Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Gymnotiformes: An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.Electric Fish: Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Electrophorus: A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Facial DermatosesEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Agrin: A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Buranchi's body contains electricity-producing organs like an electric eel, but each of his cells also act as amplifiers. With ... Buranchi's electric attacks work by producing a conductive path, then filling that path with his electricity for the attack. ... Parallel Electric Punch: Buranchi fires a large bolt of electricity from his fist that travels from target to target, ... Parallel Electric Chop: Buranchi sends one huge bolt of electricity down onto his opponent. This discharge is equivalent to ...
Electric rays have patches of modified muscle cells called electroplaques that make up an electric organ. These generate an ... The family Torpedinidae contains 22 species of electric rays or torpedoes, flat cartilaginous fishes that produce electricity ... The electricity can be stored in the tissues, which act as a battery. The shock can be discharged in pulses. A ray can emit a ... Tissue from electric rays is often used in neurobiological research because of its unique properties. Torpedo rays are flat ...
Electric rays have patches of modified muscle cells called electroplaques that make up an electric organ. These generate an ... The electricity can be stored in the tissues, which act as a battery. The battery can be discharged in pulses. A ray can emit a ... The torpedo electric organ, being composed of modified muscle cells, has proven highly useful in the neurobiological study of ... Torpedo is a genus of rays, commonly known as electric rays, torpedo rays, or torpedoes. They are slow-moving bottom-dwellers ...
These fish possess electric organs that allow them to produce electricity. In most gymnotiforms, the electric organs are ... The electric organs of most Gymnotiformes produce tiny discharges of just a few millivolts, far too weak to cause any harm to ... Electrical signalling of dominance in a wild population of electric fish. Biol. Lett. 10.1098/rsbl.2010.0804 Albert, J.S., and ... Gymnotiformes and Mormyridae have developed their electric organs and electrosensory systems (ESSs) through convergent ...
... the artificial electric organ". Trends in Neurosciences. 23 (4): 147-151. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(99)01544-1. Bernstein J (1902 ... The role of electricity in the nervous systems of animals was first observed in dissected frogs by Luigi Galvani, who studied ... The interaction of electrical and osmotic relations in plant cells indicates an osmotic function of electrical excitability in ... Electric Biology, the study of the electrical processes in the organism represented on a modern basis]. Braunschweig: Vieweg ...
Also an electric blower for the organ was installed. During this period, church services were held at the nearby Moorend School ... From 1932 to 1934, the church was renovated internally, electricity and a new heating system were installed. ... On 7 January 1839 a great storm caused the bell and part of the belfry to crash through the roof, destroying the organ. The ...
However, there were no electrical outlets installed, because during that era electricity was only used for lighting. The ... It even had a pipe organ, installed after someone suggested to Hill that other wealthy people had pipe organs in their homes. ... The house had a hybrid system of gas and electric lighting, with rotary switches on the walls to turn on the electric lights. ... Main Fireplace Dining Room Gas Light Dragon Sconce Upper Skylight Second Floor Landing Pipe Organ Upper view of the art gallery ...
Piccolino M (2000). "The bicentennial of the Voltaic battery (1800-2000): the artificial electric organ". Trends in ... The role of electricity in the nervous systems of animals was first observed in dissected frogs by Luigi Galvani, who studied ... Electrical synapsesEdit. Main articles: Electrical synapse, Gap junction, and Connexin. Some synapses dispense with the " ... The interaction of electrical and osmotic relations in plant cells [ao] indicates an osmotic function of electrical ...
Like other mormyrids, Cornish jacks have an electric organ and generate weak pulses of electricity for navigation, finding food ... Arnegard, M.E.; Carlson, B.A. (2005). "Electric organ discharge patterns during group hunting by a mormyrid fish". Proceedings ... Cornish jacks in groups will adjust the rate of their electrical pulses so that they occur at 18-20 ms delays relative to each ... After a few seconds, a strike may follow, during which the rate of electrical pulses generated may increase to once every 18-20 ...
electrophones, such as the synthesizer or electric bass, which produce sound through electricity and is required to be plugged ... other wind instruments such as the organ, and the stick-struck santur (a board zither). The distinction between fretted and ... an electric guitar is still a string-instrument regardless of what analog or digital/computational post-processing effects ... can produce music without electricity or the use of an amplifier. In 1932, comparative musicologist (ethnomusicologist) André ...
Josh became animalistically hungry for electricity, gnawing on electric cables at the high school and Beacon Hills Hospital. ... Unlike the other organ that Corey received for its transplant that was needed to become a chimera remains unknown. Shortly ... Theo then kills Josh again to take Josh's electrical power. Josh is part werewolf, like many of the other Chimeras and has the ... Mason, Corey, and, Scott constructed a special cage that shielded it from electric currents to prevent the Rider from leaving ...
Thus it has been more recently proposed that, for example, the pipe organ (even if it uses electric key action to control ... to describe instruments involving electricity. Sachs broke down his 5th category into 3 subcategories: 51=electrically actuated ... Instruments having electric action (e.g. pipe organ with electrically controlled solenoid air valves); 52. Instruments having ... Earlier organs 412.13 Free-reed instruments feature a reed which vibrates within a closely fitting slot (there may be an ...
Like in other electric rays, the coffin ray's electric organs are derived from muscle tissue and consist of numerous vertical ... It is capable of generating up to 200 volts of electricity and delivering 50 shocks over span of ten minutes, with each ... Its body is flabby, with two large, kidney-shaped electric organs visible on both sides of the head. The pectoral fins form a ... This species may also be referred to as crampfish, electric ray, numbfish, numbie, short-tail electric ray, or torpedo. ...
Weakly electric fish generates Electric Organ Discharge (EOD) with specialized compartments called electric organ. Almost all ... biological source of electricity. Therefore, ampullary organs are mainly used for passive electrolocation. On the other hand, ... Electric fishes generate discharge from electric organs located near the tail region. Electric organs are mostly derived from ... The polarity built up by the electric organ therefore sets up an electrostatic field in the water. Electric organs are quite ...
... and injury to other organs. For a burn to be classified as electrical, electricity must be the direct cause. For example, ... "What is an Electrical Burn?" Electrical Safety. n.p. n.d. Web. 29 September 2011. . "Electrical Burn Injuries." Department of ... burning a finger on a hot electric steam iron would be thermal, not electrical. Electricity passing through resistance creates ... Interference with the electrical conductivity of organs such as the heart and nerves. This can lead to seizures, lung injury ...
The PUC is litigating against the electric utility, Belize Electricity Limited, and telephone company, Belize Telemedia Limited ... In 2005 he became the editor of the Guardian newspaper, the chief media organ of Belize's United Democratic Party. Avery is ...
The electrical output of the organ is called the electric organ discharge. Strongly electric fish are fish with an electric ... but they are not classified as electric fish because they cannot generate electricity. Most common bony fish (teleosts), ... Play media Electric fish produce their electrical fields from a specialized structure called an electric organ. This is made up ... a small voltage can drive a large current limited by the internal resistance of the electric organ. Hence, the electric organ ...
... including detecting electricity. Many species of rays and skates outside the family have electric organs in the tail; however, ... the electric ray has two large electric organs on each side of its head, where current passes from the lower to the upper ... The organs are governed by four central nerves from each side of the electric lobe, or specialized brain lobe, which is of a ... A pair of kidney-shaped electric organs are at the base of the pectoral fins. The snout is broad, large in the Narcinidae, but ...
... and Broomhill became one of the first to be lit with electricity. Salomons also developed one of the first electric cooking ... There is also a Welte Philharmonic organ from 1914. In addition to his many other achievements, he developed a lifelong passion ... He took out patents for electric lamps, current meters and various improvements to electrical equipment. The workshops were ... an electric butter churn and the first electric alarms, all made and installed by Salomons and his staff. ...
... with conversion of lamps to electricity and addition of an electric organ, a basement was put under the church in the late ... Electric service was added to the church in the 20th century, ...
... and had the ability to store and discharge electricity, due to having electric eel DNA and the associated storage organ to ... naturally accumulate an electric charge. Talon Talon became the leader of the Mutate Clan; originally, he was against ...
In 1952 the organ was given to Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia. It was renovated in 2008 and is now known as the Goodwyn- ... The farm was lauded for its use of electric lights and fans, even individual drinking fountains for the cows, its cleanliness, ... Find a Grave J.J. Williams, "Briarcliff", Druid Hills News, Druid Hills Civic Association, Fall 2007 "Use of electricity on ... It was the largest privately owned organ in Georgia at the time, and the 8th largest that Aeolian had ever built for a private ...
... by the continuous variation of the intensity of the electric current. This method of sound energy to electrical signal ... Hermann von Helmholtz's work on electricity and sound as described in Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische ... a type of pump organ) so that it could transmit its music electrically over a distance. When the family was settled in and he ... His record of a discussion with his father in their home's living room, wrote "If I could vary the intensity of the electric ...
... the Atlantic torpedo is capable of generating a powerful electric shock from a pair of kidney-shaped electric organs in its ... Solitary and nocturnal, the Atlantic torpedo is capable of generating up to 220 volts of electricity to subdue its prey or ... These organs comprise one-sixth of the ray's total weight and contain around half a million jelly-filled "electric plates" ... The discharges from the electric organ occur in a series, or train, of closely spaced pulses each lasting around 0.03 seconds. ...
... such as the electricity coming from an Electric Ray or the sound waves used in Echo Location). This graphical approach to ... "Jacobson Organ" inside its mouth) by using diagrams. Some effects seen are used to show the audience what they can't really see ...
... each electron feels electric repulsion from the other electrons as well as electric attraction from the nucleus.[100] In the ... organ changes and tissue accumulation". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 16 (5): 549-567. doi:10.1080/ ... "On some new phenomena of chemical changes produced by electricity, in particular the decomposition of the fixed alkalies, and ... of electrical discharge. The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as ...
Electricity - Photoelectric conductivity: If light with a photon energy hν that exceeds the work function W falls on a metal ... electric organs in some fish; and potentials associated with damaged tissue.. Electric activity in living tissue is a cellular ... origins of agriculture: Electricity in agriculture. The impact of electric power on modern agriculture has been at least as ... A small electric shock caused by static electricity during cold, dry weather is a familiar experience. While the sudden ...
For the organ found in electric fish, see Electric organ (biology). For pipe organs activated by electricity, see Pipe organ § ... A surviving Robb Wave Organ located at the National Music Centre.. *^ "Pipeless Organ Turns Electricity Into Music". Popular ... An electric organ, also known as electronic organ, is an electronic keyboard instrument which was derived from the harmonium, ... "Electric Pipeless Organ Has Millions of Tones". Popular Mechanics (April 1936): 569.. - article on Hammond organ ...
Inverse spin Hall effect: A new way to get electricity from magnetism. By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin ... which are patterned with an intricate copper design that guides electricity to make the devices functional. In a new study, ... organic materials that have an electrical conductivity as high as that of metals are still very scarce. ... ...
electric organs. organs that allow the fish to generate electricity. denticles. The body covering found on sharks, made up of ... a current-generating cell from an electric organ. neutrally buoyant. neither rising nor sinking but remaining at the current ... Jacobsons organ. sensing organ located in the mouth of a snake that is used for smelling. ... pit organ. a depression on the side of a pit vipers head between the eyed and nostrils that can detect temperature changes. ...
New power sources bear a shocking resemblance to the electricity-making organs inside electric eels. ... These artificial electric eel organs are made up of water-based polymer mixes called hydrogels. Such soft, flexible battery- ... Electric eels provide a zap of inspiration for a new kind of power source ... Certain copper-based compounds superconduct, or transmit electricity without resistance, at unusually high temperatures. It was ...
New power sources bear a shocking resemblance to the electricity-making organs inside electric eels. ... These artificial electric eel organs are made up of water-based polymer mixes called hydrogels. Such soft, flexible battery- ... Electric eels provide a zap of inspiration for a new kind of power source ...
... zapping your brain with electricity can make you smarter - a process known as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. And now ... As biological creatures, our bodies conduct electricity like a circuit. Many of our internal organs receive electrical current ... While the electrical current of a 9V battery isnt much at all when applied to a tongue, internal application is deadly. ... Im an industrial electrical engineer, with plenty of extra electronics experience that goes back more decades than I care to ...
Buranchis body contains electricity-producing organs like an electric eel, but each of his cells also act as amplifiers. With ... Buranchis electric attacks work by producing a conductive path, then filling that path with his electricity for the attack. ... Parallel Electric Punch: Buranchi fires a large bolt of electricity from his fist that travels from target to target, ... Parallel Electric Chop: Buranchi sends one huge bolt of electricity down onto his opponent. This discharge is equivalent to ...
... and injury to other organs. For a burn to be classified as electrical, electricity must be the direct cause. For example, ... "What is an Electrical Burn?" Electrical Safety. n.p. n.d. Web. 29 September 2011. . "Electrical Burn Injuries." Department of ... burning a finger on a hot electric steam iron would be thermal, not electrical. Electricity passing through resistance creates ... Interference with the electrical conductivity of organs such as the heart and nerves. This can lead to seizures, lung injury ...
The rest of the body is comprised of organs that produce electricity. 5. Arowana have the ability to jump out of the water to ... 4. Only the front 1/5 of an electric eel contains vital organs. These are located directly behind its head. ... 3. Electric eels can discharge up to 550 volts, using their shock as an offense for catching food or a defense to escape. ...
Causes of an electric shock include faulty electrical equipment, lightning strikes, and contact with electricity and water. ... Distributive shock (also known as vasodilatory shock). In distributive shock, fluid may collect between the cells of the organs ... Another type of shock is an electric shock, which occurs when a person sustains an injury as a result of exposure to electrical ... The symptoms are a result of the body's organs and tissues not getting enough oxygen. ...
They include burns and damage to organs, bones, muscles, and nerves. Read about first aid. ... Electrical injuries are caused by contact with electricity. ... When you come in direct contact with electricity, it can pass ... Article: Secondary maternal-fetal consequences to electrical injury: A literature review. * Electrical Injuries -- see more ... Home Electrical Safety Checklist (Consumer Product Safety Commission) - PDF * Lightning Injuries (Merck & Co., Inc.) Also in ...
electricity.. The heart is an electrical organ, Scott explains. What drives the heart to contract and relax is the movement ... electrical charges. A pioneer in the field of integrative physiology - taking all the disparate bits of data about cells ... and integrating them into a model of how a cell or tissue or organ ... just an animated picture of a beating organ, although it does offer ...
Large amounts of current will cause spasms, burn the body and do bad things to your organs. Skin is very resistive to ... Often as current starts to flow, the pressure (voltage) pushing it will drop since the source of the electricity may not have ... Re: What makes up Electric Shock?. Date: Wed Apr 26 12:03:54 2000. Posted By: Gus Calabrese aka puppet boy, Design Engineer. ... When you push the button, the circuit converts this stored energy into a brief pulse of high voltage electricity. If you want ...
Remove Electricity filter Electricity. *(-) Remove Organ and transport systems filter Organ and transport systems ... Electric Clothes. In this activity children will investigate how a conductive fabric can change the brightness of a bulb. ... An interactive activity about the different bones and organs in the body, where they are and what they do. ...
Burn (acid) (cathode ray) (caustic) (chemical) (electric heating appliance) (electricity) (fire) (flame) (hot liquid or object ... inhalation (see also Burn, internal organs) 947.9. *. internal organs 947.9. *. from caustic or corrosive substance (swallowing ... due to ingested chemical agent - see Burn, internal organs. *. ear (auricle) (canal) (drum) (external) 941.01. *. with*. face ... from swallowing caustic or corrosive substance NEC - see Burn, internal organs. *. full thickness - see Burn, by site, third ...
... static electricity, electric fields, electric arcs; explosion-proof electrical equipment; physiological effects of electric ... effects of electrical shock on body organs; unusual cases; accidents of electric therapy; consequences of being struck by ... electric hazards and electrical safety (physiological effects of electric current, protective measures, switchgear, electric ... Electrical accidents Der Elektrounfall [in German]. Aspects of electrical accidents considered are: uses of electric current ...
The brain is basically an electric machine, an electric organ. Neurons generate electricity, and theyre connected to each ... What does the electricity feel like in your brain? Does it hurt? ... Also, as the electric current passes through the coil there is ... He presses a device the size of a table tennis paddle against that persons head and sends pulses of electricity that shut down ... other in networks similar to electric circuits. Because there are lots of connections, if you modify one area, it has a ...
It produces electricity via an electrical organ in its abdomen. It overwhelms bird Pokémon with shocking beams of electrical ... Vikavolt produces electricity with an organ in its abdomen and controls it with its huge jaws to fire powerful electric beams. ... It has an organ that generates electricity in its abdomen. It concentrates energy in its strong jaws and fires off powerful ... A Bug and Electric type. Vikavolt flies around, waiting to attack. With its large jaws, it fires gathered electrical energy at ...
Return to Michael Organs Home Page. Any comments, corrections, or additions to this site are most welcome. ... Description: Caption on title - Barnsdales Moving Pictures, all shown and operated by electricity. ... Walter Barnsdales Electric Moving Pictures. Posters and Ephemera. Image. Description. Title: Prison Bars ...
The world is full of unique creatures including animals that can produce electricity that can stun an adult human being to ... The fish generates electric signals called electric organ discharges (EODs) using the electric organ. The EODs are picked up ... With the help of these organs, the fish can generate both high and low voltage electricity. The electric organs are made of ... The northern stargazer is also able to generate electricity due to the presence of electric organs in the orbitae. The electric ...
... announce a 12-month finding and listing determination on a petition to list the Caribbean electric ray (Narcine bancroftii) as ... The Caribbean electric ray has two electric organs that can produce 14-37 volts of electricity (Smith 1997; Tricas et al. 1997 ... Almost nothing is known of natural predation on the Caribbean electric ray. Presumably its electric organs deter potential ... Each organ consists of a honeycomb of 280 to 430 columns, containing several hundred electric plates, and the organs combined ...
Sharks and skates have ampullae of Lorenzini, organs that are always scanning electric fields. The electricity in those fields ... While the two are distantly related their organs react very differently.. The electrosensing organ of skates is more versatile ... NIH-funded study looks at how sharks have evolved to use electric fields to locate prey. Sunday, July 29, 2018 by: Edsel Cook ... The organ of a shark, on the other hand, is tuned specifically to locate prey. This additional sense is apparently controlled ...
Electric cars or hybrid vehicles, of which the driving systems also create low frequency electric and magnetic fields, will ... Overhead power lines are mainly used for the national distribution and transmission of electricity over long distances. The ... Low-frequency electric and magnetic fields are generated by household appliances and electrical installations in the home. In ... Apart from the widespread sources of electric and magnetic fields as, e.g., household appliances and electric installations as ...
The vast majority of these injuries are sustained in the workplace, and with some basic understanding of electrical energy and ... Close to 1,000 deaths occur annually nationwide as a result of electrical injuries. ... Electrical injuries can also cause damage to internal organs and, most critically, the heart. When the path of electricity ... Thermal burns caused by electrical contact often occur below the skin as current flows through the body. Electricity can travel ...
  • The electric rays are cartilaginous fishes comprising the order Torpediniformes . (worldatlas.com)
  • Bioelectric effects were known in ancient times from the activity of such electric fishes as the Nile catfish and the electric eel. (britannica.com)
  • Various fishes, both marine and freshwater, have developed special organs that are capable of generating substantial electric discharges, while others have tissues that can sense feeble electric fields in water. (britannica.com)
  • The electric catfish of Africa, the knife fish of Latin America, and the stargazers probably use their bioelectric organs as sense organs in the detection of other fishes. (britannica.com)
  • It's Electric (Fishes)! (si.edu)
  • This slow-moving predator feeds almost exclusively on small bony fishes, which it ambushes from the bottom and subdues with strong electric bursts. (wikipedia.org)
  • French naturalist Antoine Risso described the marbled electric ray as Torpedo marmorata in his 1810 Ichtyologie de Nice, ou histoire naturelle des poissons du département des Alpes maritimes (Ichthyology of Nice, or natural history of fishes in the Alpes-Maritimes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Order Gymnotiformes Suborder Gymnotoidei Family Gymnotidae (banded knifefishes and, according to some sources, electric eel) Family Electrophoridae (electric eel) Suborder Sternopygoidei Superfamily Rhamphichthyoidea Family Rhamphichthyidae (sand knifefishes) Family Hypopomidae (bluntnose knifefishes) Superfamily Apteronotoidea Family Sternopygidae (glass and rat-tail knifefishes) Family Apteronotidae (ghost knifefishes) Gymnotiform fishes inhabit freshwater rivers and streams throughout the humid Neotropics, ranging from Guatemala to northern Argentina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery resulted from an effort by de Santana and his colleagues, along with a wider network of researchers, to create a tree of life for South American electric fishes, which the team hopes to use for study of the region's evolutionary history. (nationalpost.com)
  • This discovery has revealed the secret of how fishes with electric organs have evolved six times in the history of life to produce electricity outside of their bodies. (innovations-report.com)
  • Their diversity is so great that Darwin himself cited electric fishes as critical examples of convergent evolution, where unrelated animals independently evolve similar traits to adapt to a particular environment or ecological niche. (innovations-report.com)
  • Other electric fishes use electricity for defense, predation, navigation and communication. (innovations-report.com)
  • So they analyzed all the genes of the electric eel, then also looked at gene activity in other electric fishes from unrelated families. (upr.org)
  • The fishes' reading of their electrical environment is something like echolocation in bats or in dolphins. (whozoo.org)
  • But the excitement is rooted in a small number of studies with relatively few patients, and researchers don't understand many of the basics about the body's electrical highways. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Without adequate water your body's biochemical and electrical (yes electrical, read on! (care2.com)
  • According to Mayer, the major challenge will be to tap into the body's metabolic energy, for example by mobilizing ion differences in zones such as the stomach fluids, or by converting mechanical muscle energy to electrical energy, which could then be stored and released from an artificial electric organ. (unifr.ch)
  • These are used to jack into the body's nerve system and trick it into a state of complete pain, so that it may steal the resulting electric charges. (newgrounds.com)
  • However, as Levin continued to read up on the subject, he realized that, even though the brain uses electricity for information processing, no one seemed to be seriously investigating the role of bioelectricity in carrying information about a body's development. (wired.com)
  • Bioelectronics is the field of developing medicines that use electrical impulses to modulate the body's neural circuits as an alternative to drug-based interventions. (wired.co.uk)
  • This is, broadly, the field of developing medicines that use electrical impulses to modulate the body's neural circuits. (wired.co.uk)
  • Students learn all about the body's essential mighty organ, the heart, as well as the powerful blood vascular system. (teachengineering.org)
  • Electrically powered reed organs appeared during the first decades of electricity, but their tonal qualities remained much the same as the older, foot-pumped models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cahill's techniques were later used by Laurens Hammond in his organ design, and the 200-ton Telharmonium served as the world's first demonstration of electrically produced music on a grand scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical burns can be caused by a variety of ways such as touching or grasping electrically live objects, short-circuiting, inserting fingers into electrical sockets, and falling into electrified water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nearly all cases, however, a bioelectric current consists of a flow of ions ( i.e., electrically charged atoms or molecules), whereas the electric current used for lighting, communication, or power is a movement of electrons. (britannica.com)
  • Other electric fish use weaker fields to navigate through murky waters, or to electrically croon mating songs. (upr.org)
  • Through his research, Galvani concluded that animals contain an electrical fluid in their muscles, and that their nerves act as conductors. (comsol.com)
  • He learned that scientists had been investigating bioelectricity for centuries, ever since Luigi Galvani discovered in the 1780s that nerves are animated by what he called "animal electricity. (wired.com)
  • By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. (phys.org)
  • According to the United States Defense Department, zapping your brain with electricity can turn novices into experts - of anything.The application of current to the brain - known as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) - received funding from DARPA, the US Defense Department, and more. (makeuseof.com)
  • It includes short protection and is safer than other commercial devices such as the Foc.us ( our review of the Foc.us Foc.us tDCS Headset Review and Giveaway Foc.us tDCS Headset Review and Giveaway The $249 Foc.us device shoots an electrical current into the brain - boosting one's cognitive abilities. (makeuseof.com)
  • This typically occurs when the frequency of the AC current is significantly higher than the 50 or 60 Hz used in land-based electrical distribution systems (such as in aircraft). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electric current typically passes from one side of the child's mouth to the other, possibly causing deformity. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 7, 2010, we received a petition from WildEarth Guardians to list the Caribbean electric ray as threatened or endangered throughout its historical and current range and to designate critical habitat within the territory of the United States concurrently with listing the species under the ESA. (federalregister.gov)
  • If an external electrical current interferes with and interrupts normal nervous control, it can cause a victim to lose control of normal muscle movements. (ecmag.com)
  • Their skin is thick and slimy, protecting them from the electrical current they produce. (dwazoo.com)
  • Direct contact with electrical current can be deadly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1. If you can do so safely, turn off the electrical current. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The differences include the direction of the initial phase of the wave (positive or negative, which correlates to the direction of the current through the electrocytes in the electric organ), the amplitude of the wave, the frequency of the wave, and the number of phases of the wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these demonstrations involved the effect of galvanism, which in a medical context is the contraction of a muscle that is stimulated by an electrical current. (comsol.com)
  • In 1794, he demonstrated that he could replace the frog legs with brine-soaked cloth or cardboard, arrange them in a circuit with two dissimilar metals, and still produce an electric current. (comsol.com)
  • Volta modeled how fish cells are arranged using metals and nonanimal electrolytes alone, which led to his creation of the voltaic pile, the first electric battery that is able to provide a continuous electric current. (comsol.com)
  • Electric current can be described as the flow of microscopic particles called electrons through wires and electrical appliances. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Materials like metal and water through which electric current (electricity) travels easily are called conducting materials or conductors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In direct current (DC), the electric charge (current) only flows in ___ direction. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Electric charge in alternating current (AC), on the other hand, ___ direction periodically. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • And when this little pore is open, ions can go through it, so they carry, in this case, an electric current. (boisestatepublicradio.org)
  • The research, published in the current issue of Science , sheds light on the genetic blueprint used to evolve these complex, novel organs. (innovations-report.com)
  • It also identifies the genetic factors and developmental pathways the animals use to grow an organ that, in the case of the electric eel, can deliver a jolt several times more powerful than the current from a standard household electrical outlet. (innovations-report.com)
  • Injury results principally from the direct effect of current, the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy in the tissues and secondary effects such as blunt trauma. (aafp.org)
  • The most severe form of electrical injury, arc injury, occurs when the victim is part of an electrical arc or spark of current between two unconnected objects. (aafp.org)
  • This then causes more channels to open, producing a greater electric current across the cell membrane and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was interesting that the way to study a brain in the current medical field consists of inserting a node into the brain and reading the electrical output. (tufts.edu)
  • As the salty and fresh solutions mix, the charge-selective droplets move the sodium and chloride ions in opposing directions, producing an electric current. (umich.edu)
  • David Attenborough, in his TV series Life On Earth, demonstrated how the electrical current produced by an electric eel could be used to turn one of more light bulbs! (whozoo.org)
  • They are introduced to the concept of action potential generation, which causes the electrical current that triggers muscle contraction in the heart. (teachengineering.org)
  • Describe how the heart functions off an electrical current. (teachengineering.org)
  • As electric current is conducted through a material, any resistance (opposition to flow of electrons) results in a dissipation of energy, usually in the form of heat. (hsa.ie)
  • The forearm muscles responsible for bending fingers tend to be better developed than those muscles responsible for extending fingers, and so if both sets of muscles try to contract because of an electric current conducted through the person's arm, the "bending" muscles will win, clenching the fingers into a fist. (hsa.ie)
  • For pipe organs activated by electricity, see Pipe organ § Action . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a fashion not totally unlike that of pipe organs, reed organs generated sound by forcing air over a set of reeds by means of a bellows, usually operated by constantly pumping a set of pedals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reed organ was thus able to bring an organlike sound to venues that were incapable of housing or affording pipe organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1930s, several manufacturers developed electronic organs designed to imitate the function and sound of pipe organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore to provide a variety of sounds and volume levels, pipe organs consist of different ranks of pipes that can be played either alone or in combination with other ranks to create varying possibilities of sound. (apoba.com)
  • Galvani experimented by attaching frogs to different types of metal - such as brass and iron - to see how it affects the contraction of their leg muscles when met with a spark of electricity. (comsol.com)
  • Most of this is used to support cell regeneration, but it manages to convert some of the material into electricity by sending it to one of four organs, each right above the claw muscles. (newgrounds.com)
  • The electric organ, which consists of a series of modified tail muscles, is similar to a row of batteries connected in a series. (whozoo.org)
  • She and her supervisor, Michael Levin , a software engineer turned developmental biologist, are investigating whether the brain and nervous system play a crucial role in laying out the patterns that dictate the shapes and identities of emerging organs, limbs and other structures. (wired.com)
  • however, epidermal cells can sense electric fields slightly less than 10 volts per meter, nearly 100,000 times weaker. (news-line.com)
  • Researchers estimate that your brain gives off about the same amount of electricity as a 60 watt light bulb. (care2.com)
  • Your brain, though more complex than that of a sophisticated computer, comfortably operates on the same amount of electricity that would light a 10 watt bulb. (westminster.edu)
  • An EFC has been successfully implanted in a rat, where it generated a small amount of electricity successfully for 11 days. (tufts.edu)
  • The heart is an electrical organ,' Scott explains. (princetoninfo.com)
  • so doing create the electrical charges that power the heart. (princetoninfo.com)
  • When the path of electricity leads to or near the heart, the severity of the injury is much greater. (ecmag.com)
  • Electrical effects originating in active cells of the heart and the brain, for example, are commonly monitored and analyzed for diagnostic purposes. (britannica.com)
  • The heart of every pipe organ is of course the wind-blown pipes which are arranged in an instrument by ranks. (apoba.com)
  • Could a knifefish, the electric eel, inspire a self-charging power source for implantable devices such as heart pacemakers, sensors, drug delivery pumps, or prosthetics? (unifr.ch)
  • NIH funding from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences allows Arnegard and colleagues to investigate how this electrical variability is caused by some of the same genetic mutations that, in humans, lead to congenital heart defects and childhood epilepsy. (livescience.com)
  • In 1933 a heart specialist called Dr Albert Hyman sought an alternative to injecting drugs directly into the heart and developed a device called the [link url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defibrillation']Hyman Otor[/link]. (wired.co.uk)
  • When they are open, they allow ions from electric fields to enter and exit the cell. (naturalnews.com)
  • If two solutions with different concentrations of an ion are separated by a membrane that blocks the flow of the ions between them, the concentration imbalance gives rise to an electric-potential difference between the solutions. (britannica.com)
  • In most solutions, ions of a given electric charge are accompanied by ions of opposite charge, so that the solution itself has no net charge. (britannica.com)
  • Differences between the number of ions inside and outside a cell result in an electric gradient-the cell's resting potential. (wired.com)
  • Specialized electrical organs contain thousands of alternating compartments, each with an excess of either potassium or sodium ions. (umich.edu)
  • When the eel needs to create a jolt of electricity, the membranes allow the ions to flow together. (umich.edu)
  • Galvani studied how static electricity generates physical responses in dissected frogs. (comsol.com)
  • If we are fortunate, the extent of that experience is limited to tingles or jolts of pain from static electricity build up, discharging through our bodies. (hsa.ie)
  • The main sources of electromagnetic fields in living and working environment are household appliance, electricity transmission, transformation and distribution devices. (vdu.lt)
  • Taking into account country's wide energetic network, high number of electric devices emitting electromagnetic lields to the environment, collected data becoming a significant social meaning and the possibility appears in order to predict the impact values of these fields, providing measures to eliminate them. (vdu.lt)
  • Due to the physical nature electromagnetic waves emitted by out-door industrial-frequency electric devices propagating quite long distances from their sources. (vdu.lt)
  • As electric and magnetic fields are closely coupled at high frequencies, they are also called "electromagnetic" fields. (bfs.de)
  • The experiments of Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta in the 18th century on the connection between electricity and muscle contraction in frogs and other animals were of importance in the development of the sciences of physics and physiology. (britannica.com)
  • Organ components can be housed in a case with compartments in which display pipes are mounted (see photos A, B, and C). Or they can be arranged to create an open design (see photos D, E, and F). (apoba.com)
  • In the organ gallery of the music hall Crosse assembled an instrument designed to measure atmospheric electricity, consisting of a cylindrical electrical machine and brass ball suspended over a large capacitor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1836, he reported on his formation of crystals, improvements on the voltaic battery, and observations on atmospheric electricity to the Geological and Chemical Sections of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) at Bristol. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To launch the initiative, the Orchestra is featuring the Fred J. Cooper Memorial Organ on programs in the 2017-18 season to showcase the majestic instrument paired with the "Philadelphia Sound. (philorch.org)