The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain DITERPENES.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physical forces and actions in living things.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Relating to the size of solids.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.

Effect of electrotonic potentials on pacemaker activity of canine Purkinje fibers in relation to parasystole. (1/6934)

Isolated false tendons excised form dog hearts were mounted in a three-chamber tissue bath. Isotonic sucrose solution was perfused in the central chamber to provide a region of depressed conductivity between the fiber segments in chambers 1 and 3, which were perfused with Tyrode's solution. The electrotonic influence of spontaneous or driven responses evoked in chamber 3 during the first half of the spontaneous cycle of a chamber 1 peacemaker delayed the next spontaneous discharge. This effect changed to acceleration when the chamber 3 segment fired during the second half of the spontaneous cycle. We found that subthreshold depolarizing current pulses 50-300 msec applied across the sucrose gap caused similar degrees of delay or acceleration. Furthermore, hyperpolarizing currents caused the reverse pattern. The results indicate that the discharge pattern of a parasystolic focus may be altered by the electrotonic influence of activity in the surrounding tissue. The significance of these findings is considered in relation to the mechanism of production of parasystolic rhythms.  (+info)

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (2/6934)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Single synaptic events evoke NMDA receptor-mediated release of calcium from internal stores in hippocampal dendritic spines. (3/6934)

We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists block the synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients; the block by AMPA antagonists is relieved by low Mg2+. The Ca2+ transients are mainly due to the release of calcium from internal stores, since they are abolished by antagonists of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR); CICR antagonists, however, do not depress spine Ca2+ transients generated by backpropagating action potentials. These results have implications for synaptic plasticity, since they show that synaptic stimulation can activate NMDA receptors, evoking substantial Ca2+ release from the internal stores in spines without inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD).  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (4/6934)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

Small conductance potassium channels cause an activity-dependent spike frequency adaptation and make the transfer function of neurons logarithmic. (5/6934)

We made a computational model of a single neuron to study the effect of the small conductance (SK) Ca2+-dependent K+ channel on spike frequency adaptation. The model neuron comprised a Na+ conductance, a Ca2+ conductance, and two Ca2+-independent K+ conductances, as well as a small and a large (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ conductance, a Ca2+ pump, and mechanisms for Ca2+ buffering and diffusion. Sustained current injection that simulated synaptic input resulted in a train of action potentials (APs) which in the absence of the SK conductance showed very little adaptation with time. The transfer function of the neuron was nearly linear, i.e., both asymptotic spike rate as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were approximately linear functions of the input current. Adding an SK conductance with a steep nonlinear dependence on [Ca2+]i (. Pflugers Arch. 422:223-232; Kohler, Hirschberg, Bond, Kinzie, Marrion, Maylie, and Adelman. 1996. Science. 273:1709-1714) caused a marked time-dependent spike frequency adaptation and changed the transfer function of the neuron from linear to logarithmic. Moreover, the input range the neuron responded to with regular spiking increased by a factor of 2.2. These results can be explained by a shunt of the cell resistance caused by the activation of the SK conductance. It might turn out that the logarithmic relationships between the stimuli of some modalities (e.g., sound or light) and the perception of the stimulus intensity (Fechner's law) have a cellular basis in the involvement of SK conductances in the processing of these stimuli.  (+info)

Selectivity and permeation in calcium release channel of cardiac muscle: alkali metal ions. (6/6934)

Current was measured from single open channels of the calcium release channel (CRC) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (over the range +/-180 mV) in pure and mixed solutions (e.g., biionic conditions) of the alkali metal ions Li+, K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, ranging in concentration from 25 mM to 2 M. The current-voltage (I-V) relations were analyzed by an extension of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) formulation of electrodiffusion, which includes local chemical interaction described by an offset in chemical potential, which likely reflects the difference in dehydration/solvation/rehydration energies in the entry/exit steps of permeation. The theory fits all of the data with few adjustable parameters: the diffusion coefficient of each ion species, the average effective charge distribution on the wall of the pore, and an offset in chemical potential for lithium and sodium ions. In particular, the theory explains the discrepancy between "selectivities" defined by conductance sequence and "selectivities" determined by the permeability ratios (i.e., reversal potentials) in biionic conditions. The extended PNP formulation seems to offer a successful combined treatment of selectivity and permeation. Conductance selectivity in this channel arises mostly from friction: different species of ions have different diffusion coefficients in the channel. Permeability selectivity of an ion is determined by its electrochemical potential gradient and local chemical interaction with the channel. Neither selectivity (in CRC) seems to involve different electrostatic interaction of different ions with the channel protein, even though the ions have widely varying diameters.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin forms anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayers: possible implications for the mechanism of cellular vacuolation. (7/6934)

The Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin plays a major role in the gastric pathologies associated with this bacterium. When added to cultured cells, VacA induces vacuolation, an effect potentiated by preexposure of the toxin to low pH. Its mechanism of action is unknown. We report here that VacA forms anion-selective, voltage-dependent pores in artificial membranes. Channel formation was greatly potentiated by acidic conditions or by pretreatment of VacA at low pH. No requirement for particular lipid(s) was identified. Selectivity studies showed that anion selectivity was maintained over the pH range 4.8-12, with the following permeability sequence: Cl- approximately HCO3- > pyruvate > gluconate > K+ approximately Li+ approximately Ba2+ > NH4+. Membrane permeabilization was due to the incorporation of channels with a voltage-dependent conductance in the 10-30 pS range (2 M KCl), displaying a voltage-independent high open probability. Deletion of the NH2 terminus domain (p37) or chemical modification of VacA by diethylpyrocarbonate inhibited both channel activity and vacuolation of HeLa cells without affecting toxin internalization by the cells. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that VacA channel formation is needed to induce cellular vacuolation, possibly by inducing an osmotic imbalance of intracellular acidic compartments.  (+info)

Characterization of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-gated channels in the plasma membrane of rat olfactory neurons. (8/6934)

It is generally accepted that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) plays a role in olfactory transduction. However, the precise mode of action of InsP3 remains controversial. We have characterized the conductances activated by the addition of 10 microM InsP3 to excised patches of soma plasma membrane from rat olfactory neurons. InsP3 induced current fluctuations in 25 of 121 inside-out patches. These conductances could be classified into two groups according to the polarity of the current at a holding potential of +40 to +60 mV (with Ringer's in the pipette and pseudointracellular solution in the bath). Conductances mediating outward currents could be further divided into large- (64 +/- 4 pS, n = 4) and small- (16 +/- 1.7 pS, n = 11) conductance channels. Both small- and large-conductance channels were nonspecific cation channels. The large-conductance channel displayed bursting behavior at +40 mV, with flickering increasing at negative holding potentials to the point where single-channel currents were no longer discernible. The small-conductance channel did not display flickering behavior. The conductance mediating inward currents at +40 to +60 mV reversed at +73 +/- 4 mV (n = 4). The current traces displayed considerable fluctuations, and single-channel currents could not be discerned. The current fluctuations returned to baseline after removal of InsP3. The power density spectrum for the excess noise generated by InsP3 followed a 1/f dependence consistent with conductance fluctuations in the channel mediating this current, although other mechanisms are not excluded. These experiments demonstrate the presence of plasma membrane InsP3-gated channels of different ionic specificity in olfactory receptor cells.  (+info)

This report results from a contract tasking Harwell Laboratory as follows: The effects of radiation on electrical conductivity in ceramic insulators are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect in which large increases in the intrinsic electrical conductivity have been observed following irradiation within a restricted temperature range whiles subject to electric fields >600 V/cm. The aim of the present work was to extend the studies of the RIED effect to plasma-sprayed forms of alumina and spinel.*ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
Definition of electric conductivity in the dictionary. Meaning of electric conductivity. What does electric conductivity mean? Information and translations of electric conductivity in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
This paper studies the effect of equal channel angular pressing-Conform (ECAP-C) and further artificial aging (AA) on microstructure, mechanical, and electrical properties of Al 6101 alloy. As is shown, ECAP-C at 130 °C with six cycles resulted in the formation of an ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure with a grain size of 400-600 nm containing nanoscale spherical metastable β′ and stable β second-phase precipitates. As a result, processed wire rods demonstrated the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 308 MPa and electrical conductivity of 53.1% IACS. Electrical conductivity can be increased without any notable degradation in mechanical strength of the UFG alloy by further AA at 170 °C and considerably enhanced by additional decomposition of solid solution accompanied by the formation of rod-shaped metastable β′ precipitates mainly in the ultrafine grain interior and by the decrease of the alloying element content in the Al matrix. It is demonstrated that ECAP-C can be used to process Al-Mg-Si
We aimed at providing an accurate estimation of human brain tissue electrical conductivity in clinico, using local, low-intensity pulsed stimulation. Methods: Using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell equations, we derived an analytical model of the electric field generated by intracerebral stereotactic-EEG (SEEG) electrodes. We coupled this electric field model with a model of the electrode-electrolyte interface to provide an explicit, analytical expression of brain tissue conductivity based on the recorded brain tissue response to pulse stimulation. Results: We validated our biophysical model using: i) saline solutions calibrated in electrical conductivity, ii) rat brain tissue, and iii) electrophysiological data recorded in clinico from two epileptic patients during SEEG. Conclusion: This new model-based method offers a fast and reliable estimation of brain tissue electrical conductivity by accounting for contributions from the electrode-electrolyte interface. Significance: This method
Ag-Sn-phthalocyanine-Ag junctions are shown to exhibit three conductance states. While the junctions are conductive at low bias, their impedance drastically increases above a critical bias. Two-level fluctuations occur at intermediate bias. These characteristics may be used to protect a nanoscale circuit. Further experiments along with calculations reveal that the self-limiting conductance of the junctions is due to reversible changes of the junction geometry ...
Heres a development that could have significant implications for electrochemistry, biochemistry, electrical engineering and many other fields: a Nature Materials paper is about computer simulations which find that the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical field in a universal way. Electrical conductivit
Electrical conductivity is used to estimate the soluble salt concentration in soil, and is commonly used as a measure of salinity. Soil with EC below 400 µS/cm are considered marginally or non-saline, while soils above 800 µS/cm are considered severely saline.. ...
Electrical conductivity is used to estimate the soluble salt concentration in soil, and is commonly used as a measure of salinity. Soil with EC below 400 µS/cm are considered marginally or non-saline, while soils above 800 µS/cm are considered severely saline.. ...
Temperature and melt anomalies of hotspot inferred from electrical conductivityTemperature and melt anomalies of hotspot inferred from electrical conductivity ...
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Conductivity: (0.00~20.00)μS/cm (20.0~200.0)μS/cm (200~2000)μS/cm (2.00~20.00)mS/cm (20.0~200.0) mS/cm (200~2000) mS/cm (K=10) Resistivity: (0 ~ 100) MΩ·cm TDS: (0 ~ 100) g/L Salinity: (0 ~ 100) ppt 0.01/0.1/1μS/cm 0.01/0.1/1mS/cm Electrode: ±0.5% FS, Instrument: ±0.80%FS (0 ~ 100) ℃ (automatic) 0.1/1/10 cm-1 25℃, 20℃,18℃ ...
P.628 left column 2nd paragraph: The single-channel conductance values with and without ATP (determined from the slopes of the lines in Fig. 2b,c) are 3.04 and 5.24 nS, respectively. Thus, ATP reduced the conductance by 42%, results in excellent agreement with the experimental drop of 43% observed in single-channel currents under saturating ATP [primary source ...
Starter 300C Conductivity Portable Convenient Portable Conductivity Meter for Wherever Your Work Takes You ST300C-B Measurement Range 00.0 μS/cm - 199.9 mS/cm;0.1 mg/L - 199.9 g/L (TDS);0 - 100 &
Spi-Ceramic coatings are highly adherent nanocrystalline thin films deposited using N2 Biomedicals low temperature ion beam assisted deposition process. Al
Exposure of ZnPc films to different doses of electron beam (10 MeV) leads to a linear rise in the electrical conductance due to enhancement in content of ...
The transport mechanism of organic materials is still far away from being well understood and controlled although conducting polymers have been discovered since 1977. It is rare to see conducting polyers possessing high bipolar (p- and n-type) electrical conductivities within a single bulk dop...
The Onewheel uses a the Constant Current/Constant Voltage charge technique (CCCV) its pretty common for quick charging. So what happens is when you plug into the board the charger will start giving max current which is 3.5A on this charger. Then at 80% ...
The researchers discovered that doping this MOF with iodine changes its conductivity and magnetism. Pristine NiTAA-MOF conducts poorly. It is actually an insulator with an electrical conductivity smaller than 10-10 Siemens per centimeter.. However, when it is chemically oxidized by iodine, the same measurement rises to 0.01 Siemens per centimeter (the larger this number, the better the conductor). This result shows the vital role of ligand oxidation in the electrical conductivity of some 2D MOFs, expanding the understanding of the origin of electrical conductivity in this type of MOFs.. In addition, the team checked how this material becomes magnetized in an applied magnetic field. Magnetization measurements performed by the researchers of the School of Materials Science showed that iodine-doped NiTAA-MOF is paramagnetic, that is it is weakly attracted by an external magnetic field, and becomes antiferromagnetic at very low temperatures. This means that it could become useful as a polarizing ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Electrical Conductivity at Make research projects and school reports about Electrical Conductivity easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
MEP home page for methods and instrumentation for modern titration, ion chromatography, pH and conductivity measurement, NIR and Raman ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In situ measurements of the electrical conductivity of bismuth molybdate catalysts in operation for oxidative dehydrogenation of butene. AU - van Oeffelen, D.A.G.. AU - Hooff, van, J.H.C.. AU - Schuit, G.C.A.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - In situ measurement of electrical conductivities were performed on MoO3, Bi2Mo2O9, and Bi2MoO6 (koechlinite), the latter either as such or doped with small amounts of Mo or Bi; the reaction applied was the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene. The reaction was performed in continuous flow or by pulsing butene over the catalyst, often followed by the addition of O2 pulses. The catalysts were characterized by surface area, XRD, and XPS. The latter measurements showed that surface Bi/Mo ratios were often different from those in the bulk; reduction by butene at temperatures around 673 K sometimes led to considerable changes in the surface Bi/Mo ratio that ran parallel with changes in activity. Pulsing butene in a He carrier stream over the ...
A new technique for measuring the electrical conductivity of small samples and its application to the organic conductor tetrathiafulvalenetetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is reported. A movable current sour(:e provided by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope is used to map out the potential distribution on crystal faces containing the a-b crystallographic axes. Silver paint contacts are used to return the beam current to ground and measure voltage changes as the beam position is moved. The results of the new technique are confirmed and complemented by the conventional movable contact method and the extension of both methods to low temperature is discussed. The potential distributions for our samples reveal frequently occurring irregularities in current flow which are attributable to sample imperfections and inhomogeneities in the silver paint contacts. Methods are presented whereby the commonly reported conductivities 0a and 0b can be determined despite the presence of certain ...
Introduction. Investigate the electrical conductivity of salt solutions Aim To determine whether the concentration of sodium chloride in solutions affects the electrical conductivity of the solution Background Electrical conductivity is the ability to carry out the flow of an electric current. In solutions, this depends almost entirely on the solute present. Ions are capable of carrying an electrical current. When sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved into water, Na+ and Cl- ions are formed, which are able to conduct electricity. Electrical conductivity is measured in microSiemens per centimetre (�S/cm) more. Middle. Controlling Variables Table 3,Variables and Method of control Type Variable Method of control Why is it to be controlled Controlled Volume of sodium chloride solution Measured using a 100mL cylinder (+0.5mL) All errors in measurement will be consistent The temperature under which the reaction occurs All reactions will be conducted under the same lab conditions Errors ...
Instantaneous current-voltage relations for α1G channels. (A) Sample current records, with 5 kHz Gaussian filtering, from cell e8612. The initial step to +60
Missing data or blank values are caused by maintenance time periods or where sensor measurements are obviously wrong in the context of what would be expected. For example, the conductivity sensor has a relatively small opening and chamber for the conductivity electrodes, the estuary can have varying suspended sediment/detrital loads moving in the water column which enter the conductivity cell shorting out the electrodes making a faulty conductivity measurement (lower than expected). Oxygen measurements are dependent upon the conductivity measurements so the oxygen also becomes erroneous. Obvious measurements/data errors have been removed from the data set however the user of this data should also conduct their own data analysis to determine if the data are suitable for their particular situation ...
Missing data or blank values are caused by maintenance time periods or where sensor measurements are obviously wrong in the context of what would be expected. For example, the conductivity sensor has a relatively small opening and chamber for the conductivity electrodes, the estuary can have varying suspended sediment/detrital loads moving in the water column which enter the conductivity cell shorting out the electrodes making a faulty conductivity measurement (lower than expected). Oxygen measurements are dependent upon the conductivity measurements so the oxygen also becomes erroneous. Obvious measurements/data errors have been removed from the data set however the user of this data should also conduct their own data analysis to determine if the data are suitable for their particular situation ...
Poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) was chemically synthesized via oxidative polymerization using benzene and doped with FeCl3. The electrical conductivity response of the doped PPP (dPPP) towards CO, H2 and NH3 is investigated. dPPP shows no electrical conductivity response towards the first two gases (CO and H2), but it shows a definite negative response towards NH3. The electrical conductivity sensitivity of dPPP increases linearly with increasing NH3 concentration. To improve the sensitivity of the sensor towards NH3, ZSM-5 zeolite is added into the conductive polymer matrix. The electrical sensitivity of the sensor increases with increasing zeolite content up to 30%. The effect of the type of cation in the zeolite pores is investigated: namely, Na+, K+, NH4+ and H+. The electrical conductivity sensitivity of the composites with different cations in the zeolite can be arranged in this order: K+ | no zeolite | Na+ | NH4+ | H+. The variation in electrical sensitivity with cation type can be described in terms of
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article{FUBGEOPHYBrasse2006, author = {Brasse, H. and Team, EMTESZ-Pomerania}, title = {Probing Electrical Conductivity of the Trans-European Suture Zone}, journal = {EOS}, year = {2006}, volume = {87}, number = {29 ...
NEURON PROGRAM FOR SIMULATING PYRAMIDAL NEURON CONDUCTANCES STATE AND STDP Delgado JY, Gómez González JF, Desai NS. Pyramidal neuron conductance state gates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 24;30 (47):15713-25. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3068-10.2010 Folders: ..\morphology\ : contains the morphology of the model cell ..\mechanism\ : contains mechanisms of the model cell ..\experiment\ : contains experiments and data of simulations Instructions: 0- Auto-launch from ModelDB and skip to step 3 or: 1- Copy all the folders into your computer. 2- To Compile the mechanisms, you have to execute clean-compile.bat file in folder ..\mechanism\mechanism_cell1\ (for mswin). For linux/unix compile the mod files with nrnivmodl. 3- Simulations: a) Execute run.hoc from ..\experiment\ folder. b) Fit the morphology variable (diameter and length of dendrites and soma, position and morphology of the spine) and parameters of the mechanisms, etc, if it was necessary. c) There are two ...
After the complete neutralization of the acid, further addition of NaoH causes increase in the conductance value due to fast moving OH- ions. The point of intersection of these lines gives the end point of the titration. Type III Titration of strong acid Vs weak base: Hcl is taken in the conductivity cell and NH4OHis taken in the burette. At the beginning of the titration the conductance of the solution will be very high since it is a strong electrolyte , source: Excited States: Rotational Effects on the Behavior of Excited Molecules Excited States: Rotational Effects on. Therefore specific conductance decreases. Equivalent conductance depends upon the total number of ions present in the solution. Hence equivalent conductance increases on dilution. (E.g.) Hcl, NaoH, Nacl, Kcl etc. The electrolyte which undergo poor dissociation on dilution is called weak electrolyte. 2) At normal concentrations equivalent conductance is high Outlines of Physical Chemistry read online Outlines of Physical ...
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Study Chalter 12 Specific Resistance To Infection flashcards from Cherilynn Yap's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
In some materials, such as metals, outermost electrons are free to move while in other materials, such as rubber, these electrons are not free to move. The relative mobility of electrons to move within a material is defined as electric conductivity. Hence, materials with high electron mobility are conductors. On the other hand, materials with low electron mobility are called insulators.. ...
S. Kuyucak and S. H. Chung. Temperature dependence of conductivity in electrolyte solutions and ionic channels of biological membrane. Biophysical Chemistry 52, 15-24, 1994.. P. W. Gage and S. H. Chung. Influence of membrane potential on conductance sublevels of chloride channels activated by GABA. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B225, 167-172, 1994.. D. A. Saint, M. K. Pugsley and S. H. Chung. An analysis of cardiac sodium channel properties using digital signal processing techniques. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1196, 131-138, 1994.. L. J. Reece, S. S. Dhanjal and S. H. Chung. Zinc induces hyper-excitability in the hippocampus. Neuroreport 5, 2669-2672, 1994.. G. W. Pulford, R. A. Kennedy and S. H. Chung. Identification of individual kinetics from recordings containing many identical channels. Signal Processing 43 (No. 2), 207-221, 1995 ...
Conductivity / TDS / Resistivity / Salinity Series Vagadziri, Fekitori, Vatengesi Kubva kuChina, Tinogamuchirwa kutishanyira chero nguva yehukama hwebhizinesi hwakagadzwa.
The first study to inject synaptic noise in cortical neurons using dynamic-clamp and artificially recreate high-conductance states was proposed about 6 years ago (Destexhe et al., 2001), and was followed by a number of studies which investigated different aspects of high-conductance states using this technique (Chance et al., 2002; Prescott and Dekoninck, 2003; Fellous et al., 2003; Shu et al., 2003; Wolfart et al., 2005). To this end, one needs first to generate an appropriate model of stochastic synaptic activity because thousands of synapses releasing randomly cannot be simulated in real time. A stochastic point-conductance model was proposed (Destexhe et al., 2001), which consists in two fluctuating synaptic conductances described by one-variable stochastic processes (Fig. 6A; red and blue traces). These processes are adjusted to match the total conductance seen at the soma during background activity. These conductances are then injected in dynamic-clamp (Fig. 6A) in order to reproduce the ...
Apart from the need for high ionic conductivities a competitive price is also an important requirement. To this end, our group came up with the idea to substitute Ge by Sn in the famous solid electrolyte Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS). In fact Li10SnP2S12 (LSnPS) assumes the same crystal structure with only minor differences in the occupation of the different Li+ positions. The resulting conductivity of LSnPS (7 mS/cm) is only slightly lower than for LGPS (14 mS/cm) but the replacement of Ge by Sn should reduce the raw material cost by a factor of roughly 3. This led to an even higher interest in this material class and a lot of research is still focused on LSnPS proving it to be still highly topical.. In addition to our research efforts in the field of Li+ electrolytes we are - in cooperation with the research group of Prof. Dr. Stefanie Dehnen - also investigating chalcogenide-based Na+ electrolytes. Even though a lot of the knowledge about Li+ conductors can be transferred to its bigger chemical ...
Rule W. On the Variation of the Electromotive Force in a Photoactive Cell, Containing a Fluorescent Electrolyte, with the Intensity of ...
Shahil Shah, ParthaSarathi Sensarma, Three Degree of Freedom Robust Voltage Controller for Instantaneous Current Sharing Among Voltage Source Inverters in Parallel in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics , December 2010, Vol 25, Number 12, pp 3003-3014. ...
Only in the case of an infinite cylinder. In general, the steady-state space constant (sometimes called length constant) lambda is defined as lambda = sqrt((r*R_m)/(2*R_i)), where r is the radius of the cylinder, R_m is the specific membrane resistance, and R_i is the specific intracellular (axial) resistivity (p. 64). In a cable with sealed ends, steady-state voltage will have decayed to values that are greater than 1/e at lambda (i.e. less attenuation), while it will have decayed to values that are smaller than 1/e in a cable with open ends (Fig. 4.15, p. 79 ...
Balego & Associates Inc. - Chattanooga Ionto™ Dual Channel Drug Delivery Phoresor Device [199518-001] - Chattanooga Ionto™ device delivers reliability. The Chattanooga Ionto device delivers constant current no matter what level of resistance is encountered. By varying the voltage output as resistance changes the device consistently delivers the programmed dose. Current can be set in 0.1 mA increments between 0.5 mA and 4 mA. It also has a pause feature
Materials are important to mankind because of the benefits that can be derived from the manipulation of their properties, for example electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, magnetization, optical transmittance, strength and toughness. Materials science is a broad field and can be considered to be an interdisciplinary area. Included within it are the studies of the structure and properties of any material, the creation of new types of materials, and the manipulation of a materials properties to suit the needs of a specific application.... ...
110 Copper Sheet (ETP copper) has a wide range of uses, particularly where electrical conductivity is required. We can cut to any size to suit your application's needs.
Data: Technical design, whether of laboratory instruments or for industry and commerce, depends on knowledge of the properties of materials (density, strength, electrical conductivity, etc.), some of which can only be found by very elaborate experiments (e.g., those dealing with the masses and excited states…
Recently, the question has often been raised as to when the effects of imperfect conductivity must be taken into account when studying the echo area of a wire scatterer such as the dipole. This paper clearly shows the conditions under which the echo area is sensitive to the conductivity. Curves for imperfectly conducting resonant dipoles are presented that show the dependence of the maximum echo area upon conductivity, frequency and dipole diameter. The maximum echo area is defined to be the peak echo area at first resonance. The maximum echo area is related to the penetration of the electric field into the dipole. This makes it possible to obtain a universal curve that may be used to determine the maximum echo area of a specified dipole without actual computation of its resonance curve.
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Phase Label(s): UNiSn rt | Property Class(es): antiferromagnet AFM, ferromagnet FM, metal, nonmetal | Springer & Material Phases Data System 2016
At first sight, with superficial reasoning, the rectification, or correction, of a given birth time seems appropriate and necessary: We certainly do need an exact and reliable basis for any astrological interpretation. However, none of the diverse methods of rectification provides the desired safety or assurance.
At first sight, with superficial reasoning, the rectification, or correction, of a given birth time seems appropriate and necessary: We certainly do need an exact and reliable basis for any astrological interpretation. However, none of the diverse methods of rectification provides the desired safety or assurance.
Kohlrausch Law | An introduction to Kohlrausch Law, Kohlrausch Law definition and its Applications | To learn more visit us at BYJUS.
Variables: dissolved_organic_carbon electric_conductivity Substances: 5-Fluoro Cytosine (XRECTZIEBJDKEO-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazin (VHFVKMTVMIZMIK-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Filter Results ...
Variables: dissolved_oygen electric_conductivity concentration Substances: 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (KKIMDKMETPPURN-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazin (VHFVKMTVMIZMIK-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Filter Results ...
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An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. It has multiple applications in ... σT is the electrical conductivity at the temperature T, σTcal is the electrical conductivity at the calibration temperature ... Conductivity factor Salinometer Total dissolved solids TDS meter Wikimedia Commons has media related to Electrical conductivity ... ASTM D1125 - 95(2009) Standard Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of Water ASTM D5682 DIN 55667 (Articles ...
Comparison of the electrical conductivity of various elements in WolframAlpha Partial and total conductivity. "Electrical ... The good electrical conductivity of plasmas makes their electric fields very small. This results in the important concept of ... The SI unit of electrical conductivity is siemens per metre (S/m). Resistivity and conductivity are intensive properties of ... Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of Water ASTM D5391 Standard Test Method for Electrical Conductivity ...
The conductivity factor (CF) of dissolved salts in a given solution is a measurement of conductivity. Using the electrical ... "Electrical Conductivity (EC) - Growth Technology". Archived from the original on 2018-03-31. Retrieved 2018-03-30. EC meter TDS ... For a discussion of conductivity in this context, see Total dissolved solids. CF (conductivity factor) is basically EC ... Electrical conductivity can be expressed using a number of different units but the international standard is EC, and the unit ...
Surface and volume conductivity of liquids correspond to the electrically driven motion of ions in an electric field. A layer ... This leads to the higher electric conductivity of this layer. Smoluchowski was the first to recognize the importance of surface ... Interface and Colloid Science Surface conductivity may refer to the electrical conduction across a solid surface measured by ... Surface conductivity differs from bulk conductivity for analogous reasons to the electrolyte solution case, where the charge ...
Buerschaper, Robert A. (1944). "Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Graphite and Carbon at Low Temperatures". Journal of ... An online thermal conductivity calculator Thermal Conductivities of Solders Thermal conductivity of air as a function of ... Cederkrantz, Daniel (11 February 2021). "Thermal Conductivity of Water". "Thermal conductivity of saturated ... "Effect of relative humidity and sea level pressure on electrical conductivity of air over Indian Ocean". Journal of Geophysical ...
... refers to the electrical conductivity of the subsurface of the earth. In the International System of Units ... For this reason ITU publishes an extensive world atlas of ground conductivities. Ground conductivity is sometimes used in ... Taylor, Rick; Lee, Doolittle (June 2003). "Ground conductivity survey of a septic system during and after failure". Retrieved ... "Recommendation ITU-R P.832-2, World Atlas of Ground Conductivities" (PDF) (PDF). International Telecommunication Union (ITU). ...
Clerc, J. P.; Giraud, G.; Laugier, J. M.; Luck, J. M. (1990). "The electrical conductivity of binary disordered systems, ... The behavior of the conductivity near this percolation threshold will show a smooth change over from the conductivity of the ... Conductivity near the percolation threshold in physics, occurs in a mixture between a dielectric and a metallic component. The ... The exponent t is one of the two critical exponents for electrical percolation. In the other well-known case of a ...
... is a measure of a material's electrical conductivity, σ, under thermodynamically adiabatic conditions. ... Electrical phenomena, All stub articles, Thermodynamics stubs). ...
... electrical conductivity, called AC conductivity. With sinusoidal time dependence on all quantities, i.e. H = Re [ H 0 e − i ω t ... complex electric permittivity; AC conductivity (susceptance). Note that in many of these cases there are multiple, conflicting ... Another way to incorporate attenuation is through the electric conductivity, as follows. One of the equations governing ... Generally, physicists and chemists use the convention on the left (with e−iωt), while electrical engineers use the convention ...
Molar conductivity has the SI unit S m2 mol−1. Older publications use the unit Ω−1 cm2 mol−1. The electrical conductivity of a ... Conductivity sensors are typically calibrated with KCl solutions of known conductivity. Electrolytic conductivity is highly ... Beyond cation conductivity, there are analytical instruments designed to measure Degas conductivity, where conductivity is ... Marija Bešter-Rogač and Dušan Habe, "Modern Advances in Electrical Conductivity Measurements of Solutions", Acta Chim. Slov. ...
While this effect occurs in other materials, graphene is superior due to its high electrical conductivity (even when few ... Graphene solar cells use graphene's unique combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. This material ... Due to Graphene's high electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance, one potential ... Steinhogl, Werner (August 23, 2002). "Electrical resistivity and conductivity". Physical Review B. Kim, Sang Jin (2018). " ...
Electrical conductivity: 34% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 240 to 300 MPa, or 35 to 44 ksi. Thermal Conductivity: 130 W/m-K ...
Given the good electrical and thermal conductivity in metals and the poor electrical and thermal conductivity in insulators, a ... Dividing the thermal conductivity κ {\displaystyle \kappa } by the electrical conductivity σ = n e 2 τ m {\displaystyle \sigma ... to give the relation between the thermal conductivity and the electric conductivity of metals (see Lorenz number), and is a ... "Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity". In Webster, John G. (ed.). Electrical Measurement, Signal Processing, and Displays. ...
Electrical conductivity: 32% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 230 to 330 MPa, or 33 to 48 ksi. Thermal Conductivity: 130 W/m-K ...
Electrical conductivity: 29% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 310 to 350 MPa, or 45 to 51 ksi. Thermal Conductivity: 120 W/m-K ...
Electrical conductivity: 44% IACS. Young's modulus: 69 GPa, or 10 Msi. Ultimate tensile strength: 280 to 390 MPa, or 41 to 57 ...
Atomic conductance is the electrical conductivity of one mole of a substance. It is equal to electrical conductivity divided by ... being translucent and having a low electrical conductivity of 10−14 to 10−16 S·cm−1. Graphite has an electrical conductivity of ... The Analysis of the Electrical Conductivity of Graphite Conductivity of Graphite Powders During Compaction', Journal of Physics ... Metalloids have electrical conductivity values of from 1.5 × 10−6 S•cm−1 for boron to 3.9 × 104 for arsenic. If selenium is ...
ISBN 978-0-7506-2635-4. L. D. Landau; A. S. Kompaneets (1965) [1935]. The electrical conductivity of metals. ONTI, Kharkiv. L. ...
More ductile, better electrical conductivity. Copper-rich alloys prone to stress cracking by ammonia. Au-Ag Gold-silver. Noble ... providing good thermal and electrical conductivity, and providing an interface for electronic connections. Square, rectangular ... Furnaces are typically heated using either electric, gas or oil depending on the type of furnace and application. However, some ... electrolytic copper or high-conductivity copper, are. The embrittled joint may then fail catastrophically without any previous ...
Chiang, C. K. (1977-01-01). "Electrical Conductivity in Doped Polyacetylene". Physical Review Letters. 39 (17): 1098-1101. ... electrical engineering, materials science, mechanical engineering and chemistry. However, one of the ongoing challenges is in ... electrical engineering, physics, mechanical engineering, and chemistry. There is also considerable overlap with nanotechnology ... Biological engineering Biomolecular engineering Chemical engineering Chemistry Electrical engineering Materials science and ...
Heeger, Alan (1977). "Electrical Conductivity in Doped Polyacetylene". Physical Review Letters. 39 (17): 1098-1101. Bibcode: ...
... high thermal and electrical conductivity; retains strength at high temperatures. Magnesium: the easiest metal to machine; ... The thermal conductivity was represented by the reciprocal of the resistivity of the paper. The Acurad system employed a bottom ... This was done by creating an electrical analog of the thermal system. A cross-section of the dies were drawn on Teledeltos ... new project at a large, California-based OEM of electric vehicles. … 105 kgs of molten aluminum … delivered in each shot. ...
Recently, microencapsulated liquid suspensions of metal or carbon black were used to restore electrical conductivity in a ... also been suspended within silicone elastomer to create stretchable electrical conductors that maintain electrical conductivity ... "Autonomic restoration of electrical conductivity". Advanced Materials. 24 (3): 398-401. doi:10.1002/adma.201102888. PMID ... "Microencapsulated carbon black suspensions for restoration of electrical conductivity". Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 (20): 2947-56. ...
"Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Compound". 2011-05-22. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ... Because the solutes are charged ions they also increase the electrical conductivity of the solution. The increased ionic ... and their solutions have a high electrical conductivity. The solubility is highest in polar solvents (such as water) or ionic ... This conductivity gain upon dissolving or melting is sometimes used as a defining characteristic of ionic compounds. In some ...
... or no dependence at all like the electrical conductivity. The thermal conductivity and specific heat are well predicted for ... especially the Wiedemann-Franz law which relates electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity; the temperature dependence ... Directional The conductivity of some metals can depend of the orientation of the sample with respect to the electric field. ... Mainly, the free electron model and the Drude model predict the same DC electrical conductivity σ for Ohm's law, that is J = σ ...
... times electrical conductivity. In pure metals the electrical conductivity decreases with increasing temperature and thus the ... In metals, thermal conductivity is approximately correlated with electrical conductivity according to the Wiedemann-Franz law, ... In alloys the change in electrical conductivity is usually smaller and thus thermal conductivity increases with temperature, ... between thermal conductivity and conductance is analogous to the relationship between electrical conductivity and electrical ...
Such materials exhibit anisotropic electrical conductivity. Most examples are composed of square planar complexes. Thus, upon ... The technique is used to obtain single crystals of low-dimensional electrical conductors. platinum pop Bera, J. K.; Dunbar, K. ...
Electrical Conductivity: 47 to 50% IACS. Young's modulus: 70 GPa, or 10 Msi. Ultimate tensile strength: 190 to 300 MPa, or 28 ... Thermal Conductivity: 180 to 190 W/m-K. Thermal Expansion: 23.3 μm/m-K. Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 8th ...
Electrical conductivity: 34 to 50% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 190 to 480 MPa, or 28 to 70 ksi. Thermal Conductivity: 130 ...
"Autonomic Restoration of Electrical Conductivity" (PDF). Advanced Materials. 24 (3): 398-401. doi:10.1002/adma.201102888. PMID ... "Autonomic Restoration of Electrical Conductivity" (PDF). Advanced Materials. 24 (3): 398-401. doi:10.1002/adma.201102888. PMID ... "Autonomic restoration of electrical conductivity using polymer-stabilized carbon nanotube and graphene microcapsules" (PDF). ... suitable for use in electric and hybrid cars and for storage in the electricity grid. Moore's group is studying redox-active ...
"Locating groundwater discharge in large lakes using bottom sediment electrical conductivity mapping". Water Resources Research ...
It is commonly used in the electrical and chemical industries, on account of having high electrical conductivity, corrosion ...
The thermal conductivity of water is about four times that of oil, which can aid heat transfer. The viscosity of oil can be ten ... such as an electric fan, or which has an adjustable clutch; a thermostatic valve or a thermostat that can block the coolant ... Some make use of titanium pistons and other titanium parts due to its low thermal conductivity and mass. Some designs are able ... and less than a tenth the conductivity, but also much lower viscosity (about 200 times lower: 17.4 × 10−6 Pa·s for air vs 8.94 ...
This factor was determined by electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil which measures the soil salinity. The best soil has the ... It is derived from the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the limiting layer. Saturated hydraulic conductivity measures soil ...
The metal of interest is plated onto the cathode, while the anode is an inert electrical conductor. Electro-refining is used to ... and the DES formulated from these anions are typically much more viscous and can have higher conductivities than for choline ... These physical properties can include density, particle size and shape, electrical and magnetic properties, and surface ... "Processing of Electric Arc Furnace Dust using Deep Eutectic Solvents". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 62 (4): 341-347. doi: ...
The heat transferred is analogous to the electric current and the thermal resistance is analogous to the electrical resistor. ... This law describes many situations in which an object has a large thermal capacity and large conductivity, and is suddenly ... It was developed as a mathematical analog of electrical capacitance, although it also includes thermal analogs of electrical ... In electrical circuits, such a combination would charge or discharge toward the input voltage, according to a simple ...
ISBN 1-57444-662-2. O. V. Mazurin, O. A. Prokhorenko: "Electrical conductivity of glass melts"; Chapter 10 in: "Properties of ... thermal conductivity, heat capacity, absorption spectra, and other relevant properties of the glass melt. The finite element ...
... (Power Electric System) is a driving device for electric vehicles. Hyundai, Genesis, and Kia are using this device in ... where the thermal conductivity of silicon carbide is 1490W/m-K (Watts per meter-Kelvin), compared to the 150W/m-K offered by ... Powering the electric motor, DC-power in the battery is converted to the AC-power used for torque control in the motor. The ... Electrical energy in the battery converts into mechanical energy which the motor then uses to produce power for the vehicle to ...
The choice of isotope ordinarily has little effect on the electrical properties of a material, but does affect the frequency of ... The site comments that "a drastic change in conductivity demanded a drastic change in electron behavior". Conceivably, pairs of ...
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field by virtue of accumulating electric charges on two ... The conductivity of the electrolyte drops at low temperatures, which increases equivalent series resistance. While widely used ... Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal ... volume of electric field}})} The last formula above is equal to the energy density per unit volume in the electric field ...
The key point is that this electric field can cause the "channel" region separating the source and drain to become the same ... in the name refers to changes to the conductivity that occur when a voltage is placed on the gate. ... that changes the electrical properties of the silicon. This allows the silicon to become an electron donor, electron receptor, ... The wafer as a whole is first chosen to have a particular electrical quality as biased either positive, or "p", or negative, "n ...
It is commonly used in the electrical and chemical industries, on account of having high electrical conductivity, corrosion ... 1050 alloy is also sometimes used for the manufacture of heat sinks, since it has a higher thermal conductivity than other ...
Once dry, its conductive properties make it useful for electrical connections on difficult substrates, such as glass. Although ... relatively low in conductivity, surfaces can be made suitable for electroplating, low-frequency shielding, or for creating ...
Dincă's research primarily focuses on electrical conductivity of MOF's, which was previously unknown and resulted in a new ... His focus is on the exploration of increasing electrical conductivity capacities through the marriage of organic and inorganic ...
The electrical conductivity of chemically pure semiconductors can still be affected by crystallographic defects of ... The conductivity of a semiconductor can be modeled in terms of the band theory of solids. The band model of a semiconductor ... In a p-type semiconductor, the dopant produces extra vacancies or holes, which likewise increase the conductivity. It is ... In an n-type semiconductor, the dopant contributes extra electrons, dramatically increasing the conductivity. ...
An additional risk is the (small) electrical conductivity of dust which, given enough accumulation of dust, can cause critical ...
8πW in which Di is the electric displacement vector and W is the field energy. The electric field will induce a deformation in ... The dark conductivity of such a material is given by σ d = e ( N d − N d + ) β μ τ {\displaystyle \sigma _{d}=e\left(N_{d}-N_{d ... The electro-optic effect is a change of the optical properties of a given material in response to an electric field. There are ... However, it is not very difficult to show the relationship between incident light and conductivity in a material with only one ...
"Reliance Electric Co". 11 May 2018. "Reliance Electric in Agreement for Merger with Toledo Scale; MERGERS SLATED BY ... Werner Ingold, Ingold specializes in sensors and electrodes for pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, and dissolved ... In 1957, Reliance Electric Co, merged with Toledo Scale Co. Reliance paid about $70million in stock for the purchase. In 1945, ... Reliance Electric sold the Toledo Scale division to Ciba-Geigy AG. The division was then merged with Mettler Instruments. The ...
Spectral shape analysis Electrical network Kronecker sum of discrete Laplacians Discrete calculus Leventhal, Daniel (Autumn ... for thermal conductivity k {\textstyle k} , d ϕ i d t = − k ∑ j A i j ( ϕ i − ϕ j ) = − k ( ϕ i ∑ j A i j − ∑ j A i j ϕ j ...
He was mentored in his undergraduate years by John J. Karakash, who designed the Electrical Engineering curriculum at Lehigh to ... Showed that dielectric spectroscopy could quantify electronic and ionic conductivities in coatings of colloids and gels 1977- ... the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Society for Imaging Science and Technology. Texter has over 40 ...
... accessed 10 May 2011 Variations of Conductivity under Electrical Influences, By Édouard Branly. Minutes of proceedings of the ... The operation of the coherer is based upon the large electrical contact resistance offered to the passage of electric current ... In On the Changes in Resistance of Bodies under Different Electrical Conditions, he described how the electrical circuit was ... When the electrical circuit, consisting of a Daniell cell, a galvanometer of high resistance, and the metallic conductor, ...
... and precursor to Ludwig Drums Wiedemann-Franz law relating electrical to thermal conductivity of metals Win for Life, a type of ...
"The Electric Photometry of Stars," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 52, no. 308, p.235, 1940. ... was held in place by a special cell that compensated for the different temperature conductivities of the brass and glass so ... Kunz's cell was the predecessor of the modern day "electric eye." Stebbins left for a sabbatical in Europe in fall of 1912. ... In a 1957 speech at the American Astronomical Society, Stebbins recalled the events which led up to the electric cells: She ( ...
However, this only applies to the ideal case of infinite electrical conductivity; The majority of the charge of an actual ... Electric potential, or charge, is the result of an object's capacity to be moved in an electric field. An interfacial potential ... The electric potential is continuous across a surface charge and the electric field is discontinuous, but not infinite; this is ... "The electric double layer". Silver Colloids. 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2011. "The electrical double layer". 2011. Archived from ...
"Light Exposure Increases Crystal's Electrical Conductivity 400-fold [VIDEO]". Nature World News. Retrieved 2013-11-18. "Mixed ... Synthetic strontium titanate has a very large dielectric constant (300) at room temperature and low electric field. It has a ... After the light is turned off, the enhanced conductivity persists for several days, with negligible decay. Due to the ... This material also shows mixed ionic and electronic conductivity which is important as it means the reduction reaction which ...
The cloud of electrons in metallic bonding causes the characteristically good electrical and thermal conductivity of metals, ... electrical and thermal conductivity, ductility, and high tensile strength. There are four basic types of bonds that can be ... Since opposite electric charges attract, the negatively charged electrons surrounding the nucleus and the positively charged ...
... electrical conductivity, vibration frequency, mass, etc. The simplest and thus most popular way is to pass electrical current ...
... dielectric constant and electrical conductivity; this is due at least in part to the weaker hydrogen bonding in NH3 and because ...
... incorporate two pin electrodes which are driven into the wood fibers and directly measure electrical resistance or conductivity ... The non-invasive meter creates a low-frequency electrical wave between the two pads and measures the electrical properties of ... Depending in the brand, pin-type meters measure the electrical resistance, termed resistivity, or its reciprocal, conductance, ...
Their electrical conductivity is sensitive to molecules in the ambient atmosphere, a phenomenon that can be used to detect CO2 ... They move among those sites through bottlenecks, whose size, and thus the NASICON electrical conductivity, depends on the ... Efforts to enhance the movement of electrons, or electrical conductivity, include particle downsizing and carbon-coating which ... NaSICON cathodes typically suffer from poor electrical conductivity and low specific capacity which severely limits their ...
... conductivity, and electric field. Magn Reson Med 79:71-82, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in ... Multishot echo-planar MREIT for fast imaging of conductivity, current density, and electric field distributions Magn Reson Med ... Conductivity reconstruction relative contrast ratios were stable as the shot number decreased. The derived electric fields also ... conductivity, and electric field. Magn Reson Med 79:71-82, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in ...
The electrical conductivity of mortar and concrete samples was measured. Series of samples were prepared with crushed limestone ... Electrical Conductivity of Concrete and Mortar Prepared with Calcareous Aggregates for Construction in the Gulf of Mexico. ... The electrical conductivity of mortar and concrete samples was measured. Series of samples were prepared with crushed limestone ... The conductivity of mortar specimens take values between 0.60 and 2.18 mS/cm, while the concrete samples have values in the ...
D. Fiedler, S.A. Clay, S. Westhoff, C.L. Reese, S.A. Bruggeman, J. Moriles-Miller, L. Perkins, D.R. Joshi, S.-Y. Marzano and D.E. Clay ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ...
Computer simulations reveal universal increase in electrical conductivity ... Electrical conductivity, a measure of how strongly a given material conducts the flow of electric current, is generally ... Computer simulations have revealed how the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical field ... However, at strong electric fields, many materials show a departure from Ohms law, whereby the conductivity increases rapidly ...
Can you explain why you are concerned about the conductivity of the case? Unless the case comes in contact with a power source ... If you want to test the conductivity of the material you are using, just check it with an ohmmeter. ...
... analog electrical conductivity meter V2 is specially used to measure the electrical conductivity of an aqueous solution, and ... DFRobot Gravity: analog electrical conductivity meter V2 is specially used to measure the electrical conductivity of an aqueous ... This ec meter product, as an upgraded version of the electrical conductivity meter V1, greatly improves the user experience and ... you can quickly build an electrical conductivity meter, plug, and play, no welding. DFRobot provides a variety of water quality ...
This versatile instrument measures the conductivity of the atmosphere with two complementary sensors, a mutual impedance (MI) ... probe and a relaxation probe (RP) that measures also DC and AC electric fields in passive mode. ,P /,The preliminary results ... Electric Conductivity And Waves In The Atmosphere Of Titan From The Pwa-hasi Instrument On The Huygens Probe *Hamelin, Michel ... This versatile instrument measures the conductivity of the atmosphere with two complementary sensors, a mutual impedance (MI) ...
Extensive steady-state measurements of nonequilibrium electrical conductivity, and the influence upon it of variations in gas ... Cool, Terrill Alan (1965) Recombination, ionization, and non-equilibrium electrical conductivity in seeded plasmas. ... Extensive experimental measurements of nonequilibrium electrical conductivities, electron temperatures, recombination rates, ... the theoretical and experimental description of the behavior of dense seeded plasmas under the influence of applied electric ...
Electrical properties Electrical conductivity of the SWNT-PS and SWNT-P3HT thin films on Si was measured with the sample placed ... In recent years, carbon nanotubes, with high tensile strength and electrical conductivity, have been used in polymer composites ... 4: Log-log plot of electrical conductivity, σ, of unstructured (random networks; blue) and nano-structured (nanoscale networks ... The nanoscale or microscale nanotube networks give the films enhanced electrical properties, such as conductivity. The method ...
Self-consistent models of electrical conductivity structure have been derived from the combined MT/GDS data. The conductivity ... Self-consistent models of electrical conductivity structure have been derived from the combined MT/GDS data. The conductivity ... Electrical conductivity structure of the lower crust and upper mantle in western Canada Caner, Bernard Abstract. Geomagnetic ... Electrical conductivity structure of the lower crust and upper mantle in western Canada ...
Author(s): Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu
LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS KAOLINITE SUSPENSIONS II: COUNTERION EFFECTS AND ESTIMATING STERN LAYER ... Low-frequency electrical conductivity of aqueous kaolinite suspensions: surface conductance, electrokinetic potentials and ... Christian Weber, Matthias Halisch, Helge Stanjek; LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS KAOLINITE SUSPENSIONS II: ... the ζ-potential and surface conductivity contributions from the diffuse and non-diffuse parts of the electrical double layer ...
Relationship between the looseness of soil and the electric conductivity , P. Rácz, Z. Szüle , Agricultural Journals ... As the results of the investigation, the relation between the electric conductivity and looseness L of soil are presented in ... The investigation was carried out with the help of the mobile electric-conductivity measuring device - accounted as a novelty ... Keywords:looseness L of soil; electric conductivity; subsoil chisel; Veris 3100. download PDF ...
Electrical conductivity is the electrical charge that moves through a solution. The higher the salt concentration, the greater ... Optimizing Electrical Conductivity (EC) in Cannabis Cultivation. Features - Nutrient Matters. How solution and substrate EC can ... For controlled-environment-grown crops, substrate pH and electrical conductivity (EC) are two main factors that can easily be ... electrical conductivity (EC) would be below the optimal level. Brian Whipker. Doing the Math If you are using a fertilizer such ...
In these model studies, both shape and conductivity of a large-scale conductivity anomaly in the mid-mantle are recovered very ... We present a 3-D frequency domain inversion scheme to recover mantle conductivity from satellite magnetic data. The scheme is ... obtained by simulating induction due to a realistic magnetospheric source in a 3-D conductivity model of the Earth. ... electrical conductivity of Earths mantle has been identified as one of the primary scientific objectives for the Swarm ...
Electrical resistivity and its converse, electrical conductivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how ... strongly it resists or conducts the flow of electric current. ... Electrical resistivity of Iridium is 47 nΩ·m.. Electrical ... Categories Electrical Resistivity Tags Electrical Resistivity Post navigation Osmium - Electrical Resistivity and Electrical ... Iridium - Electrical Resistivity and Electrical Conductivity. 2020-11-13. by Nick Connor ...
We observed 1H and 2H NMR spectra, 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times, and electrical conductivities of water-saturated and ... N2 - We observed 1H and 2H NMR spectra, 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times, and electrical conductivities of water-saturated ... AB - We observed 1H and 2H NMR spectra, 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times, and electrical conductivities of water-saturated ... Dynamics of Interlayer Cations in Tetramethylammonium-Saponite Studied by 1H, 2H NMR, and Electrical Conductivity Measurements. ...
The DC electrical conductivity for samples containing soda alone was higher than samples containing substituted CaO or ... [ ... The electrical conductivity of the studied glasses is correlated with the change in chemical composition which affects the ... Electrical conductivity and activation energy of some sodium-silicate glasses containing different substituted cations (Ca or ... Electrical conductivity of some alkali silicate glasses. February 1998 · Materials Chemistry and Physics ...
The dc conductivity for the mixed-alkali, sodium and potassium, iron phosphate glasses is independent of the Na/K ratio and ... The dc conductivity of the alkali-free iron phosphate glasses was 5-10 times higher than that of the single- or mixed-alkali ... and mixed-alkali iron phosphate glasses that they make no detectable contribution to the total conductivity that is electronic ... The electrical conductivity of mixed-alkali, sodium and potassium, iron phosphate glasses has been studied in the frequency ...
Electrical conductivity and Ti4+ ion substitution range in NASICON system journal, July 1995 * Shimazu, K. ... Ionic conductivity of NASICON-type Na1+xMxZr2−xP3O12 (M: Yb, Er, Dy) journal, March 1996 * Miyajima, Y. ... Ionic conductivity in sodium yttrium silicon oxide (Na5YSi4O12)-type silicates journal, April 1978 * Shannon, R. D.; Taylor, B ... Ionic conductivity of NASICON-type conductors Na1.5M0.5Zr1.5(PO4)3 (M:Al3+, Ga3+, Cr3+, Sc3+, Fe3+, In3+, Yb3+, Y3+) journal, ...
Whatever you need, mmsphyschem is here to provide you with the most updated news and updates worldwide. Visit our site and get notified for more!. ...
... The electric conductivity of a liquid remains an important parameter for the ... We are offering probes for both aqueous as well as organic based media with very low conductivity. ...
Theoretical and computational studies of carbon nanotube composites and suspensions: Electrical and thermal conductivity ... A computational analysis of the percolation threshold and the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes filled polymeric ... Thermal and electrical transport in multi-walled carbon nanotubes journal, August 2004 * Yang, D. J.; Wang, S. G.; Zhang, Q. ... Conductivity of a suspension of nanowires in a weakly conducting medium journal, April 2006 * Hu, Tao; Grosberg, A. Yu.; ...
... The following table gives the electrical conductivity (κ) of aqueous solutions of ... Molar Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous HF, HCl, HBr, and HI. * Molar Electrical Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous ... Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions at 20 °C as a Function of Concentration. Name. Mol. form.. CAS Reg. No.. κ(0.5%). ... The table Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions at 20 °C as a Function of Concentration has one or more different ...
Electrical Conductivity of Metals - ThoughtCo. 2020-3-2 · Electrical conductivity in metals is a result of the movement of ... High‐Temperature Electrical Conductivity of …. The electrical conductivity of pure aluminum oxynitride spinel was measured at ... Aluminum nitride is characterized by high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity is defined ... aluminum nitride electrical conductivity. Email: [email protected] Welcome to Artista Chemical Website, feel free ...
  • All values refer to 20 °C. The conductivity (often called specific conductance in older literature) is the reciprocal of the resistivity. (
  • The electrical resistivity of AlN ceramics decreased remarkably from 1014 cm to the range of 100 to 102 cm by a minimum of 2.3 wt% of B4C addition. (
  • Aluminum nitride is characterized by high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity. (
  • The main purpose is to compare the formation factor calculated from an electrical resistivity measurement with the reciprocal diffusibility estimated from diffusion experiments. (
  • Therefore a material or conductor that has a high conductivity will have a low resistivity, … Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) and its inverse, electrical conductivity, is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resists or conducts electric current.A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows electric current. (
  • Simply put, this means that a material that can pull a large amount of current through it - even with an intrinsically small electric field - is a good conductor due to its low resistivity to electron flow. (
  • Abstract A physically-based model for the electrical conductivity of peak aged and overaged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7xxx series) alloys is presented. (
  • The present article reports on an experiment as part of the research in the frame of which I search after the relationship between the looseness L of soil characterising the operating quality of the chisel-type subsoilers of a medium working depth, and the change in the electric conductivity in the soil caused by the loosening cultivation. (
  • As the results of the investigation, the relation between the electric conductivity and looseness L of soil are presented in this article. (
  • It detects Soil Moisture , Soil Temperature and Soil Conductivity , and upload the value via wireless to LoRaWAN IoT Server. (
  • The soil sensor uses the FDR method to calculate the soil moisture with compensation from soil temperature and conductivity. (
  • The Decagon GS3 sensor is an accurate tool for monitoring electrical conductivity, volumetric water content, and temperature in soil and soil-less substrates. (
  • Soils were classified in terms of the salinity levels and today we commonly use the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil solution as a standard measure. (
  • No definite petrological models can be derived because of the order-of-magnitude uncertainties in the relations between electrical conductivity, temperature and composition. (
  • The electrical conductivity of mixed-alkali, sodium and potassium, iron phosphate glasses has been studied in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz and over a temperature range from 303 to 423 K. The dc conductivity of the alkali-free iron phosphate glasses was 5-10 times higher than that of the single- or mixed-alkali iron phosphate glasses containing a total of 20 mol% alkali. (
  • Surface oxidization happened in air even for room temperature, however, the aluminum oxide layer can protect the material up to 1370 C. Compared with aluminum, which is the traditional technical ceramic material, aluminum nitride has better thermal conductivity and even higher hardness. (
  • In electrical insulators and semiconductors, the valence band is the highest range of electron energies in which electrons are normally present at absolute zero temperature. (
  • Tungsten copper alloy plate is a composite material refined by the process of static pressure forming, high temperature sintering and copper infiltration by taking advantage of the excellent metal properties of high-purity tungsten powder and the plasticity and high conductivity of high-purity copper powder. (
  • Tungsten copper alloy is widely used as electrical materials (divided into electrical contact materials and electrical processing materials), instantaneous high temperature materials and military armor breaking materials. (
  • When the tungsten copper alloy plate is used for the electrode of the high-voltage discharge tube, when the high-voltage vacuum discharge tube is working, the temperature of the contact material will rise by thousands of degrees Celsius in a few tenths of a second, while the ablation resistance, high toughness, good conductivity and thermal conductivity of tungsten copper provide necessary conditions for the stable operation of the discharge tube. (
  • Nanowerk News ) A team of researchers at MIT has found a way to manipulate both the thermal conductivity and the electrical conductivity of materials simply by changing the external conditions, such as the surrounding temperature. (
  • Chen is the senior author of a paper describing the process that was published online on April 19 and will appear in a forthcoming issue of Nature Communications ( 'Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions' ). (
  • It has the electrical and thermal conductivity of metal, and also has the high strength, high temperature resistance. (
  • Electrical properties such as impedance ($Z$), modulus ($M$) and conductivity ($\sigma$) of the materials have been investigated within a wide range of temperature and frequency. (
  • The nature of temperature and frequency dependence of conductivity follows Jonscher's universal power law. (
  • The hydrodynamic behavior of the electronic fluid reveals itself as a decrease of the electrical resistance with increasing temperature (the Gurzhi effect) in narrow conducting channels, polynomial scaling of the resistance as a function of the channel width, substantial violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law supported by the emergence of the Poiseuille flow. (
  • Water quality will be assessed during irrigation events by taking in situ measurements of water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity and electrical conductivity (EC) with a hand-held sonde probe. (
  • A general framework for the theoretical analysis and numerical calculations of the effective thermal conductivity of two-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic disordered fibrous materials is developed in this work based on the model of random contacts between soft-core spherocylinders. (
  • The value of effective thermal conductivity in this case is. (
  • Extensive experimental measurements of nonequilibrium electrical conductivities, electron temperatures, recombination rates, and ionization rates have been performed in dense potassium-seeded plasmas. (
  • Extensive steady-state measurements of nonequilibrium electrical conductivity, and the influence upon it of variations in gas temperatures, seed concentrations, atomic cross sections, current densities, electric field strengths, and energy loss processes have been made. (
  • The electrical state of the interface between a kaolinite-dominated clay sample and aqueous electrolyte solutions was characterized using low-frequency conductance measurements. (
  • From these measurements, the ζ-potential and surface conductivity contributions from the diffuse and non-diffuse parts of the electrical double layer were obtained. (
  • From measurements of the electrical conductivity of anhydrous TMA-saponite a large anisotropic cation-diffusivity was concluded. (
  • In this Thesis the effective diffusion coefficient, the diffusibility and the formation factor in a porous medium are studied by preforming a diffusion experiment and electrical conductivity measurements. (
  • Measurements of the electrical conductivity of materials such as 2D electron systems are carried out using low frequency A.C. measurements using 4 or 6 wire measurements and high sensitivity lock-in amplifiers. (
  • The molar conductivity Λ is related to this by Λ = κ / c , where c is the amount-of-substance concentration of the electrolyte. (
  • calculate molar conductivity of a solution 1. (
  • For concrete samples, the conductivity decreases with curing time, which indicates that the conduction is, in such a case, due mainly to capillar porosity. (
  • Eddy current measurement of the electrical conductivity and porosity of metal foams. (
  • It has been found that the phase-frequency response of the sensor is relatively immune to the distance and fill-factor variations, from which key results such as the equivalent conductivity and the porosity of the foams are presented. (
  • DFRobot Gravity: analog electrical conductivity meter V2 is specially used to measure the electrical conductivity of an aqueous solution, and then to evaluate the water quality, which is often used in water culture, aquaculture, environmental water detection, and other fields. (
  • To interpret a chemical reaction by observing aqueous solution conductivity. (
  • Electrical conductivity of complex compound depends upon the number of ion present in that aqueous solution. (
  • For controlled-environment-grown crops, substrate pH and electrical conductivity (EC) are two main factors that can easily be monitored to make sure your crop is on track for success. (
  • Testing substrate pH and electrical conductivity (EC) using in-house testing methods is both quick and inexpensive. (
  • In the liquid, the reciprocal of the resistance, the conductivity, is the measure of its ability to conduct electricity. (
  • 2020-3-2 · Electrical conductivity in metals is a result of the movement of electrically charged particles. (
  • Small charged particles, called ions, help to carry the electrical charge through a substance. (
  • This versatile instrument measures the conductivity of the atmosphere with two complementary sensors, a mutual impedance (MI) probe and a relaxation probe (RP) that measures also DC and AC electric fields in passive mode. (
  • Ghosh, A. (2002) Electrical conductivity and conductivity relaxation in mixed alkali fluoride glasses Solid State Ionics, 149 (1-2). (
  • We have observed the mixed mobile ion effect in the conductivity and the conductivity relaxation in these mixed alkali fluoride glasses. (
  • The characteristic relaxation frequency obtained from the conductivity formalism and the conductivity relaxation time obtained from the modulus formalism exhibit minimum at different relative concentration. (
  • It takes account of the conductivity of grains (incorporating dissolved alloying elements, undissolved particles and precipitates) and solute depleted areas at the grain boundaries. (
  • That is because solutions increase in electrical conductivity as the solute concentration, or salinity increases. (
  • Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) sequences typically use conventional spin or gradient echo-based acquisition methods for reconstruction of conductivity and current density maps. (
  • Electrical Conductivity in Mixed-alkali Iron Phosphate Glasses" by Andrea Moguš-Milanković, B. Šantić et al. (
  • The dc conductivity for the mixed-alkali, sodium and potassium, iron phosphate glasses is independent of the Na/K ratio and there is no evidence of any mixed-alkali effect. (
  • The sodium and potassium ions have such a low mobility in both single- and mixed-alkali iron phosphate glasses that they make no detectable contribution to the total conductivity that is electronic in origin. (
  • Electrical Conductivity in Mixed-alkali Iron Phosphate Glasses," Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids , Elsevier, May 2001. (
  • Carbon and aramid fibres are used mainly in advanced composite materials to improve strength, stiffness, durability, electrical conductivity, or heat resistance. (
  • Graphene, which consists of a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice, [ 9 ] has been shown to be a very useful nanomaterial in biomedical applications [ 10 ] due to its excellent flexibility, thermal properties, electrical conductivity, high strength, stiffness and biocompatibility. (
  • Furthermore, we found an additional dependence on the commutation time of the electrical fields. (
  • Several models or elements of models for the dependence of conductivity of Al-based alloys on composition and heat treatment have been reported [9,10,11,12,13]. (
  • Quickly build an electrical conductivity meter, plug and play! (
  • This ec meter product, as an upgraded version of the electrical conductivity meter V1, greatly improves the user experience and data precision. (
  • With this product, the main control board (such as Arduino), and the software library, you can quickly build an electrical conductivity meter, plug, and play, no welding. (
  • Water conductivity meter TDS and conductivity are typically used to determine the purity of a solution. (
  • Eddy current measurement of the electrical cond. (
  • The results indicate that measurement of nanometer-diameter conducting fibrous material by electrical mobility analysis may present a unique challenge. (
  • The groundwater was weakly acidic, moderately mineralized, fresh to brackish with conductivity ranging from of 96.6 microS cm(-1) in the North to 10,070 microS cm( - 1) in the South. (
  • Gold also provides excellent electrical conductivity, but only weakly binds to silicone, which results in unstable structures. (
  • The conductivity, for both mortar and concrete, in chloride solution of concentration 1M, 2M, 3M and 4M, increases as the chloride concentration in the solution increases. (
  • The higher the salt concentration, the greater the electrical reading. (
  • The table 'Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions at 20 °C as a Function of Concentration' has one or more different columns to those in the book version. (
  • The following table gives the electrical conductivity ( κ ) of aqueous solutions of some acids, bases, and salts as a function of concentration. (
  • The enhanced OER catalytic performance of LSFN-0.4 is highly correlated with its increased conductivity as well as the increased oxygen vacancy concentration. (
  • Electrical conductivity of solutions depends on molar ion concentration of solution. (
  • In general, polycrystalline ceramics exhibit lower thermal conductivities than their associated single crystals. (
  • For instance, at 300K, the theoretical thermal conductivity of single crystal aluminum nitride (AlN) is 319 W/m-K, whereas, the values measured for polycrystalline AlN ceramics range from 17 W/m-K to 285 W/m-K. (
  • The effect of the intrinsic conductivity of fibers on the thermal transport in fibrous materials is found to depend on the density of contacts and can be significant in sufficiently dense fiber networks even if the Biot number for a single thermal contact is small. (
  • This finding explains the variability of scaling laws for thermal conductivity of fibrous materials suggested in the literature based on numerical simulations performed in different regions of the space of material parameters. (
  • The thermal and electrical conductivity found in CNTs is much higher than that of other conductive or fibrous additive materials. (
  • Remarkably, for a large class of materials, the form of the conductivity increase is universal - it doesn't depend on the material involved, but instead is the same for a wide range of dissimilar materials. (
  • By agreement between the purchaser and the supplier, or as required by established safety standards, these test methods can be used to determine any one, or all of the following: (1) impact resistance (I), (2) compression resistance (C), (3) metatarsal impact resistance (Mt), (4) resistance to electrical conductivity (Cd), (5) resistance to electric hazard (EH), (6) static dissipative performance (SD), and (7) puncture resistance (PR). (
  • We present a 3-D frequency domain inversion scheme to recover mantle conductivity from satellite magnetic data. (
  • An increase in conductivity up to 100 times is observed when compared to a random nanotube network inside a semiconducting polymer, such as P3HT, and up to 100 million times in an insulating polymer, such as PS. (
  • There is clearly an analogy between the diffusion of molecules and the electrical conductivity in the fluid phase of porous medium. (
  • The excellent mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes have led to them being exploited for the creation of a new class of high performance polymer composites. (
  • Recently, it has been shown that nanoscale and microscale patterning of a polymer composite with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dramatically improves the film conductivity. (
  • In recent years, carbon nanotubes, with high tensile strength and electrical conductivity, have been used in polymer composites to improve their mechanical and electrical properties. (
  • The formation of a continuous, percolated network of interconnected nanotubes inside a polymer matrix is important for better charge transport and reliable electrical properties. (
  • In addition, the SWNT-polymer composites imprinted with nanostructures achieved greater conductivity than those with microstructures. (
  • Interpretation in terms of the surface conductance revealed that a substantial part of the surface conductivity originates in the inner part of the double layer. (
  • The analysis accounts for the interfiber contact conductance and intrinsic conductivity of fibers and is performed in a wide space of governing parameters that includes the fiber aspect ratio, Biot number calculated for a single thermal contact between fibers, and material density ranging from values corresponding to the percolation threshold up to those characteristic of dense fiber networks. (
  • The process works because when the liquid freezes, the pressure of its forming crystal structure pushes the floating particles into closer contact, increasing their electrical and thermal conductance. (
  • Conductivity is an important parameter of water quality. (
  • Both equations are dependent on the same parameters, so the diffusibility and the formation factor calculated from these experiments should in theory be equal, when we disregard the excess of conductivity outside the water phase. (
  • Similarly to whirlpools in flowing water, the viscous electronic flow generates vortices, resulting in abnormal sign-changing electrical response driven by the backflow of electrical current. (
  • Conduction is a particularly significant mechanism of heat loss in drowning/immersion accidents as thermal conductivity of water is up to 30 times that of air. (
  • This study is concerned with the theoretical and experimental description of the behavior of dense seeded plasmas under the influence of applied electric fields under steady-state conditions as well as during electronic ionizational and recombinational relaxations. (
  • For dense networks, exact theoretical equations for the thermal conductivity of materials composed of spherocylinders with an arbitrary aspect ratio and Biot number are derived. (
  • For electrical conductivity, it typically has a metallic circuit or tracks printed or etched on it. (
  • A lack of observations precludes any conclusive inferences about conductivity distributions in these regions. (
  • Further presented was a simple way to estimate the order of magnitude of counterion mobilities in the inner part of the electrical double layer. (
  • conductivity varies laterally by more than one order of magnitude between resistive and conductive regions. (
  • Electrical conductivity of carbon filled nylon 6,6" by Jessica A. Heiser, Julia A. King et al. (
  • The electrical conductivity of resins can be increased by adding electrically conductive carbon fillers. (
  • The results showed that carbon fiber caused the largest increase in composite electrical conductivity and that all the combinations of different fillers do have a statistically significant effect on composite electrical conductivity. (
  • The conductivity values of mortar increase, when the curing time increases. (
  • The universality was first comprehended in 1934 by the future Nobel Laureate Lars Onsager, who derived a theory for the conductivity increase in electrolytes like acetic acid, where it is called the "second Wien effect. (
  • When there are clay minerals present in a formation it will increase the conductivity, because there will be more paths for the electrical charged ions to pass through than just in the pure pore space of the rock. (
  • The SCC resistance has been found to increase with increasing electrical conductivity in 7xxx series alloys, particularly from near peak-aged (T6) to the overaged (T73) condition [6,7,8]. (
  • The electric conductivity of a liquid remains an important parameter for the determination of ionic composition and purity in oils and other unpolar solvents. (
  • Computer simulations have revealed how the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical field in a universal way. (
  • However, at strong electric fields, many materials show a departure from Ohm's law, whereby the conductivity increases rapidly with increasing field. (
  • Here, single and multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) based MREIT sequences were evaluated to see whether high-quality MREIT phase data could be obtained for rapid reconstruction of current density, conductivity, and electric fields. (
  • The EPI-MREIT-derived phase-projected current density and conductivity images were compared with simulations and spin-echo images as a function of EPI shot number. (
  • The precise conductivity level of a material is found by determining its magnitude of current density by the magnitude of its electric field. (
  • Your conductivity tester is now ready to be used. (
  • For their initial experiments, they used flakes of graphite suspended in liquid hexadecane, but they showed the generality of their process by demonstrating the control of conductivity in other combinations of materials as well. (
  • among others), reliable images of 3-D variations of mantle conductivity in oceanic regions and as a whole in the southern hemisphere can hardly be obtained at present or in the foreseeable future with the use of ground-based data alone. (
  • The electrical conductivity of mortar and concrete samples was measured. (
  • The conductivity of mortar specimens take values between 0.60 and 2.18 mS/cm, while the concrete samples have values in the range from 2.10 to 5.44 mS/cm. (
  • Even thought the Moon has no atmosphere, Horanyi said other processes that are likely related to the plasma and radiation environment of the Moon, "the electro-dynamic processes of the near surface lunar environment that can have strong enough electric fields and the surface can have enough electrostatic charges that can break the dust free and somehow shuffle it or move it around the surface. (
  • Determine the electrical conductivity of a Cu-Ni alloy that has a yield strength of 125 MPa (18,000 psi). (
  • Amazing shear strength and electrical conductivity. (
  • The electrical conductivity of `45 *10^6` S/m is higher than that of copper . (
  • Conductivity is the reciprocal of the resistance, which is related to the ability of the material to carry the current. (
  • The goal of this project was to determine the effect of each filler and combinations of different fillers on the electrical conductivity of conductive resins. (
  • Electrical conductivity, a measure of how strongly a given material conducts the flow of electric current, is generally understood in terms of Ohm's law, which states that the conductivity is independent of the magnitude of an applied electric field, i.e. the voltage per metre. (
  • The derived electric fields also agreed with the simulated data. (
  • Self-consistent models of electrical conductivity structure have been derived from the combined MT/GDS data. (
  • However, to date, all practical inversions of existing satellite data have been for 1-D (or at most for 2-D) conductivity models (e.g. (
  • The model has been successfully used to fit and predict the conductivity data of a set of 7xxx alloys including both Zr containing alloys and Cr containing alloys under various ageing conditions, achieving an accuracy of about 1% in predicting unseen conductivity data from this set of alloys. (
  • It goes all the way to this electrical outlet, which is exactly the same way you would ground a floor in a data center, in server room, in a flight tower, in an electronics manufacturing area. (
  • Hydration alone is sufficient to explain the observed conductivities, i.e. higher temperatures are not necessarily required for this model. (
  • The solar cells fabricated by this method showed a 36% improvement in crystallinity and a significantly higher electrical conductivity than those fabricated by the conventional annealing method. (
  • The study, published in Nature Materials , investigated the electrical conductivity of a solid electrolyte, a system of positive and negative atoms on a crystal lattice. (
  • The system Chen and his colleagues developed could be applied to many different materials for either thermal or electrical applications. (
  • An improved knowledge of the mantle conductivity provides an advanced understanding of the mantle's chemical and physical properties and reflects the connectivity of constituents such as graphite, fluids and partial melt. (
  • Electrical properties of detonation diamond nanoparticles (NDs) with individual diameters of ∼5 nm are important for many applications. (
  • AlN(Aluminum Nitride) Ceramic has excellent thermal conductivity, is thus considered as high performance electronic packaging material. (
  • Good conductivity and decent, not excellent adhesivity (however, it's a problem with all conductive epoxies). (