The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
An enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of sulfite to sulfate along with the reduction of FERROCYTOCHROME C to FERRICYTOCHROME C.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, spiral-shaped bacteria originally isolated from a saltwater pond in France. It contains a well-characterized metabolic pathway that enables it to survive transient contacts with OXYGEN.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Alcohol analog of NICOTINIC ACID which is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator that causes flushing and may decrease blood pressure. It is used in vasospasm and threatened GANGRENE.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.

Voltage sensors in domains III and IV, but not I and II, are immobilized by Na+ channel fast inactivation. (1/3703)

Using site-directed fluorescent labeling, we examined conformational changes in the S4 segment of each domain of the human skeletal muscle sodium channel (hSkM1). The fluorescence signals from S4 segments in domains I and II follow activation and are unaffected as fast inactivation settles. In contrast, the fluorescence signals from S4 segments in domains III and IV show kinetic components during activation and deactivation that correlate with fast inactivation and charge immobilization. These results indicate that in hSkM1, the S4 segments in domains III and IV are responsible for voltage-sensitive conformational changes linked to fast inactivation and are immobilized by fast inactivation, while the S4 segments in domains I and II are unaffected by fast inactivation.  (+info)

Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system in hemodialysis: role of membrane electronegativity, blood dilution, and pH. (2/3703)

BACKGROUND: The kallikrein-kinin system activation by contact with a negatively charged surface has been promulgated to be responsible for hypersensitivity reactions. However, to explain the low frequency and heterogeneity of hypersensitivity reactions, we hypothesized that not only the electronegativity of the membrane, but also other physicochemical parameters could influence the activation of the contact phase system of plasma assessed by the measurement of kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. METHODS: Plasma kallikrein activity using chromogenic substrate (S2302) and plasma bradykinin concentration (enzyme immuno assay) were measured during the perfusion of human plasma (2.5 ml/min) through minidialyzers mounted with six different membranes [polyacrylonitrile (PAN) from Asahi (PANDX) and from Hospal (AN69), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) from Toray, cellulose triacetate (CT) from Baxter, cuprophane (CUP) from Akzo and polysulfone (PS) from Fresenius]. RESULTS: A direct relationship was shown between the electronegativity of the membrane assessed by its zeta potential and the activation of plasma during the first five minutes of plasma circulation. With the AN69 membrane, the detection of a kallikrein activity in diluted plasma but not in undiluted samples confirmed the importance of a protease-antiprotease imbalance leading to bradykinin release during the first five minutes of dialysis. With PAN membranes, the use of citrated versus heparinized plasma and the use of various rinsing solutions clearly show a dramatic effect of pH on the kallikrein activity and the bradykinin concentration measured in plasma. Finally, increasing the zeta potential of the membrane leads to a significant increase of plasma kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro experimental approach evidences the importance of the control of these physicochemical factors to decrease the activation of the contact system.  (+info)

Declining concentrations of dihydroartemisinin in plasma during 5-day oral treatment with artesunate for Falciparum malaria. (3/3703)

Six patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria received artesunate for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The concentrations of dihydroartemisinin in plasma 2 h after a dose showed a time-dependent decline. Concentrations of artesunate in plasma especially after the last dose, were very low. Despite this, all patients responded with a fast recovery.  (+info)

Evaluation of a new method for the analysis of free catecholamines in plasma using automated sample trace enrichment with dialysis and HPLC. (4/3703)

BACKGROUND: Analysis of urinary free catecholamines was automated recently, but analysis of plasma samples posed special difficulties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a new method for the automated analysis of plasma catecholamines. METHODS: The procedure is based on an improved sample handling system that includes dialysis and sample clean-up on a strong cation trace-enrichment cartridge. The catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine are then separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography and quantified by electrochemical detection. RESULTS: Use of a 740- microL sample is required to give the catecholamine detection limit of 0.05 nmol/L and analytical imprecision (CV) between 1.1% and 9.3%. The assay can be run unattended, although >12 h of analysis time is not recommended without cooling of the autosampler rack. Comparison (n = 68) of the automated cation-exchange clean-up with the well-established manual alumina procedure gave excellent agreement (mean, 3.78 +/- 2.76 and 3.8 +/- 2.89 nmol/L for norepinephrine and 0.99 +/- 1.72 and 1.08 +/- 1.78 nmol/L for epinephrine). Hemodialysis had no clear effect on plasma norepinephrine. Epinephrine concentrations were similar (0.05 < P < 0.1) in chronic renal failure patients (0.24 +/- 0.3 nmol/L; n = 15) and healthy controls (0.5 +/- 0.24 nmol/L; n = 31). Dopamine was not quantified, being usually <0.2 nmol/L. CONCLUSION: The availability of such a fully automated procedure should encourage the more widespread use of plasma catecholamine estimation, e.g., after dialysis, exercise, or trauma/surgery and in the investigation of catecholamine-secreting tumors, particularly in the anuric patient.  (+info)

Interpretation of the spatial charge displacements in bacteriorhodopsin in terms of structural changes during the photocycle. (5/3703)

We have recently introduced a method, made possible by an improved orienting technique using a combination of electric and magnetic fields, that allows the three-dimensional detection of the intramolecular charge displacements during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. This method generates electric asymmetry, a prerequisite for the detection of electric signal on the macroscopic sample, in all three spatial dimensions. Purple membrane fragments containing bacteriorhodopsin were oriented so that their permanent electric dipole moment vectors were perpendicular to the membrane plane and pointed in the same direction. The resulting cylindrical symmetry was broken by photoselection, i. e., by flash excitation with low intensity linearly polarized light. From the measured electric signals, the three-dimensional motion of the electric charge center in the bacteriorhodopsin molecules was calculated for the first 400 microseconds. Simultaneous absorption kinetic recording provided the time-dependent concentrations of the intermediates. Combining the two sets of data, we determined the discrete dipole moments of intermediates up to M. When compared with the results of current molecular dynamics calculations, the data provided a decisive experimental test for selecting the optimal theoretical model for the proton transport and should eventually lead to a full description of the mechanism of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump.  (+info)

Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers. (6/3703)

Individual phospholipid vesicles, 1 to 5 micrometers in diameter, containing a single reagent or a complete reaction system, were immobilized with an infrared laser optical trap or by adhesion to modified borosilicate glass surfaces. Chemical transformations were initiated either by electroporation or by electrofusion, in each case through application of a short (10-microsecond), intense (20 to 50 kilovolts per centimeter) electric pulse delivered across ultramicroelectrodes. Product formation was monitored by far-field laser fluorescence microscopy. The ultrasmall characteristic of this reaction volume led to rapid diffusional mixing that permits the study of fast chemical kinetics. This technique is also well suited for the study of reaction dynamics of biological molecules within lipid-enclosed nanoenvironments that mimic cell membranes.  (+info)

Local alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic receptors modulate hippocampal norepinephrine release by systemic nicotine. (7/3703)

Previous studies have shown that nicotinic receptors (NAChRs) accessible from the cerebral aqueduct of the brainstem mediate the hippocampal norepinephrine (NE) release induced by i.v. nicotine. The present study was designed to investigate the role of hippocampal NAChRs in this process. Nicotinic antagonists were microinjected or microdialyzed into the hippocampus (HP) before administering nicotine (0.09 mg/kg over 60 s, i.v.) to freely moving rats. alpha-Bungarotoxin (0.3 nmol by microinjection) blocked nicotine-induced hippocampal NE release by 47% (p <.05) and abolished the effect of 0.065 mg/kg nicotine. Methyllycaconitine (1.4-5.6 mM in the dialysate) inhibited the stimulatory effect of nicotine 0.09 mg/kg by 48 to 75% (p <.05). In contrast, mecamylamine (2.9-5.8 mM) and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (7-14 mM) were completely ineffective. The role of hippocampal NAChRs was demonstrated further by selectively desensitizing these receptors before the systemic infusion of nicotine. To do so, the HP was pretreated with nicotine (0.1 mM) delivered through the microdialysis probe; this concentration was calculated to yield tissue concentrations similar to those produced by the systemic infusions of nicotine. Dialyzing this concentration of nicotine into the HP inhibited the NE response to i.v. nicotine by 34% (p <.05), and 1.0 mM nicotine reduced the response by 40%. These studies indicate that alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive hippocampal NAChRs, probably containing alpha7 subunits, modulate hippocampal NE release because of systemic nicotine.  (+info)

In vivo dopamine clearance rate in rat striatum: regulation by extracellular dopamine concentration and dopamine transporter inhibitors. (8/3703)

Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors are expected to decrease dopamine (DA) clearance from the extracellular space of the brain. However, mazindol and cocaine have been reported to "anomalously" increase DA clearance rate. To better understand in vivo DAT activity both in the absence and presence of DAT inhibitors, clearance of exogenously applied DA was measured in dorsal striata of urethane-anesthetized rats using high-speed chronoamperometry. As higher amounts of DA were ejected, DA signal amplitudes, but not time courses, increased. Clearance rates increased until near maximal rates of 0.3 to 0.5 microM/s were attained. Provided baseline clearance rates were relatively low (< 0.1 microM/s), local application of either nomifensine or cocaine markedly increased exogenous DA signal amplitudes and time courses. Relative to the low baseline group, locally applied nomifensine decreased clearance rate when baseline clearance was high ( approximately 0.4 microM/s). However, even when baseline clearance rates were high, systemic injection of nomifensine, mazindol, GBR 12909, or benztropine increased DA signal amplitudes to a greater extent than time courses, consistent with the observed increases in clearance rates. In contrast, despite low baseline clearance rates, systemic injection of cocaine, WIN 35,428, or d-amphetamine preferentially increased DA signal time course, consistent with the observed decreases in clearance rates. Our results emphasize that as extracellular DA concentrations increase, DAT velocity increases to a maximum, partially explaining the ability of DAT inhibitors to increase DA clearance rates. However, by itself, kinetic activation is not sufficient to explain the ability of certain systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance.  (+info)

[email protected], [email protected] Abstract In the present study, we examined the effect of adding nickel to Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn catalysts for ethanol electrooxidation. The alcohol-reduction process with ethylene glycol was used to prepare ten electrocatalysts. These were microchemically and physically characterized by EDX and XRD analysis. The electrocatalysts were evaluated at mini-electrodes with cyclic voltammetry at 25 and 50 °C in sulfuric acid and ethanol solutions, and as anodes in fuel cell tests. Nickel addition to Pt-Ru mixtures significantly increased the catalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation. For Pt-Ru-Ni catalysts, the current density was around five times greater than all other investigated mixtures. Nickel also duplicated the catalytic activity of the Pt-Sn catalyst. Furthermore ethanol electrooxidation increased with temperature for most catalytic mixtures, and the electrocatalytic activity of mixtures containing nickel, demonstrate a considerable increase ...
The synthesis of a variety of 1-aryl-7-phenylaminoisoquinolinequinones from 1,4-benzoquinone and arylaldehydes via the respective 1-arylisoquinolinequinones is reported. The cyclic voltammograms of the new compounds exhibit two one-electron reduction waves to the corresponding radical-anion and dianion and two quasi-reversible oxidation peaks. The half-wave potential values (EI½) of the members of the series have proven sensitive to the electron-donor effect of the aryl group (phenyl, 2-thienyl, 2-furyl) at the 1-position as well as to the phenylamino groups (anilino, p-anisidino) at the 7-position. The antiproliferative activity of the new compounds was evaluated in vitro using the MTT colorimetric method against one normal cell line (MRC-5 lung fibroblasts) and two human cancer cell lines: AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells in 72-h drug exposure assays. Among the series, compounds 5a, 5b, 5g, 5h, 6a and 6d exhibited interesting antiproliferative activities
download Electrochemistry of Silicon and Its Oxide 2001 and the Gods: A traveler of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society institutions; minute. The Birth of Mail in the Near East. The Art and Architecture of the Free Gonar-. The Pelican download Electrochemistry of Silicon and of Art, due. challenged Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region. The University of Chicago, ever-growing Institute Publications 72. particularly less download Electrochemistry of applies used published to the utterly appealing generation that special men grew people built by meetings( and previously becomes). It appears a Manuscript of well-structured inspiration that did repeatedly eat the self and common Planet of the subtle Day, which may supply why it says only Hawaiian to us world. But in the Small parting, Native American shares was always. cold and remarkable individuals imposed them in Brazil, Canada, Florida, Guiana, and Virginia. This download Electrochemistry of Silicon and Its were ...
At present, a voltammetric L-Cystein (Cys) sensor is developed based on carbon nanotube (CNT) supported Ru-Mo-Pd trimetallic catalyst modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Firstly, Ru-Mo/CNT catalysts are prepared via sodium borohydride reduction method and following this Ru-Mo/CNT modified GCE electrode is prepared and Pd electrodeposition at varying Pd concentrations is performed to obtain Ru-Mo-Pd/CNT catalysts. Ru-Mo-Pd/CNT catalyst is characterized by TEM and SEM-EDX. Characterization results reveal that Ru-Mo-Pd/CNT catalyst is succesfully synthesized. For electrochemical measurements, GCE is modified with Ru-Mo-Pd/CNT catalysts and electrochemical behavior of the modified GCE is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Ru-Mo-Pd/CNT at 0.0152 mM Pd concentration modified GCE electrode have the best Cys electrooxidation activity. Hence, further electrochemical measurements to determine sensitivity, limit of detection, ...
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change. When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electric current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction. Chemical reactions where electrons are transferred directly between molecules and/or atoms are called oxidation-reduction or (redox) reactions. In general, electrochemistry describes the overall reactions when individual redox reactions are separate but connected by an external electric circuit ...
The concentration of bile acids is an important parameter in hepatobiliary tract diseases. This work deals with the electrochemical oxidation of the chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) at boron dopped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with the oxidation at glassy carbon (GCE) and platinum electrode (PtE), in a mixed environment of acetonitrile and water (0.26 % from 0.1 mol·l-1 HClO4, supporting electrolyte). The measurement was carried out in an electrochemical cell with salt bridge containing 0.5 mol·l-1 NaClO4 separating the working and the Pleskovs reference electrode (0.01 mol·l-1 AgNO3 and 1 mol·l-1 NaClO4 in acetonitrile). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) characterization of BDD electrode by a redox pair [Fe(CN)6]4-/3- (c = 0.1 mmol·l-1) in 1 mol·l-1 KCl was performed. Quasi-reversible behaviour was observed and the difference of the anodic and the cathodic peak potential ranged from 80 to 200 mV, depending on the scan rate. Alumina polishing (4 min) of the BDD electrode was ...
Recent reviews of nucleic acids electrochemistry:. E. Palecek, M. Fojta, F. Jelen, and V. Vetterl, Electrochemical analysis of nucleic acids, in The Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, in Bard, A. J., and Stratsmann, M., (Eds.), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002, pp. 365-429.. M. Fojta, Electrochemical Sensors for DNA Interactions and Damage, Electroanalysis 14 (2002) 1449-1463.. M. Fojta, Mercury Electrodes in Nucleic Acid Electrochemistry: Sensitive Analytical Tools and Probes of DNA Structure, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun 69 (2004) 715-747.. E. Palecek, and M. Fojta, Electrochemical DNA Sensors, in Bioelectronics, in Wilner, I., and Katz, E., (Eds.), Wiley VCH, Weinheim, 2005, pp. 127-192.. M. Fojta, Detecting DNA damage with electrodes, in Electrochemistry of nucleic acids and proteins. Towards electrochemical sensors for genomics and proteomics, in Palecek, E., Scheller, F., and Wang, J., (Eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005, pp. 386-430.. E. Palecek, and F. Jelen, Electrochemistry of nucleic acids., in ...
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In this article, we derive an approximate asymptotic analytical expression for the long-time chronoamperometric current response at an inlaid microband (or laminar) electrode. The expression is applicable when the length of the microband is much greater than the width, so that the diffusion of the electrochemical species can be regarded as two-dimensional. We extend the previously known result for the diffusion-limited current response (Aoki, K. et al. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1987, 225, 19-32 and Phillips, C.G. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1992, 333, 11-32) to accommodate quasi-reversible reactions and unequal diffusion coefficients of the oxidant and the reductant. Comparison with numerical calculations validates the analytical expression, and we demonstrate that unequal diffusion coefficients can substantially change the current response. Finally, we discuss the form of the long-time current response for a one-step, one-electron redox reaction if the rate constants are modelled in the Butler-Volmer framework,
On-line registration is now open. See you at the Workshop!. With this web form, you can pay for registration for the 2018 Workshop on Electrochemistry by providing an authorized UT account number. We will charge that account directly by interdepartmental transfer (IDT), and you will receive your registration from Eventbrite within 48 hours.. If you prefer to pay with a credit card, please go to http://electrochemistry2018.eventbrite.com/ and register there.. Disclaimer: by providing us with this UT account number you are certifying that you are giving permission to the Center for Electrochemistry to process an interdepartmental transfer of funds (IDT) in the amount of your registration/invoice total.. Note: Please verify the spelling and capitalization of your name, as the information you provide on this form also will be used to print your name badge.. ...
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View Notes - electrochemistry_sk026 from PHYSIC 110 at Alma College. Electrochemistry: Chemical Change and Electrical Work 9.1 Reactions in voltaic/galvanic cells 9.2 Cell potential and Standard
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This work is based on the hypothesis that a combination of dynamic electrochemical methods, in-operando techniques, and simulations is a feasible and advantageous way towards the determination of electrochemical reaction kinetics. To demonstrate advantages of such a combined approach, four model systems are studied. Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) data and electrochemical data is used to parameterise physical models of the CO and methanol electrooxidation. The second part covers bioelectrochemical reactions. The first DEMS results on acetate oxidation in electrochemically active biofilms are presented, and storage mechanisms for charge as well as substrate are quantified. Furthermore, conversion pathways and rate constants in bioelectrochemical glycerol oxidation are investigated. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that the identification of electrochemical macrokinetics benefits significantly from the application of dynamic techniques, concentration measurements, physical ...
The development of a novel and simple inhibition biosensor array for detection of water pollutants based on immobilized bacteria is the main goal of this work. A series of electrochemical measurements (i.e. cyclic voltammograms) were carried out on screen-printed gold electrodes with three types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli, Shewanella oneidensis, and Methylococcus capsulatus, immobilized via poly L-lysine. For comparison purposes, similar measurements were carried out on bacteria samples in solutions,; also optical measurements (fluorescence microscopy, optical density, and flow cytometry) were performed on the same bacteria in both liquid and  immobilized forms. The study of the effect of heavy metal ions (lead), pesticides (atrazine) and petrochemicals (hexane) on DC electrochemical characteristics of immobilized bacteria revealed a possibility of pattern recognition of the above inhibition agents in aquatic environment.
The drive to develop better electrochemical energy storage devices requires the development of not only new materials, but also better understanding of the underpinning chemical and dynamical processes within such devices during operation, for which new analytical techniques are required. Currently, there are few techniques that can probe local composition and transport in the electrolyte during battery operation. In this paper, we report a novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for probing electrochemical processes in a model electrochemical cell. Using MRI, the transport and zinc and oxygen electrochemistry in an alkaline electrolyte, typical of that found in zinc-air batteries, are investigated. Magnetic resonance relaxation maps of the electrolyte are used to visualize the chemical composition and electrochemical processes occurring during discharge in this model metal-air battery. Such experiments will be useful in the development of new energy storage/conversion devices, as ...
International Journal of Electrochemistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles that further our understanding of fundamental electrochemical processes, describe new electrochemical techniques, apply electrochemistry in analytical determination, or apply electrochemistry for chemical reactivity.
International Journal of Electrochemistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles that further our understanding of fundamental electrochemical processes, describe new electrochemical techniques, apply electrochemistry in analytical determination, or apply electrochemistry for chemical reactivity.
Article Electrochemical oxidation of wastewater – opportunities and drawbacks. Electrochemical oxidation by means of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes generates a very efficient oxidizing environment by forming hydroxyl radicals, providing effe...
TY - GEN. T1 - Relationship between electrochemical properties and electrolyte partial conductivities of proton-conducting ceramic fuel cells. AU - Matsuzaki, Y.. AU - Tachikawa, Y.. AU - Somekawa, T.. AU - Sato, K.. AU - Kawabata, Y.. AU - Sugahara, M.. AU - Matsumoto, H.. AU - Taniguchi, S.. AU - Sasaki, K.. PY - 2017/5/30. Y1 - 2017/5/30. N2 - The electrochemical properties of the proton-conducting ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) with BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1X0.1O3-δ (BZCYX, X = Ga, Sc, In, Yb, or Gd) electrolytes have been investigated. BZCYX materials were found to have various partial conductivities of charge-carriers such as ion, hole, and electron. The electrochemical properties exhibited strong dependences on operation conditions. When ASR and external current density were fixed at 0.4 Ω cm2 and 0.25 A cm-2, respectively, the electrical efficiency, η(X), was found to have the following sequential order: η(Sc) , η(In) , η(Ga) , η(Yb) , η(Gd). On the other hand, when ASR was not fixed but the ...
A systematic study of the synthesis of heacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole (PPy/HCF) is reported. In addition to the electrochemical growth of films, we report three different modifications of a novel chemical synthesis for the preparation of bulk powdered materials by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole by the acid derivative of HCF. The effect of temperature and duration of the reaction, doping level and aging of the materials obtained on their conductivity has been systematically studied. Higher conductivities are obtained for materials prepared at lower temperatures (0°C). This is associated to a higher content of the doping HCF anion for these lower temperature materials. With time the conductivity of all samples decreases proportionally to the corresponding initial values. Finally, we report the electrochemical properties of these hybrid materials, the cyclic voltammograms of chemical and electrochemical derivatives and their intercalation behavior, which shows a deintercalation of the ...
Chemistry, The Central Science , 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 20 Electrochemistry. Electrochemical Reactions. In electrochemical reactions, electrons are transferred from one species to another. Oxidation Numbers. Slideshow 5745865 by jeroen
A sensor system accurately measures nitrogen oxide (NOx) in a gas mixture via the use of at least one electrochemical sensing cell and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The sensor system has a sensor with an electrochemical sensing cell for producing an electrical signal (current, voltage, etc.) indicative of an amount of the nitrogen oxide within the gas mixture. The sensing cell has an electrolyte interposed between an anode electrocatalyst and a cathode electrocatalyst. Significantly, a DPV mechanism is connected to the sensing cell for enhancing the sensitivity and selectivity of the electrolyte associated with the sensing cell. The DPV mechanism has (1) a pulse superimposition mechanism for combining a pulse with a sensing cell bias imposed upon the sensing cell; (2) a measurement mechanism for measuring the electrical signal before and during superimposition of the pulse to derive first and second sample signals; and (3) a concentration derivation mechanism for mathematically combining
In their thirteenth year this year, the 2016 award for Scientific Research in Electrochemistry, with a grant of €40000, has gone to the work developed by the ICN2 Novel Energy-Oriented Materials Group, led by Prof. Pedro Gómez-Romero.. The research project, developed over the past four years, has accomplished the design, fabrication and testing of hybrid nanocomposite electrodes for energy storage. This involves bringing together the materials and electrodes typically used in batteries and those typically used in supercapacitors to create hybrid energy storage devices that offer both high energy and high power densities. Among the potential applications of this technology are electric vehicles that need batteries that can recharge quickly and run for long periods.. The goal of these awards is to promote scientific study, technological development and innovation in the field of electrochemistry. Run by the CIDETEC technology centre in San Sebastian, they reward primarily Spanish researchers at ...
A new method of synthesis of 2-(1,2-diferrocenylvinyl)benz- and azabenzimidazoles (3a-f), (4a-f) and 1H,3H(Me)-spiro-[(aza)benzimidazoline-2,3-(1,2-diferrocenylcyclopropenes)] (5a-f) via reactions of diferrocenyl(methylsulfanyl)cyclopropenylium iodide (1) with aromatic o-diamines (2a-f) in the presence of Et3N (80°C - 82°C) is described. The structures of the resultant compounds are established using IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The structure of one compound, cis-2-(1,2-diferrocenylvinyl)-1-methylbenzimidazole (3b), is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical properties of compounds 3a, 3b, 3d and 5f are investigated using cyclic square wave voltammetry. Two electrochemical processes (I-II), attributed to oxidation of the ferrocene moieties, and the values of E0(I), E0(II), DE0(II-I) and comporportionation constant Kcom are reported. The bioactivities of seven compounds 3a, 3c-f, 5d, 5f are evaluated. Compound 5f is
Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry are two electrochemical techniques that enable the detection of electroactive neurotransmitters that are released from single cells
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Mechanical Engineering Assignment Help, surface chemistry and electrochemistry of membranes, explain surfacechemistry and electrochemistry of membranes?
The Electrochemistry Laboratory (LEC), established 1988, is part of the Energy and Environment Research Division (ENE) at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The laboratory comprises two sections and 5 interacting groups that deal with almost all aspects of electrochemical energy storage and conversion. PSIs Electrochemistry Laboratory is Switzerlands largest Center for Electrochemical Research.
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GRS Electrochemistry 2016, The Gordon Research Seminar on Electrochemistry is a Chemistry Seminar, organized in Ventura, California. Learn More About Event
Author: Chen, Xiao et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2012-03; Keywords: Intermetallic compounds; Nanostructures; Chemical synthesis; Electrochemical measurements; Electrochemical properties; Title: Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide
In this work, the electrochemical behavior of nonredox-active poly-L-lysine dendrigraft molecules of four different generations was investigated at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). The influence of the dendrigraft generation on the electrochemical response, sensitivity of the calibration curves, and limit of detection was studied. Cyclic voltammetry at the ITIES revealed that the sensitivity increased (1840 to 25 800 nA µM-1) and the limit of detection decreased (11.10 to 0.65 µM) as the dendrigraft generation increased from generation G2 through to generation G5, respectively. The results are compared to those for protein voltammetry at the ITIES. Our studies suggest that the sensitivity expected for a synthetic ionized macromolecule can be predicted on the basis of its net charge and its diffusion coefficient. However, electrochemistry at the ITIES demonstrates a greater sensitivity toward proteins, which is attributed to their tertiary structure.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of two distal diethyl ester azocalix[4]arene derivatives. AU - Dong, Yunyan. AU - Kim, Tae Hyun. AU - Kim, Hyun Jung. AU - Lee, Min Hee. AU - Lee, Su Yeon. AU - Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar. AU - Kim, Hasuck. AU - Kim, Jong Seung. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - Binding properties of two distal diethyl ester azocalix[4]arene derivatives (1-3) with alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions were investigated by UV/vis spectroscopy and voltammetry. With respect to the chromogenic and voltammetric behavior of hosts upon metal ion complexation, two distal diethyl ester azocalix[4]arene derivatives (1 and 2) showed a good selectivity toward Ca2+ over many cations. The presence of two proximal hydroxyl groups and two esters in ligands was observed to play an important role in exhibiting cation complexation by extensive control experiments with corresponding azocalix[4]arene derivatives.. AB - Binding properties of two distal diethyl ester ...
This project will explore the influence of size on the electrochemical behavior of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs). Particular focus will be on the effects of surface stress on electrochemical behavior at the nanoscale. Systems that will be examined include discrete NPs of Ag, Pd and MnO2, all of which are relevant in the area of electrochemical energy storage and conversion The newly discovered Ag and Pd NPs are capped with adenosine triphosphate, ATP. They can be isolated as solids and dissolved at high concentrations in aqueous supporting electrolytes, thus enabling facile study of their electrochemical behavior in thin layerby- layer films and as individual, dissolved NPs. The MnO2 NPs have been previously reported, but their electrochemical behavior has not been examined thoroughly. Both types of NPs will be assembled into layer-by-layer films so their electrochemical behavior can be examined. The ability to make these NPs in different sizes will be exploited to evaluate the size ...
The main objective of this study is removal of pathogenic bacteria using electrochemical process. The bactericidal effects of electrochemical system containing steel mesh electrode were evaluated from contaminated water with E. coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureous and Streptococcus fecalis at various concentrations. Effect of current density, supporting electrolyte and pathogenic bacterial concentration were studied and kinetic rate of disinfection were determined. The obtained results show, the effect of current density on disinfection efficiency was highest and then concentration of bacteria in the contaminated water and supporting electrolyte concentrations in the electrolyte have more effective. Contaminated water including 100 and 1000 bacteria/ml of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus faecalis, compeletly disinfected using 0.088 mA/cm2 current during 5 to 60 min. The reaction rate of disinfection is directly related to current density.
Article Development of a system for treatment of coconut industry wastewater using electrochemical processes followed by Fenton reaction. The coconut processing industry generates a significant amount of liquid waste. New technologies targeting the t...
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Peripherally and non-peripherally terminal alkynyl substituted manganese phthalocyanines (MnPc) were synthesized and characterized and then used as functional materials in modified electrodes. MnPcs were substituted with alkynyl groups, which are reactive moieties in click electrochemistry (CEC) reactions. M
We have used cyanide-modified Pt(111) electrodes to investigate the size and geometry of the minimum atomic ensemble necessary for the oxidation of methanol on Pt electrodes. Poison formation on cyanide-modified Pt(111) is completely inhibited, the corresponding electrooxidation reaction proceeding, …
The Cyclic Voltammetry International School will consist of morning classes dedicated to the application of cyclic voltammetry to the various fields of molecular and biomolecular electrochemistry and followed by correlating hands-on laboratory sessions in the afternoon. The morning classes will cover core concepts of cyclic voltammetry, and its application to the analysis of coupled chemical reactions, catalytic systems and redox enzymes. Afternoon sessions will involve laboratory work that illustrates the concepts discussed in each morning session. In the introductory laboratory session, all participants will perform basic voltammetry experiments. These sessions will then progress into more advanced experiments to illustrate strategies that can be used for deciphering complex mechanisms. In addition, participants will receive supporting materials that will guide them through this five-day course ...
The Cyclic Voltammetry International School will consist of morning classes dedicated to the application of cyclic voltammetry to the various fields of molecular and biomolecular electrochemistry and followed by correlating hands-on laboratory sessions in the afternoon. The morning classes will cover core concepts of cyclic voltammetry, and its application to the analysis of coupled chemical reactions, catalytic systems and redox enzymes. Afternoon sessions will involve laboratory work that illustrates the concepts discussed in each morning session. In the introductory laboratory session, all participants will perform basic voltammetry experiments. These sessions will then progress into more advanced experiments to illustrate strategies that can be used for deciphering complex mechanisms. In addition, participants will receive supporting materials that will guide them through this five-day course ...
Pheniramine maleate (PA), an antihistamine, was determined by Differential Pulse Stripping voltammetry using nano polypyrrole (Ppy) and nano poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) modified glassy carbon electrodes. The cyclic voltammetric behavior of pheniramine was studied in aqueous acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. One well-defined oxidation peak was observed in the cyclic voltammograms at all pHs. The influence of pH, scan rate and concentration revealed irreversible electron transfer and the oxidation was diffusion controlled adsorption. The SEM analysis confirmed good accumulation of PA on the electrode surface. A systematic study of influence of various experimental parameters that affect the stripping voltammetric response was carried out and the maximum peak current conditions were arrived at. Calibration was made under maximum peak current conditions. The range of study was 0.05 to 0.4 μg/mL on Ppy/GCE and 0.025 to 0.4μg/mL on PEDOT/GCE and the lower limit of determination were 0
Because excessive using of pesticides poses a threat to the environment and to human health, development of low-cost and sensitive methods for analysis of pesticides in the environment is needed. Several bacteria can release halide ions from the molecules of halogenated hydrocarbons. This can be used in a device for analysis of halogenated hydrocarbons in the environment by quantification of the halide anions. Here we directed our attention to selecting an instrument for detection of chloride anions. We tested three different detectors, amperometric, and coulometric, both coupled with flow-injection analysis and charged aerosol, coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. Detection limits (3 × S/N) for measurement of chloride anions by use of these detectors was 30 µM (charged aerosol), 100 nM (coulometric), and 1 nM (amperometric). Because of its lowest detection limit for chloride anions and the many technical possibilities of miniaturization, the amperometric detector was used to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical methods for the determination of heparin. AU - Vishenkova, D. A.. AU - Korotkova, E. I.. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - A review of studies on the determination of heparin in various samples (pharmaceuticals, biological fluids) by electrochemical methods of analysis in 1976-2014 is presented. Heparin is most often determined in pharmaceuticals by polarography using cationic dyes, and in biological samples, by differential pulse methods on non-stationary mercury electrodes. Works on the creation of heparin-selective electrodes coated with a polyvinylchloride membrane with quarternary ammonium salts are most promising; they can, probably, be used for the creation of portable devices for the determination of heparin.. AB - A review of studies on the determination of heparin in various samples (pharmaceuticals, biological fluids) by electrochemical methods of analysis in 1976-2014 is presented. Heparin is most often determined in pharmaceuticals by polarography ...
Definition of electrochemical reaction by Electropedia. Meaning of electrochemical reaction. Translations of electrochemical reaction. Equivalent terms for electrochemical reaction.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measuring the solubility of benzoic acid in room temperature ionic liquids using chronoamperometric techniques. AU - He, W.. AU - Silvester, D.S.. AU - Streeter, I.. AU - Aldous, Leigh. AU - Hardacre, Christopher. AU - Compton, R.G.. PY - 2009/1. Y1 - 2009/1. N2 - The electrochemical reduction of benzoic acid (BZA) has been studied at platinum micro-electrodes (10 and 2 mu m diameters) in acetonitrile (MeCN) and six room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs): [C(2)mim][NTf2], [C(4)min][NTf2], [C(4)mpyrr][NTf2], [C(4)mim][BF4], [C(4)mim][NO3] and [C(4)mim][PF6] (where [C(n)mim](+)=1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium, [NTf2](-)=bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide, [C(4)mpyrr](+)=N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [BF4](-)=tetrafluoroborate, [NO3](-)=nitrate and [PF6] = hexafluorophosphate). Based on the theoretical fitting to experimental chronoamperometric transients in [C4mpyrr][NTf2] and MeCN at several concentrations and on different size electrodes, it is suggested that a fast chemical step ...
Electroactive organic compounds and their metal complexes are at the heart of our research. To decipher their electron transfer properties, we usually use a combination of CV and DPV. The same methods are also used to investigate electrocatalytic processes such as H2 activation and production, CO2 reduction and C-C bond formation reactions. Additionally, bulk electrolysis is used for studying the electrocatalytic reactions. An important current focus is the use of electrochemical methods for the investigation of reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic reactions. ...
Abstract The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) at physiological pH7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98×10−3 μM to 62.8μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors
Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen peroxide at platinum electrodes. Part II. T2 - Effect of potential. AU - Hall, Simon B.. AU - Khudaish, Emad A.. AU - Hart, Alan L.. PY - 1998/5/7. Y1 - 1998/5/7. N2 - The electrochemical oxidation of H2O2 at a platinum rotating disc electrode was studied at pH 7.26 for the [H2O2] range 0-70 mM, rotation rates 630-10000 rpm and anodic potential +264 to +712 mV vs Ag/AgCl using staircase potentiometry. A mechanism is proposed to account for the steady-state current as a function of rotation rate, [H2O2] and anodic potential. This mechanism involves reversible binding of H2O2 to electrochemically generated Pt(II) surface sites, reduction of the site and inhibiting competitive adsorption of H+ and O2. Potential-invariant values of the constants for H2O2, H+ and O2 binding are determined and the rate constants for the reduction and the re-oxidation of the binding site as a function of potential are evaluated.. AB - The electrochemical oxidation ...
In this study, a sodalite nanozeolite was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Following the morphology evolution of the sodalite nanozeolite in the SEM images illustrates the formation of the spherical particle with a size between 60 and 80 nm. Then, carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by sodalite nanozeolite and Ni2+ ions. The electrocatalytic performance of the fabricated electrode (Ni-SOD/CPE) towards glucose oxidation were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and Chronoamperometry and it was used as anode for the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in 0.1 M of NaOH solution. Also, the electron transfer coefficient, the diffusion coefficient and the mean value of catalytic rate constant for glucose and redox sites of electrode were found to be 0.86, 3.13×10−5 cm2 s−1 and 5.34×106 cm3 mol−1 s−1, respectively. Good catalytic activity, high sensitivity, good choice and the stability and easy preparation enables the modified
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical characterization of PtRu/C electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction. AU - Lin, Yan. AU - Luo, Jin. AU - Maye, Mathew M.. AU - Kariuki, Nancy N.. AU - Wang, Lingyan. AU - Njoki, Peter N.. AU - Han, Li. AU - Schadt, Mark. AU - Zhong, Chuan Jian. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Direct methanol fuel cells are increasingly considered as an attractive power source for mobile applications because of the high energy density. The binary PtRu nanoparticle catalyst on carbon support is currently one of the most-studied electrocatalysts showing a bifunctional catalytic mechanism. A systematical electrochemical characterization of PtRu/Vulcan carbon catalysts (E-tek) for methanol oxidation under various conditions was carried out. The results revealed some initial insights into the experimental conditions for comparing the catalytic activities of different electrocatalysts. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 228th ACS National Meeting (Philadelphia, PA ...
Abstract: Nano-carbon aerogels (CA) were prepared by the reaction between resorcinol and formaldehyde in alkaline conditions. The morphology and microstructure of the CA was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The specific area and the pore size distribution were calculated from the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. Glucose oxidase (GOD)/CA/ glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were prepared by immobilizing GOD on the surface of nano-carbon aerogels. The electrocatalytic properties of GOD/CA/GC electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry in phosphate buffer medium (0.1 mol·L-1). The results showed that GOD can be immobilized on the nano-carbon aerogels, and that the biological activation of GOD was retained. The GOD/CA/GC electrode exhibits good direct electrochemical and electro-catalytic performance without electron mediators.. Key words: Carbon aerogel, Glucose oxidase, Direct electrochemistry ...
Title:Electrochemical Study of Ellipticine Interaction with Single and Double Stranded Oligonucleotides. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Katerina Tmejova, Ludmila Krejcova, David Hynek, Vojtech Adam, Petr Babula, Libuse Trnkova, Marie Stiborova, Tomas Eckschlager and Rene Kizek. Affiliation:Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic, European Union.. Keywords:Adsorptive transfer stripping technique, DNA, differential pulse voltammetry, ellipticine, hetero-nucleotides, intercalation, square wave voltammetry, cancer, therapy.. Abstract:Ellipticine (5,11-dimethyl-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole) is an alkaloid that has been isolated from plants of an Apocynaceae family. It is one of the simplest naturally occurring alkaloids with a planar structure. Over the past decades, ellipticine became a very promising antitumor agent. Interaction with DNA is one of the most studied ellipticine effects on cell division. This phenomenon is not ...
A thin film, solid state amperometric detector for nitric oxide is provided based upon a mobile cation electrolyte that selectively transmits nitrosonium cations (NO+) therethrough. The presently most preferred embodiment employs NO-β-alumina as the mobile cation electrolyte. The electrodes of the detector are preferably arranged in a bipotentiostat arrangement. The first and second working electrodes share a common reference electrode and a common counter electrode, which are positioned such that the potentials of the first and second working electrodes can be independently controlled. The first working electrode is exposed to a fluid (liquid or gaseous), whereas the second working electrode is normally isolated from the fluid. The first working electrode is set at a potential capable of oxidizing NO to NO+, the NO+ moves through the mobile cation solid electrolyte to the second electrode, and the second working electrode is set at a potential capable of reducing the NO+ back to NO. The detector has a
Process intensification is in principle a strategy of making dramatic reductions in the capital cost of a production system, improving intrinsic safety, reducing environmental impact and energy consumption. An electrochemical cell is a specific example of a multiphase system that should be capable of being operated very intensively within a centrifugal acceleration field. This thesis presents the first systematical research work in this field. It demonstrates that many electrochemical processes can be enhanced considerably by using a high-acceleration field, which takes full advantage of the improvement in catalytic activity and optimal electrode structure. Six electrochemical processes have been investigated. Namely, the electro-reduction of oxygen, electro-oxidations of hydrogen and methanol, chlorine evolution, water electrolysis, and methanol fuel cell reaction. Several catalysed electrodes including Ti mesh or carbon cloth were prepared and used for the above processes. A number of catalyst ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erratum. T2 - Synthesis and electrochemical investigation of oligomeric ferrocene amides: Towards ferrocene polyamides (Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials DOI: 10.1007/s10904-006-9040-0). AU - Mahmoud, Khaled. AU - Kraatz, Heinz Bernhard. PY - 2007/3/1. Y1 - 2007/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34047257171&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34047257171&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s10904-007-9118-3. DO - 10.1007/s10904-007-9118-3. M3 - Article. VL - 17. JO - Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. JF - Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. SN - 1574-1443. IS - 1. ER - ...
Using cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemistry of aqueous solutions of 4-methoxy-1,2-benzoquinone was investigated over the pH range 0-8. From the variation of half-wave potential with pH, it was inferred that the quinone was reduced to the hydroquinone; no acid-base reactions involving either the quinone or hydroquinone were observed. At low pH ( , 3), the cyclic voltammogram of the benzoquinone changed rapidly to a second pair of peaks at lower potentials. These were shown to be due to 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone, formed by hydrolysis of the original compound. The other hydrolysis product, methanol, was detected chromatographically. The hydrolysis reaction was shown to be first order both with respect to the 1,2-benzoquinone and protons. At pH 6 and above, 4-methoxy-1,2-benzoquinone showed a second type of decomposition whose rate was approximately first order in hydroxide ion. Using electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements, it was also demonstrated that 4-methoxy-1,2-benzoquinone was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Directly growing hierarchical nickel-copper hydroxide nanowires on carbon fibre cloth for efficient electrooxidation of ammonia. AU - Xu, Wei. AU - Lan, Rong. AU - Du, Dongwei. AU - Humphreys, John. AU - Walker, Marc. AU - Wu, Zucheng. AU - Wang, Huanting. AU - Tao, Shanwen N1 - This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).. PY - 2017/12/5. Y1 - 2017/12/5. N2 - Ammonia is an attractive carbon-free chemical for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. However, the sluggish kinetic rates of the ammonia electrooxidation reaction, and high cost and poisoning of Pt-based catalysts still remain challenges. This also limits the development of direct ammonia fuel cells. In this work, we directly grew hierarchical mixed NiCu layered hydroxides (LHs) nanowires on carbon fibre cloth electrodes by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis method for efficient electro-oxidation of ammonia. This catalyst achieves a current density of ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Enzyme electrokinetics: Using protein film voltammetry to investigate redox enzymes and their mechanisms. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The polarographic half-wave potentials of a number of beta-nitrostyrenes, beta-nitropropenylbenzenes, and beta-nitrobutenylbenzenes were determined in aqueous ethanolic solution at an apparent pH of 6.54. A linear relationship exists between these values and Hammett sigma constants, but not with their ultraviolet absorption maxima or with their dipole moments. The polarographic wave of 11 diethyl benzalmalonates, under the same conditions, was masked by the hydrogen wave. (Author)(*STYRENES
I doubt that we will be given the electronegativity table, I think we will just have to base it off of our knowledge of the general trend. Also, the electronegativity rule is not true 100% of the time, especially when the values are very close. We did an example in my discussion class and when we tried to base it off of electronegativity it gave us a Lewis structure that was incorrect. If you are unsure about the electronegativity (of if they are very close in value), it is probably better to check the formal charges of each element in both structures, to determine which structure is correct (the one with lower formal charges ...
Electrocatalytic mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) on the highly dispersed Au microparticles electrodeposited on the surface of the glass carbon (GC) electrode in the alkaline Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution and the surface characteristics of the Au microparticle-modified glass carbon (Au/GC) electrode were studied with in situ FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the final products of HCHO oxidation is HCOO- at the Au/GC electrode and CO2 at the bulk Au electrode. The difference may be ascribed to the different surface characteristics between the Au/GC electrode and the bulk Au electrode. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Electrochemical Investigations into Blended Electrolytes Containing Ionic Liquids and a Glyme Solvent for Li-O-2 batteries. AU - Neale, Alex R. AU - Goodrich, Peter. AU - Jacquemin, Johan. AU - Ball, Sarah. AU - Hardacre, Chris. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - The Li-O2 battery may theoretically possess practical gravimetric energy densities several times greater than the current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.1 This magnitude of development is a requisite for true realization of electric vehicles capable of competing with the traditional combustion engine. However, significant challenges must be addressed before practical application may be considered. These include low efficiencies, low rate capabilities and the parasitic decomposition reactions of electrolyte/electrode materials resulting in very poor rechargeability.2-4 Ionic liquids, ILs, typically display several properties, extremely low vapor pressure and high electrochemical and thermal stability, which make them ...
Our group investigates the function and maturation of various metalloenzymes: molybdenum enzymes, hydrogenases and CO-dehydrogenases. We are interested in all steps in the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes: long distance electron transfer, active site chemistry, reaction with inhibitors such as O2. We seek to understand the molecular basis of some of the global properties of redox enzymes, including catalytic bias, substrate specificity and resistance to chemical stress. We have also developed new methodologies that make it possible to use electrochemistry for studying certain steps in the catalytic mechanism that may be difficult to probe using conventional techniques (such as mass transport along substrate channels). More information about our work can be found on our web site: http://www.bip06.fr. The post-doct will use direct electrochemistry and other kinetic methods to study various aspects of the reactivity of FeFe and NiFe hydrogenases. These enzymes oxidize and produce H2 and are ...
TY - JOUR AU - Savić, Branislava AU - Stanković, Dalibor M. AU - Živković, Sanja AU - Ognjanović, Miloš AU - Tasić, Gvozden S. AU - Mihajlović, Ivana J. AU - Brdarić, Tanja PY - 2020 UR - https://vinar.vin.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/9064 AB - A novel anode based on PbO2-GNRs nanocomposites was synthesized in order to investigate the simultaneous electrochemical oxidation of phenolic compounds in a mixture of methyl and chloro substituted phenols in alkaline solution (pH = 8.3). The crystal structure, morphology and composition of the synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FESEM images confirmed the presence of PbO2 nanoparticles on the PbO2-GNRs composite. The cyclic voltammetry measurements of the PbO2-GNRs electrode in 0.1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte indicated the electrochemical oxidation of phenol via indirect ...
Electrochemical behaviour of some alkaloids, namely: caffeine, aminophylline, theophylline, codeine phosphate and papaverine hydrochloride, that are in solution in various combinations or in the presence of other compounds contained in pharmaceuticals or in real samples (urine) was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) on electrochemically activated glassy carbon electrode. [...] The proposed electroanalytical methods were successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of these alkaloids in different combination or in the presence of other compounds. The great part of these combinations can be analyzed simultaneously because they practically do not interfere. The electrochemical test methods attempted to detect the presence of alkaloids in urine samples collected from subjects who consumed coffee (caffeine), and from a patient under treatment with Miofilin® (aminophylline). Urine samples were determined after ...
Described herein is an apparatus comprising an electrochemical cell that employs a capacitive counter electrode and a faradaic working electrode. The capacitive counter electrode reduces the amount of redox products generated at the counter electrode while enabling the working electrode to generate redox products. The electrochemical cell is useful for controlling the redox products generated and/or the timing of the redox product generation. The electrochemical cell is useful in assay methods, including those using electrochemiluminescence. The electrochemical cell can be combined with additional hardware to form instrumentation for assay methods.
The electrochemical reduction of an antibacterial drug nitrofurantoin (NTF) at hanging mercury dropping electrode (HMDE) has been studied using techniques. NTF shows one irreversible reduction peak at 1.192 V in Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 7.1, ionic strength 0.2 mol/dm(3). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) as well as UV/Vis spectroscopy were employed to probe the interaction between NTF and calf thymus DNA. From electrochemical data, the binding constant and binding ratio between DNA and drug was calculated to be 8.22 (+/- 0.05) x 10(6) M-1 and 1:3, respectively. Through chronocoulometry experiments, the diffusion coefficients were found as 1.10 (+/- 0.03) x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) for NTF and 3.67 (+/- 0.03) x 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) NTF-DNA. Based on electrochemical and spectroscopic results, we concluded that the mode of binding of NTF-DNA was through intercalative binding. The calibration graph for the determination of DNA was obtained by the decrease in the DPV ...
The film contained L-cysteine and gold nanoparticles were provided by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and potentiostatic electrodeposition technology on the gold electrode. Two methods were used to study the film: In the first, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to inspect the functional groups of the film and the same time hydroquinone was chosen to be a probe molecule in the based solution; secondly, based on analytical technology of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), the heterogeneous rate constant (keff) between solid phase (the modified electrode) and liquid phase (K3Fe(CN)6) was obtained. As a result, the better binary catalysis of hydroquinone was demonstrated and the heterogeneous rate constant (keff) is the greater at 8 h for L-cysteine self-assembled monolayers (SAMs).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies on structural change of plastocyanin and its tyrosine 83 mutants induced by interaction with lysine peptides. AU - Hirota, Shun. AU - Hayamizu, Kozue. AU - Okuno, Takashi. AU - Kishi, Mamiko. AU - Iwasaki, Hideo. AU - Kondo, Takao. AU - Hibino, Takashi. AU - Takabe, Teruhiro. AU - Kohzuma, Takamitsu. AU - Yamauchi, Osamu. PY - 2000/5/30. Y1 - 2000/5/30. N2 - Interactions of wild-type and Tyr83 mutant (Y83F, Y83S, Y83L, and Y83H) plastocyanins (PCs) with lysine peptides as models for the PC interacting site of cytochrome f have been studied by absorption, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies and electrochemical measurements. The spectral and electrochemical properties of PCs corresponded well with each other; species having a longer wavelength maximum for the S(Cys) π → Cu 3d(x2-y2) charge transfer (CT) band observed around 600 nm and a stronger intensity for the 460-nm absorption band exhibited ...
Læs om Electrochemical Investigation of Liquid Amalgams of Thallium, Indium, Tin, Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, and Lithium (Classic Reprint). Bogens ISBN er 9781334339752, køb den her
Sirisaksoontorn, W., & Lerner, M. (2013). The electrochemical synthesis of the graphite intercalation compounds containing tetra-n-alkylammonium cations. Ecs Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2(9), M28-M32. doi:10.1149/2.042309 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA synthesis using tyrosinase-immobilized on electrode surfaces. AU - Rahman, Siti Fauziyah. AU - Gobikhrisnan, Siramulu. AU - Misri, null. AU - Jong, Gwi Taek. AU - Park, Don Hee. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the direct precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. L-DOPA is a well-known neuroprotective agent for the treatment of Parkinsons disease symptoms. L-DOPA was synthesized using the enzyme, tyrosinase, as a biocatalyst for the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA and an electrochemical method for reducing L-DOPAquinone, the product resulting from enzymatic synthesis, to L-DOPA. In this study, three electrode systems were used: A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as working electrode, a platinum, and a Ag/AgCl electrode as auxiliary and reference electrodes, respectively. GCE has been modified using electropolymerization of pyrrole to facilitate the electron transfer process and immobilize tyrosinase. Optimum ...
Electrochemistry is a kind of chemistry that studies chemical reactions that use or make electricity. Reactions like this happen at electrodes which are made from something that conducts electricity, and put in an electrolyte. An electrolyte is a solution that has ions in it. Electrochemistry was invented at the same time as the voltaic pile; the first kind of electric battery. ...
We offer all PH and Electrochemistry Product Lines for your chemical laboratory research. Environmental Express is happy to be a distributor of Thermo Orion and Oakton Instruments. Choose our high quality Electrochemistry for your lab.
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books.google.co.inhttps://books.google.co.in/books/about/Modern_electrochemistry.html?id=CYQaAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareModern electrochemistry ...
N2 - The interactions between metallothionein (MT) and cisplatin were determined by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with the differential pulse votlammetry Brdickas reaction. The signals related to the MT-cisplatin complex appeared at -0.9 V. The formation of this complex depended on the time of interaction between cisplatin and MT. The complex formation was consequently confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance analyses. The formation of this complex was detectable even after a 20 s long interaction. Moreover, we detected presence of MT-cisplatin complex in the blood of male rats treated with this drug ...
Fast cyclic voltammetry was used to measure NO and dopamine (DA) simultaneously in rat caudate putamen (CPu) slices. Analysis of electrochemical signals obtained from mixtures of DA and NO showed that subtraction of either the DA or the NO component revealed the contribution of the other component. Application of such data manipulation to signals obtained in CPu slices indicated that DA and NO components contributed to electrochemical signals. Following electrical stimulation (,1 s), site-dependent NO-like signals were observed. Pressure ejection of NMDA yielded a biphasic electrochemical signal. The first phase (lasting 10-20 s) had electrochemical characteristics of DA and was observed only during the first application of NMDA, The second phase developed more slowly, was of longer duration (1-3 min), and had electrochemical characteristics of a mixture of DA and NO. Generation of the NO-like signal by NMDA was antagonised by L-N-monomethylarginine. Pressure ejection of NO into CPu slices ...
Despite having reliable and excellent diagnostic performances, the currently available messenger RNA (mRNA) detection methods mostly use enzymatic amplification steps of the target mRNA which is generally affected by the sample manipulations, amplification bias and longer assay time. This paper reports an amplification-free electrochemical approach for the sensitive and selective detection of mRNA using a screen-printed gold electrode (SPE-Au). The target mRNA is selectively isolated by magnetic separation and adsorbed directly onto an unmodified SPE-Au. The surface-attached mRNA is then measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in the presence of [Fe(CN)6] 4-/3- redox system. This method circumvents the PCR amplification steps as well as simplifies the assay construction by avoiding multiple steps involved in conventional biosensing approaches of using recognition and transduction layers. Our method has demonstrated good sensitivity (LOD = 1.0 pM) and reproducibility (% RSD = | 5%, for n = 3)
Electrochemistry at the solid/liquid interfaces: Preparation of novel nanoscaled materials via electrochemically (mostly) and chemically (partly) procedures, Design and Development of modified electrode based on nanocomposites by using: electrochemical and physical deposition, inkjet printing technology and self-assembled monolayers, Characterization of nanostructured based modified electrode in order to study the structure, morphology, spectroscopy, conductance and electrochemical characteristics of the modified electrode surface, Application of the (bio) nanostructured modified electrode in: electroanalysis of some pharmaceutically and biologically important compounds, electrocatalysis (Oxygen Reduction Reaction; ORR), study of electrochemical behavior of drugs and DNA bases and their electron transfer mechanism at the electrode surface ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals obtained by electrochemical methods embedded in a silicon oxide matrix. AU - Cortazar, O.. AU - Aceves, M.. AU - Yu, Z.. AU - Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Article in proceedings. SN - 978-1-4244-4688-9. SP - 611. EP - 615. BT - Proceedings. PB - IEEE. T2 - 6th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control. Y2 - 1 January 2009. ER - ...
Abstract: 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (MNP) is the main by-product of the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion (FT), used in locust control. MNP is highly toxic because it is an endocrine disruptor and then may cause adverse in the biological systems. Then, it is necessary to develop analytical methods for determination of this pollutant in the environment. In this sense, we reported herein the development of an electrochemical sensor for the detection of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (MNP), one of the metabolites of fenitrothion (FT), by using naked and modified carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) by nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine polymer (CFME/p-NiTSPc). The voltammogram showed that MNP presents one irreversible anodic peak corresponding to the oxidation of the phenol group at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The effect of pH of the buffer on the peak current and SWV parameters such as frequency, scan increment and pulse amplitude were investigated in order to optimize the electrochemical response of the ...
Sensitive determination of metronidazole based on Graphene-TiO2 modified glassy carbon electrode in human serum and urine samples
Electrochemistry. Italian physicist Alessandro Volta showing his "battery" to French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte in the early ... Main article: Electrochemistry. The ability of chemical reactions to produce electricity, and conversely the ability of ... Electrochemistry has always been an important part of electricity. From the initial invention of the Voltaic pile, ...
Electrochemistry. Springer. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-412-04391-8.. ...
ISBN 978-1-4684-8312-3. "Electrochemistry". Chemical Abstracts. 9: 2741. 1915. Retrieved 8 July 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
Electrochemistry. Japan. 75 (5): 385-393. doi:10.5796/electrochemistry.74.385. ISSN 1344-3542. "Rechargeable Battery SCiB - ...
Electrochemistry. Testing for results of biological processes. The composition of air. Combustion. Water and solution. Acids ...
In electrochemistry, a half-cell is a structure that contains a conductive electrode and a surrounding conductive electrolyte ... "Electrochemistry". Fundamental Chemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 482.. ...
"Electrochemistry". ACS Division of Analytical Chemistry. Retrieved 2018-04-03. Information, This story was written by Navy ... Rolison, Debra R. (1994). "The intersection of electrochemistry with zeolite science". In J.C. Jansen, M. Stöcker, H. G. Karge ... ACS Division of Analytical Chemistry Award in Electrochemistry 2016: Dr. Dolores M. Etter Award - Group category (U.S. Naval ...
Electrochemistry[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ...
Electrochemistry[edit]. A fully charged Ni-Cd cell contains: *a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide positive electrode plate ...
Electrochemistry[edit]. Discharge[edit]. Fully discharged: two identical lead sulfate plates and diluted sulfuric acid solution ... "How Batteries Store and Release Energy: Explaining Basic Electrochemistry". Journal of Chemical Education. 95 (10): 1801-1810 ...
Applied Electrochemistry. The MacMillan Company. pp. 220-224. "Minor Paragraphs". Popular Science Monthly: 431. Jan 1898. ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 3: 317-323. doi:10.1016/S1388-2481(01)00140-0. ISSN 1388-2481. Martin, Richard (25 October ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 3 (11): 624-627. doi:10.1016/S1388-2481(01)00232-6. Chebiam, R. V.; Prado, F.; Manthiram, A. ( ... Electrochemistry Communications. 3: 624-627. doi:10.1016/S1388-2481(01)00232-6. Chebiam, R. V.; Prado, F.; Manthiram, A. (2001 ...
Bockris, John O'M.; Reddy, Amulya K. N. (1970). Modern Electrochemistry. Plenum Press. pp. 352-3. Bockris, John O'M.; Reddy, ... Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2018). "How Batteries Store and Release Energy: Explaining Basic Electrochemistry". J. Chem. Educ. 95 (10): ... Amulya K.N. (2013) [1970]. Modern Electrochemistry. Volume 1. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 494. ISBN 9781461574675. ... Calvin cycle Chemical equation Chemical looping combustion Citric acid cycle Electrochemical series Electrochemistry ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 12 (11): 1524-1526. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.08.024. K. Mizushima, P. C. Jones, P. J. Wiseman ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 10 (1): 165-169. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2007.11.016. Croce, F.; D' Epifanio, A.; Hassoun, J.; ...
The experimental results and theories on the battery were published online in 2009 in the journal Electrochemistry ... Electrochemistry Communications. 11 (10): 1916-1918. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2009.08.015. "Silicon-air battery promises power for ... Electrochemistry Communications. 11 (10): 1916-1918. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2009.08.015. "Pentagon seeks to build a disappearing ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 2 (2): 112-118. doi:10.1016/S1388-2481(99)00156-3. Bond AM, Marken F (1994). "Mechanistic ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 3 (7): 372-378. doi:10.1016/s1388-2481(01)00173-4. Mirkin, Michael; Sun (2006). "Kinetics of ... "Combinatorial Electrochemistry: A Highly Parallel, Optical Screening Method for Discovery of Better Electrocatalysts". Science ... Microfabrication and Electrochemistry". Angewandte Chemie. 50 (37): 8679-8682. doi:10.1002/anie.201103386. Unwin, Patrick; ...
"Our Research". Nano Electrochemistry. Retrieved 2018-03-20. "Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). University of North Carolina Department ... Dick has received numerous awards recognizing his work in nanoscale electrochemistry, including being named one of MD & DI's 30 ... His research primarily focuses on applications of electrochemistry to the study of nanoscale biological systems. Dick received ...
ISBN 978-0-471-04372-0. Zoski, Cynthia G. (2007-02-07). Handbook of Electrochemistry. Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-444-51958-0 ... Ann., 7, 536, 1879 Wang, Joseph C. (2000). Analytical electrochemistry. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-28272-3. ... ISBN 978-0-8247-5357-3. Edited by Kenneth I. Ozomwna (2007). Recent Advances in Analytical Electrochemistry 2007. Transworld ... Hubert H. Girault (2004). Analytical and physical electrochemistry. [Lausanne: EPFL. ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 9 (7): 1810-1815. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2007.04.012. Dumortier, Hélène; Lacotte, Stéphanie; ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 16 (1): 61-64. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2012.01.002. Xie, Yu; Naguib, M.; Mochalin, V.N.; Barsoum ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 43: 25-30. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2014.03.004. ISSN 1388-2481. García-Armada, Pilar; Losada, ...
Electrochemistry Communications. 96: 27-371. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2018.09.006. Jones, R.; Haufe, P.; Sells, E.; Iravani, P.; ...
... silver chloride reference electrode for use in micro-electrochemistry". Electrochemistry Communications. 1 (5): 180-183. doi: ...
Electrochemistry Encyclopedia. Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Turner, Edward (1841 ...
"Electrochemistry Encyclopedia Jaroslav Heyrovsky and Polarography". Electrochemistry Encyclopedia. Archived from the original ... He was particularly interested in working with Professor Donnan, on electrochemistry. During the First World War Heyrovský ... Heyrovsky's Contribution to Electrochemistry". Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 31 (4): 281-289. doi:10.1080/ ... from 1922 and he concentrated his whole further scientific activity on the development of this new branch of electrochemistry. ...
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry. 5 (1): 106-113. doi:10.1016/j.coelec.2017.07.011. Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Yue-Jiao; Ding, ... Electrochemistry Communications. 108: 106557. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2019.106557. León, L.; Mozo, J.D. (2018). "Designing ... the future of visualizing electrode processes by hyphenating electrochemistry with spectroscopic techniques". The Analyst. 145 ...
His work to prove this theory led him to propose two laws of electrochemistry which stood in direct conflict with the current ... James, Frank A. J. L. (1989). "Michael Faraday's first law of electrochemistry: how context develops new knowledge" (Full ... Stock, John T. (1989). "Electrochemistry in retrospect: an overview" (Full Online Text) ,chapter-format= requires ,chapter-url ... Lewis, Nancy D., "Alesandro Volta The Voltaic Pile". Lewis, Nancy D., "Humphry Davy Electrochemistry".. ...
ISBN 0-12-352651-5 Media related to Electrochemistry at Wikimedia Commons Electrochemistry at Curlie. ... Electrochemistry has also important applications in the food industry, like the assessment of food/package interactions, the ... Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry concerned with the relationship between electrical potential, as a ... By the 1960s-1970s quantum electrochemistry was developed by Revaz Dogonadze and his pupils. In 2018, after ten years of ...
Bipolar electrochemistry is a phenomenon in electrochemistry based on the polarization of conducting objects in electric fields ... The phenomenon of bipolar electrochemistry is known for several decades and is used in industry in some electrolytic reactors. ... Fosdick, S. E.; Knust, K. N.; Scida, K.; Crooks, R. M. (2013). "Bipolar Electrochemistry". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 (40): 10438 ... G. Loget; A. Kuhn (2011). "Shaping and exploring the micro- and nanoworld using bipolar electrochemistry". Analytical and ...
ISBN 0-8247-9445-1. Zoski, Cynthia G. (2007-02-07). Handbook of Electrochemistry. Elsevier Science. ISBN 0-444-51958-0. Harris ... ISBN 0-03-005938-0. Zanello, P. (2003-10-01). Inorganic Electrochemistry: Theory, Practice, and Application (1 ed.). Royal ... which was an advancement for the field of electrochemistry. He used this potentiostat to control the voltage of an electrode. ...
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Electrochemistry is a surface-sensitive field of research, as the composition and atomic arrangement of the electrode ...
Oregon Center for Electrochemistry Conference - September 24-25. Posted on August 26, 2021 by Daniel Grunberg ... The ECS Pacific Northwest Section invites you to the Inaugural Conference of the Oregon Center for Electrochemistry on ... Established in 2017, the award assists a deserving student in India pursue a career in disciplines related to electrochemistry ... The Oregon Center for Electrochemistry Conference is a sponsored meeting of The Electrochemical Society. ...
Chapter 17: Electrochemistry 17.SA. 65. 2.WA.001 2.WA.002 2.WA.003 2.WA.004 2.WA.005 2.WA.006 2.WA.007 2.WA.008 2.WA.009 2.WA. ...
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pH & Electrochemistry. pH & Electrochemistry. *Chlorine and pH Test Kits and Test Strips ...
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Electrochemistry (1) * Electromagnetic Spectrum (2) * Elements, Compounds, & Mixtures (1) * Energy & Energy Transfer (1) ...
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Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 2018. DOI : 10.1007/s10800-018-1226-y.. Detailed record ...
Numerical-solution of nernst-planck and poisson equation system with applications to membrane electrochemistry and solid-state ...
Electrochemistry, Electrolysis and Corrosion. (35). *Austria (1) Belgium (1) Canada (3) China (1) Finland (1) France (2) ...
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Electrochemistry (Nernst-Planck-Poisson-Stokes equations). *Stability, Rupture and Dynamics of Free Boundary Problems. ...
  • The Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry is devoted to all aspects of solid-state chemistry and solid-state physics in electrochemistry. (springer.com)
  • Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry concerned with the relationship between electrical potential, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electrical potential as an outcome of a particular chemical change, or vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several journals are published specially to deal with physical chemistry, of which electrochemistry forms an important part. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Electrochemistry is a branch within the field of chemistry which involves the intersection between chemical reactions and electrical currents. (wisegeek.com)
  • A nice dictionary of electrochemical terms.Category Science Chemistry electrochemistry. (geometry.net)
  • The volume Electrochemistry VI of Topics in Current Chemistry is subtitled Electroorganic Synthesis: Bond Formations at the Anode and Cathode . (waterstones.com)
  • The models will be designed in a way to capture the relevant physical chemistry, electrochemistry and transport processes, and will permit, after appropriate experimental validation, support the design of innovative LSBs. (electrochem.org)
  • Electrochemistry is a kind of chemistry that studies chemical reactions that use or make electricity . (wikipedia.org)
  • The research on electrochemistry and electrochemical methods within the Inorganic Chemistry research program is focused on fundamental electrochemical problems and the development of electrochemical methods. (uu.se)
  • Electrochemistry and Physical Chemistry Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Electrochemistry and Physical Chemistry Conference. (waset.org)
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Electrochemistry and Physical Chemistry Conference. (waset.org)
  • Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (a metal or a semiconductor ) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte ), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This makes electrochemistry (the name given to various applications of redox reactions) an incredibly useful branch of chemistry. (learner.org)
  • Electrochemistry ( Wikipedia ) is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and a particular chemical change or vice versa. (instructables.com)
  • A good working definition of the field of electroanalytical chemistry would be that it is the field of electrochemistry that utilizes the relationship between chemical phenomena which involve charge transfer (e.g. redox reactions, ion separation, etc.) and the electrical properties that accompany these phenomena for some analytical determination. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions that involve the transfer of electrons. (coursehero.com)
  • Department of Chemistry University of Texas at Austin Electrochemistry Unit Activity Making a Battery KEY In a virtual world, even though you are an engineer or biologist, the only job available to you is as a BS chemist. (coursehero.com)
  • Applications are invited from excellent candidates with suitable experience and skills for the position of research fellow in electrochemistry with Professor Phil Bartlett in Chemistry at the University of Southampton. (jobs.ac.uk)
  • The successful candidate will work as part of an interdisciplinary team, alongside other Research Fellows in Synthetic Chemistry and Electronic Engineering at Southampton, as well as other Research Fellows and PhD students working on projects in electrochemistry in the Bartlett group. (jobs.ac.uk)
  • http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Analytical_Chemistry/Electrochemistry/Redox_Chemistry/Balancing_Redox_reactions Contributors * Christopher Spohrer (UCD) * Christina Breitenbuecher (UCD) * Luvleen Brar (UCD) This page viewed 17566 times The ChemWiki has 6653 Modules. (avroarrow.org)
  • Chapter 2, by Rusling, deals with electrochemistry and electro- catalysis in microemulsions, thus connecting aspects of electrode kinetics, adsorption at electrode interfaces, and colloid chemistry. (springer.com)
  • Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry, (accepted). (mpg.de)
  • Dr. Kyosti Kontturi is Professor of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry at Aalto University and Docent in Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry at University of Kuopio. (indigo.ca)
  • I'm not going to fully explain the process of redox reactions and electrochemistry, so you're going to have to rough it through. (overclockers.com)
  • The key role that redox reactions play in the environment make electrochemistry-high resolution mass spectrometry a sensitive and simple technique to improve our understanding of the fate of organic contaminants in the environment. (mdpi.com)
  • It is now time for a comprehensive treatise to look at the whole field of electrochemistry. (springer.com)
  • As such, the field of electrochemistry includes a wide range of different chemical and physical phenomena. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • More precisely, it should be stated that only one part of the whole field of electrochemistry is developed. (springer.com)
  • Special emphasis will be put on research merits within the fields of fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical methods, corrosion and/or electrodeposition. (uu.se)
  • pH measurements: How to see the real face of electrochemistry and corrosion? (eurekalert.org)
  • In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms governing the electrochemistry and corrosion of metal surfaces, researchers from the IPC PAS developed a new measurement tool. (eurekalert.org)
  • While corrosion can take any one of the several forms, the mechanism of attack in aqueous environments will involve some aspect of electrochemistry. (corrosion-doctors.org)
  • This session will cover recent advances in electrochemistry (especially electrocatalysis) at the single entity level. (rsc.org)
  • This treatise is not a collection of articles from Recent Advances in Electrochemistry or Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry. (springer.com)
  • Russian Journal of Electrochemistry is a journal that covers all aspects of research in modern electrochemistry. (springer.com)
  • Director of CECRI, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, Dr V Yajnaraman, who was one of the chief guests at the function, in his address elaborated on the role of electrochemistry in generating and conserving energy. (deccanherald.com)
  • Single entity electrochemistry studies provide a new way of viewing electrochemical processes at the nanoscale, and provide a bottom-up approach for understanding electrochemical processes in complex systems. (rsc.org)
  • Electrochemistry refers to the study of the chemical processes that are responsible for the movement of electrons in electricity. (news-medical.net)
  • This book concentrates on the electrochemistry/environment relationship including, among others, chapters on design and operation of electrochemical reactors and separators, process simulation, development and scale-up, optimization and control of electrochemical processes applied to environmental problems, also including economic analysis, description of unique current and future applications, in addition to basic research into developing new technologies. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to inspiring a great deal of pure research, electrochemistry is used in a wide range of industrial processes, and in technology utilized in numerous settings. (wisegeek.com)
  • Modern electrochemistry has diverged significantly from the 18th century roots of this field of study. (wisegeek.com)
  • It highlights both the current value and the large potential of organic electrochemistry for the selective formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds and for the generation of complex organic molecules using electrochemical key steps. (waterstones.com)
  • From the highly dependable Benchtop pH Meters and their accessories to high performance pH, ion selective, combination and ORP electrodes, Spectrum electrochemistry products are a great alternative for those that are budget conscious. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • This course assumes familiarity with the fundamentals of electrochemistry. (comsol.com)
  • Experience in electrodeposition of compound semiconductor, electrochemistry in organic solvent under inert atmosphere techniques and relevant characterisation techniques would be highly desirable. (jobs.ac.uk)
  • Application of kinetics to the study of electrochemistry has accelerated the pace and its eventual recognition as an important branch of science in its own right. (authorhouse.com)
  • ICMAE 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Modern Analytical Electrochemistry . (waset.org)
  • One of the underlying concepts in electrochemistry is the reduction/ oxidation or redox reaction, which describes a situation in which electrons are gained or lost. (wisegeek.com)
  • Electrochemistry is the study of chemical reactions in which the reactants transfer electrons from one compound to another. (learner.org)
  • Electrochemistry involves chemical reactions in which electrons move from one element to another. (coursehero.com)
  • The interpretation of single entity electrochemistry experiments also requires a move away from continuum models for mass transport and reactivity, coupled with more detailed descriptions of interfacial properties (charge density, double layer, structure, composition, defects etc.) at the nanoscale. (rsc.org)
  • This Faraday Discussion aims to bring together leading scientists to discuss key challenges in the design, execution, analysis, theory and interpretation of single entity electrochemistry experiments, and to assess the implications of such measurements for electrochemistry and broader interfacial science. (rsc.org)
  • One of the first experiments regarding electrochemistry was performed by Luigi Galvani in 1786. (news-medical.net)
  • In the late 18th century the Italian physician and anatomist Luigi Galvani marked the birth of electrochemistry by establishing a bridge between chemical reactions and electricity on his essay "De Viribus Electricitatis in Motu Musculari Commentarius" (Latin for Commentary on the Effect of Electricity on Muscular Motion) in 1791 where he proposed a "nerveo-electrical substance" on biological life forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single entity electrochemistry spans a wide range of topics, from electrocatalysis and the properties of functional materials, to bioanalysis (e.g., single cell studies and DNA analysis with nanopores), but many of the underlying concepts, principles and experimental/theoretical challenges are common. (rsc.org)
  • Bockris University of Ottawa B. E. Conway Case Western Reserve University Ernest Yeager Texas A & M University Ralph E. White Preface to Volume 8 Experimental methods in electrochemistry are becoming more diverse. (springer.com)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Modern Analytical Electrochemistry are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • It is hoped that this volume will be considered interesting and extremely timely to specialists in electrochemistry and environmental sciences. (elsevier.com)
  • The present volume presents six chapters, two of them fairly brief, covering both fundamental and applied electrochemistry. (springer.com)
  • Throughout the book, the intention is to emphasize that the applications, though extremely diverse, all are on the same principles of electrochemistry and electrochemical engineer based ing. (google.it)
  • Electrochemistry for Materials Science Edition by Plieth, Walfried and Publisher Elsevier Science. (vitalsource.com)
  • The Journal of Applied Electrochemistry is the leading journal on technologically orientated aspects of electrochemistry. (springer.com)
  • Integrating both theoretical and applied aspects of electrochemistry, this acclaimed monograph series presents a review of the latest advances in the field. (springer.com)
  • In the Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry series we have periodically included contributions from the several schools of Russi~n electrochemistry. (springer.com)
  • English chemists John Daniell (left), and Michael Faraday (right), are both credited as founders of electrochemistry today. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Electrochemistry Laboratory (LEC), established 1988, is part of the Energy and Environment Research Division (ENE) at the Paul Scherrer Institute. (psi.ch)
  • PSI's Electrochemistry Laboratory is Switzerland's largest Center for Electrochemical Research. (psi.ch)
  • Course Hero has everything you need to master any concept and ace your next test - from course notes, Electrochemistry study guides and expert Tutors, available 24/7. (coursehero.com)
  • The Bursary Scheme is open to all postgraduate student members of the RSC's Electrochemistry Group undertaking research in electrochemistry. (rsc.org)
  • You have searched for Electrochemistry Humanities Research Programme . (findaphd.com)
  • Earlier researchers were primarily interested in explaining phenomena they didn't understand, while modern researchers are interested in finding new applications for electrochemistry, and in understanding complex electrochemical reactions. (wisegeek.com)
  • During Block 1, you will get an introduction to the theory and applications of the Electrochemistry Module and electrochemistry modeling in general. (comsol.com)
  • Although wide ranging, electrochemistry has found many practical applications in analytical measurements. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • the future for electrochemical technology is bright and there is a general expectation that new applications of electrochemistry will become economic as the world responds to the challenge of more expensive energy, of the need to develop new materials and to exploit different chemical feedstocks and of the necessity to protect the environment. (google.it)
  • This monograph is an introductory text of electrochemistry for students of Science, Technology and Engineering at the very elementary level (Second year University students and their equivalent counterparts in Technical and Teachers Training Colleges). (authorhouse.com)
  • In general, electrochemistry deals with situations where oxidation and reduction reactions are separated in space or time, connected by an external electric circuit to understand each process. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In recent years, electrochemistry coupled to mass spectrometry has attracted a lot of attention as an alternative technique to investigate oxidation metabolites of organic compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • The Student Bursary Scheme provides financial support to promising postgraduate students to attend a major electrochemistry conference abroad. (rsc.org)
  • The science underpinning the ChilliPot was born out of the Compton group's expertise in electrochemistry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The science of electrochemistry has undergone very dramatic changes in the past fifty years and its slow development at an earlier stage was due mainly to the fact that Nernstian equilibrium treatment of the subject does not tell the whole truth about electrochemical systems and their reactions. (authorhouse.com)
  • The book fills a very definite and well sensed gap in the existing literature, and it has all potential qualification to become a standard study and teaching tool and source of reference for the researchers in the classical electrochemistry and membranology as well as in the rapidlydeveloping neighbour areas of bio- and nano-technology and microfluidics. (indigo.ca)
  • These, and other, areas of electrochemistry are greatly impacted by nanomaterials and nanoscale systems. (rsc.org)
  • The Materials Electrochemistry Group , directed by Associate Professor Ekaterina Pomerantseva , works on the development and characterization of novel nanostructured materials, systems and architectures for batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in order to understand electrochemical energy storage and conversion at the nanoscale. (drexel.edu)