Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gymnotiformes: An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Burns, Electric: Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electrochemotherapy: A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Electrophorus: A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Mice, Inbred C57BLIsoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. (1/19053)

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (2/19053)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms. (3/19053)

Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both.  (+info)

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (4/19053)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. (5/19053)

We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted.  (+info)

Effect of electrotonic potentials on pacemaker activity of canine Purkinje fibers in relation to parasystole. (6/19053)

Isolated false tendons excised form dog hearts were mounted in a three-chamber tissue bath. Isotonic sucrose solution was perfused in the central chamber to provide a region of depressed conductivity between the fiber segments in chambers 1 and 3, which were perfused with Tyrode's solution. The electrotonic influence of spontaneous or driven responses evoked in chamber 3 during the first half of the spontaneous cycle of a chamber 1 peacemaker delayed the next spontaneous discharge. This effect changed to acceleration when the chamber 3 segment fired during the second half of the spontaneous cycle. We found that subthreshold depolarizing current pulses 50-300 msec applied across the sucrose gap caused similar degrees of delay or acceleration. Furthermore, hyperpolarizing currents caused the reverse pattern. The results indicate that the discharge pattern of a parasystolic focus may be altered by the electrotonic influence of activity in the surrounding tissue. The significance of these findings is considered in relation to the mechanism of production of parasystolic rhythms.  (+info)

Evaluation of the force-frequency relationship as a descriptor of the inotropic state of canine left ventricular myocardium. (7/19053)

The short-term force-frequency characteristics of canine left ventricular myocardium were examined in both isolated and intact preparations by briefly pertubing the frequency of contraction with early extrasystoles. The maximum rate of rise of isometric tension (Fmas) of the isolated trabeculae carneae was potentiated by the introduction of extrasystoles. The ratio of Fmas of potentiated to control beats (force-frequency ratio) was not altered significantly by a change in muscle length. However, exposure of the trabeculae to isoproterenol (10(-7)M) significantly changed the force-frequency ratio obtained in response to a constant frequency perturbation. Similar experiments were performed on chronically instrumented conscious dogs. Left ventricular minor axis diameter was measured with implanted pulse-transit ultrasonic dimension transducers, and intracavitary pressure was measured with a high fidelity micromanometer. Atrial pacing was performed so that the end-diastolic diameters of the beats preceding and following the extrasystole could be made identical. Large increases in the maximum rate of rise of pressure (Pmas) were seen in the contraction after the extrasystole. The ratio of Pmax of the potentiated beat to that of the control beat was not changed by a 9% increase in the end-diastolic diameter, produced by saline infusion. Conversely, isoproterenol significantly altered this relationship in the same manner as in the isolated muscle. Thus, either in vitro or in situ, left ventricular myocardium exhibits large functional changes in response to brief perturbations in rate. The isoproterenol and length data indicate that the force-frequency ratio reflects frequency-dependent changes in the inotropic state, independent of changes in length.  (+info)

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (8/19053)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Although initial studies suggested that the MEP in the rat arises from activation of the spinal pyramidal pathway, subsequent studies have raised doubts concerning the pyramidal origin of the MEP and have proposed that the spread of stimulation current in some of these studies resulted in activation of the extrapyramidal system. [18-24] Ryder and colleagues [24] showed that monopolar stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex activates the extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts, and bipolar stimulation restricted to the motor cortex using low stimulus current activates only the pyramidal tract. They concluded that early and late latency spinal-evoked responses were considered to be induced by activation of extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts, respectively. Although we used bipolar stimulation of the motor cortex in the present study, stimulus current was higher than that reported by Ryder and colleagues. [24] Both extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts must be activated in the present study. However, it ...
Autor: Borchers, S et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2012-01; Titel: Direct electrical stimulation of human cortex: the gold standard for mapping brain functions?
A system for providing medical electrical stimulation, the system features a pulse generator, the pulse generator generating electrical stimulation pulses of a first amplitude and a second amplitude, first and second elongated leads coupled to the pulse generator, a zener diode which directs electrical stimulation pulses of a first amplitude to the first lead and directs electrical stimulation pulses of a second amplitude to the first lead and the second lead, the means for directing electrical stimulation pulses coupled to the pulse generator. In the preferred embodiment the diode is electrically coupled to one of the leads such that electrical stimulation of a first amplitude is not passed through the diode while electrical stimulation of a second amplitude is passed through the diode. Overall the adaptor permits a single channel of stimulation to be split and provided to two areas of the heart merely be adjusting the amplitude of the stimulation pulses.
Cortical stimulation mapping (CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function. Cortical stimulation mapping is used for a number of clinical and therapeutic applications, and remains the preferred method for the pre-surgical mapping of the motor cortex and language areas to prevent unnecessary functional damage. There are also some clinical applications for cortical stimulation mapping, such as the treatment of epilepsy. The history of cortical stimulation mapping dates back to the late 19th century. Neurologists David Ferrier and Victor Horsley were some of the first to utilize this technique. Ferrier and Horsley employed CSM to further grasp the structure and function of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatial heterogeneity of transmembrane potential responses of single guinea-pig cardiac cells during electric field stimulation. AU - Sharma, Vinod. AU - Tung, Leslie. PY - 2002/7/15. Y1 - 2002/7/15. N2 - Changes in transmembrane voltage (Vm) of cardiac cells during electric field stimulation have a complex spatial- and time-dependent behaviour that differs significantly from electrical stimulation of space-clamped membranes by current pulses. A multisite optical mapping system was used to obtain 17 or 25 μm resolution maps of Vm along the long axis of guinea-pig ventricular cells (n = 57) stained with voltage-sensitive dye (di-8-ANEPPS) and stimulated longitudinally with uniform electric field (2, 5 or 10 ms, 3-62 V cm-1) pulses (n = 201). The initial polarizations of Vm responses (Vmr) varied linearly along the cell length and reversed symmetrically upon field reversal. The remainder of the Vm responses had parallel time courses among the recording sites, revealing a common ...
It is the function of a pacemaker to provide electrical stimulation pulses to the appropriate chamber(s) of the heart (atria or ventricles) in the event that the heart is unable to beat of its own (i.e. in the event that either the sinoatrial node fails to generate its own natural stimulation pulses at an appropriate sinus rate, or in the event such natural stimulation pulses do not effectively propagate to the appropriate cardiac tissue). Most modern pacemakers accomplish this function by operating in a "demand" mode where stimulation pulses from the pacemaker are provided to the heart only when the heart is not beating of its own, as sensed by monitoring the appropriate chamber of the heart for the occurrence of a P-wave or R-wave. If a P-wave or a R-wave is not sensed within a prescribed period of time (which period of time is usually referred to as the "escape interval"), then a stimulation pulse is generated at the end of this prescribed period of time and delivered to the appropriate heart ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake affects phasic release from motor terminals differently depending on external [Ca2+]. AU - Talbot, Janet D.. AU - David, Gavriel. AU - Barrett, Ellen. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - We investigated how inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake affects stimulation-induced increases in cytosolic [Ca2+] and phasic and asynchronous transmitter release in lizard motor terminals in 2 and 0.5 mM bath [Ca2+], Lowering bath [Ca2+] reduced the rate of rise, but not the final amplitude, of the increase in mitochondrial [Ca2+] during 50-Hz stimulation. The amplitude of the stimulation-induced increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] was reduced in low-bath [Ca2+] and increased when mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was inhibited by depolarizing mitochondria. In 2 mM Ca2+, end-plate potentials (epps) depressed by 53% after 10 s of 50-Hz stimulation, and this depression increased to 80% after mitochondrial depolarization. In contrast, in 0.5 mM Ca2+ the same stimulation ...
Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system albeit an unnatural way, has been found to be an effective way of causing neuronal excitation. Retinal prosthesis is an example of such a neuroprosthesis that strives to provide vision to people suffering from Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age-related Macular Degeneration. In these diseases, the photoreceptors in the retina undergo a progressive degeneration leaving the remaining retinal neurons relatively intact. It is by electrically stimulating these retinal neurons that a retinal prosthesis aims to elicit visual percepts.; In addition to providing effective stimulation, such a device has to do so in a manner that is safe for both the device and surrounding biological environment. Numerous studies have been performed to assess the safety limits of electrical stimulation of neurons. However, majority of these studies have been performed in structures other than the retina. The few safety studies performed in the retina have looked at the effect ...
Local electrical stimulations of the ventral prelimbic cortex ameliorates depressive-like behavioral traits in a genetic rat model for major depression Conference Paper ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Nitric oxide is produced by many retinal neurons, however its ability to modulate synaptic activity in the inner retina is poorly understood. I examined how nitric oxide modulates the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to ganglion cells evoked by light and by focal electrical stimulation. Methods: I recorded postsynaptic currents from ganglion cells using whole-cell patch clamp techniques in retinal slices prepared under infrared illumination. Responses were elicited by a green LED (1 sec duration) and by brief focal electrical stimulation (zap; 1 msec; .1 - 1.5 µA) of the outer-plexiform layer. Strychnine (10 µM) was used to isolate the GABAergic inputs. Results: Nitric oxide has been shown to affect photoreceptor calcium currents, so I compared responses elicited by illumination with those elicited by the zap, which directly depolarizes bipolar cells to activate inputs to the inner plexiform layer. Application of the nitric oxide donor, NONOate (100 µM) rapidly ...
We tested six stimulation paradigms that consisted of either uniform trains of single pulses or patterned stimulation trains applied at variable low frequencies and either low- or high-intensity current. Low-intensity, prolonged stimulation at 1-5 Hz did not cause any changes but at 10 Hz reliably elicited homosynaptic depression, an effect that dissipated within 3 hr in every case (Figs. 1,2 A, 3 A). High-intensity, prolonged stimulation at 1 Hz still had no impact, but at 5 Hz caused a depression encompassing both pathways and recovering within 1-3 hr (Fig. 3 B). High-intensity current at stimulation of 10 Hz led to a complete and apparently permanent loss of the homosynaptic response, an effect that seemed pathological and of uncertain relevance to normal synaptic operations. Overall, the impact of uniform trains of low-frequency pulses was more pronounced the smaller interpulse intervals and the higher the current intensity. However, in no case did the depression last much longer than 3 ...
Methods and apparatus for testing of the efficacy of therapeutic stimulation of pelvic nerves or musculature to alleviate one of incontinence or sexual dysfunction are disclosed. A therapy delivery device is operable in a therapy delivery mode and a test mode and an evoked response detector is employed in the test mode to detect the evoked response to applied test stimuli. The test stimuli parameters of the test stimulation regimen are adjusted prior to delivery of each test stimulation regimen, and the evoked responses to the applied test stimulation regimens are compared to ascertain an optimal test stimulation regimen. The therapy stimulation regimen parameters are selected as a function of the test electrical stimulation parameters causing the optimal evoked response.
A computer stimulated the prefrontal cortex exactly when braking was needed. This was done using electrodes implanted directly on the brain surface.. When the test was repeated with stimulation of a brain region outside the prefrontal cortex, there was no effect on behavior, showing the effect to be specific to the prefrontal braking system.. This was a double-blind study, meaning that participants and scientists did not know when or where the charges were being administered.. The method of electrical stimulation was novel in that it apparently enhanced prefrontal function, whereas other human brain stimulation studies mostly disrupt normal brain activity. This is the first published human study to enhance prefrontal lobe function using direct electrical stimulation, the researchers report.. The study involved four volunteers with epilepsy who agreed to participate while being monitored for seizures at the Mischer Neuroscience Institute at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center (TMC). Stimulation ...
In general, the disclosure describes implantable pulse generators (IPGs) adapted to deliver stimulation to refractory myocardial tissue. An IPG nominally delivers one to six monophasic stimulation pulses. Because monophasic stimulation tends to accumulate polarization, a programmable blanking period of between about 20 milliseconds (ms) and about 300 ms is implemented (subsequent to delivery of the last pulse in a RPS pulse train) to allow recovery from polarization. The stimulation pulse width is about 0.03 ms to about 1.6 ms and voltage amplitude of 0.5 volts to 8 volts at about 50 Hz. The amplitude of electrical current of the stimulation pulses is less than or equal to approximately 50 milliamps. The pulses are delivered to multiple sites within a cardiac chamber and device performance and/or diagnostic information can be stored within a memory structure and reviewed to confirm delivery of a desired therapy regimen.
Vital Tones Muscle Stimulation Upper Body is an exclusive brainwave sound therapy for stimulating nerves and muscles of the upper body. Vital Tones stimulates nerves and muscles naturally through the specific parts of the motor cortex and the cerebellum. Vital Tones Muscle Stimulation can be used for the following: - Relaxation of muscle spasms; - Prevention or retardation of disuse. atrophy; - Increasing local blood circulation; - Muscle re-education; - Maintaining or increasing range of. motion. Vital Tones Muscle Stimulation Upper Body Pro consists of 7 different sessions. Session 1 and 2 is 12 minutes and the others 10 minutes long. Vital Tones Muscle Stimulation Upper Body trial version consists of only one session.
Systems of techniques for controlling charge flow during the electrical stimulation of tissue. In one aspect, a method includes receiving a charge setting describing an amount of charge that is to flow during a stimulation pulse that electrically stimulates a tissue, and generating and delivering the stimulation pulse in a manner such that an amount of charge delivered to the tissue during the stimulation pulse accords with the charge setting.
When surgery and medication dont help people with epilepsy, electrical stimulation of the brain has been a treatment of last resort. Unfortunately, typical approaches, such as vagal nerve stimulation or responsive nerve stimulation, rarely stop seizures altogether. But a new Mayo Clinic study in JAMA Neurology shows that seizures were suppressed in patients treated with…
Systems of and methods for stimulation of neurological tissue that may generate stimulation trains with temporal patterns of stimulation is shown and disclosed herein. The temporal patterns of stimulation may include intervals between electrical pulses (the inter-pulse intervals) that change or vary over time. Compared to conventional continuous, high rate pulse trains having regular (i.e., constant) inter-pulse intervals, the non-regular (i.e., not constant) pulse patterns or trains that embody features of the invention may provide a lower average frequency.
A study of activity recorded with intracellular micropipettes was undertaken in the caudal abdominal ganglion of the crayfish in order to gain information about central fiber to fiber synaptic mechanisms. This synaptic system has well developed integrative properties. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials can be graded, and synaptic potentials from different inputs can sum to initiate spike discharge. In most impaled units, the spike discharge fails to destroy the synaptic potential, thereby allowing sustained depolarization and multiple spike discharge following single pulse stimulation to an afferent input. Some units had characteristics which suggest a graded threshold for spike generation along the post-synaptic fiber membrane. Other impaled units responded to afferent stimulation with spike discharges of two distinct amplitudes. The smaller or "abortive" spikes in such units may represent non-invading activity in branches of the post-synaptic axon. On a few occasions one afferent input was ...
The Electric Eric provides both vibration and electrical stimulation at the same time and it DOES NOT require a nerve stimulator kit so no cables or added devices needed. Features two vibration motors: one in the tip and in the shaft with 8 different vibration programs and 5 different intensity levels along with 5 electrical stimulation programs with 10 different levels of intensity.
We induced atrioventricular dissociation and initiated ventricular pacing in intact dogs and isolated cat hearts. Left ventricular pressure, its time derivative (dP/t), and action potentials were recorded. When a test pulse was introduced at varying intervals after a period of steady pacing, an optimum contractile response was obtained at an average interval of 720 msec. A similar optimum interval was obtained after pacing at various frequencies and after paired pulse stimulation but was shortened to 560 msec after infusion of epinephrine. The magnitude of the optimum contractile response increased with an increase in the frequency of prior pacing which was accompanied by an increase in the time the cell membrane was depolarized. The optimum contractile response following paired pulse stimulation was greater than that following regular pacing, with the same number of stimuli per minute and the same time of membrane depolarization. The results are explicable in terms of intracellular calcium ion ...
A method of verifying cardiac capture. A cardiac signal evoked in response to a cardiac stimulation pulse is sensed via an electrode. The sensed signal is lowpass filtered to remove noise and to pass frequencies characteristic of the evoked cardiac signal. The filtered signal is processed to render a waveform signal representing the second derivative of said filtered signal and the second derivative signal is further analyzed to detect a minimum and a maximum amplitude excursion during a selected window of time beginning at a selected time delay following delivery of the cardiac stimulation pulse. The amplitude difference between the minimum and the maximum is measured and compared to a first reference value. The amplitude of the second derivative is measured during a second selected window of time beginning at a selected time delay following delivery of said cardiac stimulation pulse, and compared to a second reference value. A capture detect signal is generated if the amplitude difference exceeds the
A method of verifying cardiac capture. A cardiac signal evoked in response to a cardiac stimulation pulse is sensed via an electrode. The sensed signal is lowpass filtered to remove noise and to pass frequencies characteristic of the evoked cardiac signal. The filtered signal is processed to render a waveform signal representing the second derivative of said filtered signal and the second derivative signal is further analyzed to detect a minimum and a maximum amplitude excursion during a selected window of time beginning at a selected time delay following delivery of the cardiac stimulation pulse. The amplitude difference between the minimum and the maximum is measured and compared to a first reference value. The amplitude of the second derivative is measured during a second selected window of time beginning at a selected time delay following delivery of said cardiac stimulation pulse, and compared to a second reference value. A capture detect signal is generated if the amplitude difference exceeds the
a, b, Speed profiles of mice after the stimulation of Vglut2+ChR2 CnF (a) and Vglut2+ChR2 PPN (b) neurons. Top panels show the location of optical stimulation in the CnF (a) and the PPN (b). Middle panels show colour plots of individual trials after the stimulation of Vglut2+ChR2 CnF (a) and Vglut2+ChR2 PPN (b) neurons (Fig. 1). The x axis represents time and the y axis represents trials at different stimulation frequencies. Data are aligned to the onset of stimulation (stim.). The colour gradient illustrates speed, with dark blue representing no movement and colours towards yellow representing the increase in speed (up to 120 cm s−1) of the mouse in the linear corridor. Bottom panels show speed profiles obtained as an average of the movements at each stimulation frequency. c, Latencies to onset of locomotion from the stimulation of Vglut2+ChR2 PPN (red) and Vglut2+ChR2 CnF (blue) neurons as a function of the stimulation frequency. Error bars indicate the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ...
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Another important challenge remains in our limited understanding of the specific mechanisms by which stimulation causes its effects, or in other words, what neurophysiological changes occur between the stimulation and the behavioral changes. For example, does applying direct electrical current with short pulses at a low frequency induce a low-frequency oscillation, particularly at the stimulation frequency? Studies sometimes make such implicit assumptions, but the field is lacking a fundamental insight to accept or modify such assumptions. Encouraging advances have been made on this end for TMS (Thut and Miniussi, 2009, Thut and Pascual-Leone, 2009 and Vernet et al., 2013), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS; Fröhlich and McCormick, 2010 and Herrmann et al., 2013), and direct brain stimulation (Logothetis et al., 2010 and Tolias et al., 2005). For example, Vernet et al. (2013) used a combined TMS-EEG approach to evaluate the cortical effects of continuous theta-burst stimulation ...
The present study has three main results: (1) Processing of different shape stimuli results in activity patterns that in single trials are surprisingly well distinguishable in the local field potential of area V4. (2) Selective attention substantially enhanced the stimulus-dependent differences of these neural activity patterns for the attended stimulus. (3) Behavioral failures went along with a reduction of classification performance. The components of the signal most discriminative for different shapes were contained in the γ-band above 40 Hz and their stimulus-specific characteristics stayed similar during different stimulation periods in a trial. The attention-dependent enhancement of stimulus discriminability cannot be explained by a simple increase of the SNR, but turns out to be most strongly related to a stimulus-specific differential scaling of the frequency components. This scaling results in an enhanced separation between the characteristic frequency patterns in the γ-band for ...
With the aid of electroencephalography (EEG), brain activity is measured during stimulation with the deep brain pacemaker. This enables conclusions to be drawn about the efficiency of different stimulation techniques. The EEG measurement is an important noninvasive method for observing brain activity. ...
Browse our extensive catalog of new & used Ultrasound and Electrical Stimulation Unit Equipment for sale or auction. Find any required new, refurbished or used Ultrasound and Electrical Stimulation Unit Equipment or device.
The revenge times in the retro-cueing paradigm of down 600В- 800 ms, with profit of the retro-cues of about 80В-150 ms, depending on working respect stuff, were as measured nearby (Lepsien and Nobre 2006, 2007). Specialized reservation plans survive to optimize scan, aggregation, and be with operations for the sake of such a distributed architecture. "Not practical," she aforementioned cheap 50mg imuran with mastercard muscle relaxant elderly. To respond to that, let me retort nearby noting that the being is indeed tricky, but it be obliged be supported sooner than knowledge motion of some brand so as to be the groundwork of our experience. Antiepileptic effects of low-frequency redundant transcranial irresistible stimulation before different stimulation durations and locations. What would you and your mate do with 407,887 order 10mg atorlip-10 mastercard cholesterol levels of athletes. In children who are old ample supply to heed directions, a game of "Simon Says" is a sprightly way to ...
Methods of treating a medical condition include applying at least one stimulus to a stimulation site within the brain of a patient with an implanted stimulator in accordance with one or more stimulation parameters. The [sic] at least one stimulus is configured to promote neural remodeling within the brain of the patient. Systems for treating a medical condition include an implantable stimulator configured to apply at least one stimulus to a stimulation site within the brain of a patient in accordance with one or more stimulation parameters ...
Electronic muscle stimulation & fainting - Manual Therapy in CFS: Part 1 of 2 - Research1st. We provides discount Herbal Sports nutritionals. Muscle Advance Weight Gainer with 810 Calories, 52g Protein, 94g Carbs Per-Serving.
Beginners should begin with a limited combination of wrong and he needed to train 5-6 days a week, and aim for more reps during his workout. Yes, some can most likely still build large amounts of muscle using machines, but muscle tend to require less training and more rest. This is mainly because it interferes with the important elevates him strength training for women to the elusive "listen to me if you want to look like me" level in the gym. Your body senses this as a potential threat to its survival and will react accordingly by use cables or pulleys to help you lift the weight, and bodyweight exercises like pull-ups or dips. Like all the core muscle building exercises, you should make the or multi-joint movements that involve the simultaneous stimulation of many muscle groups. Eating the right amount of foods consistently will force muscle building workouts several times a week to achieve a well balanced exercise program.. These foods promote accelerated fat storage, and do not provide but ...
Principal Investigator:KINOSHITA Yuzo, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Urology
A new study suggests that mild current applied to the scalp while sleeping can help people become aware of, and even control, their dreams—a phenomenon called lucid dreaming. Researchers recruited 27 men and women to spend several nights in a German sleep lab. After the volunteers had plunged ...
Fish. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051456.gboth genotypes. As shown in Figure 5B, pairs of presynaptic fiber stimulation pulses delivered at inter-pulse intervals
A cardiac electro-stimulatory device and method for operating same in which stimulation pulses are distributed among a plurality of electrodes fixed at different sites of the myocardium in order to reduce myocardial hypertrophy brought about by repeated pacing at a single site and/or increase myocardial contractility. In order to spatially and temporally distribute the stimulation, the pulses are delivered through a switchable pulse output configuration during a single cardiac cycle, with each configuration comprising one or more electrodes fixed to different sites in the myocardium.
Very poor quality video, but still funny....here is Steve using my electrical stimulation unit. I use this for about two hours each day, 30 minutes on four different muscle groups. Which is why my legs are so buff right now! My quads are huge, because this stim is just shocking the heck out of them for 30 minutes a day. As soon as the nerve connection is rebuilt Ill have no problem standing up and walking around because I am certainly not weak ...
If dietary changes and medication dont improve your symptoms, a relatively new treatment called gastroelectrical stimulation may be tried. However, this is currently not routinely funded by many local NHS authorities.. Gastroelectrical stimulation involves surgically implanting a battery-operated device under the skin of your tummy. Two leads attached to this device are fixed to the muscles of your lower stomach. They deliver electrical impulses to help stimulate the muscles involved in controlling the passage of food through your stomach. The device is turned on using a handheld external control.. The effectiveness of this treatment can vary considerably. Not everyone will respond to it, and for many of those who do the effect will largely wear off within 12 months. This means electrical stimulation isnt suitable for everyone with the condition.. Theres also a small chance of this procedure leading to complications that would require removing the device, such as: ...
A method and system for providing electrical pulses for neuromodulating a cranial nerve of a patient utilizing an implantable stimulator. The implantable stimulator comprising a pulse generator module and a stimulus receiver module for coupling with an external stimulator. Control circuitry ensures ...
At Concept of Movement Physiotherapy & Performance Wellness in Barrie, ON, our physiotherapists use electrical stimulation to treat pain and heal injuries.
Applying electrical stimulation to the brain and/or introducing one or more stimulating drugs to the brain is used to treat autism. At least one implan...
There are lots of opinions out there. What seems to make the most difference is mix it up once in a while. You need to vary the stimulus once you have adapted to the current stimulus. What youre doing is good as long as its working, so if its working, keep doing it. Once it no longer works, you need to do something else. The main variables are frequency, volume and load and changes in one will effect the others. In the meantime, Brad Shoenfeld has done some research on the subject. Google his name along with Hypertrophy, and you should get lots of good info ...
There are lots of opinions out there. What seems to make the most difference is mix it up once in a while. You need to vary the stimulus once you have adapted to the current stimulus. What youre doing is good as long as its working, so if its working, keep doing it. Once it no longer works, you need to do something else. The main variables are frequency, volume and load and changes in one will effect the others. In the meantime, Brad Shoenfeld has done some research on the subject. Google his name along with Hypertrophy, and you should get lots of good info ...
Data on the electrical stimulation of sciatic-gastrocnemius preparations of the frog by both direct currents and condenser discharges at the same time are discussed in relation to the validity of the differential equation. See PDF for Equation. where p is the local excitatory process, V the stimulating current or voltage, and K and k are constants. It is concluded that the constant k is the same whether it is derived from the data of the one stimulus or the other when the same fibres are being stimulated.. ...
Our Club President provides an introductory chat every week at 6.15pm to welcome prospective new members and to introduce them to our club. If you do not wish to serve as a SAR team, nothing will be lost, you will still have the ability to play a fun game of hide and seek with your dog; or even crate training a dog overnight bag importantly, actually searching for your missing child if this was to unfortunately be the case. This includes but is not limited to maintaining dog training barriers, dog training kiosk and associated signage. Puzzle toys, like kongs or hollow balls where treats can be hidden will give your dog some stimulation while in the crate for a period of time.
There are many sensitive blood tests that can help you keep a pulse on what is going on in your body before another lump or bump is found.
We studied the effects of intense sympathetic stimulation on the chronotropic responses of the heart to subsequent test stimulations of the cardiac autonomic nerves in dogs anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Such intense sympathetic stimulations (which we refer to as "release stimulations") are known to release neuropeptide Y as well as norepinephrine. The changes in cardiac cycle length evoked by vagal and sympathetic test stimulations were progressively more attenuated as we increased the frequency and duration of the antecedent sympathetic release stimulations. We found that 2.5 minutes after a maximal release stimulation (30 Hz for 5 minutes), the mean +/- SEM chronotropic responses to the vagal and sympathetic test stimulations were diminished to 36.5 +/- 1.6% and 54.7 +/- 1.3% respectively, of the prestimulation responses. The mean times for the chronotropic responses to the vagal and sympathetic test stimulations to recover to their control values were 52.0 +/- 1.3 and 63.2 +/- 2.9 ...
TLTE - Tension Lag Time on Electric Stimulation. Looking for abbreviations of TLTE? It is Tension Lag Time on Electric Stimulation. Tension Lag Time on Electric Stimulation listed as TLTE
To determine whether high current strength pacing at the site of origin of ventricular tachycardia (VT) could prevent induction of VT, we studied 11 VTs in 10 patients with chronic coronary artery disease. The left ventricular site of origin of all VT was determined by endocardial catheter mapping. Reproducible VT induction from the right ventricular apex or outflow tract was demonstrated with a pacing current strength equal to twice diastolic threshold (less than or equal to 2.0 mA) with single (two VTs), double (eight VTs), or triple (one VT) extrastimuli following 8 beats of a drive cycle length of 400 to 600 msec. After determination of the baseline VT induction zone (range 10 to 80 msec), repeat induction was attempted while simultaneous pacing was performed during the 8 beat drive train from the left ventricular site of origin with the use of a high current strength (10 mA [two VTs] or 20 mA [nine VTs]) and from the baseline right ventricular site with a current strength equal to twice ...
An automated adaptive muscle stimulation system and method are disclosed. The stimulation system includes at least one electrode assembly adapted to deliver a muscle stimulation signal to the tissue of a user, a sensor system adapted to detect a muscle response, and an electrical stimulation device operably coupled to the at least on electrode assembly and the sensor system, the electrical stimulation device including a control system operable to automatically diagnose at least one characteristic of a muscle from the detected muscle response and adjust at least one parameter of the muscle stimulation signal in response thereto to deliver an adjusted muscle stimulation signal. A dual mode muscle stimulation system adapted to accept first and second data sets and provide first and second levels of treatment data is also disclosed.
An implantable neural stimulation device and method treats peripheral vascular disease of a patient. The device includes a pulse generator that provides stimulation pulses and an implantable lead that applies the stimulation pulses to neural tissue. An activity sensor senses activity level of the patient and a processor, responsive to the activity sensor, controls the provision of the stimulation pulses by the pulse generator. The processor causes the pulse generator to provide stimulation therapy any time the patient is active or when the patient is at rest. The processor further provides long term activity monitoring and closed loop control of neural tissue stimulation levels to adapt the stimulation therapy to changes in the patients condition.
0033] FIG. 2 illustrates a neural stimulator, and further illustrates various neural stimulation parameters that can be adjusted to adjust a neural stimulation therapy, according to various embodiments of the present subject matter. According to various embodiments, the neural stimulator 209 includes modules to set or adjust any one or any combination of two or more of the following pulse features delivered to the neural stimulation electrode(s) or transducer(s): the amplitude 210 of the stimulation pulse, the frequency 211 of the stimulation pulse, the burst frequency 212 of the pulse, the wave morphology 213 of the pulse, and the pulse width 214. Examples of neural stimulation electrodes include nerve cuffs, and intravascularly-fed electrodes to transvascularly stimulate a neural target. Examples of neural transducers include ultrasound, magnetic and light transducers used to stimulate a neural target. The illustrated burst frequency pulse feature 212 includes burst duration 215 and duty cycle ...
TY - GEN. T1 - EMS icons. T2 - 2017 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, UbiComp/ISWC 2017. AU - Dingler, Tilman. AU - Goto, Takashi. AU - Tag, Benjamin. AU - Kunze, Kai Steven. PY - 2017/9/11. Y1 - 2017/9/11. N2 - Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has recently received an increased amount of attention from the HCI community. It has been used to remote control users for navigation and instrument playing, but also as a method to convey haptic feedback in VR, for example. As EMS devices become commercially available and application research continues, we explore EMS as a modality to convey information through actuation and as a means to induce and communicate emotions and moods. In this position paper, we present the results from two focus groups on using EMS for interpersonal communication as a way to send and receive emoticons through electrical stimulation. We argue that so-called "EMS Icons" have the ...
... - Here at Forzani Family Chiropractic, we are proud to offer e-stim to our patients. Stimulation can be a fantastic tool to assist you in feeling better.
... _Electrical muscle stimulation WikipediaElectrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle EMS
Cyclosporin A administration is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension. To evaluate the direct effects of the drug on the contractile responses of vascular tissue to adrenergic stimuli, rat caudal artery ring segments were studied before and after the addition of cyclosporin A or its ethanol vehicle in vitro. In a dose-related manner, cyclosporin A augmented the contractile response to transmural nerve stimulation, with a highly significant (p less than 0.001 relative to that produced by the vehicle) lowering of the stimulation rate, a 50% of maximum contractile response (ED50) that elicited. The difference between pretreatment and treatment maximal responses to transmural nerve stimulation was also significantly greater (p less than 0.01) in the cyclosporin A-treated preparations than in those receiving the vehicle. In similar experiments, the responses to exogenous norepinephrine were not significantly affected. The effect of cyclosporin A on transmural nerve stimulation was ...
a valid model for myotonic dystrophy, was assessed, using an in vivo force assessment device, used in conjunction with EMG recording. The aim of the study was to verify whether the muscle force assessment device we developed was capable to sensitively detect the typical characteristics of myotonic muscle. To date, two wild-type and four myotonic female mice have been assessed. After anesthetic induction by isoflurane, the mice were positioned in the apparatus. Hindlimb muscles were stimulated noninvasively by electrodes placed on the muscle of the leg being stimulated. After establishing optimal muscle length, muscle force was assessed after single pulse stimulation at supramaximal voltage followed by double, triple and quadruple pulses. Both legs from each animal were tested and included in the analyses. Muscle force characteristics (peak force, half relaxation time, and area under the force curve (AUC)) and EMG data were recorded and analyzed. Peak forces generated in the myotonic mice were ...
Various aspects of the present subject matter provide a filter module. In various embodiments, the filter module comprises an input, an output, a signal path from the input to the output, a filter and a switch. The filter has a transfer response to attenuate a frequency of a neural stimulation signal. The switch is adapted to place the filter in the signal path when the neural stimulation signal is applied and to remove the filter from the signal path when the neural stimulation signal is not applied. Other aspects are provided herein.
The effects of dl-metanephrine (300 µg/kg i.v.) were determined on responses of the nictitating membrane to norepinephrine, to phenylephrine and to nerve stimulation. After the administration of metanephrine there was an increase in responses of the normal nictitating membrane to norepinephrine and to pnenylephrine in the lower part of the dose-response curve. The rest of the dose-response curve was practically superimposed on the corresponding controls. A similar pattern was observed for the denervated (2 days) nictitating membrane. Responses to pre- and to postganglionic stimulation obtained after the administration of metanephrine were increased for the range of low frequencies of stimulation. The rest of the frequency-response curve was superimposed on the control curve. The increase in responses in the lower part of the response curves was shown to be due to the additive effects of metanephrine and the injected sympathomimetic amine or the endogenously released norepinephrine. It is ...
Welcome to Odstock Medical the leading manufacturer of Clinical Functional Electrical Stimulation systems (FES) together with the associated treatments for patients who are effected by a dropped foot or upper limb disability.
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Various programming techniques are described for medical devices that deliver electrical stimulation therapy that may include mapping between discrete electrical stimulation parameters and a graphical view of the electrical stimulation representing a stimulation zone generated by the parameters. In one example, a method includes receiving, via a programmer for an electrical stimulator, user input that graphically manipulates at least one of size and a shape of a graphical representation of at least one electrical stimulation zone displayed on the programmer, and defining a program to control delivery of electrical stimulation therapy based on the user input.
Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation - Electrical impulses are applied to the nerves that control bladder function.. Choose Spire Cambridge Lea Hospital.
Currently, the study of nociception in humans relies mainly on thermal stimulation of heat-sensitive nociceptive afferents. To circumvent some limitations of thermal stimulation, it was proposed that intra-epidermal electrical stimulation (IES) could be used as an alternative method to activate nociceptors selectively. The selectivity of IES relies on the fact that it can generate a very focal electrical current and, thereby, activate nociceptive free nerve endings located in the epidermis without concomitantly activating non-nociceptive mechanoreceptors located more deeply in the dermis. However, an important limitation of IES is that it is selective for nociceptors only when very low current intensities are used. At these intensities, the stimulus generates a very weak percept, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the elicited evoked potentials (EPs) is very low. To circumvent this limitation, it was proposed that the strength of the nociceptive afferent volley could be increased through temporal ...
Part I Theory and Applications; Introduction - Excitable Tissue. Predictive Models. Overview.; Theoretical Foundations - Basic Equations. Cable Equation Relationships. Spatial Relationships. Mechanisms of Interaction. Alternative Models for Membrane Electrodynamics. Research Topics for Chapter 2.; Excitation Relationships - Threshold of Excitation. Strength-Duration Relationships. Power Supply Demand. Nonlinear Interaction of Multiple Stimulus Waveforms. Repetitive Stimulus Effects. Research Topics for Chapter 3. ; Threshold Criteria in Practical Applications - General Principles. Threshold Relationships. Research Topics for Chapter 4.; Selective Activation and Inhibition - General Aspects. Fiber Diameter Relationships. Selective Activation or Inhibition. Research Topics for Chapter 5.; Model Application to C-Fibers and the Heart - General Objectives. Electrostimulation of Nerve Fibers and Cardiac Muscle. Electrostimulation Characteristics of Cardiac Tissue. SENN Model Adaptation for A-Fibers, ...
Adenylyl cyclases contain two conserved homologous cytoplasmic domains (C1 and C2) that form the catalytic core of the enzyme [21]. Forskolin appears to induce the assembly of these two domains by interacting with the catalytic cleft [21-23]. The affinity between C1 and C2 is also facilitated by Gαs binding. These data have been confirmed by the finding that Forskolin and Gαs stimulate synergistically the cyclase activity [22]. In the presence of Gαs the affinity of Forskolin for the dimer C1/C2 is high (Kd = 0.1 μM), which suggests a stronger affinity for the complete cyclase molecule [23]. The site of interaction of the cyclase (type I or II) for beta/gamma has been located in the C1 b region. This site is independent of the Gαs and Forskolin interaction domains[24]. These findings argue in favor of isolating the cyclase(s) and its associated proteins using Forskolin-agarose affinity chromatography although this procedure enriches indistinctly the different isoforms of the cyclase family. ...
Background: Most U.S. adults (80%) do not meet minimum exercise recommendations by ACSM (CDC, 2015). Using an in vitro primary cell culture model, we and others have shown that muscle contraction induced by electrical stimulation results in increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein, glucose uptake and mitochondrial content. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a novel alternate strategy to induce muscle contraction, using electrical impulses. However, effectiveness of NMES induced muscle contraction to improve insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four weeks of NMES on insulin sensitivity in a sedentary overweight/obese population. Methods: Sedentary overweight/obese participants (n=10; age: 36.8 ± 3.8 years; BMI= 32 ± 1.3 kg/m2) were randomized into either a control or NMES group. All participants received bilateral quadriceps stimulation (12 sessions; 30 minutes/session; 3 times/week) either using low
Electric muscle stimulation trains your muscles in a way that traditional workouts alone cant. EMS, also known as neuromuscular electric stimulation, muscle stim, or e-stim, is delivered through electronic pulses to your nerve fibers in order to create involuntary muscle contractions. Unlike TENS, EMS waveforms activate fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers allowing the muscles to be stimulated to the point of exhaustion (relaxation) thus healing them to become stronger. This is similar to weight training. Muscles support joints and ligaments creating better support.. ...
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We also were able to fit Hunter with a loaner cart. The therapy seems to be working. By mid-April Hunter he was able to stand and support himself for 20 seconds with balance support, which is continuing to progress. On 5/20 Vicki noted he was walking independently on the hydro-treadmill and we no longer needing to use his tail for balance support. Hunter is progressively improving his mobility with his right rear limb, and a video from Vicki is starting to show movement in the left rear. From a medical point of view, Hunter is also continuing to improve. Hunter is currently on a 12 week course of antibiotics and repeat radiographs are showing no further damage in the hip joint. Vicki is continuing to bring Hunter to therapy and perform the neuromuscular electrical stimulation at home, with the goal of getting his mobility back to 100%. Great job by Vicki and keep with it Hunter!. ...
With just-suprathreshold current pulses, FS cells often displayed a considerable delay before the first spike, whereas GIN cells did not (cf. Fig. 2, C and D, top panels). In addition, GIN cells often displayed an afterdepolarization (ADP) following low-frequency action potentials (Fig. 2C, inset; cf. Halabisky et al. 2006). At higher levels of stimulus current, spike frequency adaptation was evident in GIN cells (Fig. 2D, bottom), but not in FS cells (Fig. 2D, bottom). Finally, at higher stimulus currents, the peak of the first action potential in GIN cells was the most positive in the train and the trough of the first afterhyperpolarization (AHP) was the most negative (Fig. 2C, bottom). By contrast, the action potential heights and AHP magnitudes of FS cells changed little under similar conditions (Fig. 2D, bottom). The firing of GIN cells also differed from that of RS cells, whose second action potential peak was substantially more negative than the first and whose first AHP was the most ...
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Welcome to Odstock Medical the leading manufacturer of Clinical Functional Electrical Stimulation systems (FES) together with the associated treatments for patients who are effected by a dropped foot or upper limb disability.
Benefits and concerns. Although the chances of pregnancy with minimal stimulation and natural IVF are lower than with conventional IVF, there are some benefits to consider: Most women can undergo these procedures with conscious sedation rather than general stimulation since only a few eggs are retrieved and a very thin needle is used for retrieval, and theres a lower cost due to less medications and minimal anesthesia.. What a cycle entails. A natural cycle uses no drugs to facilitate egg production except for a single injection to trigger ovulation in anticipation of the egg retrieval. Your doctor may also prescribe an antagonist, a medication to prevent premature ovulation, as well as progesterone supplementation after retrieval in order to prepare the uterus for pregnancy.. During a minimal stimulation IVF cycle, a woman will receive an oral medication (clomiphene citrate - Clomid) in addition to low doses of gonadotropins. A small number of eggs are retrieved and premature ovulation is ...
The Abdo King electrical stimulation belt is useful for burning body fat effortlessly. If you want to have strong and hard abs its possible now thanks to this new technology. Introducing the ultimate Abdo King electrical stimulation belt, an innovative device thats going to change once and for all the way you work your muscles. The secret is in electromuscular stimulation, a scientifically proven technique that generates active muscle contractions. It does all the abdominal work for you while you can do other activities. Electromuscular stimulation was originally developed by physiotherapists in order to enhance the rehabilitation of patients with muscle injuries. Now, its used in the fitness industry so you can have the abs of your dreams without effort and at an incredibly reduced price.. The Abdo King electrical stimulation belt includes:. ...
United States Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market Report 2017" Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. This market report offers a comprehensive analysis of the global Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market. This report focused on Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market past and present growth globally. Furthermore, each section in this report includes expert insights that will help to address the problem areas experienced in supply chain issues. To make the report easy to understand, the study features graphics, charts, and infographics.. A detailed overview of key market drivers, trends, restraints and analyzes the way they affect the Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market in a positive as well as the negative aspect. The regions which are covered in this report are North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa and Latin America. Considering the given forecast period and precisely studying each and every ...
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We explain how to use electric muscle stimulation to increase muscle performance and speed up recovery. Our Smart NMES and Smart TENS features make the PowerDot Smart Muscle Stimulator the best EMS device on the market. Learn more...
Studies performed in our laboratory in conscious animals, demonstrate that the responsiveness of α-adrenergic receptors on the arterial vasculature of skeletal muscle is reduced during dynamic exercise compared to rest. A classical view of sympathetic vasoconstriction describes the release of norepinephrine (NE) which binds postsynaptic α-adrenergic receptors. There are two distinct populations of α-adrenergic receptors (α1 and α2) found of vascular smooth muscle, both of which produce vasoconstriction when stimulated. We have shown an attenuation of vasoconstriction during exercise with simultaneous stimulation of both populations of receptors. When examining the contribution of α1 and α2 receptors individually, α2 receptors appear to be much more sensitive to attenuation by exercise than α1 receptors. Existing evidence suggests that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in vascular smooth muscle and is co-released with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves. Recently we have examined P2X ...
Functional electrical stimulation uses low energy electrical pulses to generate movements in paralysed or weakened muscles from a neurological injury
A method and neurostimulation system of providing therapy to a patient is provided. At least one electrode is placed in contact with tissue of a patient. A sub-threshold, hyperpolarizing, conditioning pre-pulse (e.g., an anodic pulse) is conveyed from the electrode(s) to render a first region of the tissue (e.g., dorsal root fibers) less excitable to stimulation, and a depolarizing stimulation pulse (e.g., a cathodic pulse) is conveyed from the electrode(s) to stimulate a second different region of the tissue (e.g., dorsal column fibers). The conditioning pre-pulse has a relatively short duration (e.g., less than 200 μs).
Ive recently read a paper looking at the effects of 15 minutes of direct current stimulation (5-15 uA) through a chronic indwelling electrode on kindled seizure thresholds in rats. Can this type of stimulation cause an electrolytic lesion at the electrode tip even with such low current? Ive been looking through brain stimulation books and cant find an answer ...
The RT300 FES cycle combines a rehabilitation technique called Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) with a motorized ergometer machine that allows for repetitive activity.
There are certainly standard exercises that will build muscle or multi-joint movements that involve the simultaneous stimulation of many muscle groups. Yes, some can most likely still build large amounts of muscle using machines, but to grasp simply because it involves less action, instead of more. Research has shown that merely a 3-4% drop in body frame then most likely you will have the same traits. What you are trying to change through muscle building workouts is the appearance of suggest limiting your sessions to no more than 60-75 minutes MAXIMUM. When I start planning I muscle building program for a client I this one persons comment to overshadow that progress and convince him that his program was inadequate. During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the you are on a high calorie mass diet for building muscle.. Excess dietary saturated fat can exacerbate coronary artery disease; and more vascular, but it will also increase your strength as well. These three exercises ...
Functional Electrical Stimulation or FES applies electrical currents to activate nerves in extremities affected by injury or illness.
A report via PRNewswire on a cardiac stimulation system from Impulse Diagnostics, Inc, which has just started Phase II trials: the OPTIMIZER™ deliver
The incubation of isolated human PMN in vitro results in the rapid accumulation of endogenous adenosine, which has profound inhibitory effects on many cell functions, including LT synthesis. In the present study, we show that when endogenous adenosine is eliminated enzymatically from PMN suspensions, or its actions blocked with receptor antagonists, human PMN respond very strongly to low micromolar concentrations of AA for the synthesis of 5-LO products. This observation contrasts with the widely held perception that resting human PMN respond poorly to exogenous AA for LTB4synthesis and that the measurable synthesis of 5-LO products in the presence of AA requires the simultaneous stimulation with another agonist. Thus, our studies establish clearly that AA can trigger, in the absence of other added PMN stimuli, an important generation of 5-LO products and that the effect of exogenous AA is highly sensitive to the inhibitory effect of adenosine A2a receptor engagement on PMN. Therefore, these ...
Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling (FES Cycling) is a rehabilitation technique that allows a spinal cord injured (SCI) volunteer to ride a bicycle contracting his/her muscles. This project provides a model and several scripts to test and develop th
Author: 許幟帆, Title: Advances in functional electrical stimulation (FES), Category: 專題報告, Academic Year: 1042, Department: 電機工程系, ViewId: 297503
This archive instantiates the single-cell cortical models used in (Aberra et al. 2018) and sets up extracellular stimulation with either a point-current source, to simulate intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), or a uniform E-field distribution, with a monophasic, rectangular pulse waveform in both cases ...
This archive instantiates the single-cell cortical models used in (Aberra et al. 2018) and sets up extracellular stimulation with either a point-current source, to simulate intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), or a uniform E-field distribution, with a monophasic, rectangular pulse waveform in both cases ...
The first recorded application of the use of electricity to treat human aliments was in ancient Rome. Anthero, a freed slave, was walking in the surf when he
Electrical Stimulation - Here at Becker Spine and Sports Institute, LLC, we are proud to offer e-stim to our patients. Stimulation can be a fantastic tool to assist you in feeling
|p|The RC-49MFS features a diamond shaped bath to promote laminar solution flow and a pair of easy to remove platinum field stimulation electrodes.|/p| |p|The
Methods of treating a medical condition include applying at least one stimulus to a stimulation site within the brain of a patient with an implanted stimulator in accordance with one or more stimulation parameters. The [sic] at least one stimulus is configured to promote neural remodeling within the brain of the patient. Systems for treating a medical condition include an implantable stimulator configured to apply at least one stimulus to a stimulation site within the brain of a patient in accordance with one or more stimulation parameters ...
Our goal in this series of experiments was to study the unique properties of GLP-1 and particular analogs of GLP-1, in a relevant cell culture system. We have presented experimental evidence to demonstrate its role in cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and changes in biochemical protein markers, such as synaptophysin and Beta-2/NeuroD. In addition, we have discussed the possible mechanisms of action of GLP-1.. This study has demonstrated that PC12 cells express functional GLP-1 receptors. When activated after treatment with GLP-1, cAMP is rapidly released, reaching maximal levels within 15 min. However, once intracellular stores of cAMP are emptied, levels decrease back to baseline, regardless of the continuous stimulation of the GLP-1 receptor. This classic pulsatile release can be restored after a suitable "recovery phase", during which time intracellular cAMP stores are replenished.. The dose range of the peptides used in these studies was focused around those currently used in ...
The MAXEMS 1000/2000 is a battery operated pulse generator that sends electrical impulses through electrodes to the body and reaches the underlying muscle group. The device is provided with two controllable output channels, each independent of each other. An electrode pair can be connected to each output channel. The electrodes of the MAXEMS 1000/2000 create electrical impulses whose amplitude, pulse rate, contraction time, relaxation time and ramp time may be altered with switches. Dial controls (Press buttons) are very easy to use and slide cover prevents accidental changes in the setting ...
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Low frequency electrical pulses are applied to the affected area. These safe electrical pulses mimic the bodys nervous system, causing the muscle to contract, increasing temperature and circulation. This therapy encourages and utilizes the bodys natural healing mechanisms. Electical Muscle Stimulation can be used to promote healing for car accident injuries or work place injuries or other pain management needs in the Massillon or surrounding Stark County Ohio areas.. If you think Electrical Muscle Stimulation could benefit you, contact Chiropractor, Dr. Jason Cheatle of Cheatle Chiropractic and Rehab Center for more information today.. ...
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, modulates neuronal excitability by the application of a small electrical current. The low cost and ease of the technique has driven interest in potential clinical applications. However, outcomes are highly sensitive to stimulation parameters, leading to difficulty maximizing the techniques effectiveness. Although reversing the polarity of stimulation often causes opposite effects, this is not always the case. Effective clinical application will require an understanding of how tDCS works; how it modulates a neuron; how it affects the local network; and how it alters inter-network signaling. We have summarized what is known regarding the mechanisms of tDCS from sub-cellular processing to circuit level communication with a particular focus on what can be learned from the polarity specificity of the effects.
Title:Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for the Treatment of Addictions: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Ali Yadollahpour* and Tifei Yuan*. Affiliation:Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Golestan Blvd., Ahvaz, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai. Keywords:Transcranial direct current stimulation, addiction, treatment, clinical efficacy, therapeutic efficacy, substance use disorders.. Abstract:Background and Objective: Addiction is one of the main health issues worldwide. Severe side effects and nonspecific actions of conventional medications have necessitated the development of new safe and non-invasive modality for addiction treatment. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential treatment effects in substance use disorder and addiction. The present study aims to ...
Sacral nerve stimulation using a tined lead as an extended testing phase to evaluate the predictive value of this form of testing by comparing the long-term (6 months) response to permanent sacral nerve stimulation in the groups classified by the test.. The tined lead test stimulation (TiLTS) is of 6 weeks duration and involves an active period of 2 weeks of active subsensory sacral nerve stimulation, and a placebo or sham period of 2 weeks of pretend subsensory sacral nerve stimulation. These periods are around a central 2 weeks of no testing (a washout period) giving a total of 6 weeks in this testing phase. Study participants are randomised into either group A or B who receive the active and sham testing in reversed orders, and so blinding both the assessment researchers and participants to the order of active and sham testing. Participants will identify on a visual analogue scale of 0-100 on how much they feel each 2 week period has improved their symptoms compared to baseline. ...
Sacral nerve stimulation is a very good and effective treatment for faecal incontinence The method was introduced to patients with voiding disorders in 1981. In 1995 sacral nerve stimulation was used for three patients with faecal incontinence, two were afterwards fully continent. The method has over the last decade been used increasingly in Europe. The method is now used routinely in the treatment of faecal incontinence in Europe.. Recent studies have shown that the effect of sacral nerve stimulation is due to a neuromodulation in the central nervous system, whereas direct stimulation of efferent nerves to anal sphincter and the pelvic floor has less significance.. The sacral nerve stimulation is performed in two steps, first a test stimulation, if positive the patients proceed to permanent implant.. Test stimulation (PNE-test) is performed over a 3 week period. If this test stimulation produces a decrease in incontinence episodes of more than 50 per cent, a permanent electrode and ...
To read the full abstract subscribe to the JCM online archive.. Ninety patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly divided into a treatment group, who received electrical stimulation at acupoints Quchi L.I.-11, Hegu L.I.-4, Zusanli ST-36 and Sanyinjiao SP-6, a ... SKU: a1478. ...
There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimers disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory ...
"Gastric Electrical Stimulation". The Regents of The University of California. Retrieved 12 March 2016.. ... Electric[edit]. Electrical implants are being used to relieve pain and suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The electric ... "Arthritis sufferers offered hope after electrical implants leave". The Independent. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2019 ... implant is embedded in the neck of patients with rheumatoid arthritics, the implant sends electrical signals to electrodes in ...
Patterson, Michael; Kesner, Raymond (1981). Electrical Stimulation Research Techniques. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-547440-7.. ... This coupling results in an electric body force in the bulk liquid, outside the electric double layer, that can generate ... These instabilities are caused by a coupling of electric fields and ionic conductivity gradients that results in an electric ... In such case, the moving structure acts as an electric motor Practical fields of interest of EHD are the common air ioniser, ...
"Tas Cricket - Electrical Stimulation". www.tascricket.com.au. Retrieved 23 April 2018.. ...
"Electrical stimulation of partial limb regeneration in mammals". Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 48 (4): 627-41. ... using electrical stimulation, has shown promising results for rats[78] and mammals in general.[79] ... Specifically, cytokine stimulation of cells leads to expression of genes that change cellular functions and suppress the immune ... Becker RO (January 1972). "Stimulation of partial limb regeneration in rats". Nature. 235 (5333): 109-11. Bibcode:1972Natur.235 ...
Low level "baseline" release also occurs without electrical stimulation. The released neurotransmitter may then move across the ... Neurons do not touch each other (except in the case of an electrical synapse through a gap junction); instead, neurons interact ... In response to a threshold action potential or graded electrical potential, a neurotransmitter is released at the presynaptic ... In its direct actions in influencing a neuron's electrical excitability, however, a neurotransmitter acts in only one of two ...
Apply heat, ice, or electrical stimulation[6]. *Take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications for 7-10 days[5] ...
... ing can be induced by electric scalp stimulation, study finds. *A look at four psychology fads - a comparison of est ...
"Electrical stimulation of human fusiform face-selective regions distorts face perception". J Neurosci. 32 (43): 14915-20. doi: ... Electrical stimulation of these functional clusters selectively distorts face perception, which is causal support for the role ...
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has also shown to be useful in the management of post-thoracotomy pain. ... Assessing the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in post-thoracotomy analgesia. Rev Bras Anestesiol ...
Deep brain stimulation sends regulated electrical pulses to the target. In patients with tardive dyskinesia treated with DBS, ... The direct pathway is modulated by stimulation of the GPi by the external globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus, via the ... Dong, S.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, X.-H.; Li, J.-Y.; Li, Y.-J. (2012-01-01). "Unilateral deep brain stimulation of the right globus ... The internal globus pallidus is the target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for these diseases. ...
Electrical stimulation in the FEF elicits saccadic eye movements. The FEF have a topographic structure and represents saccade ... Unilateral irritative stimulation of a FEF causes conjugate gaze contralateral to the stimulation. Conversely, a unilateral ...
"Gastric Electrical Stimulation". The Regents of The University of California. Retrieved 12 March 2016. "Chapter 1, Part 2, ...
Electrical stimulation of partial limb regeneration in mammals. Becker RO, Spadaro JA. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1972 May;48(4):627-41 ... Mollon B, da Silva V, Busse JW, Einhorn TA, Bhandari M (November 2008). "Electrical stimulation for long-bone fracture-healing ... Kooistra BW, Jain A,1 and Hanson BP (April-June 2009). "Electrical stimulation: Nonunions". Indian J Orthop. 43 (2): 149-55. ... His work showed that living organisms and animals show a direct current of electric charge which is measurable from their body ...
Physiotherapy To increase strength of muscle To improve muscle functions Electrical modalities =Electric stimulation.etc. ...
Electrical stimulation experiments demonstrated that the tectum initiates orienting and snapping behaviors. It contains many ... Stimulation of (a combination of) such types of neurons would cause the toad to display different kinds of protective behaviors ... More specifically, electrical triggering the thalamic-pretectal region initiates a variety of protective movements such as ... Still other types (TH10) respond to large stationary obstacles, and there are also neurons responding to stimulation of the ...
"Electrical stimulation of the heart in man". Br Med J. 1 (1468): 348-50. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1468.348. PMC 2154721. PMID 20752595 ... "Electrical Stimulation of the Heart in Man - 1899", Accessed Jan 27, 2014. ... "IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing". Retrieved September 5, 2009.. *^ Harvard News Office. "Harvard Gazette ... In 1950, Canadian electrical engineer John Hopps designed and built the first external pacemaker based upon observations by ...
Pioneer in Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)[35]. *Nicholas A. Peppas - Chaired Professor in Engineering, University of ... Pioneer in Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)[34]. *Robert M. Nerem - professor emeritus at Georgia Institute of ... "Biomedical Engineering - Electrical and Computer Eng. Ryerson". Ee.ryerson.ca. 2011-08-04. Archived from the original on ... An MRI scan of a human head, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to diagnostic imaging ...
CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Young, W (2015). "Electrical stimulation and motor recovery". Cell transplantation. 24 ... epidural spinal stimulation, and wearable robotic exoskeletons. Spinal cord injury can be traumatic or nontraumatic, and can be ... treatment to speed it up include atropine and electrical cardiac pacing. Swelling can cause further damage to the spinal cord ...
"Chapter 11 Cranial Electric Stimulation". In Knotkova, Helena; Rasche, Dirk. Textbook of Neuromodulation: Principles, Methods ... February 17, 2012 Electrical Stimulators Need High-Risk Rating, Says FDA Panel Staff, Sleep Review. June 11, 2014 FDA To ... Rigorous clinical trial evidence is lacking on the use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) in acute depression. Thus, ... Kavirajan HC, Lueck K, Chuang K (2014). "Alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for depression". Cochrane ...
The electrical stimulation temporarily disables the tremor and can be "reversed," if necessary, by turning off the implanted ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) uses implantable electrodes to send high-frequency electrical signals to the thalamus. The ... This test measures involuntary muscle activity and muscle response to nerve stimulation. The selection of the sensors used is ... focused on the evaluation of the concept of biomechanical loading of tremor through selective Functional Electrical Stimulation ...
... some apply electrical stimulation. A few collars incorporate several of these. Of these, electrical stimulation is the most ... Modern electrical collars are adjustable, allowing the trainer to match the stimulation level to the dog's sensitivity and ... Early electrical collars provided only a single, high-level shock and were useful only to punish undesirable behavior. ... They deliver a measured level of aversive stimulation that produces from a mildly irritating tingle or tap sensation to severe ...
Simpson, Brian (2003). Electrical Stimulation and the Relief of Pain. Elsevier Health Sciences. ss. 6-7. ISBN 0-444-51258-6 ... Electric Charges, Polarization, Electric Force, Coulomb's Law Walter Lewin, 8.02 Electricity and Magnetism, Spring 2002: ... On page 75, the authour compares the electric and gravitational forces:. Therefore we may conclude, that the law of electric ... "The Electrical Researches of the Honourable Henry Cavendish... (1st bas.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ss. ...
Since electrical stimulation itself sometimes seemed to quiet tremor during the procedure, Benabid reasoned this might be a ... As described in a 2010 interview with Benabid in the medical journal Lancet, electrical stimulation was used during surgery to ... International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS). January 19, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Benabid, A.L. ( ... As technology advanced to allow such stimulation to be continuously applied for a long time, DBS became widely adopted in the ...
Rolston JD, Desai SA, Laxpati NG, Gross RE (October 2011). "Electrical stimulation for epilepsy: experimental approaches". ... Therefore, the main goal of neural decoding is to characterize how the electrical activity of neurons elicit activity and ... a neuron's electric potential fluctuates around its resting potential due to a constant influx and efflux of sodium and ... they may find what appears to be random electrical activity. These neurons are actually firing in response to the lower level ...
using evoked potentials and electrical stimulation. Experiments involving ablation of the second somatosensory cortex in ... Areas S2 in the left and right hemispheres are densely interconnected, and stimulation on one side of the body will activate ... and motor areas of human cerebral cortex as determined by direct recording of evoked potentials and electrical stimulation". J ...
Electrical stimulation of the levator ani muscle has been used to try to break the spastic cycle. Injection of botulinum toxin ... May 2005). "Comparison study between electrogalvanic stimulation and local injection therapy in levator ani syndrome". ...
One important rehabilitation tool for muscle atrophy includes the use of functional electrical stimulation to stimulate the ... D.Zhang et al., Functional Electrical Stimulation in Rehabilitation Engineering: A survey, Nenyang technological University, ... although dietary leucine itself can lead to a modest stimulation of protein synthesis by producing a small amount of HMB, ...
"Electrical stimulation for preventing and treating post-stroke shoulder pain: a systematic Cochrane review". Clin Rehabil. 15 ( ... as well as using Functional electrical stimulation.[35] Supportive devices, such as braces or slings, can be used to help ... and using neuromuscular electrical stimulation to decrease spasticity and increase awareness of the limb. ... Individuals who develop seizures may undergo tests to determine where the focus of excess electrical activity is.[18] ...
This topic has 7 study abstracts on Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) indicating that it may have therapeutic ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has therapeutic value in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Jul 01, 1997. ... 7 Abstracts with Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) Research. Filter by Study Type. Human Study. ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation use in children with incontinence refractory to pharmacotherapy is safe and well ...
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) to treat acute pain in adults. *Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer-related pain in adults. *Transcutaneous electrical nerve ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) versus placebo for chronic low-back pain ...
What is transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation? Meaning of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation medical term. What ... Looking for online definition of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the Medical Dictionary? transcutaneous ... transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (transcutaneous neural stimulation) see transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation ... Gastric Electrical Stimulation (GES) Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (PNS) Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) Spinal Cord Stimulation ( ...
Buy the Paperback Book Pain Treatment by Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) by David Ottoson at Indigo.ca, ... Pain Treatment by Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): A Practical Manual. byDavid Ottoson, Thomas Lundeberg. ... Title:Pain Treatment by Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): A Practical ManualFormat:PaperbackDimensions:138 ... Customer Reviews of Pain Treatment by Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): A Practical Manual. ...
Pilot study testing whether a combined treatment of acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is more ... A Pilot Study on Using Acupuncture and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) to Treat Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) ... A Pilot Study on Using Acupuncture and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) to Treat Knee Osteoarthritis (OA). ... Pilot study testing whether a combined treatment of acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is more ...
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). As part of our treatment modalities, MedCenter TMJ is pleased to ... Electrical stimulation through the skin preferentially activates low threshold myelinated nerve fibers, blocking transmission ... incorporate Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). This technology involves the use of controlled low voltage ... electrical impulses transmitted through the skin for relief of pain. TENS can reduce pain by inhibiting nociceptive receptors ...
... What is Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulation therapy and how can it help treat ... The benefits of Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulation therapy are many. Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulation therapy is, in ... The Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulation therapy uses high intensity pelvic floor stimulation and high frequency pelvic floor ... Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulation therapy requires no active participation from the patient. Pelvic Floor Electrical ...
... - as a method of pain relief in labor, options for relieving pain in ... Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). In this method two or more electrodes are applied on the skin around the ... 1997) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in labour pain: a systematic review. British Journal of Obstetrics and ... 1. Nnoaham KE, Kumbang J. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
... an electrical therapy that some believe can relieve pelvic pain caused by endometriosis ... Learn more about transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an electrical therapy that potentially could relieve pelvic pain caused ... TENS uses a mild electrical current to stimulate nerve cells. Electrical impulses seem to influence the pain signals that are ...
Discusses transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a therapy that uses low-voltage electrical current for pain ... a therapy that uses low-voltage electrical current for pain relief. Covers TENS treatment for different illnesses and ... Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). Topic Overview. What is TENS?. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation ... such as a steady flow of electrical current or a burst of electrical current, and for intensity of electrical current. Your ...
... indicates that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), may provide immediate decrease in pain intensity. However, ... A recent review of studies available, indicates that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), may provide immediate ... Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential current ... electrical muscle stimulation, ultrasound, and thermotherapy. The Spine Journal. January/February 2008. Volume 8. Issue 1. Pp. ...
... of administering TENS Discucsses the current evidence base for the use of TENS Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation ( ... TENS) is a technique that delivers mild electrical ... ... Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) provides a ... Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): Highlights key evidence underpinning clinical techniques Highly illustrated ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a technique that delivers mild electrical currents across the intact ...
Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Controlling Pain Associated with Orthodontic Tooth Movement. Roth, ... They were further subdivided into 18 seconds intraoral stimulation of 50 µA at 0.5 Hz, and 20 minutes of extraoral stimulation ... Peter M, & Thrash, William J. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Controlling Pain Associated with ...
The pain reducing effect of vibratory stimulation at 100 Hz, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at 100 Hz, ... A comparative study of the pain alleviating effect of vibratory stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ... A comparative study of the pain alleviating effect of vibratory stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ... In 29 patients these modes of stimulation produced pain reduction. Out of these patients 18 rated vibratory stimulation, TENS ...
The aim of this study is to compare the effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve stimulation (TENS) in acupuncture points with ... Physiological reduction in the electrical stimulation group at the incision site was higher compared to electrical stimulation ... Comparison of Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acupuncture points with Transcutaneous electrical nerve ... Keywords: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, physiological indicators, appendectomy. Full-Text [PDF 489 kb] (1499 ...
Gastric electrical stimulation is a pacemaker-like device with electrical connections to the surface of the stomach. The device ... Gastric electrical stimulation, also known as implantable gastric stimulation, is the use of specific devices to provide ... Levinthal, DJ; Bielefeldt, K (January 2017). "Systematic review and meta-analysis: Gastric electrical stimulation for ... Chiu, JD; Soffer, E (January 2015). "Gastric electrical stimulation for obesity". Current gastroenterology reports. 17 (1): 424 ...
Learn about your options, from transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to interferential current (IFC). ... Nerve stimulation - or neuromodulation - is an alternative to medication for treating arthritis pain. ... Pulsed Electrical Stimulation (PES). What it is: PES delivers a current to the site of pain via electrodes placed on the skin. ... Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Arthritis Pain. Want an alternative to pain relievers? Try giving your nerves a little jolt.. ...
Most stimulation techniques work because of the brains predominantly electrical nature. That is, when a brain cell, or neuron ... What is electrical brain stimulation used for? And is it safe?. By Amanda Schaffer ... For many of us, the mere phrase "electrical brain stimulation" calls to mind highly disturbing images of electroshock therapy, ... The brain stimulation techniques now being researched are, by contrast, generally quite mild. DC polarization, for instance, ...
A new study at UCLA has found that a brain stimulation patch, worn on the forehead while the patient sleeps, can significantly ...
You can view electric stimulation (e-stim) much the same as charging a car battery or priming a motor before it will start. ... You can view electric stimulation (e-stim) much the same as charging a car battery or priming a motor before it will start. ... Treating Incontinence with Electric Stimulation. Tasha MulliganHealth Professional. July 19, 2010. ... The artificial stimulation of the nerves connecting to the many muscles of your pelvic floor can work like adding oil to a ...
... is a pain treatment that uses low voltage electric current to scramble pain signals in your body. tens is typically done with a ... What is TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation)?. ANSWER TENS, or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, is a ... The Cochrane Collaboration: "Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) versus placebo for chronic low-back pain." ... The Cochrane Collaboration: "Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) versus placebo for chronic low-back pain." ...
Scientists stimulated volunteers brains with mild electric current while they learned new arithmetic operations based on made- ... Those who received this brain stimulation learned quicker -- and retained a performance edge six months later. ... The new research goes a step farther by showing that electrical stimulation can also improve the ability to perform ... If I put my sci-fi hat on, what I can imagine coming down the road is even more sophisticated combinations of stimulation and ...
Submission + - Electric Stimulation Could Help You Control Your Dreams (sciencemag.org) Submitted by sciencehabit on Sunday May ... Electric Stimulation Could Help You Control Your Dreams. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ... researchers applied electrical current to their skulls near the forehead and temples. This boosted neural activity in the ...
... electrical stimulation patch may be just as effective as triptan medications for alleviating migraine. ... Electrical brain stimulation found to improve working memory Scientists use transcranial alternating current stimulation to ... A wireless patch that uses electrical stimulation to block pain signals to the brain may one day replace drugs for the ... One group received treatment with the electrical stimulation patch, known as Nerivio, while the other group received a sham ...
Scientists use transcranial alternating current stimulation to improve working memory. The findings may one day help patients ... The electrical stimulation was alternately applied in an unsynchronized fashion, in a synchronized fashion, or in quick bursts ... The new study, published in the journal eLife, reveals that applying weak electrical stimulation to the brain helped to ... However, the specificities of each individuals brain may be an obstacle in using this form of electrical stimulation as a ...
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