+info)

A pacemaker system includes an electrode lead having a distal tip electrode for supplying stimulation pulses to cardiac tissue and a ring electrode, the electrode lead being connected to a cardiac stimulator. A detector is contained in a stimulator housing and is connected to the electrode lead for detecting electrical cardiac activity between said ring electrode and said tip electrode. Measurement of a signal dependent on physical activity of the subject in whom the pacemaker is implanted is obtained either by applying a voltage on the ring electrode during a predetermined measuring period and measuring a current through the ring electrode during at least a part of this period, or by, after detection of a QRS wave, applying a potential on the ring electrode and measuring the current between the housing and the ring electrode during the measuring period and also applying an alternating current between the tip electrode and the housing and measuring a voltage difference between the tip electrode and the
An electrochemical sensor based on a three-electrode method containing a reference electrode, comprising: A working electrode 2, a counter electrode 3 and a reference electrode 4 formed on an insulating substrate 1; an examining electrode 8 provided to examine an electric potential of the reference electrode 4; a combining layer 20, an immobilized enzyme layer 21 and a diffusion-limiting layer 22 made of a fluororesin provided on voltmeter is provided on these electrodes, between the examining electrode 8 and the reference electrode 4 so that the electric potential of the reference electrode can be examined; to detect an abnormality in the reference electrode immediately after its occurrence, recover a high reliability of measured value by removing the abnormality quickly, make it possible to conduct a continuous measurement for a long time and furthermore try to reduce a running cost.
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA synthesis using tyrosinase-immobilized on electrode surfaces. AU - Rahman, Siti Fauziyah. AU - Gobikhrisnan, Siramulu. AU - Misri, null. AU - Jong, Gwi Taek. AU - Park, Don Hee. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the direct precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. L-DOPA is a well-known neuroprotective agent for the treatment of Parkinsons disease symptoms. L-DOPA was synthesized using the enzyme, tyrosinase, as a biocatalyst for the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA and an electrochemical method for reducing L-DOPAquinone, the product resulting from enzymatic synthesis, to L-DOPA. In this study, three electrode systems were used: A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as working electrode, a platinum, and a Ag/AgCl electrode as auxiliary and reference electrodes, respectively. GCE has been modified using electropolymerization of pyrrole to facilitate the electron transfer process and immobilize tyrosinase. Optimum ...
EEG electrode is a medical device that is used for recording the electrical activity of the brain. Technavios EEG electrodes market analysis considers sales from the adoption of disposable EEG electrodes and reusable EEG electrodes. Our analysis also considers the sales of EEG electrodes in Asia, Europe, North America, and ROW. In 2018, the disposable EEG electrodes segment had a significant market share, and this trend is expected to continue over the forecast period. The benefits of using disposable EEG electrodes including improved safety profile and reduced prices will play a significant role in the disposable EEG electrodes segment to maintain its market position. Also, our global EEG electrodes market report looks at factors such as the increasing prevalence of neurological disorders, rising demand for EEG procedures, and increasing initiatives and support from governments and healthcare organizations. However, high cost of EEG devices and procedures, shortage of skilled professionals, ...
A removable medical electrode system for monitoring electrical activity of selected tissue comprises a flexible member (22) of electrically insulating material shaped to conform to a surface of the tissue (20). It includes a mechanism (32, 34) for articulating the electrode (10) between an expanded and contracted position to place and remove the electrode (10) on the tissue (20), and to hold the electrode (10) in place during an operation. An electrical conductor (42) is fixed to the electrode (10) to carry electrical impulse signals from the nerve tissue (20) to a monitoring system.
In this study an alternative supporting electrolyte was used in enzyme immobilization. Invertase was studied to observe the effect of the supporting electrolyte. Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) was used as the supporting electrolyte during the electrolysis of pyrrole. The results show that the polymeric supporting electrolyte can be used instead of sodium dodecyl sulfate ...
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0138]However, the electrode combination can be shifted distally, i.e., upward in the orientation of FIG. 7. There is room on leads 26A, 26B to shift the electrode combination distally by two shift positions. Hence, if the initial position is shift position 1, shifts can be made to shift position 2 and shift position 3. Each shift may represent a shift in the position of the active electrodes associated with the previous electrode combination such that the electrical stimulation pattern remains identical or substantially similar, e.g., in terms of relative positions and spacing between the active electrodes in both the initial and shifted electrode combination. In addition, the initial and shifted electrode combinations have a common number of electrodes. In the example of FIG. 7, each electrode combination has three electrodes (110C, 110D, and 112C for the first combination), and the electrode combinations have a substantially similar electrode pattern. Active electrodes are those electrodes ...
The present invention relates generally to systems and methods for electrochemical sensing. Particularly, the invention relates to optimizing bias settings in an electrode system to increase oxygen pr
In this study, a sodalite nanozeolite was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Following the morphology evolution of the sodalite nanozeolite in the SEM images illustrates the formation of the spherical particle with a size between 60 and 80 nm. Then, carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by sodalite nanozeolite and Ni2+ ions. The electrocatalytic performance of the fabricated electrode (Ni-SOD/CPE) towards glucose oxidation were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and Chronoamperometry and it was used as anode for the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in 0.1 M of NaOH solution. Also, the electron transfer coefficient, the diffusion coefficient and the mean value of catalytic rate constant for glucose and redox sites of electrode were found to be 0.86, 3.13×10−5 cm2 s−1 and 5.34×106 cm3 mol−1 s−1, respectively. Good catalytic activity, high sensitivity, good choice and the stability and easy preparation enables the modified
Glutathione (GSH) has been detected with an electrochemical sensor. Different types of modified electrode material (screen-printed graphite, graphite-epoxy resin) have been compared. The best results for analytical determination were obtained with screen-printed graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) at a potential of 0.20 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The analytical determination of GSH is based on the oxidation by a t-butylhydroperoxide catalysed by the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in solution, according to: 2GSH + ROOM → GSSG + H2O + ROH. Calibration curves of GSH standard solutions linear up to 30 µM were obtained in a solution of phosphate buffer (0.05 M phosphate ions, pH = 7) and 0.005 M EDTA. This new procedure seems to be highly reproducible and has the distinct advantage of fast response time, linearity up to 30 µM of glutathione and a detection limit of 4 µM.. ...
The invention discloses a kind of preparation method of lithium-sulfur cell electrode material, the present invention uses graphene oxide for carrier, SiO 2 For template, furancarbinol is carbon source, and oxalic acid is catalyst, prepares porous [email protected] composite material, final product is layered structure, by the above-mentioned layered structure porous [email protected] composite material prepared with sulphur powder is compound prepares high-performance lithium-sulphur battery electrode material;The present invention has many advantages, such as that simple preparation method, easy control of reaction conditions, final electrode material charging and discharging capacity are high;Presoma layered structure porous [email protected] composite material structure novel, the electric conductivity of electrode material is promoted using graphene as conductive carrier, porous carbon can play the role of dispersing sulphur and constraint electric discharge intermediate product polysulfide as
Our company provides plasma reactors using DCSBD plasma systems with flat and curved electrode for continuous, simplex or duplex surface treatment of printed materials. The devices are always tailor-made for specific customer applications and are available in a laboratory, pilot and industrial design.. Atmospheric air. DCSBD generates diffuse type of plasma in air at atmospheric pressure, but also in many other working gases without the addition of noble gas.. Power density. Extremely high power density of plasma up to 100 W/cm-3 allows short plasma exposure times and thus high speed processing.. Homogeneity. The homogeneity of the plasma increases with increasing power density of discharge.. Electrode system. Coplanar electrode system in which generated plasma does not come into contact with metal electrodes has a virtually unlimited lifespan, it means it is no-wear electrode system. Moreover, the system is mechanically robust and machined samples can be mechanically pressed against it to ...
How to Apply sEMG Electrodes The MyoTrac Muscle Monitor ships with a starter package of 3 Triode electrodes. If you want to use a different electrode configuration than the Triode Electrode Pad provides, you can order an Extender Cable.. In order to allow bilateral placement on the same muscle group an Extender Cable (available in lengths of 40 or 21) is available. This extender cable plugs into the end of the Triode Electrode head that ships with the MyoTrac and allows a strip of 3 electrodes to be used together for a Frontalis placement or separated for placements on other muscles bilaterally (such as the temporalis, masseter, trapezius, etc. muscle groups).. We have created a series of illustrations to clarify the process preparing the electrodes for placement. Both the Triode Electrode Pads and the Strip of 3 Electrodes are available in packages of 100. They both feature hypoallergenic adhesive surfaces and silver chloride electrodes that do not need gel applied. Both types of electrodes ...
article{e3604934-e3c4-4e2c-8fa9-23566d3e0157, abstract = {The role of the electrode material in the efficiency of direct (non-mediated) bioelectrocatalytic reduction of H2O2, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is studied and discussed. The variations in direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis when coming from carbon/graphite to metal electrodes and oxides, as well as modified electrodes, are analyzed regarding the variations in adsorption/orientation of peroxidase at the electrodes, interfacial electron transfer rates and mechanism of catalysis.}, author = {Ferapontova, Elena}, issn = {1040-0397}, keyword = {Modified electrodes,Silver,Gold,Graphite,Horseradish peroxidase,Bioelectrocatalysis}, language = {eng}, number = {13-14}, pages = {1101--1112}, publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, series = {Electroanalysis}, title = {Direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis on a variety of electrode materials}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elan.200403003}, volume = {16}, year = {2004 ...
A highly reliable biosensor is provided which is reduced in influences of any interfering substance or preexisting oxygen in a sample solution. The biosensor comprises an electrode system including a working electrode, a counter electrode and a third electrode also usable as an interfering substance detecting electrode, a reagent layer containing at least an oxidoreductase and an electron mediator, and an electrically insulating base plate for supporting the electrode system and the reagent layer, wherein the third electrode is arranged at an opposing position to that of at least one of the working electrode and the counter electrode and the reagent layer is arranged at a predetermined position apart from the third electrode.
Abstract The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) at physiological pH7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98×10−3 μM to 62.8μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors
Definition of electrochemical reaction by Electropedia. Meaning of electrochemical reaction. Translations of electrochemical reaction. Equivalent terms for electrochemical reaction.
The radial now microring electrode (RFMRE), a new hydrodynamic ultramicroelectrode, is described. In the RFMRE, solution flows from a capillary nozzle, which is positioned very close to a planar substrate using micro-positioners. The RFMRE can be operated in one of two configurations: either (a) with the ring electrode on the capillary or (b) with the ring electrode positioned in the plane of the substrate directly underneath the capillary. In both arrangements, as fluid leaves the capillary, it is forced into the nozzle/substrate gap and flows radially past the ring electrode. Under these conditions, the RFMRE is effectively analogous to a microband channel electrode. The RFMRE is shown to be characterized by well-defined, variable, and high mass-transfer rates under steady-state voltammetric conditions. Mass-transfer coefficients in excess of 2 cm s(-1) have been readily achieved with the RFMRE operating at relatively low volume now rates (1.67 x 10(-2) cm(3) s(-1)). The device thus has ...
A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-spheres has been fabricated through a simple casting procedure. The modified GCE displays high selectivity and excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA). In the co-existence system, the peak separations between AA and DA, DA and 5-HT, and AA and 5-HT are large up to 230, 180, and 410 mV, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been employed to simultaneously detect DA, 5-HT, and AA, and the linear calibration curves for DA, 5-HT, and AA are obtained in the range of 20.0-150.0 μM, 40.0-750.0 μM and 300.0-2,000.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.0 μM, 0.7 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. The proposed electrode has been applied to detect DA, 5-HT, and AA in real samples using standard addition method with satisfactory results.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensitive and Profitable Electrochemical Detection of Uric Acid in the Presence of Dopamine with a Novel Carbon Paste Electrode Decorated with a Copper(II) Complex. AU - Tamayo, Lenka V.. AU - Torres, Juan F.. AU - Llanos-Penagos, Johisner. AU - Calderón, Jorge A.. AU - Nagles, Edgar. AU - García-Beltrán, Olimpo. AU - Hurtado, John J.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2019 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - A new microcomposite with copper(II) complex and carbon paste (CuC/CPE) was developed to determine the uric acid (UA) content in the presence of dopamine (DP) and was characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed high selectivity for UA compared with DP because the anodic peak currents for DP were near those of a CPE without Cuc and were considerably increased for UA. The UA and DP increases were 86.9 % and 14.3 %, respectively, ...
Abstract: Stable electrode modified by aminylferrocene/L-cysteine(L-Cys) was fabricated successfully by linking aminylferrocene to L-Cys self-assembled monolayer(SAM) with coupling reagent. The modified electrode exhibits a pair of reversible redox peaks in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The electrochemical behaviors of the modified electrode were explored in detail with cyclic voltammetry and a.c. impedance. The apparent electron transfer coefficient and standard rate constant were calculated to be 0.66 and 6.86 s-1 for the modified electrode respectively. The modified electrode shows electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of epinephrine (EP) in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The peak current was proportional to the concentration of EP in the range of 2.0×10-7~1.0×10-5 mol·dm-3. Key words: Aminylferrocene, L-cysteine, Self-assembled monolayer, Electrocatalysis, Epinephrine ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Self-Assembly of Biomolecules on Electrode Surfaces; Oligonucleotides, Amino Acids, and Proteins towards the Single-Molecule Level. AU - Wackerbarth, Hainer. AU - Zhang, Jingdong. AU - Grubb, Mikala. AU - Hansen, Allan Glargaard. AU - Ooi, Bee Lean. AU - Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager. AU - Ulstrup, Jens. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Book chapter. VL - Chapter 15. SP - 485. EP - 516. BT - Electrochemistry of Nucleic Acids and Proteomics. A2 - Palecek, E.. A2 - Scheller, F.. A2 - Wang, J.. PB - Elsevier. CY - Amsterdam. ER - ...
0013]Now referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, two schematic block diagrams and a simplified circuit diagram of an electrode pair and monitor or monitor input circuit may be seen. The sensing electrode for sensing the bio-electric signal VS may be of a conventional monitoring electrode design or a special electrode design fabricated for this specific purpose. The reference electrode design may also be a conventional reference electrode design, if desired, a single electrode or a composite of several electrodes, as is well known in the art of ECG monitoring. It is preferred that the reference electrode be in contact with the body tissue at a greater distance from the bio-electric tissue of interest than the sensing electrode. It is also preferred that the reference electrodes position be constant or experience less motion (less percent change in distance relative to the tissue generating the bio-electric signal of interest) than the sensing electrode. As shown in FIG. 1, the monitor may be a ...
Electrocatalytic mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) on the highly dispersed Au microparticles electrodeposited on the surface of the glass carbon (GC) electrode in the alkaline Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution and the surface characteristics of the Au microparticle-modified glass carbon (Au/GC) electrode were studied with in situ FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the final products of HCHO oxidation is HCOO- at the Au/GC electrode and CO2 at the bulk Au electrode. The difference may be ascribed to the different surface characteristics between the Au/GC electrode and the bulk Au electrode. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
In this study, a carbon electrode electroless polymerization of polypyrrole, which formed a layer of conductive film interface,then absorped a layer of carbon nanotube particles by the way of self-assembled, is studied. The modified electrode is used to electrostatic adherence of formaldehyde dehydrogenase, with Nafion solution capped. Moreover this paper discusses the work of electrode position, PH value and scanning speed on the influence of the electrode response, the response potential is -1.2v, the optimal PH value is 7.5, and we also review the linear range of this electrode, we discovered taht this biosensor have a good linear relationship with the concentration of 1ug/ml-360ug/ml, the Correlation coefficient is 0.9983. In addition,with the stability of this electrode tested, it can be stored 15d at4°C.
Precis of the Global Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) Market 2017 Research Report Explore Professional Survey, Market Professional, and more!. The market research report provides a detailed analysis and data about the Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) market statistical study, the key players, growth dynamics, and geographical analysis. The report provides the information concerning the factors that impel the growth of the Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) global industry. The Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) market constitute of the leading groups which play a vital role in the product sales, manufacturing, production, distribution of the products in order to meet the supply and demand chain. A detailed study of the global market share of the past and the future along with the predictable forecast trends is also mentioned in the present report.. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Microcoaxial electrode for local nitric oxide measurement in biological systems. AU - Kitamura, Yoshiichiro. AU - Uzawa, Tomoyuki. AU - Oka, Kotaro. AU - Komai, Yutaka. AU - Ogawa, Hiroto. AU - Kobayashi, Hirosuke. AU - Takizawa, Naosada. AU - Tanishita, Kazuo. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - A new nitric oxide (NO) selective electrode was developed. The tip diameter of the NO electrode is less than 10 μm. A working and a reference electrodes are located coaxially at the tip of the NO electrode. A stable NO donor SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine) and a putative NO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) was used to examine the response of the electrode. Considering the instantaneous concentration of NO secretion previously reported in biological systems, 0.1, 1 μM NO solution was used to calibrate the electrode. From the result of the test of the electrode with SNAP and Hb, we confirmed this microcoaxial NO electrode can detect NO released from SNAP directly and continuously. From the ...
A robust pH sensor from Endress+Hauser can now solve the problem of reference contamination commonly experienced during pH measurement in ultra harsh conditions such as mining slurries and paper & pulp applications.. pH measurement within ultra harsh applications that include high solid content poses several challenges. Because of the harmful ions that defuse into the pH electrode reference system and the high solid content, the potential to disable the electrode by blocking the diaphragm under these extreme conditions is high. The surface area of the pH electrode diaphragm therefore needs to be enlarged to avoid blockage. However this increases the risk of reference contamination as the diaphragm is porous and more harmful ions can now enter the reference system of the pH electrode.. Traditionally, these enlarged diaphragms have been made from wood due to its resistance to contamination, but the wooden diaphragm is relatively thick and slows down the electrodes response time. In most critical ...
An electrochemical impedance technique which measures the impedance between two reference electrodes placed on opposite sides of the working electrode, and which can be used for the determination of the effective conductivity in the pore electrolyte in a porous electrode is presented. Information about the electroactive surface area and kinetic parameters can also be obtained from these measurements. A theoretical expression for the evaluation of the experimental results has been derived and analysed. The high frequency intercept of the impedance curve with the real axis will give the external ohmic resistance for electrode materials with an infinitely high conductivity. Even at very low frequencies, some of the current passing through the electrode will pass through the electrode in the solid material. The relative importance of this transfer of current in the solid phase through the electrode can be determined for the general case by the dimensionless quantity λ, which depends on the ...
The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response characteristic. This sensor comprises: an electrically insulating base plate; an electrode system including at least a working electrode and a counter electrode formed on the base plate; and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or in the vicinity of the electrode system, and the reaction layer contains at least one kind of additive selected from the group consisting of gluconic acid and salts thereof.
The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response characteristic. This sensor comprises: an electrically insulating base plate; an electrode system including at least a working electrode and a counter electrode formed on the base plate; and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or in the vicinity of the electrode system, and the reaction layer contains at least one kind of additive selected from the group consisting of gluconic acid and salts thereof.
Cardiology Specialty Multi-Function Electrodes, with a low viscosity gel that provides the best skin coupling, are designed to virtually eliminate dermal damage in special procedure areas of the hospital.. Radiolucent Multi-Function Electrodes are designed to provide an unobstructed view of the coronary arteries during x-ray studies. Available in solid or liquid gel.. Biphasic Multi-Function Electrodes are part of the complete Rectilinear Biphasic™ system -ZOLLs breakthrough technology-proven to achieve superior results in cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Lower energy levels combined with the unique liquid gel technology virtually eliminate post-procedural dermal damage.. Sterile Multi-Function Electrodes, with a unique two-pouch system that allows placement of the posterior electrode prior to surgery, are optimal for use in the operating room. They are also available with 10-foot (3-meter) lead wires.. Pacing Only Electrodes are long-term pacing electrodes proven to work with ZOLLs ...
A review. The data reported in literature demonstrate that screen-printed carbon electrodes are very suitable for supporting nucleic-acid layers and to transduce effectively the DNA recognition event and many works have been devoted to developing self contained screen-printed DNA chips. In an effort to develop a rapid and efficient scheme for immobilizing nucleic acids onto carbon screen-printed transducers, many authors took advantage of the strong adsorptive accumulation of these biomols. at the screen-printed carbon surfaces. In particular, many of them reported that electrochem. adsorption (adsorption controlled by a pos. potential) enhances the stability of the probe and this technique was preferentially chosen. Thus, this review will focus on an electrochem. genosensor developed using carbon screen-printed electrodes as the transducers; the methods to immobilize DNA probes onto carbon based surfaces will be reviewed and special emphasis will be given to the description of the electrochem. ...
Electrode combinations.Red electrodes are used for current injunction, and green electrodes are used for voltage measurement. The combinations can be divided in
Get the most from your R Series® resuscitation platform with OneStep Electrodes for adults and pediatrics. OneStep Complete Electrodes for adults offer high-current defibrillation and capture CPR quality. These electrodes can also be used for monitoring and for cardioversion, and to deliver constant-current pacing-without the need for a separate three-lead ECG cable.. OneStep Pediatric CPR Electrodes provide the only CPR support for children under 55 pounds, while also enabling defibrillation, pacing, and cardioversion. When pediatric electrodes are attached, the R Series automatically reduces the starting energy to 50 joules to ensure safe defibrillation.. OneStep Electrodes can remain pre-connected, even during a 30-joule shock test, because of a patented dual-circuit design. There is no need to disconnect the electrodes to test the defibrillator, meaning readiness is not compromised.. ...
Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers (PEMEs) are the key to integrating renewable energy generation with energy storage to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change. The commercialization of large PEME systems, however, requires improvements to electrode design, performance, and reduction of material costs. In particular, reducing the precious metal loading at the oxygen producing electrode (anode) is critical to making PEME commercially competitive. Measuring the electrode potentials separately is imperative to understanding and improving cell performance. A reliable reference electrode (RE) can provide much more precise information about the anode performance. A RE was developed for PEME application. The efficacy of the RE was confirmed by two parametric studies. The first parametric study served to demonstrate that the combined individual electrode potentials measured with the RE were exactly consistent with the overall potential difference of the cell. A ...
A defibrillation pulse generator and lead system particularly adapted to allow for implant in a single incision and subcutaneous pocket. The electrode system consists of a right ventricular electrode and a combined, subcutaneously implanted pulse generator housing and flexible periprerally extending electrode. The flexible electrode extends in a generally co-planar relation with respect to the major surfaces of the device housing and may comprise a plurality of electrode segments electrically connected in common with the device housing and distributed over a flexible electrode pad.
METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) electrodes (n=4) were submerged in 37°C +/-0.5°C 1X phosphate buffered saline and incubated over ~200 hours during which EIS and CV were performed 3X daily using a three electrode system. During EIS, a sinusoidal stimulation with amplitude of 10 mV with respect to the open circuit potential was applied at frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. CV was completed by sweeping the potential on the working electrode from an initial voltage and upper limit of 0.8 V to a lower limit of -0.6 V using a scan rate of 1000 mV/s. The mean CSCc of the four experimental electrodes was then calculated and differences were quantified using a linear regression model. The initial 10 hours of incubation time during testing were excluded from models to focus on long term stability as opposed to initial electrode fluctuations ...
Lithium-ion battery technology remains to be the heart in operating the majority of new commercial mobile devices and electrical vehicles. Thus, even though it is more than 25 years ago Sony introduced the worlds first commercial Li-ion battery, there is still today a demand for cheaper and safer battery materials with higher energy density. In order to meet this demand, an increased fundamental understanding of the detailed structural and microstructural transformations and electrochemical reactions taking place in Li-ion batteries is needed. For this purpose we have developed special capillary-based micro-battery cells allowing diffraction information to be obtained from only the active electrode material during battery operation. We have used the cell to study structural and microstructural changes during battery operation by in situ / operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Operando XRPD studies of both cathode and anode materials will be presented as examples of the ...
Ceramic proton conductors have the potential to become an essential part of future clean energy systems - from fuel cells to steam electrolysers and catalytic membrane reactors. The project gathers world-leading industry (CoorsTek), high research excellence institute (SINTEF) and university (UiO FASE) to develop innovative segmented-in-series proton conducting ceramic cells integrating novel composite glass-ceramic interconnects and nanostructured electrodes for stable operation of highly efficient steam methane reforming reactors. To tackle this ambitious objective, the project builds on the core expertise of the partners and addresses two distinct research activities underpinning the development of these novel reactors: hierarchically porous electrodes with a nanostructured porous network for improved catalytic activity confined in a macroporous network ensuring fast mass transport; and development of an integrated composite interconnect and seal ensuring dual functions of gas tightness and ...
Dealing with complete cells is a lot to think about at once. Chemists recognized this and developed the notion that they could theoretically separate the anode and cathode parts of the cell (impossible in practice, or a complete circuit wouldnt be present). Using this assumption, they could consider only the oxidation or reduction reaction, one at a time. So the concept of an electrode potential value was born. The conventional standard conditions mentioned above express this as a standard electrode potential. Even then, as in all of thermodynamics, chemists cannot readily establish absolute values. All standard electrode potential values are established relative to a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is defined as having a potential of 0.000 volts. Students should consult their textbooks for details on the construction of a standard hydrogen electrode. The AP Chemistry Examination is unlikely to address this subject.. For student reference, the AP Chemistry Exam includes a table ...
In this study, Pt-Ir binary electrodes were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical techniques, and CO stripping. The effect of Ir loading in electrocatalytic activity was also explored. It was found that Ir doping up to 80 % resulted in an increase of the electrochemically active surface (EAS) area and better electrocatalytic performance toward methanol electrooxidation reaction (MOR). The above conclusion was confirmed by CO stripping experiments as well as during oxidation of methanol where the electrodes were used as anodes in a one-compartment cell. The electrode with the lower Pt loading (i.e., 20 %) exhibited better electrocatalytic activity than the pure Pt anode. The observed higher performances of Ir loading electrodes were attributed to the enhanced EAS of the Pt-Ir binary electrodes and the electronic interactions between Pt and Ir atoms.. Keywords: Pt-Ir electrodes ; Methanol oxidation ...
It is shown, for the first time, that a bare carbon paste electrode can be used for the simultaneous quantification of anti-inflammatory drugs: naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DCF) and acetaminophen (ACT) in aqueous media. The analytical features are: 19 ± 7, 4.1 ± 1.9 and 3.7 ± 1.5 μM as detection limits of DCF
An enzyme electrode based on a glass electrode for measuring penicillin-V concentration is described. In preparing this electrode, penicillinase is immobilized by cross-linking with a very fine film of glutaraldehyde, which is sprayed directly over the sensitive end of a pH glass electrode. The penicillin sensor was used for the determination of penicillin-V concentrations in phosphate buffer, fermentation broth and dairy milk, the ranges of concentrations detected being 1.5-15, 2.5-15 and 2-12 mM, respectively. The linearity, stability, sensitivity, reversibility and pH and buffer strength dependence of the electrode were examined and are discussed. An extremely short response time of less than 10 s is obtained with electrodes made in this manner.
Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide production via cathodic reduction of oxygen on self-made gas diffusion electrode was studied in an undivided system. The effects of mass ratio between graphite and PTFE, cathodic potential, pH, and gas flow rate on hydrogen peroxide output were investigated. When the mass ratio between graphite and PTFE was 2:1, pH=3, Na2SO4 concentration was 0.1 mol•L−1, oxygen flow rate was 0.4 L•min−1, and cathodic potential was −0.55 V (vs SCE), hydrogen peroxide concentration could reach about 60 mg•L−1 after 2 h. It had a good hydrogen peroxide output and current efficiency. The pH values applicable to hydrogen peroxide production could be extended to a wide range in this undivided system and this novel gas diffusion electrode system is expected to be applicable in waste water treatment. Key words: Gas diffusion electrode, Cathodic potential, Oxygen reduction, Hydrogen peroxide, Current efficiency ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in biphasic electrode impedance with protein adsorption and cell growth. AU - Newbold, Carrie. AU - Richardson, Rachael. AU - Millard, Rodney. AU - Huang, Christie. AU - Milojevic, Dusan. AU - Shepherd, Robert. AU - Cowan, Robert. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of protein adsorption and cell growth to increases in electrode impedance that occur immediately following implantation of cochlear implant electrodes and other neural stimulation devices. An in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface was used. Radiolabelled albumin in phosphate buffered saline was added to planar gold electrodes and electrode impedance measured using a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse. The polarization impedance component increased with protein adsorption, while no change to access resistance was observed. The maximum level of protein adsorbed was measured at 0.5 μg cm-2, indicating a tightly packed monolayer of albumin molecules ...
CarboGraphite Group was establishe in 1992, 27 years of production experience,which is one of the earliest and biggest suppliers of high-quality Graphite Electrode and carbon products in China.Which is specialized in R&D, manufactures and sales of various graphite electrodes. Including Electrodes For Sales Uhp,Uhp Graphite Electrode With Nipples,UHP Graphite Electrode,Price Uhp Graphite Electrode,Graphite Electrode Uhp For Arc Furnace, Uhp Graphite Electrode Spot. The company has a production capacity of 50,000 tons of graphite electrode,200,000 tons of Electrode Paste,150,000 tons of refined petroleumcoke,100,000 tons of pre-baked anode, 50,000 tons of carbon brick,special sealing paste, 50,000 tons of Refractory material. Our company has domestic advanced quality inspection system and perfect after-sales service team, to the masses of customers to provide quality products and good technical services, and is willing to cooperate sincerely with new and old friends. Raw Materials:Needle ...
In this paper, an electrochemical application of bismuth film modified glassy carbon electrode for azo-colorants determination was investigated. Bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) was prepared by ex-situ depositing of bismuth onto glassy carbon electrode. The plating potential was −0.78 V (vs. SCE) in a solution of 0.15 mg mL−1 Bi(III) and 0.05 mg mL−1 KBr for 180 s. In the next step, a thin film of chitosan was deposited on the surface of bismuth modified glassy carbon electrode, thus the bismuth-chitosan thin film modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi-CHIT/GCE) was fabricated and compared with bare GCE and bismuth modified GCE.Azo-colorants such as Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine were determined on these electrodes by differential pulse voltammetry. Due to overlapping peaks of Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine, simultaneous determination of them is not possible, so net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) was used for this determination. The results showed that coated chitosan can enhance ...
A process for producing an electrode material for a rechargeable lithium battery, comprising the steps of mixing a metal compound (a) of a metal (a′) capable of being electrochemically alloyed with lithium, a transition metal compound (b) of a transition metal (b′) and a complexing agent (c) with a solvent (d) to obtain a mixed solution, mixing a reducing agent (e) with said mixed solution to obtain a mixture, and oxidizing said reducing agent in said mixture to reduce ion of said metal (a′) and ion of said transition metal (b′) to obtain an amorphous alloy material capable of being electrochemically alloyed with lithium as said electrode material. An electrode structural body in which said electrode material is used, and a rechargeable lithium battery in which said electrode material is used.
2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of ...
CarboGraphite Group is specialized in R&D, manufaturing and marketing of various graphite electrodes.The company was established in 1992, 27 years of production experience,which is one of the earliest and biggest suppliers of high-quality Graphite Electrode and carbon products in China. We produce Size 450 Plus 2100 Mm,HP 450 Graphite Electrode,HP 500 Graphite Electrode,HP 550 Graphite Electrode,HP 600 Graphite Electrode.The products has exported to Italy,Russia,Egypt,Singpore,Iran,Pakistan,Ukraine. The company has a production capacity of 50,000 tons of graphite electrode , 150,000 tons of refined petroleumcoke, 100,000 tons of pre-baked anode, 50,000 tons of carbon brick, 200,000 tons of Electrode Paste, special sealing paste, 50,000 tons of Refractory material. ...
Eight randomized placebo-controlled trials provide further evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) may benefit motor function of the paretic upper limb in patients with chronic stroke, say authors of a meta-analysis published online in Journal of Hand Therapy. Prior reviews on the effects of a-tDCS have shown the effectiveness of a-tDCS on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals but nonsignificant effect in participants with stroke. To summarize and evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of a-tDCS in the treatment of upper limb motor impairment after stroke, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared a-tDCS with placebo and change from baseline.. A pooled analysis showed a significant increase in scores in favor of a-tDCS (standard mean difference [SMD]=0.40, compared with baseline). A similar effect was observed between a-tDCS and sham (SMD=0.49). APTA members Margaret Shuster, PT, Kevin Hurley, ...
Enhancement of pinch force in the lower leg by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Differential capacitances were measured in 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (PMIBF4) ionic liquid at three different electrode substrates (Hg, GC (glassy carbon) and Au) as a function of potential. Essentially different capacitance-potential curves were obtained at different electrodes. From the parabolic electrocapillary curve measured at dropping Hg electrode in PMIBF4, the potential of zero charge (PZC) was found to be −0.31 V vs. Ag/AgCl (wire). However, the capacitance-potential curve at Hg electrode was found not to show any valley related to the PZC, whereas at GC and Au electrodes a minimum was observed at 0.29 and −0.51 V, respectively. The results are in disagreement with the recent theoretical study which implies that the capacitance-potential curve should be of bell shape with the maximum value of capacitance at PZC. The parabolic capacitance-potential curve similar to those obtained in inorganic molten salts was also observed for the first time at GC electrode. Probable
The polarographic measurement of tissue oxygenation is one of the most widely used methods in clinical practice for the quantification of tumour hypoxia. However, due to the particular features of the electrode measuring process, the results of the measurements do not accurately reflect the tumour oxygenation. This study aimed to find a correlation between the electrode measurements and the tumour oxygenation in an attempt to improve the accuracy of the predictions regarding the response to treatment based on electrode measurements. A previously developed computer model that allows the simulation of tumour tissue and electrode measurements was used. The oxygenation of a large number of tumours with biologically relevant distributions of blood vessels was theoretically calculated. Simulations of electrode measurements allowed the comparison between the real tissue oxygenation and the results obtained with the electrode. A semi-empirical relationship between the hypoxic fraction measured by the ...
Orient Carbon Industry is one the largest carbon, graphite electrode supplier and manufacturer in the north of China. They are the only products that can sustain high heat levels. Graphite electrodes come into RP Graphite electrodes, HP Graphite electrodes.
The ability of alkali-substituted binders for composite Si and graphite negative electrodes to minimize capacity fade for lithium ion batteries is investigated. Polymer films and electrodes are described and characterized by FTIR following immersion in electrolyte (1:2 EC:DMC) for 24 h. FTIR analysis following electrode formation displayed similar alkali-ion dependent shifts in peak location suggesting that changes in the vibrational structure of the binder are maintained after electrode formation. The Si and graphite composite electrodes prepared using the alkali-substituted polyacrylates were also exposed to electrochemical cycling and it has been found that the performance of the Na-substituted binder is superior to a comparable density K-substituted system. However, in comparing performance across many different electrode densities attention needs to be placed on making comparisons at similar densities, as low density electrodes tend to exhibit lower capacity fade over cycling. This is ...
A fuel cell electrode material comprising a cermet which comprises metal particles consisting of cobalt and nickel and electrolyte particles consisting of solid oxides, wherein the metal particles comprise 20 to 90 mol % cobalt and the residue of nickel in terms of CoO and NiO, respectively, and a solid oxide fuel cell battery comprising a fuel cell which comprises a solid electrolyte base, a fuel electrode formed on a fuel compartment side of the base, and an air electrode formed on an air compartment side of the base, wherein the fuel electrode is formed from the electrode material of the present invention.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrocatalytic oxidation of dihydronicotineamide adenine dinucleotide on gold electrode modified with catechol-terminated alkanethiol self-assembly. AU - Nakano, Koji. AU - Ohkubo, Kimihiko. AU - Taira, Hiroaki. AU - Takagi, Makoto. AU - Imato, Toshihiko. N1 - Funding Information: This work was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture of Japan. Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/6/30. Y1 - 2008/6/30. N2 - Synthesis of a mercaptoundecaneamide derivative having a terminus of catechol is described. FT-IR spectroscopic characterization showed that the new molecular entry simply undergoes molecular self-assembly on Au substrate surfaces promoting intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form well-packed monolayers. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements on the monolayer-modified Au electrode revealed that the surface adlayer possesses specific electrochemical ...
The aim of this thesis work has been to study textile and screen printed smartware electrodes for electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements both in terms of their electrode properties and possibility to further improve their robustness to movement induced noise by using signal processing. Smartware electrodes for ECG measurements have previously been used in various applications but basic electrical electrode properties have not sufficiently been looked into. Furthermore, we believe that there is a possibility to reduce disturbances in the smartware ECG by adding redundant sensors and applying sensor fusion signal processing.. Electrical properties of conductive textiles have been evaluated in terms of stability and electrode impedance. Three yarns and textile electrode surfaces were tested. The electrodes made from pure stainless steel and 50\% stainless steel/ 50\% polyester showed acceptable stability of electrode potentials. All electrode measurements were performed on skin.. Furthermore, we ...
Electrodeposition of Silver Amalgam Particles on Screen-Printed Silver Electrodes in Voltammetric Detection of 4-Nitrophenol and Artificial Nucleosides dTPT3 and d5SICS
In addition to the two parallel plate electrodes (denoted as Counter and Working electrode), a third voltage reference electrode is placed close to the polarization layer and measures the voltage difference of the polarization double layer capacity to the working electrode. In contrast to dielectric, conductivity and impedance material spectroscopy where all electrodes are made of inert metal as e.g. gold, stainless steel or platinum, this applies for the electrochemical cell only for the counter electrode feeding current into the electrolyte.. The working electrode consists of the metal to be characterized in combination with the electrolyte. The reference electrode is usually an open tipped glass capillary filled with a standard electrolyte coupled to a standard metal in order to create a defined electrochemical potential to the electrolyte.. The total potential drop across the cell is summed up by all contributions of the chemical process like mass transport, chemical and adsorption steps, ...
Electrodes used only with LIFEPAK EXPRESS AED, LIFEPAK CR Plus AED, LIFEPAK 1000 defibrillator, or LIFEPAK 500 Biphasic AED with a pink connector. AUDIENCE: Risk Manager, Emergency Medicine. ISSUE: Physio-Control announced it is launching a voluntary field action for specific production lots of Infant/Child Reduced Energy Defibrillation Electrodes (defibrillation electrodes) produced by Cardinal Health. The company is notifying customers of an issue with the artwork on the defibrillation electrodes, as manufactured by Cardinal Health, which shows incorrect electrode placement for an infant. There is no issue with the performance or function of the defibrillation electrodes; this is limited to incorrect artwork on the defibrillation electrodes within the packaging.. If the user incorrectly places the defibrillation electrodes, it may result in ineffective energy delivery to the patient and serious injury or death.. BACKGROUND: The defibrillation electrodes are used only with LIFEPAK EXPRESS AED, ...
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a phenomenon in which force exerted on a dielectric particle when it is subjected to a nonuniform electric field. There are many applications of dielectrophoresis and one of them is the separation of particles. In this paper, castellated and straight electrodes are being introduced for negative dep filter of an artificial kidney. In order to avoid the filters from clogging, negative dep will take part to repel the particles. Thus, a simulation by using COMSOL Multiphysics had been done to compare the electrical performances of electrodes. The intensities of electric field were stimulated on the planar electrodes from top to bottom and left to right. Electrodes are made of aluminum and both have thickness of 50μm. Distance between the castellated electrodes are 100μm while the straight electrodes are 300μm. Three graph of electric field vs. length had been compared. The first comparison shows that both designs have similar flow of electric field. The second graphs ...
Autori: Radoi, A, Litescu, SC, Eremia, SAV, Miu, M, Danila, M, Dinescu, A, Radu, GL. Editorial: MICROCHIMICA ACTA, 175, p.97-104 , 2011.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: Carbon nanotubes; (Poly)crystalline gold; Glassy carbon electrode; NADH. ...
In this work, a TiO2 nanoparticle modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was employed as a sensitive sensor for the investigation of the electrochemical behavior of indomethacin (IND). This nanocomposite sensor has been fabricated by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles and the ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate (HPFP). The surface of the electrode was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for quantification of sub-micromolar amounts of IND. Electrochemical parameters of the electrode reaction of IND, including the electron transfer coefficient (α) and the electron-transfer number (n), were calculated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) methods. Under selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear for the concentration of IND in the broad range of 1.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 M with the detection limit of 2.1× 10-8 M. Moreover, the analytical performance of the proposed method for the determination of IND content in plasma
The present invention is generally directed to various methods of controlling gate electrode doping, and various systems for accomplishing same. In one illustrative embodiment, the method disclosed herein comprises performing at least one process operation to form a doped layer of gate electrode material, measuring a sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material and adjusting at least one parameter of at least one process if the measured sheet resistance does not fall within acceptable limits. In one embodiment, the system is comprised of a process tool for performing at least one process operation to form a doped layer of gate electrode material, a metrology tool for measuring a sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material and a controller for adjusting at least one parameter of at least one process operation if the measured sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material does not fall within acceptable limits.
The response time of thermal electrolytic Ag/AgCl reference electrodes is defined by the porous structure that limits the rate at which traces of any previous solution are diluted by any new solution environment. The electrode stabilisation time when transferred from one electrolyte to another has been shown to change when different structural designs to the conventional sphere of Ag/AgCl are used. Electrodes fabricated with cylindrical architectures of Ag/AgCl have shown improved stability and reach equilibrium faster than spherical electrodes. This work has positive implications for the accuracy and throughput of primary pH measurements made using the Harned cell.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
In the present work, an electrochemical sensor for detection of paracetamol was fabricated by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) decorated with bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) based on using the drop dry technique. The prepared composite electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square wave voltammetry (SWV) were used to study the behavior of paracetamol. The modification process improved the redox kinetics of paracetamol as shown by increased peak currents. The peak current varied linearly with increment of paracetamol concentration in the range of 0.02 to 28 μM with a sensitivity of 1.133 μA μM−1. A detection limit of 0.0052 μM was obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of paracetamol in biological samples
The concentration of bile acids is an important parameter in hepatobiliary tract diseases. This work deals with the electrochemical oxidation of the chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) at boron dopped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with the oxidation at glassy carbon (GCE) and platinum electrode (PtE), in a mixed environment of acetonitrile and water (0.26 % from 0.1 mol·l-1 HClO4, supporting electrolyte). The measurement was carried out in an electrochemical cell with salt bridge containing 0.5 mol·l-1 NaClO4 separating the working and the Pleskovs reference electrode (0.01 mol·l-1 AgNO3 and 1 mol·l-1 NaClO4 in acetonitrile). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) characterization of BDD electrode by a redox pair [Fe(CN)6]4-/3- (c = 0.1 mmol·l-1) in 1 mol·l-1 KCl was performed. Quasi-reversible behaviour was observed and the difference of the anodic and the cathodic peak potential ranged from 80 to 200 mV, depending on the scan rate. Alumina polishing (4 min) of the BDD electrode was ...
Monodispersed Pt nanocatalyst-doped and undoped assemblies of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were aligned with high anisotropy on a multi-layered ceramic/metal electrode system (MLES), which was used as a cheap and cost-effective electrode system, by dielectrophoretic orientation to form linear dens
Lithium-ion batteries have become the rechargeable energy storage system of choice for portable electronic devices due to their high energy density and specific energy capacity compared to other commercial battery technologies. They have enabled important development possible especially in portable consumer electronics such as smart phones, laptop computers since their first use in 1991. However, even the best batteries available provide insufficient energy density and durability for emerging electric transportation systems, including hybrid and fully electric vehicles (EVs). One way to address the capacity and cycle requirement of batteries for EVs is to pursue the development of new electrode materials.. Commercial lithium-ion batteries use graphite as anode material, which has a theoretical specific capacity of only 372 mAh g-1. Lithium (Li) reacts with graphite via intercalation mechanism, which is the insertion/extraction of Li ions in interstitial sites of the host lattice. In contrast, ...
The Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode makes the measure of potassium ions portable. When used with a Vernier LabQuest 2, the Potassium ISE can be used to take readings in the field at lakes or streams. This sensor is easier to set up and use than other methods of measuring potassium ion concentration in aqueous solutions. Because it is a stick-style sensor, its use is similar to using a conductivity probe or a pH sensor in a laboratory setting or in the field. Ion-Selective Electrodes require good chemical technique and careful calibration to obtain accurate results. They are not recommended for middle school or elementary students. We recommend that you do not purchase Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode replacement modules too far in advance of their expected time of use; degradation occurs while replacement modules are stored on the shelf.
The Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode makes the measure of potassium ions portable. When used with a Vernier LabQuest 2, the Potassium ISE can be used to take readings in the field at lakes or streams. This sensor is easier to set up and use than other methods of measuring potassium ion concentration in aqueous solutions. Because it is a stick-style sensor, its use is similar to using a conductivity probe or a pH sensor in a laboratory setting or in the field.. Ion-Selective Electrodes require good chemical technique and careful calibration to obtain accurate results. They are not recommended for middle school or elementary students.. We recommend that you do not purchase Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode replacement modules too far in advance of their expected time of use; degradation occurs while replacement modules are stored on the shelf. ...
An electrolytic cell is provided that can include: a first electrode plate including a first surface that can include a graphite material; a second electrode plate including a second surface that can include a graphite material opposing the first surface; an electrolytic reaction zone between the first surface and the second surface; and an inlet to and an outlet from the electrolytic reaction zone. The first electrode plate and the second electrode plate can include resin-impregnated monolithic graphite plates. The first electrode plate and the second electrode plate can form opposite internal walls of a chamber for the electrolytic reaction and thus can be provided without a container for containing the electrode plates. Methods are also provided for flow-through-resin-impregnating porous, monolithic graphite plates to form electrode plates.
In this paper, the behavior of the salicylate anion-selective electrode was studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. Considering the diagram of the charge transfer resistance and -logarithm of the double layer capacitance versus -logarithm of the concentration, linear range concentration increased to 1.0×10^{-8}-1.0×10^{-1} M and 1.0×10^{-9}-1.0×10^{-1} M, respectively. Among the other characteristics of this study, it can be pointed out a wide pH range of 4.0-10.0. Then one-impedance for one-concentration method was used to measure the salicylate ion at the linear range of 1.0×10^{-8}-1.0×10^{-1} M. Finally, the impedance spectra of this electrode were simulated in which the obtained results of this simulation indicate proximity of experimental and simulation data.
Working with Prof. Barsoums group, we have investigated MXenes as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. MXenes have an advantage over other electrode materials, which is an excellent ability to handle high cycling rates. Also, we have studied some of the MXene materials as electrodes for supercapacitors and their performance is highlighted by high volumetric capacitance.. ...
Optical roughness of a pyrolytic graphite electrode with basal (PGEb) and edge orientation (PGEe), a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and the same electrodes modified with mercury (MFE) was studied by an optical diffractive element (DOE) based sensor. Electrochemical characterisation of these electrodes used was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and capacitance measurements (C-E curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS). The kinetics of phase transients of adenosine adsorbed on PGEb, and GCE modified with mercury layer of different thicknesses (thickness was changed from 0.02 to 2 mum) was studied by chronoamperometry (j-t curves) and capacitance measurements (C-E curves). In acidic (pH 5) solution adenosine forms two different two-dimensional (2D) physisorbed condensed layers on the MFE. The first of these (region 1) is located at more positive potential; the centre of this adlayer is situated around -0.4 V. The second 2D physisorbed film (region 111) is formed at more negative ...
A hydrogen-occlusion electrode and a method of manufacturing the electrode are described. The hydrogen-occlusion electrode comprises from about 42-84 vol. % of a hydrogen-occlusion alloy, from about 3-13 vol. % of a bonding material, from about 3-15 vol. % of an electroconductive material, and has residual pores in an amount of 10-30 vol. %. The electroconductive material has an average particle size of 1.3 .mu.m or less. The bonding material is preferably polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdf). In manufacturing the foregoing hydrogen-occlusion electrode, a formed electrode plate body including PVdF as a bonding material is heat-treated in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 160.degree. C. to about 200.degree. C. An electrode is thereby obtained wherein the alloy particles are prevented from separating from the electrode resulting in an improvement of mechanical strength and electroconductivity in the electrode. When the
Horiba Chloride Ion Electrode - 8002-10C Horiba Ion Selective Electrodes This electrode is for measuring the chloride ion concentration in aqueous samples. The measurement range is 0.35 to 35,000 mg/L Cl-.
... is a moth of the family Oecophoridae. It is known from the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eulechria electrodes. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... Australian Faunal Directory Wikispecies has information related to Eulechria electrodes. ...
Auxiliary or counter electrode. It is the electrode that completes the circuit of the three-electrode cell, as it allows the ... The screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) are presented as a single device in which there are three different electrodes: Working ... Generally, gold electrodes are used for detection due to their high affinity. However, the use of gold electrodes produces ... Commercially available screen-printed gold electrodes make mercury measurements in water easier because no electrode ...
Electrodes for electroplating Electrodes for arc welding Electrodes for cathodic protection Electrodes for grounding Electrodes ... electrode assembly Electrodes for Taser electroshock weapon Reference electrode Gas diffusion electrode Cellulose electrode ... In a three-electrode cell, a counter electrode, also called an auxiliary electrode, is used only to make a connection to the ... Chemically modified electrodes are electrodes that have their surfaces chemically modified to change the electrode's physical, ...
Potentiometry Ion-selective electrodes ISFET pH electrode Chalcogenide glass Quinhydrone electrode Solid State Electrode Bates ... The pH electrode is an example of a glass electrode that is sensitive to hydrogen ions. Glass electrodes play an important part ... The most common glass electrode is the pH-electrode. Only a few chalcogenide glass electrodes are sensitive to double-charged ... a sensing part of electrode, a bulb made from a specific glass internal electrode, usually silver chloride electrode or calomel ...
This sensor used a single Clark oxygen electrode coupled with a counter-electrode. As with the Clark electrode, a permselective ... The Clark electrode is an electrode that measures ambient oxygen partial pressure in a liquid using a catalytic platinum ... This motivated Clark to develop the oxygen electrode. The electrode, when implanted in vivo, will reduce oxygen and thus ... Increasing the voltage applied (between the Pt electrode and a second Ag electrode) will increase the rate of electrocatalysis ...
... negative electrode) and O2 at the anode (positive electrode). The electrode boiler is 99.9% efficient with almost all the ... The electrodes are connected to a medium voltage (1-35 kV) AC source. Electrode boilers can work on both single phase and three ... An electrode boiler (jet type) is a type of boiler that uses electricity flowing through streams of water to create steam. The ... An electrode boiler has a very quick response time. As it doesn't directly generate pollution, no pollution control system is ...
An ideal polarizable electrode (also ideally polarizable electrode or ideally polarized electrode or IPE) is a hypothetical ... the ideal polarizable electrode and the ideal non-polarizable electrode. Simply put, the ideal polarizable electrode is ... An ideal non-polarizable electrode, is a hypothetical electrode in which a faradic current can freely pass (without ... are the mercury droplet electrode in contact with an oxygen-free KCl solution and the silver/silver chloride electrode, ...
... forms a quinhydrone electrode. Such devices can be used to measure the pH of solutions. Quinhydrone electrodes provide fast ... The quinhydrone electrode provides an alternative to the most commonly used glass electrode. however, it is not reliable above ... The potential difference between the platinum electrode and a reference electrode is dependent on the activity, a H + {\ ... The quinhydrone electrode may be used to measure the hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of a solution containing an acidic ...
Additionally, small electrode numbers have proven to still be useful. There are about 20 single unit per electrode, and recent ... Kennedy, P. R. (1989). THE CONE ELECTRODE - A LONG-TERM ELECTRODE THAT RECORDS FROM NEURITES GROWN ONTO ITS RECORDING SURFACE ... So the longevity question has been answered for the Neurotrophic Electrode. In comparison, the wire type electrodes (Utah array ... Data from metal electrodes, however, are very useful in the short term and have produced copious amounts of very useful data in ...
... measures CO2. Sanz electrode measures pH. Severinghaus, John W.; Bradley, A. Freeman (1958). "Electrodes ... The Severinghaus electrode is an electrode that measures carbon dioxide (CO2). It was developed by Dr. John W. Severinghaus and ... It utilizes a CO2-sensitive glass electrode in a surrounding film of bicarbonate solution covered by a thin plastic carbon ... The carbon dioxide pressure of a sample gas or liquid equilibrates through the membrane and the glass electrode measures the ...
A cellulose electrode is a welding electrode that has a coating containing organic materials. About 30% of the coating weight ... deeper penetration can be obtained with cellulose electrodes. This type of electrode is generally produced with thin or medium ... www.bakersgas.com/weldmyworld/2012/02/26/how-to-weld-using-cellulosic-electrodes/ v t e (Electrodes, Cellulose, All stub ... Since this electrode can be used in every position (particularly in vertical down), it has a wide range of applications in the ...
The working electrode is often used in conjunction with an auxiliary electrode, and a reference electrode in a three electrode ... Rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) Hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) Dropping mercury electrode (DME) Auxiliary electrode ... The working electrode is the electrode in an electrochemical system on which the reaction of interest is occurring. ... Depending on whether the reaction on the electrode is a reduction or an oxidation, the working electrode is called cathodic or ...
The auxiliary electrode, often also called the counter electrode, is an electrode used in a three electrode electrochemical ... In a two-electrode system, either a known current or potential is applied between the working and auxiliary electrodes and the ... The auxiliary electrode often has a surface area much larger than that of the working electrode to ensure that the half- ... The auxiliary electrode functions as a cathode whenever the working electrode is operating as an anode and vice versa. ...
A plate, usually called anode in Britain, is a type of electrode that forms part of a vacuum tube. It is usually made of sheet ... In some tubes such as tetrodes these secondary electrons could be absorbed by other electrodes such as grids in the tube, ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Vacuum tubes, Electrodes, All stub articles, ... it is more often in the shape of a cylinder or flat open-ended box surrounding the other electrodes. The plate must dissipate ...
A reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential. The high stability of the ... Common reference electrodes and potential with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE): Standard hydrogen electrode ( ... Auxiliary electrode Cyclic voltammetry Table of standard electrode potentials Working electrode Bard, Allen J.; Faulkner, Larry ... sulfate electrode (CSE) (E = +0.314 V) Silver chloride electrode (E = +0.197 V in saturated KCl) Silver chloride electrode (E ...
An electrode array is a configuration of electrodes used for measuring either an electric current or voltage. Some electrode ... Electrode arrays are widely used to measure resistivity in geophysics applications. It is also used in the semiconductor ... Injecting the current through electrodes separate from those being used for measurement of potential has the advantage of ... Pole-dipole Equatorial dipole-dipole Resistivity measurement of bulk materials is a frequent application of electrode arrays. ...
The electrode line connects the converter station to the grounding electrode. The electrode line can be implemented, depending ... The connection to ground requires a specially designed ground electrode (or earth electrode). The electrode is usually located ... The ground electrode is separated from the converter station so that current returning through the ground electrode does not ... one of the electrodes (the cathode) can be of simpler design since corrosion is not a problem for cathode electrodes. The ...
The antimony electrode has been investigated for its ability to function as a pH electrode. The electrode is made of elemental ... Antimony electrodes continue to be used for in vivo measurements. The use of antimony-based electrodes for analytical ... is present on the surface of the electrode. Although this electrode does not give measurements of high accuracy, its rapid ... A calomel reference electrode was also placed in this solution and was connected to the other terminal on the meter. ...
... working electrode, counter electrode, reference electrode (standard hydrogen electrode or an equivalent). In case of non-zero ... The electrode potential has its origin in the potential difference developed at the interface between the electrode and the ... Electrode potential appears at the interface between an electrode and electrolyte due to the transfer of charged species across ... The electrode potential may be either that at equilibrium at the working electrode ("reversible potential"), or a potential ...
The electrodes are electrically insulated from each other by the PEM. These two electrodes make up the anode and cathode ... The electrodes are heat pressed onto the PEM. Commonly used materials for these electrodes are carbon cloth or carbon fiber ... catalyst and flat plate electrode used in fuel cells and electrolyzers. The PEM is sandwiched between two electrodes which have ... A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is an assembled stack of proton-exchange membranes (PEM) or alkali anion exchange membrane ...
Potassium selective electrodes are a type of ion selective electrode used in biochemical and biophysical research, where ... These electrodes are typical ion exchange resin membrane electrodes, using valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, as the ion ... Ionophores for potassium-selective electrodes v t e (Electrodes, All stub articles, Electrochemistry stubs). ... This type of ion-selective electrode is subject to interference from (in declining order of magnitude) rubidium, caesium, ...
The electrode rotates during experiments inducing a flux of analyte to the electrode. These working electrodes are used in ... A rotating disk electrode (RDE) is a working electrode used in three electrode systems for hydrodynamic voltammetry. ... as is the case for a stationary electrode. Any rotating disk electrode can, of course, also be used as a stationary electrode ... The more complex rotating ring-disk electrode can be used as a rotating disk electrode if the ring is left inactive during the ...
Multiplate multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) is a test of platelet function in whole blood. The test can be used to ... Each cuvette contains two pairs of sensor electrodes, each of which measures the change in impedance. The duplicate sensors ... The instrument detects change in electrical impedance when platelets aggregate on metal electrodes in the test cuvette. ... "Comparison of platelet aggregation using light transmission and multiple electrode aggregometry in Glanzmann thrombasthenia". ...
A dynamic hydrogen electrode (DHE) is a reference electrode, more specific a subtype of the standard hydrogen electrodes for ... In-situ reference electrode for direct methanol fuel cells Proton exchange membrane fuel cells Palladium-hydrogen electrode ... Dynamic hydrogen electrode Study on In-situ Reference Electrode for DMFC Archived 2009-11-05 at the Wayback Machine Impedance ... Study of fuel cell corrosion processes using dynamic hydrogen reference electrodes[permanent dead link] v t e (Webarchive ...
Dynamic hydrogen electrode Reversible hydrogen electrode "Operation principle of Pd/H2 reference electrode" (PDF). Archived ... A palladium-hydrogen probe electrode for use as a microreference electrode Palladium-hydrogen electrodes for coulometric ... The palladium-hydrogen electrode (abbreviation: Pd/H2) is one of the common reference electrodes used in electrochemical study ... The main feature of such electrode is an absence of non-stop bubbling of molecular hydrogen through the solution as it is ...
Enzyme electrodes are not true ion-selective electrodes, but are usually considered to be within the ion-selective electrode ... This is why enzyme electrodes are sometimes considered ion-selective. An example is a glucose selective electrode. Electrodes ... An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the ... A very common example of this type of electrode is the pH glass electrode. Crystalline membranes are made from mono- or ...
Carbon paste electrodes belong to a special group of heterogeneous carbon electrodes. These electrodes are widely used mainly ... electrodes when modified are termed chemically modified electrodes. Chemically modified electrodes have been employed for the ... A carbon-paste electrode (CPE) is made from a mixture of conducting graphite powder and a pasting liquid. These electrodes are ... Electrodes made in this way are highly selective sensors for both inorganic and organic electrochemistry. Carbon paste, glassy ...
Reference electrode Saturated calomel electrode Standard hydrogen electrode Copper-copper(II) sulfate electrode Cathodic ... Commercial reference electrodes consist of a glass or plastic tube electrode body. The electrode consists of a metallic silver ... The electrode functions as a reversible redox electrode and the equilibrium is between the solid (s) silver metal (Ag(s)) and ... Silver chloride electrodes are also used by many applications of biological electrode systems such as biomonitoring sensors as ...
Table of standard electrode potentials Reversible hydrogen electrode Palladium-hydrogen electrode Reference electrode Dynamic ... potential of a platinum electrode in 1 M acid solution SHE (Standard Hydrogen Electrode): potential of a platinum electrode in ... The standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of ... Potentials of any other electrodes are compared with that of the standard hydrogen electrode at the same temperature. Hydrogen ...
Like other working electrodes these electrodes are used in electrochemical studies using three electrode systems when ... Like other working electrodes these electrodes are used in electrochemical studies using three electrode systems when ... The hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is a working electrode variation on the dropping mercury electrode (DME). Experiments ... The self-renewing electrode does not need to be cleaned or polished like a solid electrode. This advantage comes at the cost of ...
... hydrogel electrodes that flex to fit the complex shapes inside the human body.The study, led by Harvards Wyss Institute for ... Electrodes may detach under movement or require greater current to affect their intended target because their shape does not ... Electrodes are frequently used in medicine to monitor or deliver electrical impulses inside and outside the human body, however ... This work demonstrated that you need both materials to achieve optimal electrode performance - carbon nanotubes or graphene ...
During an ECG electrodes are affixed to each arm and leg and to the chest. ... During an ECG electrodes are affixed to each arm and leg and to the chest. ...
The alert, which ECRI shared with Medscape Medical News, said that Cardinal Health, the only US supplier of electrodes that are ... The shortage resulted from a recall by Philips of 1.7 million electrodes that attach to babies scalps for monitoring inside ... The device maker notified users in November 2022 that electrodes tips could break off and potentially require surgery for ... The researchers called the electrodes "a critical tool in ensuring a consistently interpretable tracing of the fetal heart rate ...
11,000-electrode reprogrammable chip takes brain-computer interfaces to a new level July 22, 2013 at 2:36 pm A group of ... Making the ultimate carbon nanotube brain electrode March 27, 2015 at 12:38 pm Researchers at Rice University have perfected a ...
Electrodes. New Coated Electrodes are Ideal for Production of Lithium-Ion Batteries. Technology is suitable for e-cars. Uses ... Thoriated Tungsten Electrodes are Left in the Dust with MultiStrike®. Red tipped thoriated Tungsten Electrodes are said to ... Laqua pH Electrodes Used with pH Meters. HORIBA pH combination electrodes manufactured with 1-meter cable terminating in BNC ... Submerged Arc Electrode is resistant to corrosion.. Available in 3/32, 7/64, and 1/8 in.dia, SelectWear 410NiMo-S hardsurfacing ...
Prosthetic Control with Superficial Electrodes Demo Video. .css-1diu478{font-family:UnitedSans,Helvetica,Arial,Sans-serif;font- ... Prosthetic Control with Superficial Electrodes Demo Video. .css-f29fsr{color:#595959;font-family:FreightSansW01,Helvetica,Arial ...
LH-D stick electrodes differ from the common cellulosic electrodes used in the pipeline industry, like Pipeliner® 5P+, 6P+, 7P+ ... stick electrodes. I receive many questions from our customers about how to properly weld with these electrodes and have seen ... The high deposition rates and low hydrogen levels make LH-D electrodes ideal for welding the high strength steel specific to ...
... : a conductor that delivers electricity into a cell without necessarily entering into the cell reaction. Also, a ...
Delmhorst 2-E Moisture Meter Electrode ^ 5/16 Penetration For Use On Wood Up To 1 Thick And Drywall ^ Mfg #2-E ... delmhorst moisture meter electrode delmhorst flooring moisture meter delmhorst electrodes ideal clamp meter klein tools coax ...
Due to the massive quantity of electrodes required to construct a complete battery pack, manufacturing lines cut and stack ... The geometry of the electrodes inside a cell is vital to the efficiency and safety of the cell. ... electrodes at. rapid speeds. An efficient ZEISS optical inline metrology solution is essential to monitor the cutting and ... coordinate measuring machine is the perfect solution to provide high resolution and accurate inspections of the cut electrodes ...
... a layer of graphene becomes a new electrochemical structure that we call a trans-electrode. The trans-electrodes unique ... For instance, the authors show that by drilling pores a few nanometres in diameter into these trans-electrode membranes, it ... We show that several trans-electrode properties are revealed by ionic conductance measurements on a graphene membrane that ... a layer of graphene becomes a new electrochemical structure that we call a trans-electrode. The trans-electrodes unique ...
Laparoscopic Electrodes Market - Laparoscopic Electrodes Market - Aesculap (Germany), Angiodynamics (USA), Bovie Medical (USA ... Laparoscopic Electrodes Market, by Laparoscopic Electrodes Type. Hook. Monopolar. Blade. Needle. Other (Bipolar, Ball Tube, ... Analysis of Laparoscopic Electrodes Market in Global Industry : Insights, Develo … Albany, NY, 14th December : Recent research ... It covers the key technological and market trends in the Laparoscopic Electrodes market and further lays out an analysis of the ...
When it comes to GENERAL TOOLS Electrodes and Probes, you can count on Grainger. Supplies and solutions for every industry, ... Electrodes and Probes. 1 product. Use electrodes and probes from Grainger to help quickly and easily test water in the lab or ... Find these electrodes and probes and more at Grainger!. Use electrodes and probes from Grainger to help quickly and easily test ... Submersible electrodes can be ideal for testing water with heavy metals, organics and sulfites, and gel-filled electrodes can ...
Bobshell Electrodes Locations, Bobshell Electrodes updates and more at Business Standard news. , Page 1 ... Quick Links for Bobshell Electrodes:. * News. Announcements Brokerage Reports Business Earnings Sector ...
... patient return electrodes are recognized worldwide for quality and safety, and are available for your veterinary clinic. ... Valleylab™ PolyHesive™ Corded Patient Return Electrodes. Product Details Valleylab™ REM and Non-REM PolyHesive™ single use, ... corded patient return electrodes are recognized worldwide for quality, safety, and innovative technology. All return electrodes ... Valleylab™ PolyHesive™ Non-Corded Patient Return Electrodes. Product Details Valleylab™ REM PolyHesive™ single use, non-corded ...
... as the top electrode material and some identical devices using a chromium/gold electrode. Protein solutions with different ... based biosensors fabricated with standard metal electrodes and with carbon nanotube electrodes. SMRs resonating at frequencies ... It is therefore concluded that the use of CNT electrodes on resonators for their use as gravimetric biosensors is viable and ... Results show that resonators using CNTs as the top electrode material exhibited higher frequency change for a given load due to ...
Our crossword solver found 10 results for the crossword clue positive electrode.
One amp per one thousandths of electrode diameter is a great starting point for 1/8" (.125") 7018 (125 amps is a great starting ... After welding a border bead with 6013, I switched over to 1/8" (3.2mm) 7018 rods and changed polarity to DCEP electrode ...
Tin Disc Cup Electrode E21-9S Disc Electrode 9mm Cup with 1.5mm DIN connector. A pure tin eeg cup electrode with a 48" (122 cm ... Electro-Cap Tin Ear Electrodes Electro-Cap Tin Ear Electrodes, 9mm earclips (2/pkg). A pair of pure tin cup electrodes with a ... For use with Electro-Caps, Smart Brain Games and other systems that use tin ear electrodes Part # ECA E5-9S Learn More ... For use with Electro-Caps, Smart Brain Games and other systems that use tin ear electrodes. Learn More ...
list of thought technologys available cables and electrodes for biofeedback or neurofeedback and incontinence. ... UniGel electrodes, pre gelled single electrodes, for sensitive placements on dry skin. It can be used in place of T3404 single ... strip electrodes. Sold in packs of 100. Documents TBA Downloads TBA $(function() { // Default $(.example)... ...
The site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items.. ...
The Nitrate Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) can be used to measure the concentration of Nitrate (NO3-) in aqueous samples. ... The Nitrate ISE has a combination-style, non-refillable, gel-filled electrode. Like all other PVC ISE membranes, the membrane ... Important: Ion-Selective Electrodes require good chemical technique and careful calibration to obtain accurate results; they ...
... arms and legs thanks to research that demonstrates how limbs can be controlled via a tiny array of implanted electrodes. ... its known as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array, named for where it was developed and the angled look produced by the electrode ... Thanks to specific electrodes being able to activate the right nerve fibers at the right times, the controller made the cats ... Tags: Brain, Brain Implant, Central Nervous System, Diagnostic, Electrode, Electromyogram, Fatigue, Muscle, Nerve, Nervous ...
3D-printed supercapacitor electrode breaks records in lab tests. University of California - Santa Cruz ... Applied sciences and engineering/Engineering/Electrical engineering/Electronics/Electrical conductors/Electrodes * /Physical ...
... here can be used as a reference to analyze the severity of DC interference on pipelines due to proximate HVDC electrodes. ... This paper focuses on advanced analysis techniques and design considerations of DC interference generated by HVDC electrodes ... Advanced Analysis of HVDC Electrodes Interference on Neighboring Pipelines () Yu Gong1, Chunlin Xue2, Zhilei Yuan2, Yexu Li3, ... HVDC Electrode, DC Interference, Pipe-to-Soil Potential, Polarization Potential, Insulating Joint (Flanges), Rectifier, Touch ...
Jan Mischke and others published PECVD Grown Graphene as Transparent Electrode in GaN-based LEDs , Find, read and cite all the ... PECVD Grown Graphene as Transparent Electrode in GaN-based LEDs. Jan Mischke1, Joel Pennings1,2, Erik Weisenseel1, Philipp ... PECVD Grown Graphene as Transparent Electrode in GaN-based LEDs. *October 2020 ... which is beneficial to the fabrication of graphene-based electronic devices/sensors and transparent electrode. However, it ...
... such as electrode tab distance gauging, without slowing down production. An In-Sight vision system captures images of electrode ... Electrode Tab Distance Gauging. Machine vision gauges the distance between poles to guarantee alignment. Related Products. ... After an electrode sheet is slit and notched, lithium-ion cell manufacturers must gauge the width between the copper and ... Manufacturers calculate the total length between adjacent electrode tabs with the help of machine vision gauging tools. ...
  • We then adopt an equivalent circuit model to distinguish the resistances to ion transport and electron transport within the electrodes, and clarify the importance of electronic conductivity on the system performance based on a series of electrochemical tests. (researcher.life)
  • Visible absorption and electrochemical studies showed that 3-mercaptopropionic acid possesses the best performance regarding the electrical conductivity between electrode and protein redox center. (marquette.edu)
  • The lead wires are 1 m in length with 4 mm 'snap-on' connectors for use with Disposable ECG Electrodes, Reusable ECG Electrodes and Chest ECG Electrodes. (adinstruments.com)
  • Determination of halides using Ag nanoparticles-modified disposable electrodes. (americanelements.com)
  • This tubular submerged arc welding electrode is suited for use in such hardsurfacing applications as pinch rolls, caster rolls, and idler rolls. (thomasnet.com)
  • L And T Nickel Welding Electrode By A. N. Gupta & Co. (tradeindia.com)
  • HAYNES® 182 Welding Electrodes, AWS/ASME 5.11 Coated Electrodes, ASME IX F-43 Coated Electrode, AWS A 5.11 ENiCrFe-3 Coated Electrodes, ASME SFA 5.11 ENiCrFe-3 Coated Electrodes, Haynes HAYNES® 182 Coated Electrodes Supplier in Mumbai, Kennblatt 7617.02* Coated Electrodes, UNS W86182 Coated Welding Electrode, India. (shantimetal.com)
  • The work reported here shows a direct experimental comparison of the sensitivities of AlN solidly mounted resonators (SMR)-based biosensors fabricated with standard metal electrodes and with carbon nanotube electrodes. (upm.es)
  • All electrochemical cells require at least two electrodes, since the potential of a given electrode can only be measured relative to another electrode, the potential of which must be constant (a reference electrode). (basinc.com)
  • Better potential control is achieved using a potentiostat and a 3-electrode system, in which the potential of one electrode (the working electrode ) is controlled relative to the reference electrode , and the current passes between the working electrode and the third electrode (the auxiliary electrode ). (basinc.com)
  • It improves the stability of the reference electrode and extends the life of the electrode. (aperainst.de)
  • Peter Peumans, an assistant professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University, who was not involved in this study, says organic solar cells will probably become practical only with the development of transparent electrode technology that is both cheaper and more robust than conventional metal oxides. (phys.org)
  • Other materials are being studied as possible substitutes, he says, but this work represents very important progress toward making graphene a credible replacement transparent electrode. (phys.org)
  • The electrolysis cell involved dual metal graphite electrodes were tested in the process of separating glycerol from biodiesel. (ikpresse.com)
  • Therefore, the best treatment is to use metallic graphite electrodes with a distance between the electrodes of 25 mm and a high voltage of 30 kV. (ikpresse.com)
  • Asl MA, Tahvildari K, Bigdeli T. Eco-friendly synthesis of biodiesel from WCO by using electrolysis technique with graphite electrodes. (ikpresse.com)
  • Graphite/Gold Nanoparticles Electrode for Direct Protein Attachment: C" by Javad Shabani Shayeh, Yahya Sefidbakht et al. (marquette.edu)
  • and Tayebi, Lobat, "Graphite/Gold Nanoparticles Electrode for Direct Protein Attachment: Characterization and Gas Sensing Application" (2020). (marquette.edu)
  • The max diameter of electrode is 3.2mm. (vidotools.com)
  • The electrodes parameters were identified as 8 X150 mm in diameter and length with different spans of 25, 50, and 75mm. (ikpresse.com)
  • Alumina -templated Au nanostructured electrodes composed of parallel nanowires of 160 nm in diameter and 1.2 µm in length (Au-NWs), with 320 nm of pitch, are designed and characterized. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we show that when immersed in an ionic solution, a layer of graphene becomes a new electrochemical structure that we call a trans-electrode. (nature.com)
  • Most electrochemical cells I've seen have only 2 electrodes. (basinc.com)
  • Electrochemical cleaning (applying large anodic or cathodic potentials to the electrode) has also been shown to be effective in some instances. (basinc.com)
  • In addition, their results show that for suitable systems the dynamics of individual electrode point defects, such as vacancies, can be directly investigated in electrochemical environment. (brightsurf.com)
  • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)has been used to study the electrochemical coadsorption of TU at silver electrodes in solutions containing nitric acid ,sulphuric acid and perchloric acid respectively or any two of them. (pku.edu.cn)
  • As a flow-electrode-based electrochemical technology, FCDI has similarities with several other electrochemical technologies such as electrochemical flow capacitors and semi-solid fuel cells, whose performance are closely coupled with the characteristics of the flow-electrodes. (researcher.life)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Electrochemical oxidation of pharmaceutical effluent using cast iron electrode. (who.int)
  • Electrochemical oxidation of low (BOD/COD) ratio pharmaceutical wastewater was investigated in this study, using cast iron electrode. (who.int)
  • SO42- at the potentials of ≤-0.8V. The stability of TU on the surface of Ag electrode depends not only on the electrode potential but also on the nature of electrolyte anions coadsopbed. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Raman Spectroscopic Studies on Coadsorption of Thiourea with Various Electrolyte Anions at Silver Electrodes[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The solid electrolyte is extremely pressure resistant in combination with the hole diaphragm structure prevents the electrode from becoming clogged. (aperainst.de)
  • Engineers developed this one-material battery by sprinkling carbon (red) into each side of a new material (blue) that forms the electrolyte and both electrodes at the ends of the battery. (electrochem.org)
  • At each end, the scientists added carbon to this electrolyte to form electrodes that push the ions back and forth through the electrolyte as the battery charges and discharges. (electrochem.org)
  • And the flexibility and light weight of organic solar cells with graphene electrodes could open up a variety of different applications that would not be possible with today s conventional silicon-based solar panels, she says. (phys.org)
  • Other groups had already shown that graphene exhibits good combinations of transparency and sheet resistance, but no one was able to achieve a performance with graphene electrodes that matches that of devices on conventional metal oxide (ITO) electrodes , Peumans says. (phys.org)
  • Use combination electrodes for solvents, wastewater and extreme pH testing. (grainger.com)
  • Submerged Arc Electrode is resistant to corrosion. (thomasnet.com)
  • The device maker notified users in November 2022 that electrodes tips could break off and potentially require surgery for removal. (medscape.com)
  • Global Laparoscopic Electrodes Market Size, Status and Forecast 2022 provides Market information about Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application.This Industry report also states Company Profile, sales, Laparoscopic Electrodes Market revenue and price, market share, market growth and gross margin by regions. (openpr.com)
  • This report provides detailed analysis of worldwide markets for Laparoscopic Electrodes and provides extensive market forecasts 2017-2022 by region/country and subsectors. (openpr.com)
  • Global Laparoscopic Electrodes Market Outlook 2016-2022, has been prepared based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of information about the global Laparoscopic Electrodes market collected from specialized sources. (openpr.com)
  • Albany, NY, 14th December : Recent research and the current scenario as well as future market potential of "Global Laparoscopic Electrodes Detailed Analysis Report 2017-2022" globally. (openpr.com)
  • SMRs resonating at frequencies around 1.75 GHz have been fabricated, some devices using a thin film of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the top electrode material and some identical devices using a chromium/gold electrode. (upm.es)
  • Results show that resonators using CNTs as the top electrode material exhibited higher frequency change for a given load due to the higher active surface area of a thin film of interconnecting CNTs compared to that of a metal thin film electrode and hence exhibited greater mass loading sensitivity. (upm.es)
  • During the electrode manufacturing process, the electrode material is coated onto copper and aluminum foil for electric flow. (cognex.com)
  • The standard material used so far for these electrodes is indium-tin-oxide, or ITO. (phys.org)
  • The biggest problem with getting graphene to work as an electrode for organic solar cells has been getting the material to adhere to the panel. (phys.org)
  • Graphene repels water, so typical procedures for producing an electrode on the surface by depositing the material from a solution won t work. (phys.org)
  • What are the requirements for a working electrode material , and which material should I choose? (basinc.com)
  • The rate of electron transfer can vary considerably from one material to another, even for the same analyte, due to, for example, catalytic interactions between the analyte and active species on the electrode surface. (basinc.com)
  • If material adsorbs to the surface of a working electrode, then the current response will degrade and the electrode surface needs to be cleaned. (basinc.com)
  • This new battery could prove to be revolutionary in the area of solid state batteries due to its incorporation of electrodes and electrolytes into a single material. (electrochem.org)
  • This report presents results of an investigation into the influence of disk electrode material on the probability of. (cdc.gov)
  • LabSen S-Type Hemispherical Glass Diaphragm - Thanks to the low-resistance and rugged glass diaphragm, the electrode delivers fully stabilized readings in 15 to 30 seconds, yet is up to 10 times more rugged than conventional products, significantly reducing the likelihood of the electrode breaking during impacts. (aperainst.de)
  • Why do I need 3 electrodes for cyclic voltammetry and related techniques? (basinc.com)
  • Commonly used working electrode materials for cyclic voltammetry include platinum, gold, mercury , and glassy carbon. (basinc.com)
  • The cyclic voltammetry results revealed that the modified electrode has an appropriate performance for CO detection at very low concentrations while keeping a linear response. (marquette.edu)
  • You will learn about professionalism, know the procedures before and after the patient arrives, recognize the various questionnaires, know what good sleep hygiene is, be able to recognize the characteristics of electrodes, sensors and monitors, be able to name the electrode placement sites for the 10-20 system, and know how to calculate the measurements. (sleeptechtutor.com)
  • The MedSource Foam Electrodes use a conductive adhesive hydrogel ("wet gel") which allows for maximum adhesion and electrical contact. (buyemp.com)
  • The Skintact Aqua-Tac Solid Gel, Foam, Lift Tab Electrode - item #FSTB1, item #ESFSTB1 is packaged 30/pouch, 1500/box, 6000/case. (danleemedical.com)
  • After welding a border bead with 6013, I switched over to 1/8" (3.2mm) 7018 rods and changed polarity to DCEP electrode positive also known as reverse polarity. (weldingtipsandtricks.com)
  • A unique redox internal system with a Thermo Scientific™ Orion™ ROSS™ electrode provides faster response, and greater stability and accuracy than conventional sodium electrodes. (fishersci.ca)
  • Orp/Redox Electrode Mqpj By Toshniwal Instruments Mfg. Pvt. (tradeindia.com)
  • Researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis have recently published a paper showing that covering an implantable neural electrode with nanoporus gold could potentially eliminate the risk of scar tissue forming over the electrode's surface. (electrochem.org)
  • In this example, a heterogeneous NMC (Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt) electrode structure is generated from tomography data using a Model Method. (comsol.com)
  • Nickel Based Electrodes. (tradeindia.com)
  • We are offering our client an excellent quality range of Electrodes For Nickel, Nickel Alloys And Dissimilar Metals. (tradeindia.com)
  • Nickel metal electrode strip. (sciencecompany.com)
  • Haynes 182 is a general-purpose, Nickel, Chromium, Iron Flux coated electrode, used to connect or assemble several non similar, a combination of Nickel base alloys. (shantimetal.com)
  • This electrode will consistently produce x-ray quality and machinable weld deposits, Alloy 182 is also used to join nickel base alloy 200 into stainless steel and nickel-copper Monel® 400 into carbon steel. (shantimetal.com)
  • Flow-electrode capacitive deionization (FCDI), as a novel electro-driven desalination technology, has attracted growing exploration towards brackish water treatment, hypersaline water treatment, and selective resource recovery in recent years. (researcher.life)
  • In this review, we sort out the potentially parallel mechanisms of electrosorption and electrodialysis in the FCDI desalination process, and make clear the importance of the flowable capacitive electrodes. (researcher.life)
  • In potentiometric measurements (such as measurement of pH), there is no current through the cell, and these two electrodes are sufficient. (basinc.com)
  • HORIBA pH combination electrodes manufactured with 1-meter cable terminating in BNC connector. (thomasnet.com)
  • 3-in-1 pH plastic body electrodes only compatible with HORIBA pH meters. (thomasnet.com)
  • We show that several trans-electrode properties are revealed by ionic conductance measurements on a graphene membrane that separates two aqueous ionic solutions. (nature.com)
  • We have used a vibrating probe electrode (VPE) to identify and vectorize site-specific ionic flows at the surface of current-clamped mammalian skin. (bath.ac.uk)
  • A working electrode acts as a source or sink of electrons for exchange with molecules in the interfacial region (the solution adjacent to the electrode surface), and must be an electronic conductor. (basinc.com)
  • Do I need to clean the surface of the working electrode between experiments, and, if so, how? (basinc.com)
  • A few drops of polish are placed on a polishing pad (brown Texmet for alumina, and white nylon for diamond), and the electrode is held vertically and the polish rubbed on in a figure-eight pattern for a period of 30 seconds to a few minutes, depending upon the condition of the electrode surface. (basinc.com)
  • After polishing, the electrode surface is rinsed thoroughly with water (for alumina) or methanol (for diamond), and allowed to air dry. (basinc.com)
  • Once the defect has been removed, the electrode must then be polished with successively finer polishes to obtain a mirror-like surface. (basinc.com)
  • Adsorbed CO is known to interact with Pt electrodes, causing a relaxation of Pt surface atoms and a weakening of the Pt-Pt bond. (brightsurf.com)
  • The presence of these Pt vacancies as well as the observed fluctuations at the Pt steps show that even under very benign conditions, i.e., for the particularly stable Pt(111) electrode surface in the CO pre-oxidation regime, the presence of CO can induce some structural degradation. (brightsurf.com)
  • 20. Rainoldi A, Melchiorri G, Caruso I. A method for positioning electrodes during surface EMG recordings in lower limb muscles. (bvsalud.org)
  • The electrode terminal (rear) of a pacemaker is located at the rear of the electrode tip in the inferior aspect of the heart, where ventricular contractions originate. (innerbody.com)
  • Inferior quality electrodes and elements will affect overall system performance and could void applicable warranties. (americanbeautytools.com)
  • Researchers from The University of Manchester and Harvard University have collaborated on a pioneering project in bioengineering, producing metal-free, hydrogel electrodes that flex to fit the complex shapes inside the human body. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • All return electrodes are manufactured with our patented PolyHesive™ II high moisture, conductive adhesive hydrogel. (medtronic.com)
  • All return electrodes are manufactured with our patented PolyHesive™ II high moisture, conductive adhesive hydrogel that provides the performance of a gel without the gel mess. (medtronic.com)
  • Electroencephalography - electrode plates attached to the scalp that upload the brain's electrical activity to a computer -- can be used as well. (news-medical.net)
  • 3-in-1 pH glass body electrodes able to continuously monitor and compensate for temperature effects automatically. (thomasnet.com)
  • Haines® 182 electrode coatings are designed for the shielded metal arc welding of alloys 600 and 601, which provide excellent corrosion resistance and high-temperature strength. (shantimetal.com)
  • A worldwide shortage of fetal scalp electrodes could reduce access to internal fetal heart rate monitoring, potentially leading to more perinatal deaths and other complications, two ob/gyns in Canada are warning. (medscape.com)
  • ECRI, an independent , nonprofit patient safety organization, sent an alert to its 3000 members, which include many hospitals, on April 27 warning that fetal scalp electrode shortages could lead to higher rates of elective caesarean deliveries. (medscape.com)
  • Electrodes polished with alumina may also need to be sonicated in distilled water for a few minutes to remove any residual alumina particles. (basinc.com)
  • The technology combines carbon-based electrodes with economically sourced electrolytes, (manganese or sulphur, which are abundant chemicals in the planet) by means of a simple and yet highly effective electrophoretic deposition of nanocarbon additives (nitrogen-doped graphene) that enhance the electrode durability and performance significantly in highly acidic or alkaline environments. (techbriefs.com)
  • Cognex provides coating quality inspection and coating width gauging solutions to ensure that electrode sheets meet exacting specifications before they are separated by an insulator and-depending on manufacturer and form type-rolled, wound, or stacked into a lithium-ion cell. (cognex.com)
  • The Nitrate ISE has a combination-style, non-refillable, gel-filled electrode. (vernier.com)
  • It should be noted that many pH and ion-selective electrodes used in potentiometric measurements are combination electrodes - both electrodes are contained within the same body. (basinc.com)
  • Close physical coupling between neurons and the electrode plays a crucial role in recording fidelity of neural electrical activity. (electrochem.org)
  • Nanotechnology is providing upgraded designs of materials to better mimic the native extracellular environment and attain more intimate contacts with individual neurons , besides allowing for the miniaturization of the electrodes . (bvsalud.org)
  • A polyoxymethylene (POM) sheath serves as corrosion protection for the electrode and prevents possible damage from impacts. (aperainst.de)
  • Visualize the line connecting the lateral epicondyle and the If the electrode is too lateral, it will be in and Longus radial styloid process. (medscape.com)
  • This paper focuses on advanced analysis techniques and design considerations of DC interference generated by HVDC electrodes during normal bipolar and temporary monopolar operations on neighboring metallic utilities, with a special emphasis on buried gas and oil pipelines. (scirp.org)
  • Today's deep-brain stimulation probes use millimeter-size electrodes. (futurismic.com)
  • IMEC's design and modeling strategy allows developing advanced brain implants consisting of multiple electrodes enabling simultaneous stimulation and recording . (futurismic.com)
  • Copper Plasma Electrodes, 5 Pc. (harborfreight.com)
  • All carbon and stainless steel electrodes are copper-clad for improved current flow, except for Models 10565, 10566, 105134 & 105159 whose short lengths don't require such measures. (americanbeautytools.com)
  • Add accessories to blue demon e309l-16 5/32" stainless stick electrodes, 1# - e309l-532-01. (bakersgas.com)
  • These electrodes are hand made of stainless steel and therefore very easy to maintain. (biocenter24.com)
  • Of course keep this stainless steel electrodes almost forever. (biocenter24.com)
  • Cullander, C & Guy, RH 1992, ' Visualization of iontophoretic pathways with confocal microscopy and the vibrating probe electrode ', Solid State Ionics , vol. 53-56, no. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The oxidation of organic compounds at silver oxide electrodes are also discussed. (bl.uk)
  • The electrode shows very strong catalytic activity in the oxidation of amines. (bl.uk)
  • In-situ SERS of Formic Acid Electro-catalytic Oxidation on Au core @Pt shell /Pt Electrode [J]. Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Due to the massive quantity of electrodes required to construct a complete battery pack, manufacturing lines cut and stack electrodes at rapid speeds. (zeiss.com)
  • These Coated Electrodes are also custom made as per buyer requirements and exported in bulk quantity as well. (shantimetal.com)
  • Coated Welding Electrodes, HAYNES® 182 Coated Electrodes Exporters, AWS A5.11 HAYNES® 182 Coated Welding Rod, HAYNES® 182 Coated Electrodes Stockist, ALLOY x Coated Electrodes, HAYNES® 182 Coated Electrodes Stockist in India. (shantimetal.com)
  • Haynes ENiCrFe-3 Coated Electrodes Available, Haynes Alloy x Coated Electrodes Stockist in Mumbai, Haynes HAYNES® 182 Welding Electrodes Supplier in India, ASME IX F-43 Haynes Coated Electrodes Supplier in Mumbai, Haynes Kennblatt 7617.02* Coated Welding Electrodes. (shantimetal.com)
  • While the specific characteristics of the graphene electrode differ from those of the ITO it would replace, its overall performance in a solar cell is very similar, Kong says. (phys.org)
  • Semiconducting characteristics of galena electrodes. (cdc.gov)
  • Use electrodes and probes from Grainger to help quickly and easily test water in the lab or the field. (grainger.com)
  • Find these electrodes and probes and more at Grainger! (grainger.com)
  • In the previous work by the team, they studied the atomic-scale structural dynamics of CO adlayers on Pt(111) electrodes in CO-saturated 0.1 M H2SO4 using in situ video-rate scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT). (brightsurf.com)
  • Measure sodium in aqueous solution quickly, accurately and economically with these sodium electrodes. (fishersci.ca)
  • Measure sodium in aqueous solutions quickly, accurately and economically with Thermo Scientific™ Orion™ Sodium Electrodes. (fishersci.ca)
  • Electrodes cleaved in nitrogen-sparged 0.1M sodium tetraborate assume the flatband potential at the instant of cleavage, and thus the cleavage potential decreases with increasing bulk electron concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • While this research looked at how to adapt graphene to replace one of the two electrodes on a solar panel, Kong and her co-workers are now trying to adapt it to the other electrode as well. (phys.org)
  • Submersible electrodes can be ideal for testing water with heavy metals, organics and sulfites, and gel-filled electrodes can handle very dirty water, heavy metals and organics. (grainger.com)
  • Shanti Metals is a notable, Manufacturer, Supplier, and Stockist of Haynes® 182 Coated Electrodes , these electrodes are made using supreme quality raw materials, which keep the quality as well as the dimensional accuracy precise and correct. (shantimetal.com)
  • The Nitrate Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) can be used to measure the concentration of Nitrate (NO 3 - ) in aqueous samples. (vernier.com)
  • present a large-scale, multi-site, polymer electrode-based recording platform. (nyu.edu)
  • Electrodes may detach under movement or require greater current to affect their intended target because their shape does not fit precisely to the host site. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Given that Philips monitors are in use worldwide," the researchers write, the current electrode recall "is undermining the solution to a previous recall. (medscape.com)
  • But one stubborn problem has slowed the development of such cells: Researchers have had a hard time coming up with appropriate materials for the electrodes to carry the current to and from the cells. (phys.org)
  • Precise control of the external applied potential is required, but this is generally not possible with a two-electrode system, due to the potential drop across the cell due to the solution resistance (potential drop (E) = current (i) x solution resistance (R)) and polarization of the counter electrode required to complete the current-measuring circuit. (basinc.com)
  • Furthermore, we discuss the effects of electrode selection and flow circulation patterns on system performance (energy consumption, salt removal rate), review the current treatment targets and system performance, and then provide an outlook on the research directions in the field to support further applications of FCDI. (researcher.life)
  • The electrodes are placed in the middle of the vessel height unit with voltage and current intensities of 5.0 kV-21.5mA or 10 kV-12.5mA. (ikpresse.com)
  • Minimum load is 0% and significantly, there is no current to earth, no electrode wear and the boiler requires only a minimum of maintenance. (parat.no)
  • With minimal spatter and fume generation rates,- UltraCore-® HD Marine gas-shielded, flux-cored wire electrode enables flat bead shape when welding at high deposition rates in all positions. (thomasnet.com)
  • The high deposition rates and low hydrogen levels make LH-D electrodes ideal for welding the high strength steel specific to this market. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • Highly n-type electrodes have a cleavage potential of - -0.6V (saturated calomel electrode), and highly p-type electodes have a value of - -0.2 V (saturated calomel electrode). (cdc.gov)