The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain DITERPENES.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physical forces and actions in living things.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Relating to the size of solids.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.

Effect of electrotonic potentials on pacemaker activity of canine Purkinje fibers in relation to parasystole. (1/6934)

Isolated false tendons excised form dog hearts were mounted in a three-chamber tissue bath. Isotonic sucrose solution was perfused in the central chamber to provide a region of depressed conductivity between the fiber segments in chambers 1 and 3, which were perfused with Tyrode's solution. The electrotonic influence of spontaneous or driven responses evoked in chamber 3 during the first half of the spontaneous cycle of a chamber 1 peacemaker delayed the next spontaneous discharge. This effect changed to acceleration when the chamber 3 segment fired during the second half of the spontaneous cycle. We found that subthreshold depolarizing current pulses 50-300 msec applied across the sucrose gap caused similar degrees of delay or acceleration. Furthermore, hyperpolarizing currents caused the reverse pattern. The results indicate that the discharge pattern of a parasystolic focus may be altered by the electrotonic influence of activity in the surrounding tissue. The significance of these findings is considered in relation to the mechanism of production of parasystolic rhythms.  (+info)

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (2/6934)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Single synaptic events evoke NMDA receptor-mediated release of calcium from internal stores in hippocampal dendritic spines. (3/6934)

We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists block the synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients; the block by AMPA antagonists is relieved by low Mg2+. The Ca2+ transients are mainly due to the release of calcium from internal stores, since they are abolished by antagonists of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR); CICR antagonists, however, do not depress spine Ca2+ transients generated by backpropagating action potentials. These results have implications for synaptic plasticity, since they show that synaptic stimulation can activate NMDA receptors, evoking substantial Ca2+ release from the internal stores in spines without inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD).  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (4/6934)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

Small conductance potassium channels cause an activity-dependent spike frequency adaptation and make the transfer function of neurons logarithmic. (5/6934)

We made a computational model of a single neuron to study the effect of the small conductance (SK) Ca2+-dependent K+ channel on spike frequency adaptation. The model neuron comprised a Na+ conductance, a Ca2+ conductance, and two Ca2+-independent K+ conductances, as well as a small and a large (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ conductance, a Ca2+ pump, and mechanisms for Ca2+ buffering and diffusion. Sustained current injection that simulated synaptic input resulted in a train of action potentials (APs) which in the absence of the SK conductance showed very little adaptation with time. The transfer function of the neuron was nearly linear, i.e., both asymptotic spike rate as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were approximately linear functions of the input current. Adding an SK conductance with a steep nonlinear dependence on [Ca2+]i (. Pflugers Arch. 422:223-232; Kohler, Hirschberg, Bond, Kinzie, Marrion, Maylie, and Adelman. 1996. Science. 273:1709-1714) caused a marked time-dependent spike frequency adaptation and changed the transfer function of the neuron from linear to logarithmic. Moreover, the input range the neuron responded to with regular spiking increased by a factor of 2.2. These results can be explained by a shunt of the cell resistance caused by the activation of the SK conductance. It might turn out that the logarithmic relationships between the stimuli of some modalities (e.g., sound or light) and the perception of the stimulus intensity (Fechner's law) have a cellular basis in the involvement of SK conductances in the processing of these stimuli.  (+info)

Selectivity and permeation in calcium release channel of cardiac muscle: alkali metal ions. (6/6934)

Current was measured from single open channels of the calcium release channel (CRC) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (over the range +/-180 mV) in pure and mixed solutions (e.g., biionic conditions) of the alkali metal ions Li+, K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, ranging in concentration from 25 mM to 2 M. The current-voltage (I-V) relations were analyzed by an extension of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) formulation of electrodiffusion, which includes local chemical interaction described by an offset in chemical potential, which likely reflects the difference in dehydration/solvation/rehydration energies in the entry/exit steps of permeation. The theory fits all of the data with few adjustable parameters: the diffusion coefficient of each ion species, the average effective charge distribution on the wall of the pore, and an offset in chemical potential for lithium and sodium ions. In particular, the theory explains the discrepancy between "selectivities" defined by conductance sequence and "selectivities" determined by the permeability ratios (i.e., reversal potentials) in biionic conditions. The extended PNP formulation seems to offer a successful combined treatment of selectivity and permeation. Conductance selectivity in this channel arises mostly from friction: different species of ions have different diffusion coefficients in the channel. Permeability selectivity of an ion is determined by its electrochemical potential gradient and local chemical interaction with the channel. Neither selectivity (in CRC) seems to involve different electrostatic interaction of different ions with the channel protein, even though the ions have widely varying diameters.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin forms anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayers: possible implications for the mechanism of cellular vacuolation. (7/6934)

The Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin plays a major role in the gastric pathologies associated with this bacterium. When added to cultured cells, VacA induces vacuolation, an effect potentiated by preexposure of the toxin to low pH. Its mechanism of action is unknown. We report here that VacA forms anion-selective, voltage-dependent pores in artificial membranes. Channel formation was greatly potentiated by acidic conditions or by pretreatment of VacA at low pH. No requirement for particular lipid(s) was identified. Selectivity studies showed that anion selectivity was maintained over the pH range 4.8-12, with the following permeability sequence: Cl- approximately HCO3- > pyruvate > gluconate > K+ approximately Li+ approximately Ba2+ > NH4+. Membrane permeabilization was due to the incorporation of channels with a voltage-dependent conductance in the 10-30 pS range (2 M KCl), displaying a voltage-independent high open probability. Deletion of the NH2 terminus domain (p37) or chemical modification of VacA by diethylpyrocarbonate inhibited both channel activity and vacuolation of HeLa cells without affecting toxin internalization by the cells. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that VacA channel formation is needed to induce cellular vacuolation, possibly by inducing an osmotic imbalance of intracellular acidic compartments.  (+info)

Characterization of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-gated channels in the plasma membrane of rat olfactory neurons. (8/6934)

It is generally accepted that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) plays a role in olfactory transduction. However, the precise mode of action of InsP3 remains controversial. We have characterized the conductances activated by the addition of 10 microM InsP3 to excised patches of soma plasma membrane from rat olfactory neurons. InsP3 induced current fluctuations in 25 of 121 inside-out patches. These conductances could be classified into two groups according to the polarity of the current at a holding potential of +40 to +60 mV (with Ringer's in the pipette and pseudointracellular solution in the bath). Conductances mediating outward currents could be further divided into large- (64 +/- 4 pS, n = 4) and small- (16 +/- 1.7 pS, n = 11) conductance channels. Both small- and large-conductance channels were nonspecific cation channels. The large-conductance channel displayed bursting behavior at +40 mV, with flickering increasing at negative holding potentials to the point where single-channel currents were no longer discernible. The small-conductance channel did not display flickering behavior. The conductance mediating inward currents at +40 to +60 mV reversed at +73 +/- 4 mV (n = 4). The current traces displayed considerable fluctuations, and single-channel currents could not be discerned. The current fluctuations returned to baseline after removal of InsP3. The power density spectrum for the excess noise generated by InsP3 followed a 1/f dependence consistent with conductance fluctuations in the channel mediating this current, although other mechanisms are not excluded. These experiments demonstrate the presence of plasma membrane InsP3-gated channels of different ionic specificity in olfactory receptor cells.  (+info)

This report results from a contract tasking Harwell Laboratory as follows: The effects of radiation on electrical conductivity in ceramic insulators are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect in which large increases in the intrinsic electrical conductivity have been observed following irradiation within a restricted temperature range whiles subject to electric fields >600 V/cm. The aim of the present work was to extend the studies of the RIED effect to plasma-sprayed forms of alumina and spinel.*ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
Definition of electric conductivity in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of electric conductivity. What does electric conductivity mean? Information and translations of electric conductivity in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
This paper studies the effect of equal channel angular pressing-Conform (ECAP-C) and further artificial aging (AA) on microstructure, mechanical, and electrical properties of Al 6101 alloy. As is shown, ECAP-C at 130 °C with six cycles resulted in the formation of an ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure with a grain size of 400-600 nm containing nanoscale spherical metastable β′ and stable β second-phase precipitates. As a result, processed wire rods demonstrated the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 308 MPa and electrical conductivity of 53.1% IACS. Electrical conductivity can be increased without any notable degradation in mechanical strength of the UFG alloy by further AA at 170 °C and considerably enhanced by additional decomposition of solid solution accompanied by the formation of rod-shaped metastable β′ precipitates mainly in the ultrafine grain interior and by the decrease of the alloying element content in the Al matrix. It is demonstrated that ECAP-C can be used to process Al-Mg-Si
We aimed at providing an accurate estimation of human brain tissue electrical conductivity in clinico, using local, low-intensity pulsed stimulation. Methods: Using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell equations, we derived an analytical model of the electric field generated by intracerebral stereotactic-EEG (SEEG) electrodes. We coupled this electric field model with a model of the electrode-electrolyte interface to provide an explicit, analytical expression of brain tissue conductivity based on the recorded brain tissue response to pulse stimulation. Results: We validated our biophysical model using: i) saline solutions calibrated in electrical conductivity, ii) rat brain tissue, and iii) electrophysiological data recorded in clinico from two epileptic patients during SEEG. Conclusion: This new model-based method offers a fast and reliable estimation of brain tissue electrical conductivity by accounting for contributions from the electrode-electrolyte interface. Significance: This method
Ag-Sn-phthalocyanine-Ag junctions are shown to exhibit three conductance states. While the junctions are conductive at low bias, their impedance drastically increases above a critical bias. Two-level fluctuations occur at intermediate bias. These characteristics may be used to protect a nanoscale circuit. Further experiments along with calculations reveal that the self-limiting conductance of the junctions is due to reversible changes of the junction geometry ...
Heres a development that could have significant implications for electrochemistry, biochemistry, electrical engineering and many other fields: a Nature Materials paper is about computer simulations which find that the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical field in a universal way. Electrical conductivit
Electrical conductivity is used to estimate the soluble salt concentration in soil, and is commonly used as a measure of salinity. Soil with EC below 400 µS/cm are considered marginally or non-saline, while soils above 800 µS/cm are considered severely saline.. ...
Temperature and melt anomalies of hotspot inferred from electrical conductivityTemperature and melt anomalies of hotspot inferred from electrical conductivity ...
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P.628 left column 2nd paragraph: The single-channel conductance values with and without ATP (determined from the slopes of the lines in Fig. 2b,c) are 3.04 and 5.24 nS, respectively. Thus, ATP reduced the conductance by 42%, results in excellent agreement with the experimental drop of 43% observed in single-channel currents under saturating ATP [primary source ...
Starter 300C Conductivity Portable Convenient Portable Conductivity Meter for Wherever Your Work Takes You ST300C-B Measurement Range 00.0 μS/cm - 199.9 mS/cm;0.1 mg/L - 199.9 g/L (TDS);0 - 100 &
Spi-Ceramic coatings are highly adherent nanocrystalline thin films deposited using N2 Biomedicals low temperature ion beam assisted deposition process. Al
Exposure of ZnPc films to different doses of electron beam (10 MeV) leads to a linear rise in the electrical conductance due to enhancement in content of ...
The researchers discovered that doping this MOF with iodine changes its conductivity and magnetism. Pristine NiTAA-MOF conducts poorly. It is actually an insulator with an electrical conductivity smaller than 10-10 Siemens per centimeter.. However, when it is chemically oxidized by iodine, the same measurement rises to 0.01 Siemens per centimeter (the larger this number, the better the conductor). This result shows the vital role of ligand oxidation in the electrical conductivity of some 2D MOFs, expanding the understanding of the origin of electrical conductivity in this type of MOFs.. In addition, the team checked how this material becomes magnetized in an applied magnetic field. Magnetization measurements performed by the researchers of the School of Materials Science showed that iodine-doped NiTAA-MOF is paramagnetic, that is it is weakly attracted by an external magnetic field, and becomes antiferromagnetic at very low temperatures. This means that it could become useful as a polarizing ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Electrical Conductivity at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Electrical Conductivity easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
MEP home page for methods and instrumentation for modern titration, ion chromatography, pH and conductivity measurement, NIR and Raman ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In situ measurements of the electrical conductivity of bismuth molybdate catalysts in operation for oxidative dehydrogenation of butene. AU - van Oeffelen, D.A.G.. AU - Hooff, van, J.H.C.. AU - Schuit, G.C.A.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - In situ measurement of electrical conductivities were performed on MoO3, Bi2Mo2O9, and Bi2MoO6 (koechlinite), the latter either as such or doped with small amounts of Mo or Bi; the reaction applied was the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene. The reaction was performed in continuous flow or by pulsing butene over the catalyst, often followed by the addition of O2 pulses. The catalysts were characterized by surface area, XRD, and XPS. The latter measurements showed that surface Bi/Mo ratios were often different from those in the bulk; reduction by butene at temperatures around 673 K sometimes led to considerable changes in the surface Bi/Mo ratio that ran parallel with changes in activity. Pulsing butene in a He carrier stream over the ...
A new technique for measuring the electrical conductivity of small samples and its application to the organic conductor tetrathiafulvalenetetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is reported. A movable current sour(:e provided by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope is used to map out the potential distribution on crystal faces containing the a-b crystallographic axes. Silver paint contacts are used to return the beam current to ground and measure voltage changes as the beam position is moved. The results of the new technique are confirmed and complemented by the conventional movable contact method and the extension of both methods to low temperature is discussed. The potential distributions for our samples reveal frequently occurring irregularities in current flow which are attributable to sample imperfections and inhomogeneities in the silver paint contacts. Methods are presented whereby the commonly reported conductivities 0a and 0b can be determined despite the presence of certain ...
Introduction. Investigate the electrical conductivity of salt solutions Aim To determine whether the concentration of sodium chloride in solutions affects the electrical conductivity of the solution Background Electrical conductivity is the ability to carry out the flow of an electric current. In solutions, this depends almost entirely on the solute present. Ions are capable of carrying an electrical current. When sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved into water, Na+ and Cl- ions are formed, which are able to conduct electricity. Electrical conductivity is measured in microSiemens per centimetre (�S/cm) ...read more. Middle. Controlling Variables Table 3,Variables and Method of control Type Variable Method of control Why is it to be controlled Controlled Volume of sodium chloride solution Measured using a 100mL cylinder (+0.5mL) All errors in measurement will be consistent The temperature under which the reaction occurs All reactions will be conducted under the same lab conditions Errors ...
Instantaneous current-voltage relations for α1G channels. (A) Sample current records, with 5 kHz Gaussian filtering, from cell e8612. The initial step to +60
Missing data or blank values are caused by maintenance time periods or where sensor measurements are obviously wrong in the context of what would be expected. For example, the conductivity sensor has a relatively small opening and chamber for the conductivity electrodes, the estuary can have varying suspended sediment/detrital loads moving in the water column which enter the conductivity cell shorting out the electrodes making a faulty conductivity measurement (lower than expected). Oxygen measurements are dependent upon the conductivity measurements so the oxygen also becomes erroneous. Obvious measurements/data errors have been removed from the data set however the user of this data should also conduct their own data analysis to determine if the data are suitable for their particular situation ...
Missing data or blank values are caused by maintenance time periods or where sensor measurements are obviously wrong in the context of what would be expected. For example, the conductivity sensor has a relatively small opening and chamber for the conductivity electrodes, the estuary can have varying suspended sediment/detrital loads moving in the water column which enter the conductivity cell shorting out the electrodes making a faulty conductivity measurement (lower than expected). Oxygen measurements are dependent upon the conductivity measurements so the oxygen also becomes erroneous. Obvious measurements/data errors have been removed from the data set however the user of this data should also conduct their own data analysis to determine if the data are suitable for their particular situation ...
Poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) was chemically synthesized via oxidative polymerization using benzene and doped with FeCl3. The electrical conductivity response of the doped PPP (dPPP) towards CO, H2 and NH3 is investigated. dPPP shows no electrical conductivity response towards the first two gases (CO and H2), but it shows a definite negative response towards NH3. The electrical conductivity sensitivity of dPPP increases linearly with increasing NH3 concentration. To improve the sensitivity of the sensor towards NH3, ZSM-5 zeolite is added into the conductive polymer matrix. The electrical sensitivity of the sensor increases with increasing zeolite content up to 30%. The effect of the type of cation in the zeolite pores is investigated: namely, Na+, K+, NH4+ and H+. The electrical conductivity sensitivity of the composites with different cations in the zeolite can be arranged in this order: K+ | no zeolite | Na+ | NH4+ | H+. The variation in electrical sensitivity with cation type can be described in terms of
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article{FUBGEOPHYBrasse2006, author = {Brasse, H. and Team, EMTESZ-Pomerania}, title = {Probing Electrical Conductivity of the Trans-European Suture Zone}, journal = {EOS}, year = {2006}, volume = {87}, number = {29 ...
NEURON PROGRAM FOR SIMULATING PYRAMIDAL NEURON CONDUCTANCES STATE AND STDP Delgado JY, Gómez González JF, Desai NS. Pyramidal neuron conductance state gates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 24;30 (47):15713-25. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3068-10.2010 Folders: ..\morphology\ : contains the morphology of the model cell ..\mechanism\ : contains mechanisms of the model cell ..\experiment\ : contains experiments and data of simulations Instructions: 0- Auto-launch from ModelDB and skip to step 3 or: 1- Copy all the folders into your computer. 2- To Compile the mechanisms, you have to execute clean-compile.bat file in folder ..\mechanism\mechanism_cell1\ (for mswin). For linux/unix compile the mod files with nrnivmodl. 3- Simulations: a) Execute run.hoc from ..\experiment\ folder. b) Fit the morphology variable (diameter and length of dendrites and soma, position and morphology of the spine) and parameters of the mechanisms, etc, if it was necessary. c) There are two ...
After the complete neutralization of the acid, further addition of NaoH causes increase in the conductance value due to fast moving OH- ions. The point of intersection of these lines gives the end point of the titration. Type III Titration of strong acid Vs weak base: Hcl is taken in the conductivity cell and NH4OHis taken in the burette. At the beginning of the titration the conductance of the solution will be very high since it is a strong electrolyte , source: Excited States: Rotational Effects on the Behavior of Excited Molecules Excited States: Rotational Effects on. Therefore specific conductance decreases. Equivalent conductance depends upon the total number of ions present in the solution. Hence equivalent conductance increases on dilution. (E.g.) Hcl, NaoH, Nacl, Kcl etc. The electrolyte which undergo poor dissociation on dilution is called weak electrolyte. 2) At normal concentrations equivalent conductance is high Outlines of Physical Chemistry read online Outlines of Physical ...
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Study Chalter 12 Specific Resistance To Infection flashcards from Cherilynn Yap's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
In some materials, such as metals, outermost electrons are free to move while in other materials, such as rubber, these electrons are not free to move. The relative mobility of electrons to move within a material is defined as electric conductivity. Hence, materials with high electron mobility are conductors. On the other hand, materials with low electron mobility are called insulators.. ...
S. Kuyucak and S. H. Chung. Temperature dependence of conductivity in electrolyte solutions and ionic channels of biological membrane. Biophysical Chemistry 52, 15-24, 1994.. P. W. Gage and S. H. Chung. Influence of membrane potential on conductance sublevels of chloride channels activated by GABA. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B225, 167-172, 1994.. D. A. Saint, M. K. Pugsley and S. H. Chung. An analysis of cardiac sodium channel properties using digital signal processing techniques. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1196, 131-138, 1994.. L. J. Reece, S. S. Dhanjal and S. H. Chung. Zinc induces hyper-excitability in the hippocampus. Neuroreport 5, 2669-2672, 1994.. G. W. Pulford, R. A. Kennedy and S. H. Chung. Identification of individual kinetics from recordings containing many identical channels. Signal Processing 43 (No. 2), 207-221, 1995 ...
Conductivity / TDS / Resistivity / Salinity Series Vagadziri, Fekitori, Vatengesi Kubva kuChina, Tinogamuchirwa kutishanyira chero nguva yehukama hwebhizinesi hwakagadzwa.
The first study to inject synaptic noise in cortical neurons using dynamic-clamp and artificially recreate high-conductance states was proposed about 6 years ago (Destexhe et al., 2001), and was followed by a number of studies which investigated different aspects of high-conductance states using this technique (Chance et al., 2002; Prescott and Dekoninck, 2003; Fellous et al., 2003; Shu et al., 2003; Wolfart et al., 2005). To this end, one needs first to generate an appropriate model of stochastic synaptic activity because thousands of synapses releasing randomly cannot be simulated in real time. A stochastic point-conductance model was proposed (Destexhe et al., 2001), which consists in two fluctuating synaptic conductances described by one-variable stochastic processes (Fig. 6A; red and blue traces). These processes are adjusted to match the total conductance seen at the soma during background activity. These conductances are then injected in dynamic-clamp (Fig. 6A) in order to reproduce the ...
Apart from the need for high ionic conductivities a competitive price is also an important requirement. To this end, our group came up with the idea to substitute Ge by Sn in the famous solid electrolyte Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS). In fact Li10SnP2S12 (LSnPS) assumes the same crystal structure with only minor differences in the occupation of the different Li+ positions. The resulting conductivity of LSnPS (7 mS/cm) is only slightly lower than for LGPS (14 mS/cm) but the replacement of Ge by Sn should reduce the raw material cost by a factor of roughly 3. This led to an even higher interest in this material class and a lot of research is still focused on LSnPS proving it to be still highly topical.. In addition to our research efforts in the field of Li+ electrolytes we are - in cooperation with the research group of Prof. Dr. Stefanie Dehnen - also investigating chalcogenide-based Na+ electrolytes. Even though a lot of the knowledge about Li+ conductors can be transferred to its bigger chemical ...
Rule W. On the Variation of the Electromotive Force in a Photoactive Cell, Containing a Fluorescent Electrolyte, with the Intensity of ...
Shahil Shah, ParthaSarathi Sensarma, Three Degree of Freedom Robust Voltage Controller for Instantaneous Current Sharing Among Voltage Source Inverters in Parallel in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics , December 2010, Vol 25, Number 12, pp 3003-3014. ...
Only in the case of an infinite cylinder. In general, the steady-state space constant (sometimes called length constant) lambda is defined as lambda = sqrt((r*R_m)/(2*R_i)), where r is the radius of the cylinder, R_m is the specific membrane resistance, and R_i is the specific intracellular (axial) resistivity (p. 64). In a cable with sealed ends, steady-state voltage will have decayed to values that are greater than 1/e at lambda (i.e. less attenuation), while it will have decayed to values that are smaller than 1/e in a cable with open ends (Fig. 4.15, p. 79 ...
Balego & Associates Inc. - BalegoOnline.org Chattanooga Ionto™ Dual Channel Drug Delivery Phoresor Device [199518-001] - Chattanooga Ionto™ device delivers reliability. The Chattanooga Ionto device delivers constant current no matter what level of resistance is encountered. By varying the voltage output as resistance changes the device consistently delivers the programmed dose. Current can be set in 0.1 mA increments between 0.5 mA and 4 mA. It also has a pause feature
Materials are important to mankind because of the benefits that can be derived from the manipulation of their properties, for example electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, magnetization, optical transmittance, strength and toughness. Materials science is a broad field and can be considered to be an interdisciplinary area. Included within it are the studies of the structure and properties of any material, the creation of new types of materials, and the manipulation of a materials properties to suit the needs of a specific application.... ...
110 Copper Sheet (ETP copper) has a wide range of uses, particularly where electrical conductivity is required. We can cut to any size to suit your application's needs.
Data: Technical design, whether of laboratory instruments or for industry and commerce, depends on knowledge of the properties of materials (density, strength, electrical conductivity, etc.), some of which can only be found by very elaborate experiments (e.g., those dealing with the masses and excited states…
Recently, the question has often been raised as to when the effects of imperfect conductivity must be taken into account when studying the echo area of a wire scatterer such as the dipole. This paper clearly shows the conditions under which the echo area is sensitive to the conductivity. Curves for imperfectly conducting resonant dipoles are presented that show the dependence of the maximum echo area upon conductivity, frequency and dipole diameter. The maximum echo area is defined to be the peak echo area at first resonance. The maximum echo area is related to the penetration of the electric field into the dipole. This makes it possible to obtain a universal curve that may be used to determine the maximum echo area of a specified dipole without actual computation of its resonance curve.
At first sight, with superficial reasoning, the rectification, or correction, of a given birth time seems appropriate and necessary: We certainly do need an exact and reliable basis for any astrological interpretation. However, none of the diverse methods of rectification provides the desired safety or assurance.
At first sight, with superficial reasoning, the rectification, or correction, of a given birth time seems appropriate and necessary: We certainly do need an exact and reliable basis for any astrological interpretation. However, none of the diverse methods of rectification provides the desired safety or assurance.
Kohlrausch Law | An introduction to Kohlrausch Law, Kohlrausch Law definition and its Applications | To learn more visit us at BYJUS.
Variables: dissolved_organic_carbon electric_conductivity Substances: 5-Fluoro Cytosine (XRECTZIEBJDKEO-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazin (VHFVKMTVMIZMIK-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Filter Results ...
Variables: dissolved_oygen electric_conductivity concentration Substances: 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (KKIMDKMETPPURN-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazin (VHFVKMTVMIZMIK-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Filter Results ...
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Lanthanum silicate oxyapatite (La9.33+xSi6O26+1.5x) is known to exhibit higher oxygen ionic conductivity than yttria-stabilized zirconia at temperatures below 700oC, making this material attractive for its potential use in intermediate-temperature fuel cells operated at 500~700 oC. Mineshige et. al. reported that the lanthanum content in oxyapatite phase is strongly related to its electrical conductivity, with the highest conductivity obtained when x=0.67 (La10Si6O27) [1]. It was further reported that La2SiO5 existed in addition to the oxyapatite phase even in the as-sintered sample. Another important aspect that can influence electrical conductivity is the phase stability of lanthanum apatite, which remains unclear. In this study, electrical conductivity measurements of lanthanum silicate apatite were conducted for over 100h and its phase stability was evaluated. Lanthanum silicate apatite with nominal composition of La10Si6O27 was made by conventional solid state reaction. The pellet was ...
Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Zr-ZrO2 Simulated Inert Matrix Nuclear Fuel Pellet. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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The open-channel conductance properties of a voltage-gated channel from sarcoplasmic reticulum were studied in planar phospholipid membranes. The channel is ideally selective for K+ over Cl- and for K+ over Ca++. In symmetrical 1 M solutions, the single-channel conductance (in pmho) falls in the order: K+ (214) , NH4+ (157) , Rb+ (125) , Na+ (72) , La+ (8.1) , Cs+ (, 3). In neutral bilayers, the channel conductance saturates with ion activity according to a rectangular hyperbolic relation, with half-saturation activities of 54 mM for K+ and 34 mM for Na+. Under symmetrical salt conditions, the K+:Na+ channel conductance ratio increases with salt activity, but the permeability ratio, measured by single-channel bi-ionic potentials, is constant between 20 mM and 2.5 M salt; the permeability ratio is equal to the conductance ratio in the limit of low-salt concentration. The channel conductance varies , 5% in the voltage range -100 to +70 mV. The maximum conductance varies K+ and Na+ is only weakly ...
Spontaneously opening, chloride-selective channels that showed outward rectification were recorded in ripped-off patches from rat cultured hippocampal neurons and in cell-attached patches from rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices. In both preparations, channels had multiple conductance states and the most common single-channel conductance varied. In the outside-out patches it ranged from 12 to 70 pS (Vp=40 mV) whereas in the cell-attached patches it ranged from 56 to 85 pS (-Vp=80 mV). Application of GABA to a patch showing spontaneous channel activity evoked a rapid, synchronous activation of channels. During prolonged exposure to either 5 or 100 microM GABA, the open probability of channels decreased. Application of GABA appeared to have no immediate effect on single-channel conductance. Exposure of the patches to 100 microM bicuculline caused a gradual decrease on the single-channel conductance of the spontaneous channels. The time for complete inhibition to take place was slower ...
Electrical conductivity measurements and photoluminescence (PL) were used to study the effects that sample distance from the plasma during growth has on the carrier transport properties of undoped CVD diamond. The films were grown by downstream microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition at distances from 0.5 to 2.0 cm from the edge of plasma glow. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed between room temperature and 1000° C and then complimented with Raman spectroscopy and PL studies in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the CVD growth process and the resulting electrical and optical properties of the diamond films. Room temperature electrical conductivity was found to vary by over 5 orders of magnitude with increasing growth distance from the plasma, while only moderate changes were observed in the luminescence spectra. Keywords: ...
0079] Aspects of the present specification can also be described as follows: [0080] 1. A method of collecting an elution from a column, the method comprising the steps of: a) applying a sample comprising a protein to a cation exchange chromatography column, wherein the application causes the protein to be retained by the column; b) applying a mobile phase to the cation exchange chromatography column, the mobile phase comprising a buffered solution, wherein application of the mobile phase establishes a conductivity gradient of from about 8 mS/cm to about 90 mS/cm; c) starting an eluate collection when an inlet conductivity value measured for the mobile phase entering the cation exchange chromatography column is from about 25.0 mS/cm to about 27.0 mS/cm; and d) stopping the eluate collection when the inlet conductivity value measured for the mobile phase entering the cation exchange chromatography column is from about 41.0 mS/cm to about 43.0 mS/cm; wherein the eluate collection comprises at least ...
The dynamic properties of a series of iron-bearing sodium borosilicate melts have been investigated to determine how structure and composition control viscosity, electrical conductivity and the kinetics of iron redox reactions and, thus, atomic mobility as involved in these different processes. For this purpose, four compositions with 67 mol% SiO2 and B2O3 contents ranging from 0 to 22 mol% have been studied. In addition to viscosity and electrical conductivity, we have determined the kinetics of the iron redox reaction by isothermal iron K-edge XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed as a function of time from 710 to 1570 K. Substitution of sodium for boron at constant SiO2 content first causes transformation of BO3 triangles into BO4 tetrahedra until an excess of sodium induces instead melt depolymerization. These changes in the degree of polymerization and boron coordination lead to a maximum in oxygen diffusivity at around 18 mol% B2O3, and correlatively, to a viscosity minimum. ...
View Notes - Electrical Conduction Notes from MSE 2001 at Georgia Tech. Chapter 10 Notes Electrical Properties 1. Electrical Conduction a. Types of Charge Carriers i. Electrons ii. Holes (missing
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vapor pressure and specific electrical conductivity in the solid and molten H2O-CsH2PO4-CsPO3 system-a novel electrolyte for water electrolysis at ~ 225-400 °C. AU - Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich. AU - Berg, Rolf W.. AU - Bjerrum, Niels J.. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Cesium dihydrogen phosphate, CsH2PO4 (CDP) was studied for water electrolysis at ~ 225-400 °C. In the presence of sufficient humidity, CDP is structurally disordered and super-protonic conducting with conductivities reaching 0.2-0.25 S cm−1, when determined in suitable H-shaped sealed conductivity cells. Freshly prepared 99.7 ± 0.3% gravimetric pure CDP with correct X-ray diffraction and DSC diagram melted at ~ 345 °C. The vapor pressures, above CDP alone and mixed with 20-50 mol% CsPO3 or 13 mol% H2O, were determined in sealed ampoules up to 355 °C by means of Raman spectroscopy based on internal reference gases. Pressures up to ~ 49 bar were estimated, much higher than previously expected. Conductivities ...
Inwardly rectifying K+ currents were studied in cut muscle fibres from frogs using the Vaseline-gap voltage-clamp method. Both faces of the membrane were exposed to 120 mM-K+ methylsulphate solution. At small negative potentials, -10 and -21 mV, the current noise spectrum, after subtraction of a control spectrum at the zero current potential, could be fitted by a Lorentzian spectral component, usually with an additional 1/f component, where f is the frequency. At more negative potentials the 1/f component predominated. The zero frequency amplitude of the Lorentzian averaged 2.6 X 10(-24) A2 Hz-1 at -10 mV and 4.6 X 10(-24) A2 Hz-1 at -21 mV, with a mean half-power frequency, fc, of 34 Hz and 45 Hz, respectively. The time constant of the K+ current activation upon hyperpolarization agrees with that calculated from fc, and the Lorentzian disappears upon replacement of external K+ by tetraethylammonium (TEA+) or Rb+. Thus, the Lorentzian component appears to be ascribable to fluctuations ...
The area near the inlet of Spuyten Duyvil Creek in Inwood Hill Park in New York City exhibits complex hydrological processes. The inlet is a tidal flat, which contains brackish water; a mixture of saltwater and freshwater. The area was modified by man, built on a shell bed and contains heterogeneous sediment. One field adjacent to the inlet contains several small sinkholes. Electrical resistivity and ground conductivity techniques were used in order to get an understanding of the hydrological processes of this field. It was hypothesized that the formation of the sinkholes is due to the tidal forcing of the water table. The measurements collected at the study site show evidence that tides do have an effect on the water table. The ground conductivity surveys showed variable conductivity around the sinkholes however the greatest change in conductivity occurred laterally in the field. The conductivity increased going towards a patch of vegetation located in the southeast corner of the field. Higher
Abstract:The effect of the A-site cation ordering on the chemical stability, oxygen stoichiometryand electrical conductivity in layered LaBaCo2O5`δdouble perovskite was studied as a function oftemperature and partial pressure of oxygen. Tetragonal A-site cation ordered layered LaBaCo2O5`δdouble perovskite was obtained by annealing cubic A-site cation disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3 ́δperovskite at 1100 ̋C in N2. High temperature X-ray diffraction between room temperature (RT) and800 ̋C revealed that LaBaCo2O5`δremains tetragonal during heating in oxidizing atmosphere, butgoes through two phase transitions in N2and between 450 ̋C and 675 ̋C from tetragonalP4/mmmtoorthorhombicPmmmand back toP4/mmmdue to oxygen vacancy ordering followed by disorderingof the oxygen vacancies. An anisotropic chemical and thermal expansion of LaBaCo2O5`δwasdemonstrated. La0.5Ba0.5CoO3 ́δremained cubic at the studied temperature irrespective of partialpressure of oxygen. LaBaCo2O5`δis metastable with respect to ...
View Notes - lab2-chem311-1 from CHEMICAL E 300 at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. INTRODUCTION I-Objective :- To obtain the electrical conductivity of KCl and acetic acid solutions. -
Free Online Library: Development of an equation to relate electrical conductivity to soil and water salinity in a Mediterranean agricultural environment. by Australian Journal of Soil Research; Agricultural industry Earth sciences Soils
Schulz, Horst D; von Dobeneck, Tilo (2004): Electrical conductivity, porosity and density of sediment core GeoB8520-1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.140428
جودة عالية Solvent-based conductive agent promoter that can decrease the electrical conductivity of solvent, suitable for electrostatic coating Defom EA-87 من الصين وكيل موصل مصنعين - وكيل موصل الجملة مباشرة من الصين وكيل موصل المورد
Birnessite-type MnO2 (delta-MnO2) nano-sheets were successfully synthesized by an interfacial synthesis method in this work. The properties and electrochemical performance of the as-prepared delta-MnO2 were analyzed and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption measurement and electrochemical tests. This facile synthesis method enables delta-MnO2 nano-sheets to show a large specific surface area (257.5 m(2) g(-1)). The electrochemical test results show that the specific capacitance is 272 F g(-1) and the specific capacitance retention is over 96.7% after 1000 cycles at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1). All results demonstrate that delta-MnO2 has a great potential application in high-performance electrochemical capacitors, and this interfacial synthesis method will be a very promising method to synthesize highly active MnO2 materials in a large scale. Copyright (C) 2015, The editorial office of Journal of Materials Science & Technology. Published by ...
The measurement of conductivities of relatively concentrated electrolyte solutions using an annular glass cell, without contacting or dipping electrodes, is described. An electrolyte solution in the cell serves as a conductor linking the voltage and current transformers of a transformer ratio-arm bridge operating at audio-frequencies which is also described. The use of the transformer bridge for such measurements is discussed from a theoretical standpoint. Conductivity measurements were carried out on a series of aqueous solutions of uni-univalent salts and acids, bi-bi-, bi-uni-, uni-ter-, uni-tetra- and bi-tetravalent salts, and these are reported in terms of A and Vc. Where accurate data obtained using conventional apparatus are available agreement is good. Viscosity-corrected A, \/c curves obtained for uni-univalent electrolytes indicate, by their general similarity of shape, that the use of the approximate viscosity correction for conductivity, Anno, is justified. A method for the ...
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Measuring the electrical conductivity through a specific strand of DNA is of great interest to the nano-science and engineering community. This work focuses on the electrical conduction through 15 base-pair, double helix oligo-nucleotides with various sequences. The current-voltage characteristics of the double strands are measured in a metal(Au)/ds-DNA/metal(Au) structure fabricated by immobilizing the dithiol derivatized double-stranded DNA oligionuleotide sequences in nanoscale gaps between pairs of gold (Au) electrodes, achieved through an electromigration-induced break-junction (EIBJ) technique performed at room temperature.
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Principles_of_Electrical_Measurements.html?id=zvnPAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-sharePrinciples of Electrical Measurements ...
The 8221 hygienic conductivity probes are used to determine electrical conductivity in a wide range of pure or concentrated liquids. Due to their hygienic design and the robust layout, these conductivity probes are suitable for use under demanding conditions in application sectors including food & beverage, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and the general chemical industry. Two technologies of conductivity probes are available: • probes based on the 2-electrode principle are suited for measurements in liquids, especially (ultra) pure water. Contaminations affect the measurements. • probes based on the 4-electrode principle exclude polarization phenomena and are not sensitive to contamination. The clever design guarantees an excellent linearity over the entire measurement range. An integrated temperature sensor (Pt1000) is a standard feature of all versions. The probe has to be connected to the multiCELL transmitter/controller Type 8619.
A semiconductor component includes adjustment circuitry configured to adjust selected physical and electrical characteristics of the component or elements thereof, and an input/output configuration of the component. The component includes a semiconductor die, a substrate attached to the die, and terminal contacts on the substrate. The adjustment circuitry includes conductors and programmable links, such as fuses or anti-fuses, in electrical communication with the die and the terminal contacts. The adjustment circuit can also include capacitors and inductance conductors. The programmable links can be placed in a selected state (e.g., short or open) using a laser or programming signals. A method for fabricating the component includes the steps of forming the adjustment circuitry, and then placing the programmable links in the selected state to achieve the selected adjustment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural phase transition between γ-Ti3O5 and δ-Ti3O5 by breaking of a one-dimensionally conducting pathway. AU - Tanaka, Kenji. AU - Nasu, Tomomichi. AU - Miyamoto, Yasuto. AU - Ozaki, Noriaki. AU - Tanaka, Shu. AU - Nagata, Toshiaki. AU - Hakoe, Fumiyoshi. AU - Yoshikiyo, Marie. AU - Nakagawa, Kosuke. AU - Umeta, Yoshikazu. AU - Imoto, Kenta. AU - Tokoro, Hiroko. AU - Namai, Asuka. AU - Ohkoshi, Shin Ichi. PY - 2015/2/4. Y1 - 2015/2/4. N2 - The phase transition between gamma-trititanium-pentoxide (γ-Ti3O5) and delta-trititanium-pentoxide (δ-Ti3O5) was clarified from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. With decreasing temperature, the monoclinic I2/c crystal structure of γ-Ti3O5 was found to switch to a monoclinic P2/a crystal structure of δ-Ti3O5 due to lowering of symmetry. Electrical conductivity (σ) measurement shows that γ-Ti3O5 behaves like a metallic conductor with a σ value of 4.7 S cm-1 at 320 K, while δ-Ti3O5 shows a semiconductive property with a ...
Smith, J.R., 1985: The electrical properties of plant cell membranes iii. the effects of insulated regions upon the cable properties and measured membrane conductance of charophytes
I arrived in Armidale in 1961 to start my graduate work with you. At that time, there were a number of visitors and they were exciting times. Do you have any memories of those visitors?. One of the first was John Agar who had been my supervisor in Cambridge. He was very interested in something Id recently discovered. I hadnt discovered it, but I had discovered one of its unexpected effects. That was that the Soret effect of thermal diffusion, in which John was very interested. It could be responsible for quite significant errors in conductance measurements, unless you knew about it. There was a paper on the Soret effect which I think has affected some peoples way of doing conductance measurements.. We got ideas from a lot of people. Loren Hepler, I remember particularly. Jean, Loren and I set up a system for measuring changes of volume on mixing dilute electrolytes with water. This sounds like a fairly boring thing to do but, in fact, its got a lot of theoretical interest. One needs to work ...
Since the pioneering discoveries of Hodgkin, Huxley, and Katz, it has been clear that specific ion conductance pathways underlie electrical act- ity. Over the ensuing 50 years, there has been ever increasing, and occasi- ally explosive, changes in the scope of efforts to understand ion channel
Kytin, V.G; Kulbachinskii, V.A; Reukova, O.V; Galperin, Yuri; Johansen, Tom Henning; Diplas, Spyridon & Ulyashin, Alexander (2014). Conducting properties of In2O3:Sn thin films at low temperatures. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing. ISSN 0947-8396. 114(3), s 957- 964 . doi: 10.1007/s00339-013-7799-8 Vis sammendrag Electrical conductivity, Hall effect and magnetoresistance of In2O3:Sn thin films deposited on a glass substrates at different temperatures and oxygen pressures, have been investigated in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The observed temperature dependences of resistivity for films deposited at 230 °C as well as at nominally room temperatures were typical for metallic transport of electrons except temperature dependence of resistivity of the In2O3:Sn film deposited in the oxygen deficient atmosphere. The electrical measurements were accompanied by AFM and SEM studies of structural properties, as well as by XPS analysis. It is established that changes of morphology and ...
Contact ePrints Soton: [email protected] ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2. This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.. ...
Amorphous oxide thin films with tailored functionality will be crucial for the next generation of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). Due to potentially favorable electronic and catalytic properties, amorphous bismuth ruthenate thin films might be applied in this regard. We report on the deposition of a
A mixture of proppant particles and conductivity enhancing structures is disclosed. The spherically shaped proppant particles have convex surfaces. The conductivity enhancing structures include concave surfaces. The proppant particles convex surfaces abut the conductivity enhancing structures concave surfaces.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A reference-free clustering method for the analysis of molecular break-junction measurements. AU - Cabosart, Damien. AU - El Abbassi, Maria. AU - Stefani, Davide. AU - Frisenda, Riccardo. AU - Calame, Michel. AU - Van der Zant, Herre S.J.. AU - Perrin, Mickael L.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Single-molecule break-junction measurements are intrinsically stochastic in nature, requiring the acquisition of large datasets of breaking traces to gain insight into the generic electronic properties of the molecule under study. For example, the most probable conductance value of the molecule is often extracted from the conductance histogram built from these traces. In this letter, we present an unsupervised and reference-free machine learning tool to improve the determination of the conductance of oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol from mechanically controlled break-junction (MCBJ) measurements. Our method allows for the classification of individual breaking traces based on an image ...
Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a multi-instrument work cell 10 adapted to analyze and / or otherwise process a whole blood sample provided to the multi-instrument work cell 10. Yes. Each of these specimens is contained by a test tube or container C that is supported by the specimen-container rack R (shown in FIG. 10) with additional containers in a generally upright orientation and linear array. ing. In the work cell shown in FIG. 1, four separate clinical instruments 12. 14, 16, 18 operate under the control of a common microprocessor-based system controller 20. Device 12 and device 14 may be based on, for example, whole blood based on DC volume measurements, RF conductivity measurements, and / or light scatter measurements performed on each cell as the whole blood sample passes through the detection aperture of a conventional flow cell. It may be a hematology instrument that serves to identify and count the constituent blood cells of the specimen in a ...
Nanowerks Michael Berger is reporting about the efforts by a group of scientists under Dr. Wonbong Choi at Nanomaterials & Device Laboratory in the
To investigate acquired resistance to oxaliplatin, we selected two resistant clones from the HCT116 cell line. We found that the resistant phenotype was associated with resistance to oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by FACS analysis and by Western blotting of caspase 3 activation. In ad …
Solar cell in which only part of the cell is affected by series resistance.. With only part of the cell affected by Rs a variety of curves are produced. In the simulation below try setting the fraction to 1 (i.e. the simple case where Rs affects the whole cell) and adjusting the internal Rs. It sill follow the simple one dimensional case. The try setting the fraction to 0.5, it produces a rounding around the maximum power point similar to a high J02. In the final case try setting the fraction of the cell affected by Rs to 0.1. In this case the IV curve looks very similar to a cell with a low Rshunt.. ...
Application Data Sheet ADS October 2010 Theory CALIBRATING TOROIDAL CONDUCTIVITY SENSORS BACKGROUND A toroidal conductivity sensor consists of two wire wound toroids encased in a plastic body. When
First, what is conductivity? It is the measure of how well something conducts electricity. A conductivity meter which does such a thing consists of
With the testo 750-2 voltage tester you can test electrical systems and equipment reliably and easily for voltage or de-energization thanks to the all-round LED display and unique fibre-optic technology. Compared to the testo 750-1, it is also suitable for single pole voltage testing to determine quickly whether conductors are live.
Warning: CIGRE could in no case be considered responsible for any consequence tied to the use of information included in this ...
The first EPG system - called feeding monitor - was introduced by McLean and Kinsey (1964) supplying an alternating current (AC) voltage source (Vs). This source was in fact the carrier wave of which the amplitude was modulated by resistance fluctuations of the insect. This fluctuating amplitude was processed in the same way as AM radio signals. The demodulated signal reflected exactly the resistance fluctuations of the insect. This first monitor has been called an AC system but as this AM signal was only sensitive to resistance fluctuations it can also be frerred to as an R-EPG system. Later, using a different system design with a DC voltage supply it appeared that the EPG signal also contains electromotive force (emf) originated components, i.e. fluctuating voltages at the mesuring point that are generated by the insect activities and active electrical components in the plant, mainly cell membrane potentials (Tjallingii, 1978, 1988). Similar to the carrier wave amplitude modulation in the ...
Hysteresis of the current-voltage relationship with intracellular iodide solution. (A, left) Traces recorded at different holding potentials in the sequence
What kind of liquid has good electrical conductivity? Im thinking of processing seawater to increase its conductivity. I dont want to use mercury...
Material confluence The confluence of novel materials and a pioneering US discovery with innovation in cryogenics could soon lead to portable and lower-cost NMR and MRI machines, thanks to work at Cambridge University. Superconductivity is an intriguing phenomenon wherein an electrical current can flow unhindered by resistance through an...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of thermoelectric properties by Se substitution in layered bismuth-chalcogenide LaOBiS2-xSex. AU - Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu. AU - Omachi, Atsushi. AU - Goto, Yosuke. AU - Kamihara, Yoichi. AU - Matoba, Masanori. AU - Hiroi, Takafumi. AU - Kajitani, Joe. AU - Miura, Osuke. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of the novel layered bismuth chalcogenides LaOBiS2-xSex. The partial substitution of S by Se produced the enhancement of electrical conductivity (metallic characteristics) in LaOBiS2-xSex. The power factor largely increased with increasing Se concentration. The highest power factor was 4.5 μW/cmK2 at around 470 °C for LaOBiS1.2Se0.8. The obtained dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT) was 0.17 at around 470 °C in LaOBiS1.2Se0.8.. AB - We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of the novel layered bismuth chalcogenides LaOBiS2-xSex. The partial substitution of S by Se produced the enhancement of electrical ...
A review of Carbon Nanotubes properties and applications based on their unique properties of aspect ratio, strength, thermal and electrical conductivity.
A sensor is provided including a polymer capable of having an alterable measurable property from the group of luminescence and electrical conductivity, the polymer having an intermediate combination of a recognition element, a tethering element and a property-altering element bound thereto and capable of altering the measurable property, the intermediate combination adapted for subsequent separation from the polymer upon exposure to an agent having an affinity for binding to the recognition element whereupon the separation of the intermediate combination from the polymer results in a detectable change in the alterable measurable property, and, detecting said detectable change in the alterable measurable property.
Students will test and observations six compounds and determine whether they are molecular or ionic. They will test general appearance, melting point and the electrical conductivity of water solutions. Main Curriculum Tie: ...
Conductivity is defined similarly:[7] [. J. x. J. y. J. z. ]. =. [. σ. x. x. σ. x. y. σ. x. z. σ. y. x. σ. y. y. σ. y. z. σ. z ... Comparison of the electrical conductivity of various elements in WolframAlpha. *. Partial and total conductivity. "Electrical ... This article is about electrical conductivity in general. For other types of conductivity, see Conductivity. For specific ... The specific electrical conductivity of the solution is equal to σ. =. q. (. b. +. +. b. −. ). α. N. {\displaystyle \sigma =q\ ...
Electrical conductivity. Other specialized applications also exist or are being developed, including use as semiconductors: ... This conductivity is associated with hydrogen-related species adsorbed at the surface, and it can be removed by annealing or ... Most notable are its extreme hardness and thermal conductivity (900-{{val,2320,u=watts per centimeter per kelvin ),[8] as well ... The high thermal conductivity of diamond makes it suitable as a heat sink for integrated circuits in electronics.[106] ...
Electrical conductivity. Other specialized applications also exist or are being developed, including use as semiconductors: ... Diamonds can be identified by their high thermal conductivity (900-2320 W·m−1·K−1).[56] Their high refractive index is also ... This conductivity is associated with hydrogen-related species adsorbed at the surface, and it can be removed by annealing or ... The high thermal conductivity of diamond makes it suitable as a heat sink for integrated circuits in electronics.[120] ...
Electrical conductivity and electrolysis. Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, which increases with the dissolution of ... Along with the bent structure, this gives the molecule an electrical dipole moment and it is classified as a polar molecule.[49 ... Liquid water can be split into the elements hydrogen and oxygen by passing an electric current through it-a process called ... and thermal conductivity (between 0.561 and 0.679 W/m/K). These properties make water more effective at moderating Earth's ...
Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP)[edit]. The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) with four metal ... thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, dielectric permittivity, wind speed, and atmospheric temperature. ... They also measured electrical and thermal conductivity of soil particles using a probe on the robotic arm scoop.[47] ... The MECA contains a Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP).[47] The TECP, designed by Decagon Devices,[47] has four ...
Electrical conductivity Very low: Air is an excellent insulator until it breaks down into plasma at electric field strengths ... While electric fields in plasmas are usually small due to the high conductivity, the electric field associated with a plasma ... The good electrical conductivity of plasmas makes their electric fields very small. This results in the important concept of " ... The electric field in a plasma double layer is so effective at accelerating ions that electric fields are used in ion drives. ...
electrical conductivity 2500 μS cm-1 at 20 °C See also[edit]. *Water pollution ...
Electrical Conductivity. *thermal resistance. Application[edit]. The most common uses for stainless steel fibers is in the ... field of the electrical and textiles industry such as anti-radiation cloth, thermal resistant fabric, and anti-static brushes. ...
A nonmetal is typically brittle when solid and usually has poor thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Chemically, ... Electrical conductivity moderate poor to moderate poor Volatility low: B, Si, Ge, Sb, Te. moderate: As, At? low: C. moderate: P ... Sulfur is an insulator with a band gap of 2.6 eV, and a photoconductor meaning its electrical conductivity increases a million- ... It is a semiconductor with a band gap of 1.7 eV, and a photoconductor meaning its electrical conductivity increases a million- ...
Electrical propertiesEdit. Electrical conductivityEdit. Pure water containing no exogenous ions is an excellent insulator, but ... In pure water, sensitive equipment can detect a very slight electrical conductivity of 0.05501 ± 0.0001 μS/cm at 25.00 °C.[51] ... Ice was previously thought to have a small but measurable conductivity of 1×10−10 S/cm, but this conductivity is now thought to ... It is known that the theoretical maximum electrical resistivity for water is approximately 18.2 MΩ·cm (182 kΩ·m) at 25 °C.[51] ...
Electrical conductivityEdit. Pure crystalline naphthalene is a moderate insulator at room temperature, with resistivity of ... Thermal conductivity 98 kPa:. 0.1219 W/m·K (372.22 K). 0.1174 W/m·K (400.22 K). 0.1152 W/m·K (418.37 K). 0.1052 W/m·K (479.72 K ... "Thermal Conductivity of Naphthalene". DDBST GmbH. DDBST GmbH. Retrieved 2014-06-21.. ...
Electrical conductivity: 34% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 240 to 300 MPa, or 35 to 44 ksi. Thermal Conductivity: 130 W/m-K ...
Given the good electrical and thermal conductivity in metals and the poor electrical and thermal conductivity in insulators, a ... Dividing the thermal conductivity κ {\displaystyle \kappa } by the electrical conductivity σ = n e 2 τ m {\displaystyle \sigma ... to give the relation between the thermal conductivity and the electric conductivity of metals (see Lorenz number), and is a ... "Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity". In Webster, John G. (ed.). Electrical Measurement, Signal Processing, and Displays. ...
Electrical conductivity: 32% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 230 to 330 MPa, or 33 to 48 ksi. Thermal Conductivity: 130 W/m-K ...
Electrical conductivity: 29% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 310 to 350 MPa, or 45 to 51 ksi. Thermal Conductivity: 120 W/m-K ...
Electrical conductivity: 44% IACS. Young's modulus: 69 GPa, or 10 Msi. Ultimate tensile strength: 280 to 390 MPa, or 41 to 57 ...
is the electrical conductivity, ω. {\displaystyle \omega }. is the field frequency, and i. {\displaystyle i}. is the imaginary ... Dielectrophoresis occurs when a polarizable particle is suspended in a non-uniform electric field. The electric field polarizes ... Pohl, H. A. (1978). Dielectrophoresis: The Behavior of Neutral in Nonuniform Electric Fields. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... Nowadays, the electric field in DEP is created by means of electrodes which minimize the magnitude of the voltage needed. This ...
Atomic conductance is the electrical conductivity of one mole of a substance. It is equal to electrical conductivity divided by ... being translucent and having a low electrical conductivity of 10−14 to 10−16 S·cm−1. Graphite has an electrical conductivity of ... The Analysis of the Electrical Conductivity of Graphite Conductivity of Graphite Powders During Compaction', Journal of Physics ... Metalloids have electrical conductivity values of from 1.5 × 10−6 S•cm−1 for boron to 3.9 × 104 for arsenic. If selenium is ...
ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. "Electrical conductivity of the Elements". Retrieved 2019-04-17. Rubidium Conuctivity "Reactions of Group 1 ... Rubidium silver iodide (RbAg4I5) has the highest room temperature conductivity of any known ionic crystal, a property exploited ... These conduct electricity and act like an armature of a generator, thereby generating an electric current. Rubidium, ... Rubidium metal shares similarities to potassium metal and caesium metal in physical appearance, softness and conductivity. ...
More ductile, better electrical conductivity. Copper-rich alloys prone to stress cracking by ammonia. Au-Ag Gold-silver. Noble ... providing good thermal and electrical conductivity, and providing an interface for electronic connections. Square, rectangular ... Furnaces are typically heated using either electric, gas or oil depending on the type of furnace and application. However, some ... electrolytic copper or high-conductivity copper, are. The embrittled joint may then fail catastrophically without any previous ...
Electrical Conductivity (EC): Higher side; indicating higher levels of alkalinity. Dissolved oxygen (DO): Lower than the ...
Chiang, C. K. (1977-01-01). "Electrical Conductivity in Doped Polyacetylene". Physical Review Letters. 39 (17): 1098-1101. ... electrical engineering, materials science, mechanical engineering and chemistry. However, one of the ongoing challenges is in ... electrical engineering, physics, mechanical engineering, and chemistry. There is also considerable overlap with nanotechnology ... Biological engineering Biomolecular engineering Chemical engineering Chemistry Electrical engineering Materials science and ...
Heeger, Alan (1977). "Electrical Conductivity in Doped Polyacetylene". Physical Review Letters. 39 (17): 1098-1101. Bibcode: ...
... high thermal and electrical conductivity; retains strength at high temperatures. Magnesium: the easiest metal to machine; ... The thermal conductivity was represented by the reciprocal of the resistivity of the paper. The Acurad system employed a bottom ... This was done by creating an electrical analog of the thermal system. A cross-section of the dies were drawn on Teledeltos ... new project at a large, California-based OEM of electric vehicles. … 105 kgs of molten aluminum … delivered in each shot. ...
Recently, microencapsulated liquid suspensions of metal or carbon black were used to restore electrical conductivity in a ... also been suspended within silicone elastomer to create stretchable electrical conductors that maintain electrical conductivity ... "Autonomic restoration of electrical conductivity". Advanced Materials. 24 (3): 398-401. doi:10.1002/adma.201102888. PMID ... "Microencapsulated carbon black suspensions for restoration of electrical conductivity". Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 (20): 2947-56. ...
"Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Compound". 2011-05-22. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ... Because the solutes are charged ions they also increase the electrical conductivity of the solution. The increased ionic ... and their solutions have a high electrical conductivity. The solubility is highest in polar solvents (such as water) or ionic ... This conductivity gain upon dissolving or melting is sometimes used as a defining characteristic of ionic compounds. In some ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Landauer, Rolf (April 1978). "Electrical conductivity in inhomogeneous media". AIP ... Davidson, A.; Tinkham, M. (1976). "Phenomenological equations for the electrical conductivity of microscopically inhomogeneous ... 1) to a biphasic system with ellipsoidal inclusions of conductivity σ {\displaystyle \sigma } into a matrix of conductivity σ m ... and assume it is embedded in a uniform medium with an effective conductivity σ e {\displaystyle \sigma _{e}} . If the electric ...
... or no dependence at all like the electrical conductivity. The thermal conductivity and specific heat are well predicted for ... especially the Wiedemann-Franz law which relates electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity; the temperature dependence ... Directional The conductivity of some metals can depend of the orientation of the sample with respect to the electric field. ... Mainly, the free electron model and the Drude model predict the same DC electrical conductivity σ for Ohm's law, that is J = σ ...
... electrical conductivity, called AC conductivity. With sinusoidal time dependence on all quantities, i.e. H = Re [ H 0 e − i ω t ... complex electric permittivity; AC conductivity (susceptance). Note that in many of these cases there are multiple, conflicting ... Another way to incorporate attenuation is through the electric conductivity, as follows. One of the equations governing ... Generally, physicists and chemists use the convention on the left (with e−iωt), while electrical engineers use the convention ...
... films are often annealed to a glass element to improve thermal conductivity, and guarantee the necessary flat surface ... and electrical insulation. ... An electrical insulating material. *Insulation for houses and ...
The conductivity is varied by the electric field that is produced when a voltage is applied between the gate and source ... "Amplifier For Electric Currents". United States Patent and Trademark Office.. *^ "Device For Controlling Electric Current". ... It has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device. This ability to change conductivity with the ... Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved July 4, 2019.. *^ "The Breakthrough Advantage for FPGAs with Tri- ...
Thermal conductivity. 66.8 W/(m·K) Electrical resistivity. 115 n Ω·m (at 0 °C) ...
Thermal conductivity. 54.0 W/(m·K) Electrical resistivity. 147 n Ω·m (at 0 °C) ...
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 0.280 µΩ·m Thermal conductivity 27.5 W·m−1·K−1 ...
"The filled d subshell and free s electron of Cu, Ag, and Au contribute to their high electrical and thermal conductivity. ... as well as very high thermal and electrical conductivity.[10]:75 Their chemistry is dominated by the loss of their lone valence ... which has a metallic lustre and electrical conductivity indicating the presence of some metallic bonding.[10] The antimonides ... each electron feels electric repulsion from the other electrons as well as electric attraction from the nucleus.[100] In the ...
Thermal conductivity. 14.5 W/(m·K) Electrical resistivity. (r.t.) (poly) 0.860 µ Ω·m ...
The strong electric field of high intensity light (such as output of a laser) may cause a medium's refractive index to vary as ... Good dielectric materials such as glass have extremely low DC conductivity, and at low frequencies the dielectric loss is also ... Since intensity is proportional to the square of the electric field, it will depend on the depth into the material as exp(−4πκz ... That κ corresponds to attenuation can be seen by inserting this refractive index into the expression for electric field of a ...
Transition from ordinary conductivity (left) to superconductivity (right). At the transition, the superconductor expels the ... Electric and magnetic fields in matter. *Magnetic levitation. *Magnetism. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value ...
Such materials combine high hydrophobicity and chemical stability with electrical and thermal conductivity and can be used as ...
It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light water with ... There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned ... experiments-where excess heat was measured after the electric current supplied to the electrolytic cell was turned off.[115] ...
Titanium diboride is a popular material for handling molten aluminum due to its electrical conductivity, refractory properties ... Conductivity at 500 °C was found to be 0.005 Ω cm for the 40% SiC composite, versus 0.16 Ω cm in pure SiC.[69] ... "Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology. 5 (2): 342-351. doi:10.5370/jeet.2010.5.2.342.. ... Borides exhibit high thermal conductivity (on the order of 75-105 W/mK) and low coefficients of thermal expansion (5-7.8 x 10−6 ...
Thermal conductivity. 10.6 W/(m·K) Electrical resistivity. (r.t.) (α, poly) 1.310 µ Ω·m ...
electric field E. V/m. statV/cm. (cm−1/2⋅g1/2⋅s−1). E. G. E. SI. =. 4. π. ϵ. 0. =. 1. statV/cm. 2.998. ×. 10. 4. V/m. {\ ... conductivity, conductance, capacitance (. σ. G. ,. S. G. ,. C. G. ). {\displaystyle \left(\sigma ^{\text{G}},S^{\text{G}},C^{\ ... electric. displacement field D. C/m2. Fr/cm2. (cm−1/2g1/2s−1). D. G. D. SI. =. 4. π. ϵ. 0. =. 4. π. ×. 2.998. ×. 10. 5. Fr/cm. ... electric current I. A. Fr/s (cm3/2⋅g1/2⋅s−2). I. G. I. SI. =. 1. 4. π. ϵ. 0. =. 2.998. ×. 10. 9. Fr/s. 1. A. {\displaystyle {\ ...
... and they increase the conductivity of the fuel. Increased electrical conductivity promotes electric, galvanic, and ordinary ...
In 1864, the English chemist John Newlands classified the sixty-two known elements into eight groups, based on their physical properties.[14][15][16][11] Newlands noted that many pairs of similar elements existed, which differed by some multiple of eight in mass number, and was the first to assign them an atomic number.[1] When his 'law of octaves' was printed in Chemistry News, likening this periodicity of eights to the musical scale, it was ridiculed by some of his contemporaries. His lecture to the Chemistry Society on 1 March 1866 was not published, the Society defending their decision by saying that such 'theoretical' topics might be controversial.[17] The importance of Newlands' analysis was eventually recognised by the Chemistry Society with a Gold Medal five years after they recognised Mendeleev's work. It was not until the following century, with Gilbert N. Lewis's valence bond theory (1916) and Irving Langmuir's octet theory of chemical bonding (1919), that the importance of the ...
Their electrical conductivities are very sensitive to impurity concentrations, and this allows for the use of doping to achieve ... Specialty plastics are materials with unique characteristics, such as ultra-high strength, electrical conductivity, electro- ... Much of the electrical, magnetic and chemical properties of materials arise from this level of structure. The length scales ... It lends itself to a vast array of applications, from artificial leather to electrical insulation and cabling, packaging, and ...
Meanwhile, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity increase, with the temperature inducing an internal stress in the moving ... Tabrizian, R. (2016) Overview and Introduction(pdf slides) Retrieved from Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ... Retrieved from Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, EEL 4930 / 5934 Resonant Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems ...
Thermal conductivity. 138 W/(m·K) Thermal diffusivity. 54.3[୨] mm2/s (at 300 K) ... Electrical resistivity. 53.4 n Ω·m (at 20 °C) Magnetic ordering. paramagnetic[୩] ...
... , or coax (pronounced /ˈkoʊ.æks/), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a ... it provides higher conductivity to ground than foil, and (3) it makes attaching a connector easier and more reliable. "Quad- ... Nahin, Paul J. (2002). Oliver Heaviside: The Life, Work, and Times of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age. ISBN 0-8018- ... Derived electrical parameters[edit]. *Characteristic impedance in ohms (Ω). The complex impedance Z of an infinite length of ...
Salts that are liquid at near-ambient temperature are important for electric battery applications, and have been considered as ... with those of ionic liquids but the polymer architecture provides a better chance for controlling the ionic conductivity. They ... Banqui Wu; Ramana G. Reddy & Robin D. Rogers (2001). "Novel ionic liquid thermal storage for solar thermal electric power ...
The most practical dissociation method is probably an electrical discharge.[ambiguous] Argon-hydrogen gas compositions with ... Conductivity - some fluxes remain conductive after soldering if not cleaned properly, leading to random malfunctions on ... Electrical solder with a rosin core, visible as a dark spot in the cut end of the solder wire. ... Deterioration of electrical properties of printed circuit boards, as soldering temperatures are above the glass transition ...
Corrosion rates initially increase with salinity in response to increasing electrical conductivity, but then decrease after ... Water can accelerate corrosion of machinery being cooled as both an electrical conductor and solvent for metal ions and oxygen ... U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (1997). Profile of the Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation Industry (Report). ... Liquid cooling offers higher thermal conductivity than air cooling. Water has unusually high specific heat capacity among ...
... their spin-spin interactions can cause electrical conductivity or ferromagnetism (molecule-based magnets), and applications to ...
Narimanov, Evgenii E.; Smolyaninov, Igor I. (2012). "Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Thermal Hyper-Conductivity". Conference on ... added to the report of Tyndall's experiments on the radiation of a platinum wire that was brought to glowing by an electric ...
High humidity in the oven, represented by an elevated wet-bulb temperature, increases the thermal conductivity of the air ... Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing. *Mold growth, assessment, and remediation. *Refrigerant reclamation. *Testing, adjusting ... moisture may increase the conductivity of permeable insulators leading to malfunction. Too low humidity may make materials ...
It has high thermal conductivity of up to 285 W/(m·K), and is electrically insulating with electrical conductivity of 10−11... ... state has electrical conductivity of 10−11...10−13 Ω−1⋅cm−1, rising to 10−5...10−6 Ω−1⋅cm−1 when doped.[4] Electrical breakdown ... Its has high thermal conductivity, especially for an electrically insulating ceramic (70...210 W/(m·K) for polycrystalline ...
ক খ গ ঘ ঙ চ ছ জ ঝ ঞ ট ঠ ড ঢ ণ ত থ দ ধ ন প ফ ব ভ ম য র ল শ ষ স হ ড় ঢ় য় ৎ কক The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, three elements, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, and thus their atomic mass given. ...
... and electrical conductivity. Native elements are subdivided into groups by their structure or chemical attributes. ... Some minerals exhibit electrical properties - for example, quartz is piezoelectric - but electrical properties are rarely used ... Gypsum has very low thermal conductivity and maintains a low temperature when heated as it loses that heat by dehydrating; as ... These asbestos minerals form long, thin, flexible, and strong fibres, which are electrical insulators, chemically inert and ...
2011). "On the electrical conductivity of microbial nanowires and biofilms". Energy Environ Sci. 4 (11): 4366-4379. doi:10.1039 ... Coating the nanowires with metal oxides also further promotes electrical conductivity.[14] Additionally, these nanowires can ... In particular, pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens possess metallic-like conductivity, producing electricity at levels comparable ... Rabaey, Korneel; Rozendal, René A. (2010). "Microbial electrosynthesis - revisiting the electrical route for microbial ...
While we have expanded our understanding of the role and function of gap junctions and electrical conductivity in the healthy ... Restoring Electrical Conductivity In Pancreatic Islet Cells: A Cure For Type 2 Diabetes ... If that electrical connectivity could be restored through the use of microcurrents, there is the very real possibility of not ... In this way, electric and genetic components "learn" from each other, iteratively. While learning is integral to neural systems ...
Conductivity is defined similarly:[7] [. J. x. J. y. J. z. ]. =. [. σ. x. x. σ. x. y. σ. x. z. σ. y. x. σ. y. y. σ. y. z. σ. z ... Comparison of the electrical conductivity of various elements in WolframAlpha. *. Partial and total conductivity. "Electrical ... This article is about electrical conductivity in general. For other types of conductivity, see Conductivity. For specific ... The specific electrical conductivity of the solution is equal to σ. =. q. (. b. +. +. b. −. ). α. N. {\displaystyle \sigma =q\ ...
Conductivity is defined similarly:[7] [. J. x. J. y. J. z. ]. =. [. σ. x. x. σ. x. y. σ. x. z. σ. y. x. σ. y. y. σ. y. z. σ. z ... This article is about electrical conductivity in general. For other types of conductivity, see Conductivity. For specific ... Electrical conductivity Very low: air is an excellent insulator until it breaks down into plasma at electric field strengths ... The good electrical conductivity of plasmas makes their electric fields very small. This results in the important concept of ...
Purchase Electrical Conductivity in Polymer-Based Composites - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128125410, ... Nanocomposite and hybrid materials having electrical conductivity behavior, flame retardancy, proton conductivity for PEMFCs, ... Electrical Conductivity in Polymer-Based Composites 1st Edition. Experiments, Modelling, and Applications. 0.0 star rating ... Electrical Conductivity in Polymer-Based Composites: Experiments, Modelling and Applications offers detailed information on all ...
On the other hand, the electric conductivity C. =. C. 0. +. C. enh. +. C. ep. +. C. relx. is renormalized to. C. ≈. 2. m. w. 0 ... is the electric conductivity obtained from the PNP equations with the renormalized diffusivity D. and where A. is a coefficient ... Enhancement of Electric Conductivity. The electroconvective coupling results in a net charge flux. From Eq. 1, we can write the ... Fluctuation-enhanced electric conductivity in electrolyte solutions. Jean-Philippe Péraud, Andrew J. Nonaka, John B. Bell, ...
electrical conductivity. In relation to water, the capacity of the water to transmit a flow of electricity and is a common ... Bureau Home » Water Information » Water Dictionary » electrical conductivity *Water Information *Water data *Climate Resilient ...
σT′ is the electrical conductivity at a common temperature, T′. σT is the electrical conductivity at a measured temperature, T ... Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a materials ability to conduct an electric current. When an ... Electrical conductivity is strongly dependent on temperature. In metals, electrical conductivity decreases with increasing ... Measurement of the Electrical Conductivity of Glass Melts Measurement Techniques, Definitions, Electrical conductivity ...
... began to see large leaps in electrical conductivity.. "The increase was massive," said Talin. The conductivity in the material ... A paper to appear in Science magazine, "Tunable Electrical Conductivity in Metal-Organic Framework Thin-Film Devices," debuts ... Sandia National Laboratories researchers have devised a novel way to realize electrical conductivity in metal-organic framework ... describes a technique that experiments show successfully increases the electrical conductivity of one MOF by over six orders of ...
Make research projects and school reports about Electrical Conductivity easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Electrical Conductivity at Encyclopedia.com. ... electrical conductivity (σ) The ease with which an electrical ... Electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity is the ability of a material to carry the flow of an electric current (a flow ... relationship between electrical resistance and conductivity.. How conductance takes place. Electrical conductivity occurs ...
Results for electrical conductivity monitoring from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental ... electrical conductivity monitoring Applications. Related terms for "electrical conductivity monitoring ": conductivity ... electrical conductivity and many more. Chemical, thermogravimetric or loss on drying techniques are used to determine this ... electrical conductivity and many more. Chemical, thermogravimetric or loss on drying techniques are used to determine this ...
An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. It has multiple applications in ... σT is the electrical conductivity at the temperature T, σTcal is the electrical conductivity at the calibration temperature ... Conductivity factor Electrical conductivity Salinometer Total dissolved solids TDS meter Wilfred Odor IEEE paper telling how a ... The concentration-conductivity dependence of most acids and bases is not linear. Conductivity-based measurement cannot ...
Making plastic more transparent while also adding electrical conductivity. University of Michigan ... They provide a recipe to help other researchers find the best balance between conductivity and transparency by creating a three ... "We tell people how transparent a dielectric-metal-dielectric conductor could be, for a target electrical conductance. We also ... "We developed a way to make coatings with high transparency and conductivity, low haze, excellent flexibility, easy fabrication ...
Electrical conductivity in water. The electrical conductivity, or specific conductance, in an aqueous solution depends on the ... Electrical conductivity constitutes the inverted value of the specific resistance of water, which may be defined as the ... Conductivity is measured at 25°C and given in mS/m.. Older methods measuring at 20°C (unit µS/cm). 1982-01 - 1983-12. Method: ... Conductivity is measured at 25°C and given in mS/m.. 1984-01 - 1997-04. Method: Swedish Standard SIS 02 81 23. Instruments: ...
... M. B. Nanda Prakash,1 A. Manjunath,2 and R. ... M. B. Nanda Prakash, A. Manjunath, and R. Somashekar, "Studies on AC Electrical Conductivity of CdCl2 Doped PVA Polymer ...
A method for improving the electrical conductivity of a substrate of metal, metal alloy or metal oxide comprising depositing a ... Method for improving electrical conductivity of metals, metal alloys and metal oxides. US 6096391 A ... 3 which mixed layer 30 has a degree of electrical conductivity sufficient to make substrate 10 useable as an electrode in a ... A method for improving the electrical conductivity of a substrate of metal, metal alloy or metal oxide comprising depositing a ...
Graphene-based epoxy nanocomposites have been produced by the ultrasonication of graphene oxide (GO), chemically modified GO and through two-phase extraction of
... Ansu K. Roy,1 Amrita Singh,1 Karishma Kumari,1 ... The ac conductivity data were used to evaluate the minimum hopping length, apparent activation energy, and density of states at ... The Nyquist plots and conductivity studies showed the NTCR character of BNBT06. The correlated barrier hopping model (CBHM) as ... The crystal structure, microstructure, dielectric, polarization, piezoelectric properties, and ac conductivity of the sample ...
Which of the following solutions would typically show the greatest electrical conductivity?. A. 1.0 M weak acid. B. 0.8 M weak ... Related Threads on Chemistry 12 - weak acid/electrical conductivity (2 questions) Weak acids ...
A nonconjugated radical polymer glass with high electrical conductivity. By Yongho Joo, Varad Agarkar, Seung Hyun Sung, Brett M ... A nonconjugated radical polymer glass with high electrical conductivity. By Yongho Joo, Varad Agarkar, Seung Hyun Sung, Brett M ... The electrical conductivity was not enhanced by intentional doping, and thin films of this material showed high optical ... A nonconjugated radical polymer glass with high electrical conductivity Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
... was investigated as a first-order approach to the electrical conductivity in the upper mantle. This... ... The electrical conduction in synthetic, dry polycrystalline, iron-bearing olivine (Fo90) ... the effect of water on the electrical conductivity in olivine is also very significant. The electrical conductivity of the ... The electrical conductivity data of dry synthetic Fo90 from defect modeling show no significant (fO 2 1/6 ) dependence on ...
The electrical conductivity of CB filled polymer blends is determined by two factors. One is concentration of CB in the filler ... Polymer Viscosity Electrical Conductivity Carbon Black Polymer Composite These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... This heterogeneous dispersion of conductive fillers has much effect on the electrical conductivity of CB filled polymer blends ... Dispersion of fillers and the electrical conductivity of polymer blends filled with carbon black. ...
Electrical resistivity/conductivity of submarine sediments measured by in situ techniques. [Matthew H Hulbert; Environmental ... Electrical resistivity/conductivity of submarine sediments measured by in situ techniques. Author:. Matthew H Hulbert; ... schema:name "Electrical resistivity/conductivity of submarine sediments measured by in situ techniques"@en ;. schema:productID ... Electrical resistivity/conductivity of submarine sediments measured by in situ techniques/Matthew H Hulbert; Environmental ...
Electrical conductivity and magnetic properties of iodine-doped NiTAA-MOF. a) Electrical conductivity as a function of ... 2D »IBS »Materials Science »X-ray diffraction »conductivity »electrical conductivity »energy storage »external magnetic field » ... Further reports about: , 2D , IBS , Materials Science , X-ray diffraction , conductivity , electrical conductivity , energy ... It is actually an insulator with an electrical conductivity smaller than 10-10 Siemens per centimeter. ...
Bates, J.L. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CeO/sub 2-x/., report, January 1, 1972; Richland, Washington. (digital. ... Cerium Oxides/Electric Conductivity Of Ceo/Sub 2-X/ At 16 To 1998--C ... Very High Temperature Cerium Oxides/Electric Conductivity Of Ceo/Sub 2-X/ At 16 To 1998--C ...
... electrical current can flow through a solution of a... ... Chapter 12 Electrical conductivity1 Introduction As in the case ... Electrical conductivity (EC) is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current and depends on: Concentration ... Calculate the electrical conductivity of each ion using the data given in Table 3. Table 3 Ion specific conductivitys Cone. ... Chapter 12 Electrical conductivity. 1 Introduction As in the case of metallic conductors, electrical current can flow through a ...
... is about computer simulations which find that the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical ... electrical engineering and many other fields: a Nature Materials paper ... Electrical conductivity is a measure of how strongly a given material conducts the flow of electric current and is generally ... However, at strong electric fields, many materials show a departure from Ohms law, whereby the conductivity increases rapidly ...
Accuracy issues in electromagnetic induction sensing of soil electrical conductivity for precision agriculture. ... apparent soil electrical conductivity; ECe, electrical conduc-tivity of the saturation extract; ECw, electrical conductivity of ... electrical conductivity at 25 ◦ C; ECa, apparent soil electrical conductivity; ECe, electrical conductivity of the saturation ... laboratory measured electrical conductivity of a 1:1 soil to water extract; EC, soil electrical conductivity; ECa, ...
Electrical conductivity measurements were once one of the only ways growers could check up on the elemental concentrations of ... Takeaway: Electrical conductivity measurements were once one of the only ways growers could check up on the elemental ... In the early days of commercial hydroponics, electrical conductivity, known better by its acronym EC, was used as a means for ... Electrical Conductivity in the Garden Conduct Yourself Accordingly: Measuring Electrical Conductivity for Bigger and Healthier ...
Trends in electrical conductivities computed from the ion diffusion coefficients are also compared. ... Title: Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion and electrical conductivity in montmorillonite interlayers ... Accepted Manuscript: Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion and electrical conductivity in montmorillonite interlayers ...
  • For specific applications in electrical elements, see Electrical resistance and conductance . (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • m -1 ) i.e. if the electrical conductance between opposite faces of a one-meter cube of material is one Siemens then the material's electrical conductivity is one Siemens per meter. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The inverse of resistance and resistivity is conductance and conductivity. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The ohm was named for German physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1789 - 1854), who first expressed the mathematical laws of electrical conductance and resistance in detail. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Interestingly enough, the unit of electrical conductance is called the mho (ohm written backwards). (encyclopedia.com)
  • We tell people how transparent a dielectric-metal-dielectric conductor could be, for a target electrical conductance. (eurekalert.org)
  • The electrical conductivity, or specific conductance, in an aqueous solution depends on the concentration of dissolved ions, which is important both chemically, as it determines how different elements behave in the water, and biologically, since all aquatic organisms are dependent on the amount of dissolved ions in the surrounding water (due to e.g. osmosis). (slu.se)
  • This manuscript describes a simple electrical conductance experiment to determine the solubility of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), which, in addition, provides information on the conductivity of the salt. (chemeducator.org)
  • The moisture content influences the physical properties of a substance such as weight, density, viscosity, refractive index, electrical conductivity and many more. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. (osti.gov)
  • The dynamic properties of a series of iron-bearing sodium borosilicate melts have been investigated to determine how structure and composition control viscosity, electrical conductivity and the kinetics of iron redox reactions and, thus, atomic mobility as involved in these different processes. (ipgp.fr)
  • In addition to viscosity and electrical conductivity, we have determined the kinetics of the iron redox reaction by isothermal iron K-edge XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed as a function of time from 710 to 1570 K. Substitution of sodium for boron at constant SiO2 content first causes transformation of BO3 triangles into BO4 tetrahedra until an excess of sodium induces instead melt depolymerization. (ipgp.fr)
  • The effects of volume concentration on the effective viscosity, electrical conductivity, and pH were all monitored in the temperature range of 20-70◦C. It was found that classical models underpredicted the experimental data while an empirical model overpredicted the experimental data. (up.ac.za)
  • Apparent soil electrical conductivity measurements in agriculture. (psu.edu)
  • Electrical conductivity measurements were once one of the only ways growers could check up on the elemental concentrations of their hydroponic nutrient solutions. (maximumyield.com)
  • This paper proposes a novel approach to reconstruct changes in a target conductivity from electrical impedance tomography measurements. (aimsciences.org)
  • As in the conventional difference imaging , the reconstruction of the conductivity change is based on electrical potential measurements from the exterior boundary of the target before and after the change. (aimsciences.org)
  • Yokogawa FLXA202/FLXA21 inductive conductivity transmitter has earned a reputation in the recovery of cleaning solutions because it can take measurements with good boundary surface precision over a wide range. (yokogawa.com)
  • The measured conductivity value of 0.045 S cm −1 surpasses all formerly reported measurements. (rsc.org)
  • The influence of contact inhomogeneities on four-probe measurements of the temperature dependence of the £-axis conductivity as determined with an electrolytic tank model are also presented. (illinois.edu)
  • Electrical conductivity measurements of milk are of no value in determining the onset of oestrus in cows. (scielo.org.za)
  • Eddy current measurements of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of porous metals. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Thermodynamic calculation was done according to the CALPHAD method using PANDAT software, while chosen alloys in the selected sections were experimentally investigated using hardness and electrical conductivity measurements. (omicsonline.org)
  • Also, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of the LiMn2O4 thin films were studied through impedance measurements at different temperature and at different frequencies, to find out their suitability for developing all solid state thin film lithium ion micro batteries. (techconnect.org)
  • We analyze the effects of an externally applied electric field on thermal fluctuations for a binary electrolyte fluid. (pnas.org)
  • M. B. Nanda Prakash, A. Manjunath, and R. Somashekar, "Studies on AC Electrical Conductivity of CdCl 2 Doped PVA Polymer Electrolyte," Advances in Condensed Matter Physics , vol. 2013, Article ID 690629, 6 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • As in the case of metallic conductors, electrical current can flow through a solution of an electrolyte also. (scribd.com)
  • A R The resistance of the electrolyte is measured across two plates dipped in the liquid and held at a fixed distance apart in a conductivity cell. (scribd.com)
  • The authors investigated the electrical conductivity of a solid electrolyte, a system of positive and negative atoms on a crystal lattice. (science20.com)
  • The study, published in Nature Materials , investigated the electrical conductivity of a solid electrolyte, a system of positive and negative atoms on a crystal lattice. (london-nano.com)
  • Knowledge of the electrical resistivity of components in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is important. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The preparative methods have been devised avoid the crystallinity and to improve the conductivity in the PEO polymer solid electrolyte. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Recently, enhancement of both electrical and mechanical properties are obtained by adding the various types of nano fillers like SiO2, La2O3, Al2O3, in the PEO polymer solid electrolyte.The present paper reports the synthesis of TiO2 nano particles by sol gel foam combustion route and the prepared TiO2 nanoparticles are dispersed in the PEO + LiClO4 + MoO3 to form the nanocomposite polymer solid electrolyte film by the solution casting route. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite polymer solid electrolyte film is evaluated by analyzing the measured impedance data. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Nikiforov, AV , Berg, RW & Bjerrum, NJ 2018, ' Vapor pressure and specific electrical conductivity in the solid and molten H 2 O-CsH 2 PO 4 -CsPO 3 system-a novel electrolyte for water electrolysis at ~ 225-400 °C ', Ionics , vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2761-2782. (dtu.dk)
  • The electrical conduction in synthetic, dry polycrystalline, iron-bearing olivine (Fo 90 ) was investigated as a first-order approach to the electrical conductivity in the upper mantle. (springer.com)
  • Conduction processes in synthetic samples are not influenced by a complex geological history in contrast to conductivity in natural olivine. (springer.com)
  • In currently accepted defect modeling, natural and synthetic olivine requires a mechanism involving small polaron formation (Fe · Mg and magnesium vacancies ( V Mg ) as the dominant diffusing species to explain a f O 2 1/6 relation to electrical conduction. (springer.com)
  • An empirical Arrhenius relation is obtained within the stability field of olivine at moderate to high temperatures (1,000-1,400°C). Electrical conduction in minerals depends on various factors, including temperature, composition, defect concentrations and the frequency of the passing electrical current. (springer.com)
  • Using an alternating current, the frequency dependence of conductivity allows one to identify different conduction mechanisms in series. (springer.com)
  • As modern science and technology increasingly explores high electric fields, the new details of high field conduction revealed by these simulations, will have increasing importance. (science20.com)
  • Having previously observed conductivity at the LaAlO 3 -SrTiO 3 interface, they wondered why one change in the lanthanate chemistry would make such a difference and what that was telling them about the conduction mechanism. (ceramics.org)
  • which is a huge benefit for electrical bond-path corrosion resistance [especially bare CRES against bare aluminum in an electrical conduction path]. (eng-tips.com)
  • The sealants/primers used for this application are intended to prevent galvanic corrosion by keeping moisture from getting into the joint between the dissimilar metals, as opposed to preventing an electrical conduction path. (eng-tips.com)
  • Their temperature-dependent electrical conductivity follows Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping conduction in the temperature range of 30-300K. (purdue.edu)
  • Electrical conductivity is the ability of a material to carry the flow of an electric current (a flow of electrons). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Electrical conductivity occurs because of the ease with which electrons can be removed from atoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Electrons are not the only particles capable of carrying an electric current. (encyclopedia.com)
  • That lack of control has made it hard to create new classes of devices that use phonons the agents of thermal conductivity rather than electrons or photons to harvest energy or transmit information. (nanowerk.com)
  • When an electric field is applied, the electrons carry this energy and hence they transport both an electrical charge and heat. (electronics-cooling.com)
  • Electrical conductivity is a pretty simple concept to understand: electrons move. (ceramics.org)
  • In most metals, electrons are everywhere-the "sea of electrons" we learn about in high school chemistry gives metals high electrical conductivity. (ceramics.org)
  • In compounds, the electrons are not so available, but electrical conductivity still occurs. (ceramics.org)
  • As long as more lanthanum ions than aluminum ions substitute into the strontium titanate, there will be excess electrons and conductivity will occur at the interface. (ceramics.org)
  • Tetrapolar measurement of electrical conductivity and thickness of articular cartilage, Journal of biomechanical engineering , 126 (2004), 475-484. (aimsciences.org)
  • Clearly there is a world of difference between the measurement of electrical conductivity and that of thermal conductivity. (electronics-cooling.com)
  • The experiments show that the apparent activation energy for conductivity for Fo 90 is 230 kJ mol −1 . (springer.com)
  • It was shown that the activation energy for conductivity increased as the grain size decreased. (diva-portal.org)
  • Finally, we show that strong applied electric fields result in anisotropically enhanced "giant" velocity fluctuations and reduced fluctuations of salt concentration. (pnas.org)
  • Concentration of pure liquids can be calculated when the conductivity and temperature is measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, one can measure the concentration of high purity hydrofluoric acid using conductivity-based concentration measurement [Zhejiang Quhua Fluorchemical, China Valmet Concentration 3300]. (wikipedia.org)
  • A benefit of conductivity- and temperature-based concentration measurement is the superior speed of inline measurement compared to an on-line analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conductivity-based concentration measurement has limitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration-conductivity dependence of most acids and bases is not linear. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Kraft pulp mills use conductivity-based concentration measurement to control alkali additions to various stages of the cook. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high pressure and temperature of cooking process, combined with high concentration of alkali components, put a heavy strain on conductivity sensors that are installed in process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conductivity of a solution of water is highly dependent on its concentration of dissolved salts and sometimes other chemical species which tend to ionize in the solution. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • High conductivity, i.e. a large concentration of dissolved ions in the water, in general indicates weathering-susceptible soils or other types of influence from the surroundings. (slu.se)
  • Using synthetic sol-gel olivine, we attempt to avoid possible issues that can be encountered when measuring the electrical conductivity in the laboratory on natural material by acknowledging that synthetic olivine is free from impurity atoms, is fully buffered by enstatite and has a very low water concentration. (springer.com)
  • Electrical conductivity (EC) is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current and depends on: Concentration of the ions (higher concentration, higher EC) Temperature of the solution (high temperature, higher EC) Specific nature of the ions (higher specific ability and higher valence, higher EC) Conductivity changes with storage time and temperature. (scribd.com)
  • The determination of the electrical conductivity is a rapid and convenient means of estimating the concentration of ions in solution. (scribd.com)
  • Because these interfaces scatter phonons, said Ihlefeld, we can actively change a material s thermal conductivity by simply changing their concentration. (nanowerk.com)
  • The experiment is suitable for an introductory general chemistry laboratory course, but it can be extended to a physical chemistry course by including the analysis of the concentration dependence of the electrical conductivity. (chemeducator.org)
  • Thus, the concept of ion pairs in aqueous solutions in relation to the concentration dependence of the electrical conductivity is reviewed and the experimental association constant (ion-pair formation constant) values are compared with those calculated using theoretical models. (chemeducator.org)
  • At length scales less than 10 nanometres, the concentration gradient and electric field were driven by channel size. (nanowerk.com)
  • where [C.sub.i] represents the molar concentration (mmol/L) of the ion i, and [z.sub.i] represents its electric charge. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, solid phase synthesis method was employed for the preparation of (YO1.5)x-(CeO2)0.08-(ZrO2)0.9-x and (YO1.5)0.05-(CeO2)y- (ZrO2)0.95-y ceramics, while four probe DC conductivity measurement method was also applied under the temperature between 300 to 800°C. The results prove that the concentration of Y3+ is the main contribution of the electrical conductivity at low temperature. (scientific.net)
  • The thermal conductivity (kappa) of composites is enhanced by similar to 90% as the concentration is increased from 0 to 10 vol. (purdue.edu)
  • The thermal conductivity of composites approximately linearly increases with increasing temperature from 150 to 300 K. Composites with a higher concentration show a stronger temperature dependence in the thermal conductivity. (purdue.edu)
  • was reasonable, according the variety of the grain sizes, conductivity, as well as the activation energy for the conductivity, with the increasing concentration of Zn. (deepdyve.com)
  • Investigate the electrical conductivity of salt solutions Aim To determine whether the concentration of sodium chloride in solutions affects the electrical conductivity of the solution Background Electrical conductivity is the ability to carry out the flow of an electric current. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The effect of temperature, volume concentration, electrical conductivity, and pH was investigated at a constant shear rate. (up.ac.za)
  • Unlike metals, the conductivity of common electrolytes typically increases with increasing temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other metals also conduct an electric current, but to different extents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Silver, aluminum, iron and other metals have a low resistance (and a high conductivity). (encyclopedia.com)
  • This invention relates to the art of treating metals, metal alloys and metal oxides, and more particularly to a new and improved method for enhancing the electrical conductivity of metals, metal alloys and metal oxides. (google.com)
  • This paper presents a method, which simultaneously estimates the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of porous metals. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In a previous paper an electrical method of determining the thermal conductivity of metals in wire form was described. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A paper to appear in Science magazine, " Tunable Electrical Conductivity in Metal-Organic Framework Thin-Film Devices ," debuts in the Dec. 5 edition of Science Express . (redorbit.com)
  • Frame, James , Kubo, Wakana and Fang, Xu (2018) Plasmonic tuning of effective phase transition temperature and electrical conductivity. (soton.ac.uk)
  • It represents a material's ability to conduct electric current. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a material's ability to conduct an electric current. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Conductivity could in principle be determined using the distance between the electrodes and their surface area using Ohm's law but generally, for accuracy, a calibration is employed using electrolytes of well-known conductivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000 ) and only up to 0.6 log units of conductivity from 1 to 4 GPa for a lherzolite (Dai et al. (springer.com)
  • Some meters read resistance (ohm) while others read in units of conductivity (milli-Siemens per meter). (scribd.com)
  • Electrical and thermal conductivities of reduced graphene oxide/polyst" by Wonjung Park, Jiuning Hu et al. (purdue.edu)
  • Electrical and thermal conductivities of reduced graphene oxide/polystyrene composites. (purdue.edu)
  • Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Dense Matter in the Crystalline Lattice Phase. (harvard.edu)
  • The electrical and thermal conductivities of dense matter in the crystalline lattice phase due to phonon scattering are calculated including the lower densities 10 0 -10 4 g cm -3 . (harvard.edu)
  • By this inclusion the data on the electrical and thermal conductivities of dense matter in the crystalline lattice phase will be complete for the density range 10 0.0 -10 12.7 g cm -3 . (harvard.edu)
  • They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between those cells. (science20.com)
  • A periodic increase in conductivity in the deeper parts of a lake can indicate leakage of ions from sediment, usually as a result of anoxia. (slu.se)
  • If the conducting species are ionic, such as magnesium ions and oxygen vacancies or interstitials, and transported by solid-state diffusion, then following the Nernst-Einstein relation, both electrical conductivity and diffusion mechanisms should share similar activation energies. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the decreasing fraction of Na+ ions and their change from a free to a charge compensating role explain the decreasing redox diffusivities and electrical conductivities of the samples. (ipgp.fr)
  • Molecular dynamics calculations were performed in order to elucidate whether Al- or O ions are dominant in the ionic conductivity of the alpha-alumina. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ions are capable of carrying an electrical current. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • An EC meter is normally used to measure conductivity in a solution. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm-meter (Ω⋅m). (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that poly(4-glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a nonconjugated radical polymer with a subambient glass transition temperature, underwent rapid solid-state charge transfer reactions and had an electrical conductivity of up to 28 siemens per meter over channel lengths up to 0.6 micrometers. (sciencemag.org)
  • Report conductivity as milli Siemens per meter at 25ºC (mS.m-1). (scribd.com)
  • An apparatus called a conductivity meter that consists of a conductivity cell and a meter measures conductivity. (scribd.com)
  • The conductivity cell consists of two electrodes (platinum plates) rigidly held at a constant distance from each other and are connected by cables to the meter. (scribd.com)
  • The R3 source of electric current in the meter applies a potential to the plates and the meter measures the electrical resistance of the solution. (scribd.com)
  • The cell constant can be determined by using the conductivity meter to measure the resistance of a standard solution of 0.0100mol/L potassium chloride (KCI). (scribd.com)
  • Electrical conductivity is a measure of how strongly a given material conducts the flow of electric current and is generally understood in terms of Ohm's law, which states that the conductivity is independent of the magnitude of an applied electric field, i.e. the voltage per meter. (science20.com)
  • Insert the electrical conductivity meter into the beaker and swirl gently 3. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The paper - co-authored by a group of Sandia researchers and collaborators at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) - describes a technique that experiments show successfully increases the electrical conductivity of one MOF by over six orders of magnitude. (redorbit.com)
  • Here's a development that could have significant implications for electrochemistry, biochemistry, electrical engineering and many other fields: a Nature Materials paper is about computer simulations which find that the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical field in a universal way. (science20.com)
  • However, at strong electric fields, many materials show a departure from Ohm's law, whereby the conductivity increases rapidly with increasing field. (science20.com)
  • Computer simulations have revealed how the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical field in a universal way. (london-nano.com)
  • The mechanism by which electrical conductivity is generated has been described by the theory of "electronic reconstruction," which proposes that voltage increases with each atomic layer in the polar material. (ceramics.org)
  • In order to investigate the contribution of arterial radius and center-line velocity to the blood conductivity and electrical impedance of pulsatile flow in the human common carotid artery, we proposed three simplified mathematical models to describe the relationship between the center-line velocity, the arterial radius, and the blood conductivity. (springer.com)
  • By comparing the fitting results with those obtained from our previously proposed elastic-tube hemodynamic model, we found that the change in center-line velocity had more notable effect on the blood conductivity than the change in arterial radius. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, the change in arterial radius contributed much more to the electrical impedance than the change in blood conductivity induced by the center-line velocity. (springer.com)
  • The instrument is a hand-held, battery-operated device used for the fast and simple measurement of a parameter such as blood conductivity. (google.com)
  • This leads to almost totally ionic conductivity. (scientific.net)
  • The highest ionic conductivity, σ600°C=2.45×10-3S/cm, was found for the composition of x=0.15. (scientific.net)
  • The measured conductivity values of the porous Cu are shown in the paper in comparison with that of bulk materials with known conductivity. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Conductivities of Ga2O3-La2O3 co-doped CeO2 were higher than that of Sm2O3-doped CeO2, which was reported having the highest conductivity among CeO2-based oxides. (scientific.net)
  • and the highest conductivity of 9.8×10−4Scm−1 was obtained with LZ0.5 at 900°C in wet air. (deepdyve.com)
  • Abstract:The effect of the A-site cation ordering on the chemical stability, oxygen stoichiometryand electrical conductivity in layered LaBaCo2O5`δdouble perovskite was studied as a function oftemperature and partial pressure of oxygen. (bibsys.no)
  • abstract = "Cesium dihydrogen phosphate, CsH2PO4 (CDP) was studied for water electrolysis at ~ 225-400 °C. In the presence of sufficient humidity, CDP is structurally disordered and super-protonic conducting with conductivities reaching 0.2-0.25 S cm−1, when determined in suitable H-shaped sealed conductivity cells. (dtu.dk)
  • The feasibility of the proposed reconstruction method is tested experimentally and with a simulation which demonstrates a potential new medical application of electrical impedance tomography: imaging of vocal folds in voice loading studies. (aimsciences.org)
  • A. Boyle, A. Adler and W. Lionheart, Shape deformation in two-dimensional electrical impedance tomography, Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on , 31 (2012), 2185-2193. (aimsciences.org)
  • B. Brown, Electrical impedance tomography (EIT): A review, Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology , 27 (2003), 97-108. (aimsciences.org)
  • Real-time detection of pneumothorax using electrical impedance tomography*, Critical care medicine , 36 (2008), 1230-1238. (aimsciences.org)
  • The multifrequency electrical impedance tomography is used to image the inclusion. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a highly unstable problem with respect to measurement and modeling errors. (begellhouse.com)
  • Another way is to use four-electrode conductivity sensors that are made from corrosion-resistant materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • A benefit of four-electrode conductivity sensors compared to inductive sensors is scaling compensation[clarification needed] and the ability to measure low (below 100 μS/cm) conductivities (a feature especially important when measuring near-100% hydrofluoric acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sandia National Laboratories researchers have devised a novel way to realize electrical conductivity in metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, a development that could have profound implications for the future of electronics, sensors, energy conversion and energy storage. (redorbit.com)
  • I ntended for the low conductivity applications found in the semi-conductor, power, water and pharmaceutical industries, these sensors are in a convenient compact style. (yokogawa.com)
  • Multi-parameter array consisting of 3 soil temperature moisture and bulk electrical conductivity sensors(5TE Sensors) and 2 water potential sensors(MPS2 sensors). (criticalzone.org)
  • Soil volumetric water content (VWC) temperature, and electrical conductivity measured using Decagon Devices 5-TE sensors at depths of 15, 30, 60 cm, and deeper when soil depth allows below the mineral soil surface. (criticalzone.org)
  • Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity ) and its inverse, electrical conductivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resists or conducts electric current . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both resistance and resistivity describe how difficult it is to make electrical current flow through a material, but unlike resistance, resistivity is an intrinsic property . (wikipedia.org)
  • where R {\displaystyle R} is the electrical resistance of a uniform specimen of the material ℓ {\displaystyle \ell } is the length of the specimen A {\displaystyle A} is the cross-sectional area of the specimen Both resistance and resistivity describe how difficult it is to make electrical current flow through a material, but unlike resistance, resistivity is an intrinsic property. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another way of describing the conductivity of a material is through resistance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Wood, paper, and most plastics have a high resistance (and a low conductivity). (encyclopedia.com)
  • This choice of units clearly illustrates the reciprocal (opposite) relationship between electrical resistance and conductivity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the international system of units (SI) the electrical conductivity is expressed in Siemens which is the reciprocal of resistance in ohm. (scribd.com)
  • The conductivity of the solution (141.2 mS/m at 25ºC) multiplied by the measured resistance gives the value of Kc , Equation 4. (scribd.com)
  • This law is widely obeyed in weak applied fields, which means that most material samples can be ascribed a definite electrical resistance, measured in Ohms. (science20.com)
  • Electrical Conductivity, Columnar Resistance, and Global Resistance Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization that maintains the electrical conductivity of the atmosphere from the ground to about 60 km in altitude. (nap.edu)
  • It sounds like Your Euro customer has a special electrical grade polysulfide or polythioether sealant that has NO conductivity and very little resistance [not packed with corrosion preventative metallic pigments]. (eng-tips.com)
  • In fact, it is common to see cres electrical bonding studs installed into clean aluminum substrates in order to ensure low electrical resistance. (eng-tips.com)
  • Further, the electrical resistance between the layers affects the overall electrical properties of the cell. (fraunhofer.de)
  • EBC/carbon-fiber composites can be utilized as an electro-mechanical material which is capable of changing it electric resistance with mechanical strain. (preprints.org)
  • The results showed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the electric resistance up to 10 times. (preprints.org)
  • Increasing the load to 2.9 MPa could increase the electric resistance change by 4500% compared 25% fiber sample with pure EBC. (preprints.org)
  • The thermal conductivity of the wire is calculated from its known dimensions, the rate at which electrical energy is supplied to it, and the change in its electrical resistance. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A conductor such as a metal has high conductivity. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Copper is the most common material for electrical wiring, ( silver is the best but expensive), and gold for high-quality surface-to-surface contacts. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We developed a way to make coatings with high transparency and conductivity, low haze, excellent flexibility, easy fabrication and great compatibility with different surfaces," said Jay Guo , U-M professor of electrical engineering and computer science, who led the work. (eurekalert.org)
  • synthesized a redox-active, nonconjugated radical polymer that exhibited high conductivity (see the Perspective by Lutkenhaus). (sciencemag.org)
  • Solid-state conducting polymers usually have highly conjugated macromolecular backbones and require intentional doping in order to achieve high electrical conductivities. (sciencemag.org)
  • The electrical conductivity was not enhanced by intentional doping, and thin films of this material showed high optical transparency. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is a kind of soft, malleable and ductile metal mesh, and has high thermal and electrical conductivity. (opencroquet.org)
  • It is demonstrated that the addition of the conducting fillers PEDOT:PSS and VGCNFs can result in a measurable improvement in the conductivity of hydrogels with high water content and swelling ratios. (spie.org)
  • This leads to a high electrical conductivity combined with an easily accessible pore system. (rsc.org)
  • Upon prolonged heating, the composite thin films exhibit relative large conductivity at high nanotube content, while the polyaniline thin films become insulating. (diva-portal.org)
  • Home Key Engineering Materials High-Performance Ceramics IV Electrical Conductivity of Mixed Conductors. (scientific.net)
  • The introduction of changeable valued CeO2 can further improve the total electronic conductivity through the defect equilibrium reaction between tetravalent Ce4+ and trivalent Ce3+ at high temperature and reducing atmosphere. (scientific.net)
  • The preliminary study conducted at our laboratory confirmed that the ground water of the Vellore region contains high electrical conductivity (EC) (1.83 to 7.52 dS m −1 ) and alkaline pH (7.70 to 9.12). (iwaponline.com)
  • Lithium ion batteries (LIB) with high energy density, power density and long charge-discharge life, are considered to be one of the most promising energy storage systems for portable electronic devices as well as electric vehicles applications. (techconnect.org)
  • It is then demonstrated how the central moments and dispersion statistics of the distributions may be used to predict the continuous, bedrock conductivity distribution across a large area of southern England, containing, as it does, a high population density and extensive infrastructure. (lyellcollection.org)
  • A bridge is a zero method of measurement which can provide direct voltages proportional to soil permittivity and conductivity with a high resolution. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Protonation of 1,3-polyazulene by trifluoroacetic acid was found to exhibit high conductivity and paramagnetic properties via the formation of cation radicals and di- and polycations. (nus.edu.sg)
  • A notable increase of the d.c. electrical conductivity in 7 orders of magnitude is observed for the CFT-metal laminates with respect to the neat PA6. (deepdyve.com)
  • Now, using only a 9-volt battery at room temperature, a team led by Sandia National Laboratories researcher Jon Ihlefeld has altered the thermal conductivity of the widely used material PZT (lead zirconate titanate) by as much as 11 percent at subsecond time scales. (nanowerk.com)
  • Electrical Conductivity in Polymer-Based Composites: Experiments, Modelling and Applications offers detailed information on all aspects of conductive composites. (elsevier.com)
  • Sections cover the theory of electrical conductivity and the different categories of conductive composites, describing percolation threshold, tunneling effect and other phenomena in the field. (elsevier.com)
  • Morphological control of conductive networks in conductive polymer composites has been demonstrated to efficiently improve their electrical performance. (rsc.org)
  • The author reports an experimental study of electrical and thermal transport in reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/polystyrene (PS) composites. (purdue.edu)
  • The electrical conductivity (sigma) of RGO/PS composites with different RGO concentrations at room temperature shows a percolation behavior with the percolation threshold of similar to 0.25 vol. (purdue.edu)
  • It is concluded that the microencapsulation strategy can be applied to produce multifunctional CFT-metal-PA6 thermoplastic composites with tailored electrical and improved mechanical properties for advanced applications. (deepdyve.com)
  • The electrical, mechanical and thermal conductivity of ethylene butene copolymer (EBC) composites with carbon fibers were studied. (preprints.org)
  • It was taken for granted that the transmittance of the conductor is lower than that of the substrate, but we show that this is not the case," said Chengang Ji, first author of the study in Nature Communications , who worked on the project as a Ph.D. student in electrical and computer engineering. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this context, a fundamentally different approach was adopted, and we have demonstrated the interplay of inherent substrate conductivity, defined chemical composition of cellular microenvironment, and intermittent delivery of electric pulses to drive mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward osteogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our experimental results illustrate the interplay of multiple parameters such as substrate conductivity, electric field stimulation, and aECM coating on the modulation of hMSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • This heterogeneous dispersion of conductive fillers has much effect on the electrical conductivity of CB filled polymer blends. (springer.com)
  • These double percolations affect conductivity of conductive particle filled polymer blends. (springer.com)
  • The electrical conductivity and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the PLLA/PCL/MWCNT nanocomposites can be abruptly increased and attributed to the simultaneous organization of conductive paths when the continuous PCL phase develops. (rsc.org)
  • For non-magnetic, conductive porous Cu, the electrical conductivity was measured with a calibration curve of the coil relating the impedance change and the electrical conductivity of the sample. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Further, bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on these moderately conductive (10(-4)-10(-3) S/cm) aECM coated PANI substrates and exposed intermittently to pulsed electric field (PEF) generated through transformer-like coupling (TLC) approach over 28 days. (nih.gov)
  • After interleaving the conductive papers in the composite interlayers, in-plane electrical conductivity perpendicular to the fiber direction was increased by 171 times and conductivity through thickness direction was increased by 2.81 times. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Here, Fo 90 shows no contribution of small polarons to conductivity at temperatures between 1,000 and 1,200°C and almost no dependence on f O 2 . (springer.com)
  • Chemists at the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea), have reported the synthesis of a novel type of 2D metal organic framework (MOF) with interesting electrical conductivity and magnetic properties. (innovations-report.com)
  • The synthesis procedure and dopant are crucial to the electrical conductivity, thermal stability, and solubility properties of polyaniline (PANI). (mdpi.com)
  • Many resistors and conductors do in fact have a uniform cross section with a uniform flow of electric current, and are made of a single material, so that this is a good model. (wikipedia.org)
  • All conductors contain electric charges which will move when an electric potential difference (measured in volts) is applied across separate points on the material. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The influence of carbon nanotubes on the thermal ageing effect of the electrical conductivity of composite thin films is presented. (diva-portal.org)
  • When subject to thermal treatment, the presence of nanotubes retards the loss of dopants from the polyaniline and enhances the thermal stability in electrical conductivity of the composite thin films. (diva-portal.org)
  • Specifically, an increase in temperature for the conductivity degradation and a significant reduction in the rate of the conductivity degradation of the composite thin films are observed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Electrical conductivity can be increased without any notable degradation in mechanical strength of the UFG alloy by further AA at 170 °C and considerably enhanced by additional decomposition of solid solution accompanied by the formation of rod-shaped metastable β′ precipitates mainly in the ultrafine grain interior and by the decrease of the alloying element content in the Al matrix. (mdpi.com)
  • Conductivity is the inverse (reciprocal) of resistivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also possible to have materials in which the conductivity is anisotropic, in which case σ is a 3×3 matrix (or more technically a rank-2 tensor) which is generally symmetric. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication. (harvard.edu)
  • A study was conducted to investigate the possibility of measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) of cow's milk as a practical and cost-effective means of determining oestrus in cows. (scielo.org.za)
  • Two anaerobic aerobic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBR) have been operated during more than one year to investigate the information provided by monitoring pH and electric conductivity under stationary and transient conditions. (iwaponline.com)
  • Common laboratory conductivity meters employ a potentiometric method and four electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, laboratory data of the electrical properties of olivine is needed to constrain the modeled inversion of MT data from the field. (springer.com)
  • The researchers, supported by Sandia s Laboratory Directed Research and Development office, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the National Science Foundation, used a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope to observe how the domain walls of subsections of the material changed in length and shape under the influence of an electrical voltage. (nanowerk.com)
  • Electrical conductivity of is one of the fundamental geophysical properties of rock formations and can be measured at field and laboratory scales. (lyellcollection.org)
  • The impedance and electrical conductivity behavior of gellan gum hydrogels containing the conducting fillers poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and vapour grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) is presented. (spie.org)
  • The thermal conductivity tests showed that the addition of carbon fibers could increase the thermal conductivity by 40%, from 0.19 to 0.27 (Wm-1K-1). (preprints.org)
  • It was also observed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the thermal conductivity. (preprints.org)
  • Microscopic analysis showed that the improvement of conductivity was attributable to the formation of an electrical conducting network of silver nanowires which played a role in electrical connection of carbon fiber plies and the interleaving layers. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Gap junctions are clusters of intercellular channels between cells formed by the membrane proteins connexins (Cx), that mediate rapid intercellular communication via direct electric contact and diffusion of metabolites [1]. (science20.com)
  • Although the mass and charge transport occurs by advection by thermal velocity fluctuations, it can macroscopically be represented as electrodiffusion with renormalized electric conductivity and a nonzero cation-anion diffusion coefficient. (pnas.org)
  • At the same time, for infinitely dilute solutions the renormalized electric conductivity and renormalized diffusion coefficients are consistent and the classical PNP equations with renormalized coefficients are recovered, demonstrating the self-consistency of the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations. (pnas.org)
  • Trends in electrical conductivities computed from the ion diffusion coefficients are also compared. (osti.gov)
  • In this work, a comprehensive overview of techniques available to measure the electrical properties of the gas diffusion media of PEM fuel cells is given. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The conductivity of a solution is highly temperature dependent, so it is important either to use a temperature compensated instrument, or to calibrate the instrument at the same temperature as the solution being measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conductivity is highly temperature dependent. (scribd.com)
  • The field-scale application of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) to agriculture has its origin in the measurement of soil salinity, which is an arid-zone problem associated with irrigated agricultural land and with areas having shallow water tables. (psu.edu)
  • Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement that is frequently used for the spatio-temporal characterization of edaphic (e.g., salinity, water content, texture, and bulk density) and anthropogenic (e.g., leaching fraction) properties. (psu.edu)
  • Development of an equation to relate electrical conductivity to soil and water salinity in a Mediterranean agricultural environment. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The measurement of the electrical conductivity (EC) in soil saturation extracts has been widely used for years as a fast and reliable evaluation of soil salinity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Using the Linear Least Square Method in determining the relationship between salinity, electrical conductivity, density and pH for water in some parts of Nigeria. (ajol.info)
  • This study was aimed at generating a mathematical relationship connecting four quality parameters of water, namely salinity, electrical conductivity, density and pH. (ajol.info)
  • The scaling on the electrodes needs to be taken into account, otherwise the conductivity measurement drifts, requiring increased calibration and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conductivity-oxygen fugacity relationship allows for the determination of the possible conducting defect species. (springer.com)
  • Because the accurate determination of thermal conductivity is a demanding task (often not recognized by either designers or vendors), methods, based on the measurement of another physical property that is uniquely coupled to thermal conductivity, are very challenging. (electronics-cooling.com)
  • Using the approximation error model, we reconstruct the conductivity and a low rank approximation for the realization of the modeling error, and then recover an approximation for the domain boundary using the joint distribution of the modeling error and the boundary parametrization. (begellhouse.com)
  • Citation Query Accuracy issues in electromagnetic induction sensing of soil electrical conductivity for precision agriculture. (psu.edu)
  • SAE ARP1870 Aerospace Systems Electrical Bonding and Grounding for Electromagnetic Compatibility and Safety. (eng-tips.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) Modern research has found no simple, inexpensive way to alter a material s thermal conductivity at room temperature. (nanowerk.com)
  • They did it without resorting to expensive surgeries like changing the material s composition or forcing phase transitions to other states of matter ( Nano Letters , 'Room-Temperature Voltage Tunable Phonon Thermal Conductivity via Reconfigurable Interfaces in Ferroelectric Thin Films' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • And prior to our demonstration of a solid-state, fast, room-temperature means to alter thermal conductivity, analogous means to control the transport of phonons have not existed. (nanowerk.com)
  • Fig.3, shows the a.c. conductivity verses frequency plots obtained at room temperature of LMO thin films as deposited and post-annealed at various temperatures. (techconnect.org)
  • Fig. 5, shows the imaginary part of electric modulus (M') verses Log (ω) plots obtained at room temperature of LMO thin films as-deposited and post-annealed at different temperatures. (techconnect.org)
  • Increasing this movement (increasing temperature) decreases conductivity because the molecules are more likely to get in the way of current flow. (thoughtco.com)
  • Industrial conductivity probes often employ an inductive method, which has the advantage that the fluid does not wet the electrical parts of the sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, the electrical properties are dependent on the solid material of which the layers are composed as well as their physical structure (e.g. fiber alignment and geometry and porosity). (fraunhofer.de)
  • The relationship of sigma-a and sigma-b to the elements of the correctly expressed conductivity tensor for TTF-TCNQ is clarified. (illinois.edu)
  • This result shows the vital role of ligand oxidation in the electrical conductivity of some 2D MOFs, expanding the understanding of the origin of electrical conductivity in this type of MOFs. (innovations-report.com)
  • The metal-organic framework Cu-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxytriphenylene (Cu 3 hhtp 2 -MOF), a copper-based graphene-like framework, is one of the few MOFs featuring inherent electrical conductivity. (rsc.org)
  • Such measures require special apparatus and extremely careful handling of the materials, all of which adds cost to the fabricating of electrical devices incorporating these materials to which electrical contact must be made. (google.com)
  • An example of an apparatus for studying the electrical characteristics of blood can be found in U.S. Pat. (google.com)
  • An addition of ethylene glycol resulted in higher electrical conductivity of the coated mats than that of isopropanol. (scientific.net)