'Elastin' is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting, such as the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.
A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.
A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A pathological constriction occurring in the region above the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
A group of connective tissue diseases in which skin hangs in loose pendulous folds. It is believed to be associated with decreased elastic tissue formation as well as an abnormality in elastin formation. Cutis laxa is usually a genetic disease, but acquired cases have been reported. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

Repopulation of different layers of host human Bruch's membrane by retinal pigment epithelial cell grafts. (1/1299)

PURPOSE: To determine the morphology of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after reattachment to different ultrastructural layers of human Bruch's membrane (BM). METHODS: Bruch's membrane explants were prepared from eyes of 23 human donors (age range, 11-89 years). The basal lamina of the RPE, inner collagenous layer, and elastin layer were removed sequentially by mechanical and enzymatic techniques. First-passage cells of human RPE (15,000 cells/6 mm explant) from three donors (ages, 52, 64, and 80 years) were plated onto different layers of human BM, and the explants were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy up to 21 days later. RESULTS: RPE flattened and extended footplates 6 hours after plating onto basal lamina. Cells remained round 6 and 24 hours after plating onto the inner collagenous, elastin, or outer collagenous layer. The RPE cells became confluent 14 days after plating onto basal lamina but did not become confluent up to 21 days after plating onto the inner collagenous or elastin layer. Sparse round cells were observed 21 days after plating onto deeper layers, suggesting extensive loss of RPE. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology and subsequent behavior of the RPE reattached to BM depends on the anatomic layer of BM available for cell reattachment. The results suggest that the ability of transplanted RPE to repopulate BM in age-related macular degeneration and other disorders may depend on the layer of BM available to serve as a substrate for cell reattachment.  (+info)

Suppression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms by systemic treatment with a hydroxamate-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (RS 132908). (2/1299)

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with chronic inflammation, disruption of medial elastin, and increased local production of elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a hydroxamate-based MMP antagonist (RS 132908) might affect the development of experimental AAAs. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent intraluminal perfusion of the abdominal aorta with 50 units of porcine pancreatic elastase followed by treatment for 14 days with RS 132908 (100 mg/kg/day subcutaneously; n = 8) or with vehicle alone (n = 6). The external aortic diameter (AD) was measured in millimeters before elastase perfusion and at death, with AAA defined as an increase in AD (DeltaAD) of at least 100%. Aortic wall elastin and collagen concentrations were measured with assays for desmosine and hydroxyproline, and fixed aortic tissues were examined by light microscopy. RESULTS: AAAs developed in all vehicle-treated rats, with a mean AD (+/- SE) that increased from 1.60 +/- 0.03 mm before perfusion to 5.98 +/- 1.02 mm on day 14 (DeltaAD = 276.4 +/- 67.7%). AAAs developed in only five of eight animals (62.5%) after MMP inhibition, with a mean AD that increased from 1.56 +/- 0.05 mm to 3.59 +/- 0.34 mm (DeltaAD = 128.1 +/- 18.7%; P <.05, vs vehicle). The overall inhibition of aortic dilatation attributable to RS 132908 was 53.6 +/- 6.8%. Aortic wall desmosine fell by 85.4% in the vehicle-treated rats (1210.6 +/- 87.8 pmol/sample to 176.7 +/- 33.4 pmol/sample; P <.05) but only by 65.6% in the animals treated with RS 312908 (416.2 +/- 120.5 pmol/sample). In contrast, hydroxyproline was not significantly affected by either elastase perfusion or drug treatment. Microscopic examination revealed the preservation of pericellular elastin and a greater degree of fibrocollagenous wall thickening after MMP inhibition, with no detectable difference in the extent of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic MMP inhibition suppresses aneurysmal dilatation in the elastase-induced rodent model of AAA. Consistent with its direct inhibitory effect on various MMPs, RS 132908 promotes the preservation of aortic elastin and appears to enhance a profibrotic response within the aortic wall. Hydroxamate-based MMP antagonists may therefore be useful in the development of pharmacologic approaches to the suppression of AAAs.  (+info)

Connective tissues: matrix composition and its relevance to physical therapy. (3/1299)

In the last 2 decades, the understanding of CT structure and function has increased enormously. It is now clear that the cells of the various CTs synthesize a variety of ECM components that act not only to underpin the specific biomechanical and functional properties of tissues, but also to regulate a variety of cellular functions. Importantly for the physical therapist, and as discussed above, CTs are responsive to changes in the mechanical environment, both naturally occurring and applied. The relative proportions of collagens and PGs largely determine the mechanical properties of CTs. The relationship between the fibril-forming collagens and PG concentration is reciprocal. Connective tissues designed to resist high tensile forces are high in collagen and low in total PG content (mostly dermatan sulphate PGs), whereas CTs subjected to compressive forces have a greater PG content (mostly chondroitin sulphate PGs). Hyaluronan has multiple roles and not only provides tissue hydration and facilitation of gliding and sliding movements but also forms an integral component of large PG aggregates in pressure-resisting tissues. The smaller glycoproteins help to stabilize and link collagens and PGs to the cell surface. The result is a complex interacting network of matrix molecules, which determines both the mechanical properties and the metabolic responses of tissues. Patients with CT problems affecting movement are frequently examined and treated by physical therapists. A knowledge of the CT matrix composition and its relationship to the biomechanical properties of these tissues, particularly the predictable responses to changing mechanical forces, offers an opportunity to provide a rational basis for treatments. The complexity of the interplay among the components, however, requires that further research be undertaken to determine more precisely the effects of treatments on the structure and function of CTs.  (+info)

Interaction between leukocyte elastase and elastin: quantitative and catalytic analyses. (4/1299)

Solubilization of elastin by human leukocyte elastase (HLE) cannot be analyzed by conventional kinetic methods because the biologically relevant substrate is insoluble and the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex has no physical meaning. We now report quantitative measurements of the binding and catalytic interaction between HLE and elastin permitted by analogy to receptor-ligand systems. Our results indicated that a limited and relatively constant number of enzyme binding sites were available on elastin, and that new sites became accessible as catalysis proceeded. The activation energies and solvent deuterium isotope effects were similar for catalysis of elastin and a soluble peptide substrate by HLE, yet the turnover number for HLE digestion of elastin was 200-2000-fold lower than that of HLE acting on soluble peptide substrates. Analysis of the binding of HLE to elastin at 0 degrees C, in the absence of significant catalytic activity, demonstrated two classes of binding sites (Kd=9.3x10(-9) M and 2.5x10(-7) M). The higher affinity sites accounted for only 6% of the total HLE binding capacity, but essentially all of the catalytic activity, and dissociation of HLE from these sites was minimal. Our studies suggest that interaction of HLE with elastin in vivo may be very persistent and permit progressive solubilization of this structurally important extracellular matrix component.  (+info)

UVB irradiation stimulates deposition of new elastic fibers by modified epithelial cells surrounding the hair follicles and sebaceous glands in mice. (5/1299)

UVB irradiation stimulates the synthesis of elastin in the skin of humans and experimental animals. In this study we localized the site and the cells that are responsible for the synthesis of murine dermal elastic fibers. SKH-1 hairless mice were irradiated with UVB and the skin removed for light microscopy, electron microscopy, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. In response to chronic low doses of UVB there was an initial moderate increase in tropoelastin mRNA in the papillary dermis. By contrast, there was a continuous marked elevation of collagen alpha1(I) message localizing to sites of inflammatory cell influx throughout the upper and lower dermis. After 25 wk of UV irradiation there was a 2-fold increase in skin elastin, yet total collagen remained unchanged. Serial desmosine analysis from en face sections indicated the increase in elastin content was due to dermal elastic fibers, an increase in the size and number of the dermal cysts, and an increase in subpanniculus elastic fibers. Elastin stains of en face sections suggested that the elastic fibers in the upper dermis were exclusively derived from cells lining the epithelial root sheath and sebaceous glands. In response to UV irradiation, the elastic fibers increased in number and size, wrapping around these structures and aligning in both directions as long fibers parallel to the body axis. Electron micrographs indicated that modified epithelial cells in close proximity to the flattened epithelial cells that encircled the root sheath and sebaceous glands were the source of the elastic fibers.  (+info)

Targeted overexpression of elafin protects mice against cardiac dysfunction and mortality following viral myocarditis. (6/1299)

Serine elastases degrade elastin, stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and are associated with myocardial damage. To evaluate the impact of elastase inhibition on cardiovascular development and disease, transgenic mice were created in which the mouse preproendothelin-1 promoter was used to target elafin overexpression to the cardiovascular system. To distinguish the transgene from endogenous elafin, constructs were made incorporating a FLAG sequence; the COOH-terminus FLAG-tagged elafin construct produced a stable, functionally active gene product and was used to create transgenic mice. Consistent with endothelin expression, abundant elafin mRNA was observed in transgenic F1 embryos (embryonic day 13.5) and in adult transgenic mice heart, trachea, aorta, kidney, lung, and skin, but not in liver, spleen, and intestine. Functional activity of the transgene was confirmed by heightened myocardial elastase inhibitory activity. No tissue abnormalities were detected by light microscopy or elastin content. However, injection of 10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of encephalomyocarditis virus resulted in death within 11 days in 10 out of 12 nontransgenic mice compared with one out of nine transgenic littermates. This reduced mortality was associated with better cardiac function and less myocardial inflammatory damage. Thus, elafin expression may confer a protective advantage in myocarditis and other inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

The smooth muscle cell. III. Elastin synthesis in arterial smooth muscle cell culture. (7/1299)

Primate arterial smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts were examined for their ability to synthesize elastin in culture. In the presence of the lathyrogen beta-aminopropionitrile, the smooth muscle cells incorporate [3H]lysine into a lysyl oxidase substrate that was present in the medium and associated with the cell layer. A component having a mol wt of 72,000 and an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of authentic tropoelastin was isolated from the labeled smooth muscle cells by coacervation and fractionation with organic solvents. In the absence of beta-aminopropionitrile, long-term cultures of smooth muscle cells incorporated [14C]lysine into desmosine and isodesmosine, the cross-link amino acids unique to elastin. In contrast, no desmosine formation occurred in the fibroblast cultures. These characteristics demonstrate that arterial smooth muscle cells are capable of synthesizing both soluble and cross-lined elastin in culture.  (+info)

Identification of a large region of secondary structure in the 3'-untranslated region of chicken elastin mRNA with implications for the regulation of mRNA stability. (8/1299)

Synthesis of aortic elastin peaks in the perinatal period and then is strongly down-regulated with postnatal vascular development. Our laboratory has previously shown that changes in elastin mRNA stability contribute to this developmental decrease in elastin production. Here we identify a large region of stable secondary structure in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of chicken elastin mRNA. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 3'-UTR consistently resulted in products with an approximately 328-bp deletion from the central region of the 3'-UTR, suggesting the presence of secondary structure. The presence of this structure was confirmed by probing the 3'-UTR with RNases with selectivity for single- or double-stranded RNA. Gel migration shift assays using cytosolic extracts from 2-day old chicken aorta demonstrate specific binding of a cytosolic protein to riboprobes containing the 3'-UTR of elastin but not to riboprobes either corresponding to other areas of the message or containing the 3'-UTR but lacking the region of secondary structure. Binding of cytosolic protein was particularly prominent in aortic extracts from 2-day old chickens, a time when elastin message is stable, as compared with 8- and 15-week old chickens, when the elastin message is relatively unstable, suggesting that this region of secondary structure may play a role in developmental regulation of stability of elastin mRNA.  (+info)

Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs, allowing them to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues, including the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and ligaments. Elastin fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their original length and then return to their original shape due to the unique properties of this protein. The elastin molecule is made up of cross-linked chains of the protein tropoelastin, which are produced by cells called fibroblasts and then assembled into larger elastin fibers by enzymes called lysyl oxidases. Elastin has a very long half-life, with some estimates suggesting that it can remain in the body for up to 70 years or more.

Tropoelastin is the soluble precursor protein of elastin, which is a key component of the extracellular matrix in various tissues. It has the ability to stretch and recoil, providing elasticity to tissues such as lungs, blood vessels, and skin. Tropoelastin is synthesized and secreted by cells, and it undergoes spontaneous self-assembly to form insoluble elastin fibers through the process of cross-linking. The protein contains hydrophobic domains that allow for its elastic properties, as well as binding sites for other matrix proteins.

Desmosine is a unique amino acid that is not found in proteins, but instead is formed through the cross-linking of lysine residues in collagen and elastin fibers. These fibers are important components of the extracellular matrix, providing strength and elasticity to tissues such as skin, lungs, and blood vessels.

Desmosine is formed through a series of chemical reactions involving the oxidation of lysine residues and their subsequent condensation with other amino acids. This process creates cross-links between collagen and elastin fibers, which helps to stabilize their structure and enhance their mechanical properties.

Abnormalities in desmosine levels have been associated with various diseases, including emphysema, Marfan syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Measuring desmosine levels in urine or tissue samples can provide valuable insights into the health of collagen and elastin fibers and help diagnose and monitor these conditions.

Elastic tissue is a type of connective tissue found in the body that is capable of returning to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. It is composed mainly of elastin fibers, which are protein molecules with a unique structure that allows them to stretch and recoil. Elastic tissue is found in many areas of the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skin, where it provides flexibility and resilience.

The elastin fibers in elastic tissue are intertwined with other types of connective tissue fibers, such as collagen, which provide strength and support. The combination of these fibers allows elastic tissue to stretch and recoil efficiently, enabling organs and tissues to function properly. For example, the elasticity of lung tissue allows the lungs to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain blood flow and pressure.

Elastic tissue can become less flexible and resilient with age or due to certain medical conditions, such as emphysema or Marfan syndrome. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including respiratory difficulties, cardiovascular disease, and skin sagging.

Isodesmosine is a naturally occurring amino acid cross-link that is found in some proteins, particularly in the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that accumulate in tissues with aging and in certain diseases such as diabetes. It is formed by the reaction between two lysine residues in a protein molecule, resulting in the formation of a stable covalent bond that cross-links the two amino acids together.

Isodesmosine has been found to accumulate in various tissues, including the lens of the eye and the kidneys, where it is thought to contribute to the development of cataracts and kidney disease, respectively. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders.

Medically speaking, isodesmosine is not a drug or treatment, but rather a biomarker that can be used to detect the presence of AGEs and assess their accumulation in tissues. Its measurement may have diagnostic and prognostic value in various diseases associated with aging and oxidative stress.

Pancreatic elastase is a type of elastase that is specifically produced by the pancreas. It is an enzyme that helps in digesting proteins found in the food we eat. Pancreatic elastase breaks down elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs in the body.

In clinical practice, pancreatic elastase is often measured in stool samples as a diagnostic tool to assess exocrine pancreatic function. Low levels of pancreatic elastase in stool may indicate malabsorption or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which can be caused by various conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, or pancreatic cancer.

Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase (PLOX) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of copper-containing oxidases. It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of specific lysine residues in proteins, resulting in the formation of lysine-6-aldehydes, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including the regulation of protein function, modification of extracellular matrices, and the maintenance of copper homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding PLOX have been associated with certain diseases, such as Menkes disease, a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by copper deficiency and neurological symptoms.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis (SVAS) is a rare congenital heart defect that affects the narrowing of the aorta just above the aortic valve. This condition is caused by a genetic disorder that affects the development of the elastic fibers in the media layer of the artery.

In SVAS, the narrowing or obstruction can occur in various locations along the aorta and its major branches, leading to varying degrees of severity. The aortic valve itself is usually normal, but the narrowing can affect the blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body, causing the left ventricle to work harder and potentially leading to heart failure over time.

Symptoms of SVAS may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and poor growth in children. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for SVAS may include medication to manage symptoms, balloon dilation or surgical repair to widen the narrowed area, or in severe cases, heart transplantation.

Cutis laxa is a group of rare connective tissue disorders characterized by loose, sagging, and inelastic skin. The term "cutis laxa" comes from Latin, meaning "loose skin." This condition can affect both the skin and the internal organs. Inherited forms of cutis laxa are caused by mutations in various genes involved in the structure and function of connective tissue, while acquired forms can be associated with autoimmune disorders, cancer, or certain medications.

The main features of cutis laxa include:

1. Sagging, redundant skin: The skin appears loose and wrinkled, especially on the face, neck, hands, and feet. This is due to a deficiency in elastic fibers, which provide flexibility and resilience to the skin.
2. Premature aging appearance: The sagging skin can give an individual a prematurely aged appearance, with deep wrinkles and folds around the eyes, mouth, and neck.
3. Pulmonary involvement: Recurrent respiratory infections, bronchiectasis (permanent enlargement of the airways), and emphysema can occur due to weakened lung tissue.
4. Gastrointestinal issues: Weakened intestinal walls may lead to hernias, bowel obstructions, or malabsorption.
5. Cardiovascular problems: The aorta and other major blood vessels may become weakened and dilated, leading to an increased risk of aneurysms and dissections (tears in the vessel wall).
6. Ophthalmic complications: Eye abnormalities such as blue sclerae (transparent blue appearance of the whites of the eyes) and strabismus (crossed eyes) can occur.
7. Skeletal abnormalities: Individuals with cutis laxa may have joint hypermobility, scoliosis (curvature of the spine), or hip dislocations.
8. Neurological issues: Rarely, cutis laxa can be associated with developmental delays, intellectual disability, or seizures.

There is no cure for cutis laxa, and treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include skin care, physical therapy, medications to control blood pressure, and surgery to repair hernias or aneurysms. Regular follow-up with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is essential to monitor disease progression and address any emerging issues.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrices, which are the structures that provide support and organization to cells in tissues and organs.

MMP-12 is also known as macrophage elastase because it is primarily produced by macrophages, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system. MMP-12 is capable of degrading various components of the extracellular matrix, including elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues such as lungs, arteries, and skin.

MMP-12 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Dysregulation of MMP-12 activity has been associated with various diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atherosclerosis, and tumor metastasis.

Williams Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small portion of chromosome 7. This results in various developmental and medical problems, which can include:

1. Distinctive facial features such as a broad forehead, wide-set eyes, short nose, and full lips.
2. Cardiovascular disease, particularly narrowed or missing blood vessels near the heart.
3. Developmental delays and learning disabilities, although most people with Williams Syndrome have an IQ in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability.
4. A unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses in cognitive skills, such as strong language skills but significant difficulty with visual-spatial tasks.
5. Overly friendly or sociable personality, often displaying a lack of fear or wariness around strangers.
6. Increased risk of anxiety and depression.
7. Sensitive hearing and poor depth perception.
8. Short stature in adulthood.

Williams Syndrome affects about 1 in every 10,000 people worldwide, regardless of race or ethnic background. It is not an inherited disorder, but rather a spontaneous genetic mutation.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of biomolecules that provides structural and biochemical support to cells in tissues and organs. It is composed of various proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides, such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans. The ECM plays crucial roles in maintaining tissue architecture, regulating cell behavior, and facilitating communication between cells. It provides a scaffold for cell attachment, migration, and differentiation, and helps to maintain the structural integrity of tissues by resisting mechanical stresses. Additionally, the ECM contains various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that can influence cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Overall, the extracellular matrix is essential for the normal functioning of tissues and organs, and its dysregulation can contribute to various pathological conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative diseases.

Aminopropionitrile is a chemical compound with the formula NPN(H2)CH2CH2CN. It is an irritant that can cause damage to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. It is used in the manufacture of certain plastics and resins, and has also been studied for its potential effects on the human body. Some research suggests that aminopropionitrile may interfere with the normal functioning of collagen, a protein that helps to provide structure and support to tissues and organs in the body. This has led to interest in the use of aminopropionitrile as a potential treatment for certain conditions related to collagen, such as scleroderma. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of this use.

Microfibrils are tiny, thread-like structures that are found in the extracellular matrix (the material that surrounds and supports cells) of many types of biological tissues. They are made up of bundles of long, thin proteins called fibrillins, which are joined together by other proteins such as microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs).

Microfibrils play an important role in providing structural support and elasticity to tissues. They are particularly abundant in the connective tissue that surrounds blood vessels, where they help to regulate the diameter of the vessels and maintain blood pressure. Microfibrils are also found in the elastic fibers of the lungs, skin, and other tissues, where they contribute to the ability of these tissues to stretch and recoil.

In addition to their structural roles, microfibrils have been shown to play a role in regulating cell behavior and signaling. For example, they can bind to growth factors and other signaling molecules, helping to control the activity of these molecules and influence cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Abnormalities in microfibril structure or function have been linked to a number of diseases, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and cutis laxa. These conditions are characterized by problems with connective tissue strength and elasticity, which can lead to a range of symptoms such as skeletal abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and skin fragility.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Exons are the coding regions of DNA that remain in the mature, processed mRNA after the removal of non-coding intronic sequences during RNA splicing. These exons contain the information necessary to encode proteins, as they specify the sequence of amino acids within a polypeptide chain. The arrangement and order of exons can vary between different genes and even between different versions of the same gene (alternative splicing), allowing for the generation of multiple protein isoforms from a single gene. This complexity in exon structure and usage significantly contributes to the diversity and functionality of the proteome.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ELN gene. Elastin is a key component of the extracellular matrix in ... Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. Elastin is also an important load-bearing ... "Entrez Gene: elastin". "Elastin (ELN)". Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Muiznieks LD, ... Sage EH, Gray WR (1977). "Evolution of Elastin Structure". Elastin and Elastic Tissue. Advances in Experimental Medicine and ...
... (ELPs) are synthetic biopolymers with potential applications in the fields of cancer therapy, tissue ... Tropoelastin is a protein, of size 72kDa, that comes together via cross-links to form elastin in the extracellular matrix of ... One of the major reasons that elastin can withstand high levels of stress in the body without experiencing any physical ... March 2015). "Fabricated Elastin." Advanced Healthcare Materials. 4(16): 2530-2556. Retrieved 15 May 2017. Christensen, T; ...
Maintenance of crosslinked elastin is carried out by a number of proteins including lysyl oxidase-like 1 protein. Mature ... Elastic fibers include elastin, elaunin and oxytalan. Elastic fibers are formed via elastogenesis, a highly complex process ... Cutis laxa and Williams syndrome have elastic matrix defects that have been directly associated with alterations in the elastin ... Schräder CU, Heinz A, Majovsky P, Karaman Mayack B, Brinckmann J, Sippl W, Schmelzer CE (September 2018). "Elastin is ...
Elastin is the key protein of the extracellular matrix and is the main component of the elastic fibres. Elastin gives the ... Elastin is more concentrated in areas of high stress such as the openings of the alveoli, and alveolar junctions. The ... Elastase breaks down the elastin in the lung's connective tissue that can also result in emphysema. Elastase is inhibited by ... Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Weiss, Anthony S. (2005). "Elastin". Fibrous Proteins: Coiled-Coils, Collagen and Elastomers. Advances in ...
1989). Elastin and elastases. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Pr. ISBN 0-8493-6429-9. Nakanishi, Koji; Goto, Toshio; Ito, Sho (1983). ...
The elastin, fairly unique to the ligamenta flava among other ligaments, prevents buckling of the ligament into the spinal ... These cause degeneration of elastin. Some studies indicate that the hypertrophy of these ligaments may be linked to a fibrotic ...
Elastin fibers stain dark purple/black with Verhoeff's stain. The extracellular matrix contains Elastin, fibrillin, ... Elastic fibers within the extracellular matrix are made up of elastin proteins which co-polymerize with fibrillin forming fiber ... The principal protein is elastin. Elastic cartilage is histologically similar to hyaline cartilage but contains many yellow ...
Natural abductin has a tensile modulus of 1.25 MPa, which is higher than elastin (0.3−0.6 MPa) but on the same order of ... This is similar to that of the structure of elastin. Abductin is lightly cross-linked, which gives it its high elasticity. The ... The PPII conformation, which is widely present in elastomeric proteins such as elastin and titin, is believed to play an ... This is opposite to elastin's behavior. The first patent that is dedicated to the usage and implementation of abductin was ...
Eyre, David R.; Paz, Mercedes A.; Gallop, Paul M. (1984). "Cross-Linking in Collagen and Elastin". Annual Review of ... Allysine is involved in the production of elastin and collagen. Increased allysine concentration in tissues has been correlated ...
Elastin microfibril interfacer 1 (EMILIN-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMILIN1 gene. It is the best ... "Entrez Gene: EMILIN1 elastin microfibril interfacer 1". Doliana R, Mongiat M, Bucciotti F, et al. (1999). "EMILIN, a component ... 2000). "Structure, chromosomal localization, and promoter analysis of the human elastin microfibril interfase located proteIN ( ...
The enzyme degrades soluble and insoluble elastin. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome ...
elastin: a vertebrate protein Deming T (2012). Peptide-Based Materials. Springer Publishing. Neurath H (1966). The Proteins ... The PPII structure widely exists in elastomeric proteins, such as abductin, elastin, and titin. It is believed to contribute in ... Rubber like proteins, such as resilin and elastin, are characterized based on their high resilience, low stiffness, and large ...
Other species have elastin-rich vocal cords. Due to their heavy shells, turtles are slow-moving on land. A desert tortoise ...
... is a lysine derivative found in elastin. Isodesmosine is an isomeric pyridinium-based amino acid resulting from ... These represent ideal biomarkers for monitoring elastin turnover because these special cross-links are only found in mature ... elastin in mammals. Desmosine Miao, M.; Bruce, A.E.E.; Bhanji, T.; Davis, E.C.; Keeley, F.W. (2007). "Differential expression ... the condensation of four lysine residues between elastin proteins by lysyl-oxidase. ...
PMID 19714629.(cited 29 times) Nettles, DL; Chilkoti, A; Setton, LA (2010). "Applications of elastin-like polypeptides in ... "In situ crosslinking elastin-like polypeptide gels for application to articular cartilage repair in a goat osteochondral defect ... "Chondrocytic differentiation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells in elastin-like polypeptide". Biomaterials. 27 (1): 91- ... "Development and characterization of a fusion protein between thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide and interleukin-1 ...
The main structural proteins are collagen and elastin. This causes thinning and the wall balloons allowing gross enlargement to ...
Degradation of elastin, starch and casein is positive. Strains SPS-243T, RQ-10 and RQ-12 utilize D-glucose, D-fructose, D- ...
"Quantitative Observation of Backbone Disorder in Native Elastin". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (9): 7982-7. doi:10.1074 ...
It consists of loose connective tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (the ...
"프리스틴 (PRISTIN) - HI! PRISTIN (The 1st Mini Album) [Ver B. Elastin]". 리스뮤직 (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-30. "[팝's신곡]"파워 & 프리티 ... Physically, the album received two versions, Prismatic and Elastin, the words that originated the name Pristin. The first ...
This can be related to decreased elastin synthesis or structural defects in the extracellular matrix. Cutis laxa may be caused ... It has also been considered that mutations in elastin (ELN) and fibulin-5 (FBLN5) genes can increase susceptibility of elastic ... 2016-02-13). "Acquired Localized Cutis Laxa due to Increased Elastin Turnover". Case Reports in Dermatology. 8 (1): 42-51. doi: ... 2016-02-13). "Acquired Localized Cutis Laxa due to Increased Elastin Turnover". Case Reports in Dermatology. 8 (1): 42-51. doi: ...
The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... The S-Gal protein does bind elastin and fragments of elastin that are generated by proteolysis. The S-Gal protein is a ... The ability of the GLB1-derived elastin binding protein and the elastin receptor complex to influence cell proliferation ... The S-Gal protein functions during the normal assembly of elastin into extracellular elastic fibers. Elastin is initially ...
Banki, Mahmoud Reza; Feng, Liang; Wood, David W. (2005). "Simple bioseparations using self-cleaving elastin-like polypeptide ...
Bristow J, Carey W, Egging D, Schalkwijk J (2005). "Tenascin-X, collagen, elastin, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". Am J Med ...
The process of coacervation is thought to be essential for proper elastin assembly in the ECM. Coacervation must occur outside ... Epidermal samples from the same patient subjected to electron microscopy revealed that elastin fibers display abnormally high ... The skin's elastic fiber system consists of elastin (which is normally non-glycosylated) and glycosylated proteins (fibulin, ... Elastin is not required for brain or bone growth. However, it is believed that abnormal/impaired secretion of the brain and ...
The human lung contains large quantities of collagen and elastin, proteins that allow for tissue flexibility. Aspergillus ... Rosenbloom J (December 1984). "Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal ... fumigatus produces and secretes elastases, proteases that cleave elastin in order to break down these macromolecular polymers ...
Bristow J, Carey W, Egging D, Schalkwijk J (November 2005). "Tenascin-X, collagen, elastin, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". ... Goepel C (2008). "Differential elastin and tenascin immunolabeling in the uterosacral ligaments in postmenopausal women with ... joint hypermobility and global tissue weakness as a consequence of elastin fragmentation and reduced collagen density, ...
Cheney, Jorn A.; Konow, Nicolai; Bearnot, Andrew; Swartz, Sharon M. (2015-05-06). "A wrinkle in flight: the role of elastin ... Which is composed of elastin fibers along with connective tissue. Furthermore, providing durability and flexibility for the bat ...
Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a useful tool in biotechnology. Fused with target protein, they tend to form aggregates ...
It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and ... biochemically the dermal collagen and elastin content is similar in pig and human skin; and pig skin and human skin have ...
Elastin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ELN gene. Elastin is a key component of the extracellular matrix in ... Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. Elastin is also an important load-bearing ... "Entrez Gene: elastin". "Elastin (ELN)". Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Muiznieks LD, ... Sage EH, Gray WR (1977). "Evolution of Elastin Structure". Elastin and Elastic Tissue. Advances in Experimental Medicine and ...
Elastin, FITC heavily labeled with FITC so conjugates fluorescence is quenched. Upon digestion by elastase or proteases, ... This substrate is soluble bovine neck ligament elastin that is heavily labeled with FITC such that the conjugates fluorescence ... Digestion products from the elastin substrate have absorption maxima at ~490 nm and fluorescence emission maxima at ~520 nm. ... Elastin degradation. 1987 . 1987 Jan 01 ; 144 288 , DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(87)44184-0 ...
Uncovering the secrets of elastins flexibility. Written by: ceemit. Home » News » 2016 News Releases » Uncovering the secrets ... Elastin is a crucial building block in our bodies. Its flexibility allows skin to stretch and twist, blood vessels to expand ... Elastin tissues are made up of molecules of a protein called tropoelastin, which are strung together in a chain-like structure ... While the study of elastin has been going on for a long time, Weiss says "this particular paper is exciting for us on three ...
Pure Collagen Elastin Spray helps enhance moisture levels, improve functions of capillaries and recover loss of firmness and ... Pure Collagen Elastin Spray helps enhance moisture levels, improve functions of capillaries and recover loss of firmness and ... Alastin Skincare C-Radical Defense Antioxidant Serum uses 15 Antioxidants to Defend Against UV Damage and Conserve Elastin. The ... which helps to defend against free radical damage while supporting the skins ability to conserve elastin. ...
... elastin fibers give support, elasticity, resilience and structure to the skin. ...
Improve your day-to-day wellness with Mill Creek Elastin Cream 4 oz Cream from Swanson Health Products. ... Mill Creek Elastin Cream helps support skins elasticity and promotes smooth skin. This product is paraben free and is for all ... Hydroylzed Elastin, Panthenol (Provitamin B5), Cetearyl Olivate, Sorbitan Olivate, Triethanolamine, Dimethicone, Potassium ...
Details Our Collagen Elastin is a powerful smart-aging serum that helps ward off signs of skin aging. With a 10% concentration ... of marine-based collagen + elastin, this bestselling serum rebuilds your skins collagen + supports natural c ... Our Collagen Elastin is a powerful smart-aging serum that helps ward off signs of skin aging. With a 10% concentration of ... "Pure + Simples Collagen Elastin Plus is a super hydrating, skin firming serum that actually helps rebuild Collagen. Truly." - ...
... and elastin. The biological activity of the resulting ingredient is investigated here using in vitro models, ex vivo explants ... Collagens I and III, and Elastin Activation for Anti-aging. Feb 24th, 2014 ... elastin synthesis1 and hyaluronic acid content. These reductions are due, in part, to the cells involved becoming senescent and ...
Save today on Elastin Body Firming Lotion 8 fl oz from REVIVA, VitaNet carries a large selection of REVIVA products and other ... Elastin Body Firming Lotion 8 Fl Oz from Reviva. Treatment instead of mere moisturizing action. Excellent to help prevent ...
... this Elastin Mask provides an intense moisture boost, in order to nourish and sooth dry, dull and tired skin, leaving skin ... PREMIER GRATIAE Renewing Evening Recharging Elastin Mask. PREMIER GRATIAE Renewing Evening Recharging Elastin Mask ... Decrease quantity for PREMIER GRATIAE Renewing Evening Recharging Elastin Mask Increase quantity for PREMIER GRATIAE Renewing ... Formulated for use at night when cell renewal is most active, this Elastin Mask provides an intense moisture boost, in order to ...
To retain this peptide for longer in the vitreous, mini cry was fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). A single intra- ... Keywords: Elastin-like polypeptides; Geographic atrophy; NaIO(3); RPE cell death; Retinal degeneration; αB crystallin. ... Intra-vitreal αB crystallin fused to elastin-like polypeptide provides neuroprotection in a mouse model of age-related macular ...
Direct sequencing of genomic amplimers detected defects in exon 30 of the elastin gene in affected individuals, but did not in ... The expression of mutant elastin mRNA forms was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of ... Aortic aneurysmal disease and cutis laxa caused by defects in the elastin gene ... Aortic aneurysmal disease and cutis laxa caused by defects in the elastin gene ...
The objective of the study was to evaluate elastin metabolism before and at two time-points after HSCT. Material and Method: ... Plasma elastase activity (EA) and plasma elastin-derived peptide concentration (EDPc) were measured. Results:There were ... The potential role of elastin in patients with myeloid leukemia treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has ... The objective of the study was to evaluate elastin metabolism before and at two time-points after HSCT.. Material and Method. ...
All mature skin needs elastin because its one of the things that depletes. I have been using this product for 10 years and my ... OROGOLD Exclusive / Caviar / 24K Caviar Elastin Restoration. View cart "24K Tèrmica® Completion Cream" has been added to your ... Im now a new fan of Elastin Restoration! This feels so luscious on my skin and it feels really different now that Ive been ... The 24K Caviar Elastin Restoration is a silky encapsulated solution to restore the feeling of natural radiance. The combination ...
Elastin is the name of a protein molecule, which is present in tissue and skin of the body. This protein is responsible for the ... Human sources can not be used to extract the elastin, so this ingredient of elastin comes from birds and cows. According to a ... As mentioned before, major sources of elastin are birds and cows; so with the use of such elastin, risk of some animal diseases ... One thing should be clear in ones mind that elastin, which is applied topically, can never replace the depleted elastin of the ...
Methods: C57BL/6J mice were immunized with elastin or elastin peptide oxidatively modified by cigarette smoke (ox-elastin). ... Ox-elastin IgG and IgM antibodies were elevated in ox-elastin immunized mice following 6 months of smoke, whereas elastin ... In aged and AMD eyes, loss of the elastin layer (EL) of Bruchs membrane (BrM) has been reported. Elastin antibodies are ... Conclusions: These data demonstrate that SIOP mice generate elastin-specific antibodies and that immunization with ox-elastin ...
Elastin Shots Seerum 30ml kogus. Lisa ostukorvi. Lisa soovikorvi. Tootekood: PU321001 Kategooria: Näokreemid & -seerumid EAN: ... Ole esimene, kes hindab toodet "Elastin Shots Seerum 30ml" Tühista vastus. Sinu e-postiaadressi ei avaldata. Nõutavad väljad on ... Igapäevaselt kasutatav Elastin Shots sobib ideaalselt küpsele nahale, parandab naha elastsust ja takistades naha lõtvumist. ... Kanna 3/4 tilka Elastin Shotsi igal hommikul näole ja kaelale, et neutraliseerida iga päev näole avalduvat gravitatsiooni. ...
As you use the eye serum over a course of weeks, its patented form of elastin, Elastatropin® , will be absorbed by the fine ... Its active ingredient helps to replenish the elastin we loose by aging. The skin becomes firmer and more youthful in appearance ...
Delve into the differences between collagen and elastin. Preserve and restore elastin using evidence-based products, ... Interested in how experts measure skin elastin? We explain elastin in skin. ... Elastin vs Collagen How Elastin Works Elastin Production Where in Skin in Elastin? Structure of Elastin Breakdown and Damage to ... Elastin Fibers Increase Elastin in Skin Measuring Elastin Levels and Skin Elasticity Protecting and Preserving Elastin Elastin ...
Your personal data will be used to support your experience throughout this website, to manage access to your account, and for other purposes described in our privacy policy. ...
Shop iHerb for a variety of lotions containing elastin, which supports the skin in returning to its original shape -- helping ... Reviva Labs, Elastin Collagen Body Firming Lotion, 8 fl oz (236 ml). ...
... elastin) present is plasma, serum, biological fluids or tissue homogenate samples. ... Human elastin ELISA kit can measure concentrations of ELN ( ... Elastin ELISA Kit (ELN). Full Name: Elastin ELISA Kit (ELN). ... Human elastin ELISA kit can measure concentrations of ELN (elastin) present is plasma, serum, biological fluids or tissue ... Elastin (ELN) is a protein found in the matrix, for providing elasticity and resilience to various tissues like the skin, lungs ...
Main protein in elastic fibres of connective tissues; it is the protein that gives skin its shape.
Elastin. Elastin is the principal load-bearing element in the aorta. The aortic wall contains smooth muscle, elastin, and ... A normal aorta shows a reduction in medial elastin layers from the thoracic portion to the abdominal portion. Elastin content ... which favor the degradation of elastin and collagen. The mechanism that tips the balance in favor of degradation of elastin and ... AAAs arise as a result of a failure of the major structural proteins of the aorta (elastin and collagen). The inciting factors ...
To optimize the results of your skin care routine, use in combination with Elastin Gel Plus or Elastin Serum. ... Alpha-Elastin - Natural, fibrous structural protein rich in amino acids with elastic and firming properties. 30 mL/ 1.01 fl. oz ... Strengthens naturally occurring elastin fibres needed for balance, elasticity and hydration of the skins deepest layers ... If Elastin Serum has not been fully absorbed in 60 seconds, too much product was applied. ...
... rich in Bio-marine Elastin Protein and Honey Extract. Improves moisture and leaves skin firm, radiant and fresh.Great for ... Hydrating and firming serum, rich in Bio-marine Elastin Protein and Honey Extract. Improves moisture and leaves skin firm, ...
Tag Archives: elastin. Peptide-Based Immunotherapy Against Oxidized Elastin Ameliorates Pathology In Mouse Model Of Smoke- ... Conclusions: These data further support ox-elastin role in ocular damage in in part via elastin-specific antibodies, and ... including elastin. As loss of the elastin layer of Bruchs membrane (BrM) has been reported in aging and AMD, we previously ... ox-elastin), exacerbated ocular pathology in the smoke-induced ocular pathology (SIOP) model. Here we asked whether ox-elastin ...
COLLAGEN ELASTIN CREAM Epigenetische Gesichtscreme auf der Basis der restrukturierenden Substanzen Kollagen und Elastin, die ... ONE RADIANCE COLLAGEN ELASTIN CREAM. Epigenetische Gesichtscreme auf der Basis der restrukturierenden Substanzen Kollagen und ... Die Wirkung der Creme ONE RADIANCE COLLAGEN ELASTIN CREAM wurde durch den Wirkstoff KSF-R verstärkt. In dem Kristall der ... Elastin, die das Stützgewebe der Haut bilden, um dem Alterungsprozess der Haut entgegenzuwirken. Verleiht der Haut wieder Fülle ...
... øke temperaturen i vevet stimuleres huden til kollagen og elastin dannelse.Denne behandlingen … ...
  • The serum is formulated with a proprietary encapsulated novel form of vitamin C (Sodium Ascorbate), which helps to defend against free radical damage while supporting the skin's ability to conserve elastin. (skininc.com)
  • Our Collagen Elastin is a powerful smart-aging serum that helps ward off signs of skin aging. (pureandsimple.ca)
  • With a 10% concentration of marine-based collagen + elastin , this bestselling serum rebuilds your skin's collagen + supports natural collagen production. (pureandsimple.ca)
  • Pure + Simple's Collagen Elastin Plus is a super hydrating, skin firming serum that actually helps rebuild Collagen. (pureandsimple.ca)
  • As you use the eye serum over a course of weeks, it's patented form of elastin, Elastatropin® , will be absorbed by the fine skin about the eyes, and aid in regenerating the lost elasticity of the skin. (prolastil.com)
  • Human elastin ELISA kit can measure concentrations of ELN (elastin) present is plasma, serum, biological fluids or tissue homogenate samples. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • To optimize the results of your skin care routine, use in combination with Elastin Gel Plus or Elastin Serum. (neolea.center)
  • If Elastin Serum has not been fully absorbed in 60 seconds, too much product was applied. (neolea.center)
  • Hydrating and firming serum, rich in Bio-marine Elastin Protein and Honey Extract. (yonatzilberg.com)
  • Dr.Rashel Argan Collagen Elastin Serum 8 in 1 is a product from Dr.Rashel, a trusted name in the cosmetic and health industry. (com.pk)
  • This serum contains elastin which helps reduce wrinkles while also providing optimum nutrients for demanding, tired skin. (myshopify.com)
  • Age-defying ampoule serum rich in elastin and pomegranate extract, it promotes cell renewal for more elasticity. (myshopify.com)
  • Pure Collagen Elastin Spray helps enhance moisture levels, improve functions of capillaries and recover loss of firmness and elasticity while evening out tone. (skininc.com)
  • Mill Creek Elastin Cream helps support skin's elasticity and promotes smooth skin. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • According to a health theory, elastin extracted from animal sources provides better skin elasticity. (thegeminigeek.com)
  • But it has been observed that, elastin of cosmetic products provides very little benefit to the skin elasticity. (thegeminigeek.com)
  • Elastin is a protein that gives skin its snap and elasticity. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • Elastin (ELN) is a protein found in the matrix, for providing elasticity and resilience to various tissues like the skin, lungs, and blood vessels. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Elastin is abundant in tissues that require elasticity for functions including large arteries, lungs, skin, and ligaments. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Hydrolyzed elastin proteins effectively firm the skin, plump up fine lines by increasing elasticity of the skin and by improving its moisture retention. (dermedics.com.my)
  • It damages the skin, including elastin, a protein that gives skin its elasticity and helps it to return to its original shape after being stretched or contracted. (fants.com.au)
  • Therefore, those whose skin has lost elasticity due to exposure to ultraviolet rays and aging can judge that elastin is lacking, and taking it in the form of nutritional supplements can be helpful. (esther-mall.com)
  • Elastin is about 1000 times more flexible than collagen so, while collagen provides support and strength, elastin gives your skin flexibility and elasticity. (truskin.com)
  • Skin loses elasticity as you get older thanks to a natural degradation of elastin, but those same environmental and lifestyle aggressors also play their part. (truskin.com)
  • Elastin is one of the skin's main connective proteins giving the skin its elasticity and is therefore essential to keep the skin elastic, firm, and supple. (diorabeauty.shop)
  • Particularly high levels of marine elastin stimulate the skin's regeneration, rejuvenates it, and restore its firmness and elasticity. (diorabeauty.shop)
  • Elastin is essential to give strength to the structural support of the skin at the same time that it provides the necessary elasticity in the skin. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • Elastin affects the elasticity, firmness and resilience of the skin. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • A lifting ampoule for more elasticity with elastin and pomegranate extract to soften wrinkles and restores elasticity to the skin. (myshopify.com)
  • In the body, elastin is usually associated with other proteins in connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This material has a remarkable combination of flexibility and durability: Elastin is one of the body's most long-lasting component proteins, with an average survival time comparable to a human lifespan. (mit.edu)
  • Contains elastin proteins for rejuvenation! (dermedics.com.my)
  • And the reason is simple: collagen and elastin are two of the most important proteins in your skin. (truskin.com)
  • One, 10-ounce jar of St. Ives Timeless Skin Collagen Elastin Facial Moisturizer Formulated to reduce the appearance of fine lines and maintain a youthful appearance Made with collagen and elastin proteins Hydrates for visibly softer, smoother skin St. Ives formulas use effective, natural ingredients for fresher, younger looking skin. (habbana.com)
  • Buy a cream with Multicéuticals® collagen, elastin and vitamin E proteins in a 2x1 promotion and we will send you the second unit of the same reference completely free of charge. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • collagen, elastin and vitamin E proteins. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • Multicéuticals® cream with collagen, elastin and vitamin E proteins x 250gr. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • Recombinant elastin -based proteins (ELPs) are used in applications that include therapeutics , drug delivery, and tissue engineering due to their biocompatibility and unique ability to undergo simple coacervation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. (lu.se)
  • Die Wirkung der Creme ONE RADIANCE COLLAGEN ELASTIN CREAM wurde durch den Wirkstoff KSF-R verstärkt. (pure-vision.ch)
  • In aged and AMD eyes, loss of the elastin layer (EL) of Bruch's membrane (BrM) has been reported. (utah.edu)
  • As loss of the elastin layer of Bruch's membrane (BrM) has been reported in aging and AMD, we previously showed that immunization with elastin peptide oxidatively modified by cigarette smoke (ox-elastin), exacerbated ocular pathology in the smoke-induced ocular pathology (SIOP) model. (marclab.org)
  • As we age, our body's natural production of collagen and elastin begins to slow down, causing signs of aging like sagging, fine lines, and wrinkles. (stackedskincare.com)
  • Elastin is a major component of elastic fibers in the skin. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • Elastin is the major component of elastic fibers, which are a major component of the tissue that supports the body's joints and organs (connective tissue). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The elastin and elastic fibers made in youth have to last a lifetime. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • Oxytalan fibers contain the microfibrillar protein fibrillin but no elastin. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • The deeper reticular dermis houses thicker elastic fibers composed of both elastin and fibrillin called elaunin fibers running parallel to the surface. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • The important role water plays is why moisturizing and hydrating the skin is important to help prevent damage of elastin fibers. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • The expression of elastin and the formation of fibers reach their peak during fetal development and early postnatal development. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • UV radiation weakens collagen and elastin fibers, causing them to break down way quicker than normal. (truskin.com)
  • The abnormal protein is less able to be incorporated into mature elastin, which impairs the formation of strong elastic fibers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A shortage of tropoelastin reduces the amount of mature elastin protein that is processed and available for forming elastic fibers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This loss reduces the production of elastin by approximately half, which disrupts the normal structure of elastic fibers in many connective tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Histologically, the elastofibroma consists of collagen fibers and coarse elastic fibers that can be demonstrated with elastin stain. (medscape.com)
  • To retain this peptide for longer in the vitreous, mini cry was fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). (nih.gov)
  • Plasma elastase activity (EA) and plasma elastin-derived peptide concentration (EDPc) were measured. (medscimonit.com)
  • C57BL/6J mice were immunized with elastin or elastin peptide oxidatively modified by cigarette smoke (ox-elastin). (utah.edu)
  • We have a new collaborative manuscript out in iOVS, Peptide-Based Immunotherapy Against Oxidized Elastin Ameliorates Pathology In Mouse Model Of Smoke-Induced Ocular Injury. (marclab.org)
  • Here we asked whether ox-elastin peptide-based immunotherapy (PIT) ameliorates damage. (marclab.org)
  • Methods: C57BL/6J mice were injected with ox-elastin peptide at two doses via weekly subcutaneous administration, while exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months. (marclab.org)
  • Elastic fiber in the body is a mixture of amorphous elastin and fibrous fibrillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin serves an important function in arteries as a medium for pressure wave propagation to help blood flow and is particularly abundant in large elastic blood vessels such as the aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, elastin makes skin more elastic. (stackedskincare.com)
  • Skin chronological aging, also called intrinsic aging, has been characterized on a microscopic level by reductions in total collagen content, elastin synthesis 1 and hyaluronic acid content. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 150mg of Elastin, 702mg of Collagen, and 40mg of Hyaluronic-acid. (esther-mall.com)
  • Made with a unique formula, Hyaluron & Elastin Boost is probably the most intense drinkable combination of hyaluronic acid, marine elastin and 20 other vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. (diorabeauty.shop)
  • In one 25 mL vial, you can find even 250 mg hyaluronic acid, 30 mg marine elastin, and 500 μg biotin. (diorabeauty.shop)
  • The supplement contains 250 mg of hyaluronic acid and 30 mg of marine elastin. (diorabeauty.shop)
  • While collagen is responsible for giving skin its structure, elastin is responsible for the skin's ability to bounce back when we press it or stretch it. (stackedskincare.com)
  • Elastin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ELN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • They revived a short segment of the elastin gene that has become dormant in humans, which changes part of the protein's configuration. (mit.edu)
  • Direct sequencing of genomic amplimers detected defects in exon 30 of the elastin gene in affected individuals, but did not in 121 normal controls. (bmj.com)
  • Elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.2 encodes ELN. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Polymorphisms in the human tropoelastin gene modify in vitro self-assembly and mechanical properties of elastin-like polypeptides. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • 1993). "The elastin gene is disrupted by a translocation associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Modulation of Photoaging-Induced Cutaneous Elastin: Evaluation of Gene and Protein Expression of Markers Related to Elastogenesis Under Different Photoexposure Conditions. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • The potential role of elastin in patients with myeloid leukemia treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been investigated so far. (medscimonit.com)
  • Here we assess the role of elastin antibodies using a mouse model of smoke-induced ocular pathology (SIOP), which similarly demonstrates EL loss. (utah.edu)
  • The unlinked tropoelastin molecules are not normally available in the cell, since they become crosslinked into elastin fibres immediately after their synthesis by the cell and export into the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • New elastin synthesis shuts down after puberty. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • The dermis contains mainly collagen and elastin. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • Like collagen, elastin is synthesized by fibroblasts in the dermis. (truskin.com)
  • These values, normalized to a color scale displaying the ultrasound image, will allow for a comparative analysis of changes in collagen and elastin fiber content in the dermis. (who.int)
  • The hydrophilic domains contain Lys-Ala (KA) and Lys-Pro (KP) motifs that are involved in crosslinking during the formation of mature elastin. (wikipedia.org)
  • To make mature elastin fibres, the tropoelastin molecules are cross-linked via their lysine residues with desmosine and isodesmosine cross-linking molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin provides firmness and recoil. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • When elastin breaks down, the skin loses firmness and smoothness, leading to wrinkles and other signs of ageing. (fants.com.au)
  • Collagen and elastin help to hydrate the skin and promote firmness. (biotherapeuticspa.com)
  • The feasibility of using recombinant human tropoelastin to enable elastin fiber production to improve skin flexibility in wounds and scarring has been studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Elastin-Based Bioelastomers for Biomedical Applications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Under a magnification of 450X, this photomicrograph of an elastin stained section of the myocardial tissue, reveals a fibrous plaque as a result of syphilitic aortitis. (cdc.gov)
  • These data demonstrate that SIOP mice generate elastin-specific antibodies and that immunization with ox-elastin exacerbates ocular pathology. (utah.edu)
  • Conclusions: These data further support ox-elastin role in ocular damage in in part via elastin-specific antibodies, and support the corollary that PIT with ox-elastin attenuates ocular pathology. (marclab.org)
  • Elastosis is the buildup of elastin in tissues, and is a form of degenerative disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison between fresh and digested tissues shows that, at 35% strain, a minimum of 48% of the arterial load is carried by elastin, and a minimum of 43% of the change in stiffness of arterial tissue is due to the change in elastin stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin tissues are made up of molecules of a protein called tropoelastin, which are strung together in a chain-like structure, and which Weiss and his team have been studying in the lab for many years. (mit.edu)
  • Unlike collagen, elastin is a protein that exists mostly in the connective tissues of the body. (stackedskincare.com)
  • Elastin is one of the main components of the skin, but it is also present in a variety of body tissues and organs, such as blood vessels, cartilage, lungs, and the heart. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • One can easily read the name of elastin, in the list of ingredients of various "anti-aging" cosmetic products. (thegeminigeek.com)
  • The unique combination of ingredients in Hyaluron & Elastin Boost strengthens the intercellular matrix layer, intensively moistens the skin and protects it from drying, helps keep the skin smooth and youthful, and allows enjoying healthy hair and strong nails. (diorabeauty.shop)
  • Elastin is a key component of the extracellular matrix in gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with collagen and proteoglycans, elastin constitutes the extracellular matrix (ECM) that produces dermal fibroblasts [1]. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • Human sources can not be used to extract the elastin, so this ingredient of elastin comes from birds and cows. (thegeminigeek.com)
  • The expression of mutant elastin mRNA forms was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of cutis laxa fibroblasts. (bmj.com)
  • Cells such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and chondroblasts synthesize and secrete tropoelastin, which is the precursor of elastin. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Elastin is made by linking together many small soluble precursor tropoelastin protein molecules (50-70 kDa), to make the final massive, insoluble, durable complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple copies of the tropoelastin protein attach to one another and are processed to form a mature protein called elastin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biochemical findings in animals exposed to ozone and nitrogen dioxide included increased lung content of DNA, protein, collagen, and elastin, which was about 300% higher than the control values. (cdc.gov)
  • Elastin antibodies represented complement fixing isotypes that, together with the increased presence of complement activation seen in immunized mice, suggest that elastin antibodies exert pathogenic effects through mediating complement activation. (utah.edu)
  • Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in western populations, is associated with an overactive complement system, and an increase in circulating antibodies against certain epitopes, including elastin. (marclab.org)
  • Mice receiving PIT with low dose ox-elastin (LD-PIT) exhibited reduced humoral immunity, reduced complement activation and IgG/IgM deposition in the RPE/choroid, and largely a preserved BrM. (marclab.org)
  • Epigenetische Gesichtscreme auf der Basis der restrukturierenden Substanzen Kollagen und Elastin, die das Stützgewebe der Haut bilden, um dem Alterungsprozess der Haut entgegenzuwirken. (pure-vision.ch)
  • Human elastin-like polypeptides as a versatile platform for exploitation of ultrasensitive bilirubin detection by UnaG. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • This ampoule contains elastin which helps to reduce wrinkles while also providing optimum nutrients for demanding, tired skin. (myshopify.com)
  • Elastin antibodies are elevated in patients with AMD, the pathogenic significance of which is unclear. (utah.edu)
  • Ox-elastin IgG and IgM antibodies were elevated in ox-elastin immunized mice following 6 months of smoke, whereas elastin immunization had a smaller effect. (utah.edu)
  • Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its active ingredient helps to replenish the elastin we loose by aging. (prolastil.com)
  • Our skin is composed of collagen, and this elastin helps to keep the skin firm because it binds collagen stably. (esther-mall.com)
  • Elastin helps skin return to its original position when handled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin is important in blood vessels because it helps blood to flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The cold cloth contains 36mg of polygamma glutamic acid and also contains vitamin c and elastin, which helps promote calcium absorption. (kmall24.com)
  • Electron microscopy showed extracellular elastin deposits lacking microfibrillar elements. (bmj.com)
  • A team of researchers at MIT, in Australia, and in the U.K. has carried out an analysis that reveals the details of a hierarchical structure of scissor-shaped molecules that gives elastin its remarkable properties. (mit.edu)
  • Water also plays a role, allowing the coiled elastin molecules to extend and contract. (skintypesolutions.com)
  • This moisturizer is high in antioxidants that can help neutralize free radicals from UV rays and pollution, preventing collagen and elastin from breaking down prematurely. (stackedskincare.com)
  • Elastin is also an important load-bearing tissue in the bodies of vertebrates and used in places where mechanical energy is required to be stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin is the name of a protein molecule, which is present in tissue and skin of the body. (thegeminigeek.com)
  • Elastin is part of connective tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Formulated for use at night when cell renewal is most active, this Elastin Mask provides an intense moisture boost, in order to nourish and sooth dry, dull and tired skin, leaving skin silky smooth, and refreshed. (deadsea-cosmetics.com)
  • Hydrolyzed Collagen & Elastin help plump and firm skin, and improve moisture retention. (brightboldandbeautiful.me)
  • But it is not helpful in adjusting the flexibility of the skin, this is because, the elastin (present in skin products) is not able to penetrate in the skin. (thegeminigeek.com)
  • When we're young, our skin has plenty of collagen and elastin, which is why it looks so plump and bouncy. (stackedskincare.com)
  • One 96-Well Plate: Pre-coated with anti-elastin antibody. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • The elastin derivative is also digested by proteases other than elastase. (anaspec.com)
  • Digestion products from the elastin substrate have absorption maxima at ~490 nm and fluorescence emission maxima at ~520 nm. (anaspec.com)
  • Additionally, as Dr Karl mentions, once we hit puberty our bodies stop making significant amounts of elastin, all you can do is conserve what you've got by protecting it from UV light. (fants.com.au)
  • Conserve el producto en su empaque original, protegido de la luz solar directa, en un lugar fresco y alejado de campos electromagnéticos fuertes (nevera, microondas, computadores, celulares, etc. (doctorsaliarmo.com)
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate elastin metabolism before and at two time-points after HSCT. (medscimonit.com)
  • Elastin is a very long-lived protein, with a half-life of over 78 years in humans. (wikipedia.org)