Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Isotonic Contraction: Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow: Replacement of the ELBOW JOINT.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Elbow Prosthesis: Replacement for an elbow joint.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Rana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)DislocationsFeedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Bupranolol: An adrenergic-beta-2 antagonist that has been used for cardiac arrhythmia, angina pectoris, hypertension, glaucoma, and as an antithrombotic.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Humeral FracturesTremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Rest: Freedom from activity.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes: Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Compression of the ULNAR NERVE in the cubital tunnel, which is formed by the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, humeral-ulnar aponeurosis, and medial ligaments of the elbow. This condition may follow trauma or occur in association with processes which produce nerve enlargement or narrowing of the canal. Manifestations include elbow pain and PARESTHESIA radiating distally, weakness of ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and loss of sensation over the hypothenar region, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Joint DiseasesDiaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Mice, Inbred C57BL
... improving the strength of the fingers and the forearms muscles creating a strong isometric contraction in these muscle groups. ... These muscles are located near the elbow, and help move the forearm. The biceps brachii, or simply biceps, cross the elbow and ... the elbows flex and the shoulder adducts and/or extends to bring the elbows to or sometimes behind the torso. The knees may be ... The fullest possible range is with straight arms overhead (elbow directly above shoulder), to pulling when the arms are at the ...
... an isometric contraction). Manual calculations are usually performed using the top-down analysis on a six or seven-link model, ... In a 6-segment model, the joints considered are elbow, shoulder, L5/S1 disc of the spine, hip, knee and ankle. It is common to ...
... and uses isometric muscle contractions to slowly ascend above the bar, without any kip. On the bar, a closed pull-up grip ... To dismount, the arms are bent at the elbow, and the body is lowered to the floor, and the exercise can be repeated. As a ... The body is leaned forward, and the elbows are straightened by activating the triceps. The routine is considered complete when ...
PhysiologicalContraction speed in Isometric contractions Rate of rise of force Time to peak of a twitch contraction (response ... "Contractile properties and fiber type compositions of flexors and extensors of elbow joint in cat: implications for motor ... This is tested by determining the recruitment threshold of a motor unit during isometric contraction in which the force is ... "The orderly recruitment of human motor units during voluntary isometric contractions" (PDF). J. Physiol. 230 (2): 359-70. PMC ...
In relation to the elbow, a concentric contraction of the biceps would cause the arm to bend at the elbow as the hand moved ... Muscle contractions can be described based on two variables: length and tension. A muscle contraction is described as isometric ... then the contraction is a tetanus. Length-tension relationship relates the strength of an isometric contraction to the length ... During an eccentric contraction of the triceps muscle, the elbow starts the movement straight and then bends as the hand moves ...
The patient performs an isometric flexion contraction against resistance of the therapist (Speed's Test). When the therapist's ... Direct upward pressure on the shoulder, such as leaning on an elbow, may increase pain. The literature on the pathophysiology ... 2005). "The molecular pathophysiology of subacromial bursitis in rotator cuff disease". J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 14 (1 Suppl S): ... J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8 (2): 102-11. doi:10.1016/S1058-2746(99)90001-0. PMID 10226960. Butcher JD, Salzman KL, Lillegard WA ( ...
Isometric strength and physical cross-sectional area of the elbow flexors and elbow extensors are reduced in old compared with ... Oct 2008). "Recovery from supraspinal fatigue is slowed in old adults after fatiguing maximal isometric contractions". J Appl ... The normalized force for the elbow flexors is reduced in the old men compared to the young men. The lower normalized force of ... The normalized force (maximal voluntary force to the size of the muscle producing the force) of the elbow extensors is the same ...
The Isometric Curl variant uses one hand placed on the wrist of the other hand to provide resistance to the curling motion; the ... The arms are bent and the body lowered to the floor as in a normal push up, the elbows kept as close to the body as possible. ... Using only the legs, the hips are pushed up as high as possible, held in contraction for a moment, then lowered to the starting ... The body is then pulled up using the arms until the elbows are bent and the head is higher than the hands. If the hands are ...
The deltoid is responsible for elevating the arm in the scapular plane and its contraction in doing this also elevates the ... 2007). Muscles within muscles: Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks. J ... J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 18: 386-390. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2008.10.012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-04. Anatomy ... there is a simultaneous contraction of some of the muscles of the rotator cuff: the infraspinatus and subscapularis primarily ...
Isometric exercise provides a maximum amount of resistance based on the force output of the muscle, or muscles pitted against ... These often specify that the speed of muscle contraction during weight training should be the same as that of the particular ... biceps curl becomes easier as the hand approaches the shoulder as more of the load is taken by the structure of the elbow. ... In addition, the risk of injury from weights used in weight training is greater than with isometric exercise (no weights), and ...
Contraction of the latissimus dorsi muscle of the artistic gymnast Marc Plieninger, using the rings at the German Youth ... Compound exercises for the 'lats' typically involve elbow flexion and tend to recruit the biceps brachii, brachialis, and ... 2007). Muscles within muscles: Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks. J ...
Most lesions are located at the musculotendinous junction and result from violent, eccentric contraction of the muscle, such as ... Exercises that include horizontal adduction and elbow extensions such as the barbell bench press, dumbbell bench press, and ... 2007). Muscles within muscles: Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks. J ... inciting a proportional muscle contraction of the sternalis head of the pectoralis major. The second source of innervation of ...
Contraction of the latissimus dorsi muscle of another artistic gymnast on still rings. ... Compound exercises for the 'lats' typically involve elbow flexion and tend to recruit the biceps brachii, brachialis, and ... Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks". J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 17 (1 ...
"Strategies for muscle activation during isometric torque generation at the human elbow". Journal of Neurophysiology. 62 (6): ... Motor nerves innervate skeletal muscles and cause contraction upon command from the central nervous system. This contraction is ... Since the force of contraction cannot be changed, the brain instead recruits more motor units to achieve maximal muscle ... contraction. Recruitment of motor units varies from muscle to muscle depending on the upper limit of motor recruitment in the ...
Zercher squat - the barbell is held in the crooks of the arms, on the inside of the elbow. One method of performing this is to ... Jump squat - a plyometrics exercise where the squatter engages in a rapid eccentric contraction and jumps forcefully off the ... Some people believe this form of isometric training allows for greater gains in the squat compared to a traditional Olympic ... reaching maximal contraction at the bottom of the movement while slowing and reversing descent. The muscles around the hips ...
While spasticity is velocity-dependent resistance to passive stretch (i.e. passively moving an elbow quickly will elicit ... The cause of disproportionate intermittent contractions of either flexors or extensors or the cause of cramps is unknown. The ... there is uniform increased tone whether the elbow is passively moved quickly or slowly).[1] Spasticity can be in the form of ... they also have tonus in the sense that although their contractions are not matched with those of antagonist muscles, the non- ...
were able to maintain isometric peak torque in subjects who performed daily maximal isometric contractions of the knee ... and 10 maximum-effort full flexions and extensions of the arm at the elbow and of the hip and knee at an angular rate of 45° ... Eccentric contractions are actions of the muscle in which force is generated while the muscle is lengthening, as opposed to the ... After 17 days of spaceflight or bed rest, no significant measurable changes occurred in maximal isometric calf strength, force- ...
... an isometric contraction). Manual calculations are usually performed using the top-down analysis on a six or seven-link model, ... In a 6-segment model, the joints considered are elbow, shoulder, L5/S1 disc of the spine, hip, knee and ankle. It is common to ...
J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 18: 386-390. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2008.10.012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-04.. ... The deltoid is responsible for elevating the arm in the scapular plane and its contraction in doing this also elevates the ... 2007). Muscles within muscles: Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks. J ... there is a simultaneous contraction of some of the muscles of the rotator cuff: the infraspinatus and subscapularis primarily ...
Contraction of the latissimus dorsi muscle of another artistic gymnast on still rings. ... Compound exercises for the 'lats' typically involve elbow flexion and tend to recruit the biceps brachii, brachialis, and ... Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks". J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 17 (1 ...
Rapid Contraction / Isometric contraction / Elbow joint / Monopolar surface EMG / Human. / 表面筋電図 / 単極導出法 / ヒト / 単極導大法. ... Publications] YOSHIHIKO YAMAZAKI: An electromyographic volley at initiation of rapid isometric contractions of the elbow ... Publications] YOSHIHIKO YAMAZAKI: Pulse Control during Rapid Isometric Contractions of the Elbow Joint Brain Research ... Publications] YOSHIHIKO YAMAZAKI: An electromyographic volley at initiation of rapid isometric contractions of the elbow. ...
"Muscle damage protective effect by two maximal isometric contractions on maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors of the ... Muscle damage protective effect by two maximal isometric contractions on maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors of the ... Muscle damage protective effect by two maximal isometric contractions on maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors of the ... Effect of two maximal isometric contractions on eccentric exercise‐induced muscle damage of the elbow flexors ...
... eccentric and isometric contractions. The isometric contractions were performed at three elbow angles: 10, 45 and 90° (0° equal ... eccentric and isometric contractions. The isometric contractions were performed at three elbow angles: 10, 45 and 90° (0° equal ... eccentric and isometric contractions. The isometric contractions were performed at three elbow angles: 10, 45 and 90° (0° equal ... eccentric and isometric contractions. The isometric contractions were performed at three elbow angles: 10, 45 and 90° (0° equal ...
contraction, 1. -. s. relaxation) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors were related to the exercise intensity (20, 40, ... sustained isometric contraction task at 30% MVC followed by a 10. -. s. sustained isometric contraction at 100% MVC separated ... contraction, 1. -. s. relaxation) isometric contractions task ( 60. -. s. duration) at 30% MVC. Following a 150. -. s. rest, ... 1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contraction task at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (30% MVC) and maximal (100 ...
To that end, we have explored and now understand the layers of the abdominal muscles and how to use isometric contractions as ... Your elbows should line up directly underneath your shoulders. Toes on the ground. ... Squeeze your glutes and tighten your abdominals (Hint: use the isometric contraction technique that we learned). ... But make sure you understand the foundational concepts of abdominal exercises.** Heres what to read:**** Abdominal Exercise to ...
Figure 1 Experimental condition: (A) dynamic task of the right elbow flexor; (B) maximum isometric contraction of the left ... The maximum voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors increased the RMs of the contralateral elbow flexors, reflecting ... Acute effects of maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors: a ... 1RM by using the right elbow flexors and maintaining the maximal voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors during the ...
Office work? Try isometric contractions as you sit at your desk. Inhale, tighten the muscles in your arms, shrug your shoulders ... up, extend your elbows, and form a fist. Feel the tension mount from your fingers all the way up to your shoulders. Hold for a ...
... we tested a hypothesis that common organization of central commands to the elbow and the wrist joints within a two-joint ... Elbow Joint / innervation*. Electromyography. Female. Forearm. Humans. Isometric Contraction / physiology*. Male. Middle Aged. ... DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects (n = 7) performed series of very fast movements or isometric contractions against a pad at the ... Some trials within a series of movements were unexpectedly blocked at the initial position leading to an isometric contraction ...
Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the upper limbs will be measured using fixed dynamometry with the Quantitative ... Shoulder abduction, adduction, elbow flexion and extension and hand grip will be measured. ... Upper Limb Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction [ Time Frame: Eight weeks ]. Upper limb strength will be measured to ... Good upper limb strength, confirmed objectively by Quantitative Muscle Analysis (QMA) (Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction ...
Theres an isometric hold mostly on the elbow and bicep area. You might want to see if straight arm pulldowns or lat pullovers ... Theres an isometric hold mostly on the elbow and bicep area. You might want to see if straight arm pulldowns or lat pullovers ... I already do SL SB DLs for my hamstrings and the gripping of the bar doesnt seem to mess with my elbow which is what lead me ... Im pretty sure its the correct muscle as its the one running along the top of my elbow and onto my forearm as I sit here ...
1986). Characteristics of synergic relations during isometric contractions of human elbow muscles. J. Neurophysiol. 56, 1225- ... Elbow extension patterns differed between swimming and walking (Fig. 3C). During swimming, T. scripta flex the elbow for the ... Elbow kinematics also differ between swimming and walking (Fig. 3C). During swimming, the elbow flexes for the first half of ... An elbow angle of 0 deg indicates the hypothetical fully flexed (i.e. humerus perfectly parallel to radius and ulna) elbow, 180 ...
Raise your heels and keep your calves in an isometric contraction throughout the entire exercise. ... Bend your elbows, holding weights at about collarbone level. Position your feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart. ... Hold a dumbbell in each hand and raise your arms into an overhead tricep position, bending your elbows. ...
Maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured elbow extensors isometric strength. Independent samples t-tests and Fishers r ... Sex differences in isometric elbow extensor strength are eliminated when expressed relative to muscle volume. Relationships of ... Therefore, the purpose was to evaluate sex differences in muscle characteristics and isometric strength in the elbow extensors ... Ichinose Y, Kanehisa H, Ito M et al (1998) Morphological and functional differences in the elbow extensor muscle between highly ...
... condition 2 maximal concentric contraction of the elbow flexor muscles; or condition 3 maximal isometric contraction of the ... On a day …before testing, peak torque was measured from a 6 s maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) at 70° of knee ... The effect of previous contraction condition on subsequent eccentric power production in elbow flexor muscle ... This study examined the effect of previous contraction condition on subsequent eccentric power production in the elbow flexor ...
I often branch off at this point to isotonic and isometric contractions, refractory period, wave summation, treppe, etc. ... At this point I often have students measure the diameter of a flexed biceps, and then a relaxed biceps with the elbow still ... How is calcium important to muscle contraction? *How is energy (ATP) used in muscle contractions? Project. Materials needed: To ... CONTRACTION IN ACTION. (This activity is entirely orginal. It is not adapted from any preexisting material.) By Michael J. ...
For the isometric MVC contractions, the peak values were taken (Mmax, ISO). During the dynamic contractions, only the joint ... showed a relationship for concentric shoulder and elbow extension contractions of ~70% (elbow extension/shoulder extension, ... 7.9 Nm for elbow extension (. Figure 4. ). Maximum isometric and concentric elbow extension strength (Mmax, ISO and Mmax, CON) ... Maximum isometric and concentric elbow extension strength correlated significantly to PPF and MPF. In total, mean pole force ( ...
subjects as they performed isometric contractions at varying elbow joint angles. Estimated muscle activation level and joint ...
In a crossover study, participants were asked to perform an isometric TTE at 20% MVC of the elbow flexors. Initially, no ... A further experiment investigating the effect of tDCS on sustained isometric contraction was performed by Williams et al. (2013 ... with both completing two elbow flexor isometric time to exhaustion (TTE) tasks. Prior to the second task, the brain polarized ... Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on elbow flexor maximal voluntary isometric strength and endurance. Appl. ...
Peterson is a fan of Chaturanga Dandasana-aka yoga pushup-for the extension and isometric contraction it provides. From plank, ... Keep your elbows close to your body, abs engaged (not clenched), back straight, thigh muscles active, and glutes soft. Start by ... Heres more about the afterburn effect and how it can help you lose weight.) ... bend your elbows and begin lowering toward the floor, with every part of your body an equal distance from the floor. ...
Turn your elbows in, not out, to better activate the lats.. *Add an isometric contraction to the bottom part of the exercise. ... Press the bar into the pad as hard as possible for the isometric contraction. ... Are replacement-level dosages of T going to mess with your ticker? Heres what you probably dont know. ... Heres how to quickly fix your ugly squat and perfect your form. ... Heres how to use it right, plus three killer workouts to try. ...
... differences are less for high-intensity isometric contractions as compared to low-intensity isometric muscle contractions. In ... evidence denoting that women are less fatigable then men for a dynamic task with the elbow flexor muscle at a slow contraction ... It should be noted that much of the research comparing the fatigue in sexes uses isometric contractions, due to the ability to ... Hunter recaps research indicating that women are less fatigable then men for many isometric tasks and some dynamic tasks, when ...
The Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a domain combat sport in which elbow flexors isometric contraction is commonly performed. ... The strength testing protocol was composed of elbow flexors maximal isometric voluntary contractions at 90°; treatment ... application (placebo or PBMT); fatigue protocol; and one elbow flexors maximal isometric voluntary contraction. Magnitude- ... BJJ athletes presented higher relative isometric peak torque values pre (ES = 0.92) and post (ES = 1.32) fatigue protocol than ...
... abdominis muscle is the innermost abdominal muscle used to support and stabilize your torso during isometric contractions. ... Press up onto your forearms, positioning your elbows under your shoulders. Raise your hips from the floor and balance your body ...
... improving the strength of the fingers and the forearms muscles creating a strong isometric contraction in these muscle groups. ... These muscles are located near the elbow, and help move the forearm. The biceps brachii, or simply biceps, cross the elbow and ... the elbows flex and the shoulder adducts and/or extends to bring the elbows to or sometimes behind the torso. The knees may be ... The fullest possible range is with straight arms overhead (elbow directly above shoulder), to pulling when the arms are at the ...
Five variations of the plank were held for a 5-second isometric contraction and repeated twice. A 3-minute rest was taken ... incline plank with forearms and elbows on stability ball. *plank with feet on stability ball and with forearms and elbows on ... For each exercise, participants performed a 5-second maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), repeating the move if they ... plank with elbows in suspension exercise device in horizon- tal position. *horizontal plank with feet in suspension exercise ...
  • What Type of Brace is Used For Tennis Elbow/Tennis Elbow is also known as lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and often referred to as epicondylitis or tendinopathy clinically, [rx] has complex underlying pathophysiology which is not well understood but is characterized by uncomplicated signs of localized pain over the lateral epicondyle which is made worse with resisted wrist extension and grip. (rxharun.com)