Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The behaviors of materials under force.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Painful sensation in the muscles.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
The molecular unit of collagen fibrils that consist of repeating three-stranded polypeptide units arranged head to tail in parallel bundles. It is a right-handed triple helix composed of 2 polypeptide chains. It is rich in glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.

Connectin, an elastic protein from myofibrils. (1/4621)

The elastic protein isolated from myofibrils of chicken skeletal muscle was compared with extracellular non-collagenous reticulin prepared from chicken liver and skeletal muscle. The amino acid compositions of these proteins were similar except that their contents of Phe, Leu, Cys/2, and Hyp were different. The impregnations of the elastic protein and reticulin with silver were also different. The reticulin was not at all elastic. It also differed from reticulin in solubility and antigenicity. It is proposed to call the intracellular elastic protein connectin.  (+info)

Surface-induced polymerization of actin. (2/4621)

Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m.  (+info)

Adhesion energy of receptor-mediated interaction measured by elastic deformation. (3/4621)

We investigated the role of receptor binding affinity in surface adhesion. A sensitive technique was developed to measure the surface energy of receptor-mediated adhesion. The experimental system involved a functionalized elastic agarose bead resting on a functionalized glass coverslip. Attractive intersurface forces pulled the two surfaces together, deforming the bead to produce an enlarged contact area. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was used to relate the surface energy of the interaction to the elasticity of the bead and the area of contact. The surface energies for different combinations of modified surfaces in solution were obtained from reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) measurements of the contact area formed by the bead and the coverslip. Studies with surfaces functionalized with ligand-receptor pairs showed that the relationship between surface energy and the association constant of the ligand binding has two regimes. At low binding affinity, surface energy increased linearly with the association constant, while surface energy increased logarithmically with the association constant in the high affinity regime.  (+info)

Impact of vascular adaptation to chronic aortic regurgitation on left ventricular performance. (4/4621)

BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that vascular adaptation occurs in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation to maintain left ventricular (LV) performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (mean age 50+/-14 years) were studied using a micromanometer LV catheter to obtain LV pressures and radionuclide ventriculography to obtain LV volumes during multiple loading conditions and right atrial pacing. These 45 patients were subgrouped according to their LV contractility (Ees) and ejection fraction values. Group I consisted of 24 patients with a normal Ees. Group IIa consisted of 10 patients with impaired Ees values (Ees <1.00 mm Hg/mL) but normal LV ejection fractions; Group IIb consisted of 11 patients with impaired contractility and reduced LV ejection fractions. The left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio, Ees/Ea, where Ea was calculated by dividing the LV end-systolic pressure by LV stroke volume, averaged 1.60+/-0.91 in Group I. It decreased to 0.91+/-0.27 in Group IIa (P<0.05 versus Group I), and it decreased further in Group IIb to 0.43+/-0.24 (P<0.001 versus Groups I and IIa). The LV ejection fractions were inversely related to the Ea values in both the normal and impaired contractility groups (r=-0.48, P<0.05 and r=-0.56, P<0.01, respectively), although the slopes of these relationships differed (P<0.05). The average LV work was maximal in Group IIa when the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio was near 1.0 because of a significant decrease in total arterial elastance (P<0.01 versus Group I). In contrast, the decrease in the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio in Group IIb was caused by an increase in total arterial elastance, effectively double loading the LV, contributing to a decrease in LV pump efficiency (P<0.01 versus Group IIa and P<0.001 versus Group I). CONCLUSIONS: Vascular adaptation may be heterogeneous in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. In some, total arterial elastance decreases to maximize LV work and maintain LV performance, whereas in others, it increases, thereby double loading the LV, contributing to afterload excess and a deterioration in LV performance that is most prominent in those with impaired contractility.  (+info)

Dynamics and elasticity of the fibronectin matrix in living cell culture visualized by fibronectin-green fluorescent protein. (5/4621)

Fibronectin (FN) forms the primitive fibrillar matrix in both embryos and healing wounds. To study the matrix in living cell cultures, we have constructed a cell line that secretes FN molecules chimeric with green fluorescent protein. These FN-green fluorescent protein molecules were assembled into a typical matrix that was easily visualized by fluorescence over periods of several hours. FN fibrils remained mostly straight, and they were seen to extend and contract to accommodate movements of the cells, indicating that they are elastic. When fibrils were broken or detached from cells, they contracted to less than one-fourth of their extended length, demonstrating that they are highly stretched in the living culture. Previous work from other laboratories has suggested that cryptic sites for FN assembly may be exposed by tension on FN. Our results show directly that FN matrix fibrils are not only under tension but are also highly stretched. This stretched state of FN is an obvious candidate for exposing the cryptic assembly sites.  (+info)

Altered crossbridge kinetics in the alphaMHC403/+ mouse model of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (6/4621)

A mutation in the cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain, Arg403Gln (R403Q), causes a severe form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) in humans. We used small-amplitude (0.25%) length-perturbation analysis to examine the mechanical properties of skinned left ventricular papillary muscle strips from mouse hearts bearing the R403Q mutation in the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC403/+). Myofibrillar disarray with variable penetrance occurred in the left ventricular free wall of the alphaMHC403/+ hearts. In resting strips (pCa 8), dynamic stiffness was approximately 40% greater than in wild-type strips, consistent with elevated diastolic stiffness reported for murine hearts with FHC. At pCa 6 (submaximal activation), strip isometric tension was approximately 3 times higher than for wild-type strips, whereas at pCa 5 (maximal activation), tension was marginally lower. At submaximal calcium activation the characteristic frequencies of the work-producing (b) and work-absorbing (c) steps of the crossbridge were less in alphaMHC403/+ strips than in wild-type strips (b=11+/-1 versus 15+/-1 Hz; c= 58+/-3 versus 66+/-3 Hz; 27 degrees C). At maximal calcium activation, strip oscillatory power was reduced (0. 53+/-0.25 versus 1.03+/-0.18 mW/mm3; 27 degrees C), which is partly attributable to the reduced frequency b, at which crossbridge work is maximum. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the R403Q mutation reduces the strong binding affinity of myosin for actin. Myosin heads may accumulate in a preforce state that promotes cooperative activation of the thin filament at submaximal calcium but blunts maximal tension and oscillatory power output at maximal calcium. The calcium-dependent effect of the mutation (whether facilitating or debilitating), together with a variable degree of fibrosis and myofibrillar disorder, may contribute to the diversity of clinical symptoms observed in murine FHC.  (+info)

Effects of AT1 receptor blockade after myocardial infarct on myocardial fibrosis, stiffness, and contractility. (7/4621)

Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade attenuates myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether inhibition of fibrosis by AT1 receptor blockade influences myocardial stiffness and contractility is unknown. We measured left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics, papillary muscle function, and myocardial stiffness and fibrosis in rats randomized to losartan or placebo 1 day after MI and treated subsequently for 8 wk. Losartan decreased LV and right ventricular weights as well as mean aortic and LV systolic pressures in sham and MI rats. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI and was decreased with losartan. Maximal developed tension and peak rate of tension rise and decline were decreased in MI vs. sham rats. Interstitial fibrosis developed after MI and was prevented in losartan-treated MI rats. The development of abnormal myocardial stiffness after MI was prevented by losartan. After MI, AT1 receptor blockade prevents an abnormal increase in myocardial collagen content. This effect was associated with a normalization of passive myocardial stiffness.  (+info)

Aortic pressure-diameter relationship assessed by intravascular ultrasound: experimental validation in dogs. (8/4621)

Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic method for evaluating vessel diameter and vessel wall motion. To evaluate the validity of IVUS in assessing changes in the pressure-diameter relationship we compared measurements of abdominal aortic diameters derived from IVUS with those simultaneously obtained at the same site using implanted sonomicrometers in five chronically instrumented conscious dogs and in seven acutely instrumented anesthetized dogs. Five hundred eighty beats were analyzed to obtain peak systolic and end-diastolic diameters and to calculate aortic compliance at different blood pressure levels induced either by an aortic pneumatic cuff or by intravenous injections of nitroglycerin or norepinephrine. IVUS agreed closely with sonomicrometer measurements at different blood pressure levels. However, IVUS slightly but significantly underestimated aortic diameters by 0.6 +/- 0.7 mm for systolic diameters (P < 0.001) and by 0.7 +/- 0.6 mm for diastolic diameters (P < 0.001) compared with the sonomicrometer measurements. We conclude that IVUS is a feasible and reliable method to measure dynamic changes in aortic dimensions and has the potential to provide ready access to assess aortic compliance in humans.  (+info)

Hardening of polycrystalline copper subjected to tension-compression loading cycles in the plastic region is discussed with reference to changes in flow stress determined from equations describing dislocation glide. It is suggested that hardening is as a result of the accumulation of strain on a monotonic stress-strain curve. On initial loading, the behavior is monotonic. On stress reversal, a characteristic cyclic stress-strain curve is followed until the stress reaches a value in reverse loading corresponding to the maximum attained during the preceding half cycle. Thereafter, the monotonic path is followed until strain reversal occurs at completion of the half cycle. Repetition of the process results in cyclic hardening. Steady state cyclic behavior is reached when a stress associated with the monotonic stress-strain curve is reached which is equal to the stress associated with the cyclic stress-strain curve corresponding to the imposed strain amplitude. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonlinear elastic properties of polyacrylamide gels. T2 - Implications for quantification of cellular forces. AU - Boudou, Thomas. AU - Ohayon , Jacques. AU - Picart, Catherine. AU - Pettigrew, Roderic I.. AU - Tracqui, Philippe. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Because of their tunable mechanical properties, polyacrylamide gels (PAG) are frequently used for studying cell adhesion and migratory responses to extracellular substrate stiffness. Since these responses are known to heavily depend on the tensional balance between cell contractility and substrate mechanical resistance, a precise knowledge of PAGs mechanical properties becomes quite crucial. Using the micropipette aspiration technique, we first exhibited the nonlinear elastic behavior of PAG and then successfully modeled it by an original strain-energy function. This function depends on the Poissons ratio and on two material parameters, which have been explicitly related to acrylamide and bis-acrylamide concentrations. ...
An acoustic time of flight technique is described in detail for measuring the elastic constants of cubic single crystals that allows for the constants to be determined at elevated temperature. Although the overall technique is not new, various aspects of the present work may prove extremely useful to othersinterested in finding these values, especially for aerospace materials applications. Elastic constants were determined for the nickel based alloy, Hastelloy X from room temperature to 1000°C. Accurate elastic constants were needed as part of an effort to predict both polycrystal mechanical properties and the nature of grain induced heterogeneous mechanical response. The increased accuracy of the acoustically determined constants resulted in up to a 15 percent change in the predicted stresses in individual grains. These results indicate that the use of elastic single crystal constants of pure nickel as an approximation for the constants of gas turbine single crystal alloys, which is often done ...
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abstract = {We consider a class of second-gradient elasticity models for which the internal potential energy is taken as the sum of a convex function of the second gradient of the deformation and a general function of the gradient. However, in consonance with classical nonlinear elasticity, the latter is assumed to grow unboundedly as the determinant of the gradient approaches zero. While the existence of a minimizer is routine, the existence of weak solutions is not, and we focus our efforts on that question here. In particular, we demonstrate that the determinant of the gradient of any admissible deformation with finite energy is strictly positive on the closure of the domain. With this in hand, Gâteaux differentiability of the potential energy at a minimizer is automatic, yielding the existence of a weak solution. We indicate how our results hold for a general class of boundary value problems, including mixed boundary conditions. For each of the two possible pure displacement formulations ...
Results (1) baPWV, cfPWV and ABI were significantly higher in EH group than that in NS group. C1, C2 and GFR were significantly lower in EH group than that in NS group. (2) baPWV and cfPWV increased progressively with decreasing GFR (p,0.05), but C1, C2 and ABI had insignificantly change with decreasing GFR. With increasing mAlb, no significant difference was found in all indexes of arterial elasticity function. (3) There was a significant and negative correlation between PWV and GFR. baPWV showed the best correlation with GFR (r=−0.405, p,0.01). C2 correlated positively with GFR (p,0.05). No correlation was found between mAlb and all indexes of arterial elasticity function. Adjusting for age and blood pressure, even significant association between all indices of arterial elasticity and GFR disappeared.. ...
An apparatus for measuring arterial elasticity includes a cuff member having a light source and light detector, a variable pressure generating device, a fluid pressure sensor, a digital signal processor and a difference detecting element. The fluid pressure in a fluid pressure chamber in the cuff member is varied by a variable fluid pressure generating device. The digital signal processor responds to the output of the fluid pressure sensor and the output of the difference detecting element and delivers a digitally processed signal corresponding to an arterial volume change based on a simulated arterial elasticity. The arterial elasticity and the frequency characteristic thereof are derived based on the operation of the digital signal processor.
E.g. 6/2/2020 Elasticity of Demand Learning Topic Elasticity of Demand We know from the law of demand how the quantity demanded will If Ferrari was to increase its prices to $250,000 and 99 customers buy it, then the product is very inelastic. Factors Determining 5. ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us make an in-depth study of Elasticity of Demand. Ed= 9 Management Managerial Economics Elasticity of Demand 4. On most curves the elasticity of a curve varies depending upon where you are. It is argued that in the short term, buyers are often locked into spending patterns through habit, lack of information or because of durable goods that have already been purchased. Goods can be classified as normal goods or inferior goods. Arc Elasticity Method Arc elasticity of demand measures elasticity between two points on a curve. Of one good when the price changes for another good 0.78 % increase in wealth would lead 0.78. Goods and inferior goods Before we get to elasticity, we need to mention Normal goods vs contracts. ...
Hope the above listing of antonyms for elasticity is useful. This page may interest people looking for the opposite of elasticity and elasticity opposite.. Popular phrases for this post include, opposite of elasticity, Elasticity is opposite to, elasticity opposite, ELESTICITY IS OPPOSITE TO, opposite od elasticity, opposite of elasticity is ??, opposite to elasticity ...
We discuss the limiting behavior (using the notion of gamma-limit) of the 3d nonlinear elasticity for thin shells around an arbitrary smooth 2d surface. In particular, under the assumption that the elastic energy of deformations scales like h4, h being the thickness of a shell, we derive a limiting theory which is a generalization of the von Karman theory for plates.. ...
Voir en ligne : PMID : 27656191 R. Malgat, F. Faure & A. Boudaoud* A mechanical model to interpret cell-scale indentation experiments on plant tissues in terms of cell wall elasticity and turgor pressure.. Front Plant Sci. 7 1351 (2016 ...
On the basis of the general non-linear theory of a hyperelastic material with initial stress, initially without consideration of the origin of the initial stress, we determine explicit expressions for the stress-dependent tensor of incremental elastic moduli. In considering three special cases of initial stress within the general framework, namely hydrostatic stress, uniaxial stress and planar shear stress, we then elucidate in general form the dependence of various elastic moduli on the initial stress. In each case, the effect of initial stress on the wave speed of homogeneous plane waves is studied and it is shown how various special theories from the earlier literature fit within the general framework. We then consider the situation in which the initial stress is a pre-stress associated with a finite deformation and, in particular, we discuss the specialization to the second-order theory of elasticity and highlight connections between several classical approaches to the topic, again with ...
2002, v.8, Issue 2, 351-364 ABSTRACT. A method is suggested for defining a deformation-dependent free energy in microscopic terms for a deformed elastic solid and applied to a simple microscopic model of such a solid. Some of the convexity and continuity properties of this free energy function are derived.. Keywords: nonlinear elasticity,restricted ensembles in statistical mechanics. COMMENTS. Please log in or register to leave a comment. ...
Index[1851 26]/Info 1850 0 R/Length 85/Prev 263560/Root 1852 0 R/Size 1877/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream In most metals G is about 0.4 E ; if the value of one modulus is known, the other may be approximated. Ppt. L L 7 -4 6.37 x 10 Pa 3.08 x 10 Stress Modulus Strain Modulus = 207 x 109 Pa This longitudinal modulus of elasticity is called Youngs Modulus and is denoted by the symbol Y. The modulus of elasticity (= Youngs modulus) E is a material property, that describes its stiffness and is therefore one of the most important properties of solid materials. Youngs modulus (E) slope of stress-strain curve with sample in tension (aka Elastic modulus). K m no. Alternatively, elastic constants K (bulk modulus) and/or G (shear modulus) can also be used. (c) Representative force, P, versus change in displacement, Δx, experimental result for a typical buckling experiment.The red dashed lines show the tangent intersection approach used to determine the critical buckling load, P cr. Basic Elasticity and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myriad Radial Cavitating Equilibria in Nonlinear Elasticity. AU - Sivaloganathan, J. AU - Spector, S J. PY - 2003/1. Y1 - 2003/1. M3 - Article. VL - 63. SP - 1461. EP - 1473. JO - SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics. JF - SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics. SN - 0036-1399. ER - ...
Nonlinear elasticity of borocarbide superconductor YNi2B2C: A first-principles study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Whats an elasticity in economics. Desk of Contents Cover 1 Whats Revenue Elasticity of Demand. Whats Elasticity of Demand. In different phrases demand elasticity or. Elasticity is an financial measure of how delicate an financial issue is to a different for instance modifications in value to produce or demand or modifications in demand to modifications in earnings. Elasticity of Demand Proportion change in amount demanded Proportion change in Worth LAW OF DEMAND Legislation of demand states that if value of commodity will increase amount. In enterprise and economics elasticity refers back to the diploma to which people customers or producers change their demand or the quantity equipped in response to cost or earnings modifications. In economics elasticity refers to how one amount or variable is delicate to a change in one other amount or variable when all the opposite elements are held fixed. Its predominantly used to evaluate the change in client demand because of a change in a very good or ...
Rock physics is an essential link connecting seismic data to the properties of rocks and fluids in the subsurface. One of the most fundamental questions of rock physics is how to model the effects of pore fluids on rock velocity and density. Contemporary scientific computing allows geophysicists to conduct extremely complex virtual (computational) experiments on realistic digital representations of complex porous media, and thus directly relate the measurable properties of the media to their microstructure and saturation. Computational (digital) rock physics can also serve as an effective tool in examining new and existing rock physics models. The finite element method (FEM) has been proved effective in simulations of the linear elastic properties of porous rock under static conditions. In this thesis, FEM is used to study the effect of patchy saturation on elastic velocities of digital images of rocks. However, FEM belongs to a group of grid methods, and its accuracy is limited by ...
A nonwoven web material that includes an elastic component or material (e.g., nonwoven web, nonwoven web laminated to an elastic material, etc.) is provided. The elastic component contains a crosslinked network formed from a pentablock copolymer containing at least two monoalkenyl aromatic midblocks positioned between conjugated diene endblocks, such as butadiene-styrene-butadiene-styrene-butadiene (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface-stress effects on elastic properties. II. Metallic multilayers. AU - Streitz, F. H.. AU - Cammarata, R. C.. AU - Sieradzki, K.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - In the adjoining paper we presented a detailed model describing the effects of surface stress on the equilibrium spacing and biaxial modulus of thin metal films. We extend the model to describe the effects of interface stress on metallic multilayers. The model predicts that very thin layers will equilibrate to a spacing in the plane smaller than the bulk spacing for the material, and that this effect will vanish as the reciprocal of the layer thickness. The model predicts enhancements in the biaxial modulus of metallic multilayers which scale with the reciprocal of the layer thickness. The magnitude of both the strain and the resulting change in biaxial modulus are proportional to the magnitude of the interface stress. In order to verify the predictions of the interface stress model, we performed molecular-dynamics ...
In this method, we compare the total outlay of the consumer before and after variation in price.. Here Elasticity of demand is expressed in three ways:. a) Unity. b) Greater than unity. c) Less than unity. a) Elasticity Equal To Unity:. If the quantity demanded of a product changes due to a change in price and the total outlay of the consumer remains constant then the elasticity of demand will be equal to unity.. b) Elasticity More Than Unity:. If the quantity demanded of a product rises due to a change in price and the total outlay of the consumer increases then the elasticity of demand will be more than unity.. c) Elasticity Less Than Unity:. If a fall in the price results in the quantity demanded for the product to increase and the total outlay of the consumer to fall, elasticity of demand would be less than unity.. ...
We describe, analyze, and test a direct numerical approach to a homogenized problem in nonlinear elasticity at finite strain. The main advantage of this approach is that it does not modify the overall structure of standard softwares in use for computational elasticity. Our analysis includes a convergence result for a general class of energy densities and an error estimate in the convex case. We relate this approach to the multiscale finite element method and show our analysis also applies to this method. Microscopic buck- ling and macroscopic instabilities are numerically investigated. The application of our approach to some numerical tests on an idealized rubber foam is also presented. For consistency a short review of the homogenization theory in nonlinear elasticity is provided.
We referred to the proportionality constant between stress and strain as the elastic modulus. But why do we call it that? What does it mean for an object to be elastic and how do we describe its behavior?. Elasticity is the tendency of solid objects and materials to return to their original shape after the external forces (load) causing a deformation are removed. An object is elastic when it comes back to its original size and shape when the load is no longer present. Physical reasons for elastic behavior vary among materials and depend on the microscopic structure of the material. For example, the elasticity of polymers and rubbers is caused by stretching polymer chains under an applied force. In contrast, the elasticity of metals is caused by resizing and reshaping the crystalline cells of the lattices (which are the material structures of metals) under the action of externally applied forces.. The two parameters that determine the elasticity of a material are its elastic modulus and its ...
Myofibroblastic activation of valvular interstitial cells is modulated by spatial variations in matrix elasticity and its organization Journal Article ...
Bone Broth Skin Elasticitywere reared in a very healthy Bone Broth Skin Elasticity. Bones and nails Theres no denying that might prevent you from dealing with something that my consumers whore vegans but, for dogs, is about the newest work reducer was making Bone Broth Skin Elasticity? As we are re use the bones for an alternate time First, there was the very rich smell of enormous stock pot and add water as stock. If you dont know one single word to. to simmer and cook on in advance comment I made when it can just easily grab your tongs, remove the bones are cooked in liquid, as cows or chickens which have grown vastly in recognition over a soft drink or candy bar However, while many societies around the world still consume on the go. It is a superfood source of this blog…I started doing this because the end result is a little gelled, sippable elixir. I like. benefits of Bone Broth Skin Elasticity and the way long be sure to cook it with stinging nettle. and do make it into my broth. Both ...
In this study, we provide a set of model examples for which we compare the values of the shear modulus under increasing compression or tension with experimental data for brain and fat tissues. The viscoelasticity of brain and adipose tissues was measured following the protocol described in [4]. The dynamic shear storage modulus G′ was measured as a function of time for increasing tensile or compressive strain (from 0% to 40%). Details are given in appendix A.. A hyperelastic constitutive material has a unique stress-strain relationship, independent of strain rate. However, the stress-strain response for viscoelastic materials changes with strain rate, and a strain-energy density function does not exist for these materials. Nonetheless, for many soft tissues, the shape of the nonlinear stress-strain curve is typically invariant with respect to strain rate. In this case, at fixed strain rate, the shear modulus may be captured by a nonlinear hyperelastic model (an example of this approach for fat ...
Aorta functions not only as a conduit delivering blood to the tissues but also as an important modulator of the entire cardiovascular system, buffering the intermittent pulsatile output from the heart to provide steady flow to capillary beds.1 By virtue of its elastic properties, aorta influences left ventricular function and coronary blood flow.2 3 4 5 Systemic hypertension, a common disorder with potentially serious complications, exerts further ill effects through structural and functional modifications of the arterial wall.6 7 Previous studies using different techniques have shown that aortic elastic properties are compromised in patients with arterial hypertension.8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Measurement of pulse wave velocity has been extensively used,9 10 11 providing only indirect estimations of the elastic properties of the aorta. Noninvasive methods11 12 13 14 using formulas involving pulsatile change in aortic dimensions and pulse pressure (the former is measured with echocardiography or ...
In physics, elasticity is the tendency of solid materials to return to their original shape after being deformed. Solid objects will deform when forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed.. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied.. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world and few materials remain purely elastic even after very small deformations. In engineering, the amount of elasticity of a material is determined by two types of material parameter. The first type of material parameter is called a modulus which measures the amount of ...
Arterial atherosclerotic fatty streak involvement is inversely related to HDL-C level and directly to TC level.3 In epidemiological studies, HDL-C/TC ratio has been a better marker of coronary heart disease risk than either TC or HDL-C levels alone.20 In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis would be different in young healthy men with either constantly high or low HDL-C/TC ratio level and that these groups would therefore have differences in vascular elastic properties. The comparison of 2 groups of carefully matched men with different HDL-C/TC ratio did not reveal differences in aortic elasticity but showed decreased carotid distensibility in the group with low HDL-C/TC ratio. Diminished carotid elasticity has been demonstrated previously in healthy children and adolescents with elevated serum TC and blood pressure levels.21 The realization that changes in arterial elasticity can be detected noninvasively in young asymptomatic subjects and ...
The size-dependent static deflection, pull-in instability and resonant frequency of a circular microplate under capillary force have been studied using modified couple stress elasticity theory. Size-dependency is a phenomenon in which the normalized quantities that classical elasticity theory predicts to be independent of the structure size, such as normalized deflection or normalized frequency, vary significantly as the structure size changes. This phenomenon has been observed in micro-scale structures such as micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). Since classical elasticity theory is unable to predict the size-dependency, non-classical elasticity theories such as modified couple stress theory have been developed recently.. In this paper, modified couple stress theory is used for the first time to develop the governing equation and boundary conditions of circular microplates when subjected to capillary force. Consideration of capillary force is important since it is has a significant role in ...
Synonyms for elasticity of shear in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for elasticity of shear. 2 words related to elasticity of shear: elasticity, snap. What are synonyms for elasticity of shear?
Elasticity of a function is a mathematical concept that is widely used in economics. In particular, price elasticity of demand or supply. But generally elasticity in economic is the measurement of how an economic variable responds to a change in another.. Yet I found the term ambiguous and I dont understand why we didnt choose sensitivity or reactivity instead. To make matter worst, economists often call Price elasticity of the demand only, Elasticity of the demand.. What is the history of the term elasticity? Why do we use this term?. ...
The analytical solution of the Eshelby problem, which describes the deformation of an elastic medium inside and outside a spherical inclusion with uniform internal eigenstrain and specified remote stress, is generalized taking into account both surface elasticity and residual surface stress. Expressions are derived for the internal and external Eshelby tensors and stress concentration tensors with regard to the above effects. A characteristic strain field inhomogeneity and its dependence on the inclusion diameter in the nanometer range (the scale effect) are found. It is shown that under certain conditions, the effect of residual surface stress surpasses that of surface elasticity.
The three-dimensional elasticity model is developed to determine the critical buckling load for isotropic, anisotropic, and auxetic beams and plates. Different beam theories are studied and compared to the elasticity theory. The study was based on the assessment of those beam theories using different beam cross-sections and boundary conditions. The elasticity theory for anisotropic beams obtained well results for large slenderness ratios when it compared with Euler-Bernoulli theory which is considered in this study the main area of comparison study. For small values of slenderness ratio ...
Using combustion synthesis approach we fabricated B2 NiAl intermetallic compound as well as quasibinary Ni(Al50Ti50) alloy, where half Al atoms are randomly substituted by transitional metal Ti. Youngs modulus for synthesized materials was measured and appeared to be 222 +/- 10 GPa for NiAl and 175 +/- 15 GPa for Ni(Al50Ti50) phases. Using first-principles simulations in the framework of the Density Functional Theory, we investigate the elastic properties of Ni(Al1-xTix) system, including single-crystal, as well as polycrystalline elastic moduli. Direct comparison of the experimental and theoretical values of the Youngs modulus demonstrates that the employed theoretical approach allows carefully predict elastic properties of NiAl-based intermetallics. In particular, we predict that alloying NiAl with Ti should increase the ductility of the intermetallic phase. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
Recently, several theoretical and computational studies have also been performed to investigate the membrane wrapping efficiency of elastic NPs during endocytosis, which has been shown regulated synergistically by NP size, shape, and elasticity (22, 23, 33). However, despite the fact that the effects of NP elasticity on different endocytic uptake mechanisms have been experimentally explored in this work, the theoretical modeling of these uptake mechanisms remains challenging. More thorough and realistic modelings with explicit consideration of the actin network and adaptor proteins underneath the cell membrane are called for. Clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis can be modeled using a membrane wrapping based on the Helfrich-Canham membrane theory (34), suggesting that stiff NPs are energetically more prone to full wrapping than soft ones (21). This elasticity effect on the simple membrane wrapping of an NP gradually becomes less significant as the NP elasticity increases. For isotropic ...
Up to the elastic limit of a sample, all the work done in stretching it is stored potential energy, or Elastic Strain Energy. This value can be determined by calculating the area under the the force-extension graph. If the sample obeys Hookes Law, and is below the elastic limit, the Elastic Strain Energy can be calculated by the formula:
When an elastic material is deformed due to an external force, it experiences internal resistance to the deformation and restores it to its original state if the external force is no longer applied. There are various elastic moduli, such as Youngs modulus, the shear modulus, and the bulk modulus, all of which are measures of the inherent elastic properties of a material as a resistance to deformation under an applied load. The various moduli apply to different kinds of deformation. For instance, Youngs modulus applies to extension/compression of a body, whereas the shear modulus applies to its shear.[1]. The elasticity of materials is described by a stress-strain curve, which shows the relation between stress (the average restorative internal force per unit area) and strain (the relative deformation).[2] The curve is generally nonlinear, but it can (by use of a Taylor series) be approximated as linear for sufficiently small deformations (in which higher-order terms are negligible). If the ...
Arterial stiffness is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and death.. Most of existing technique need dedicated device for arterial stiffness evaluation and indirect calculation of intra arterial pressure. Supersonic Shear Imaging (SSI) is a novel non-invasive technique based on remote palpation of biological tissues that can image with very high temporal resolution (up to 10,000 images/s) and quantify the local viscoelastic properties of tissues. The investigators goal was to apply this SSI technique for arterial stiffness evaluation and local pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation.. As a first step, the primary goal of this study is to establish normal values of local pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness (carotid and femoral) by SSI on hundred healthy volunteers. ...
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Cross-linked semiflexible polymer networks are omnipresent in living cells. Typical examples are actin networks in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, which play an essential role in cell motility, and the spectrin network, a key element in maintaining the integrity of erythrocytes in the blood circulatory system. We introduce a simple mechanical network model at the length scale of the typical mesh size and derive a continuous constitutive law relating the stress to deformation. The continuous constitutive law is found to be generically nonlinear even if the microscopic law at the scale of the mesh size is linear. The nonlinear bulk mechanical properties are in good agreement with the experimental data for semiflexible polymer networks, i.e., the network stiffens and exhibits a negative normal stress in response to a volume-conserving shear deformation, whereby the normal stress is of the same order as the shear stress. Furthermore, it shows a strain localization behavior in response to an uniaxial
Elasticity theory is the most well developed and popular topic in solid mechanics. The theory improves over previous ad hoc (strength of materials) approaches for determining the stresses and deformations of elastic materials. An elastic material is one which, after loading and subsequent removal of the load returns to its original shape (if given sufficient time). There are several theories of elastic materials: ...
Analysis of Structures on Elastic Foundations is a practical guide for structural and geotechnical engineers as well as graduate students working in foundation engineering.
In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of interfacial waves in account of surface elasticity at the interface. A sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of a subsonic interfacial wave between two elastic half spaces is obtained for general anisotropic materials. Further, we explicitly calculate the dispersion relations of interfacial waves for interfaces between two solids and solid and fluid, and parametrically study the effects of surface elasticity on the dispersion relations. We observe that the dispersion relations of interfacial waves are nonlinear at the presence of surface elasticity and depend on surface elastic properties. This nonlinear feature can be used for probing the bulk and surface properties by acoustic measurements and designing waves guides or filters.. ...
Congratulations to my co-authors Mercedes Rodriguez-Teja, Claudia Briet, Mitchell Clarke, Kamil Talar, Kai Wang, Mohammad A Mohammad, Guillermina Etchandy, Sage Pixie and Graeme Stasiuk on acceptance of our methodology paper by The Journal of Visualized Experiments.... How to study basement membrane stiffness as a biophysical trigger in prostate cancer and other age-related pathologies or metabolic diseases The journal will be sending a camera crew to the lab to film us performing the
There are different kinds of elasticity. The phenomenon that we have been analyzing under the name of elasticity to dry, we could have called it with more property elasticity-price since it was to measure the sensitivity of the demand to the variations in the prices. But demand may also be more or less sensitive to other factors. We will call elasticity-income to the measure of the sensitivity of the demand of a good to the variations in the income of the consumer. We will call cross-elasticity to the measure of the sensitivity of the demand of a good to the variations in the price of other goods.. More from Business Study Notes:- Elasticity of Supply. The concept of income elasticity is used to measure the sensitivity of goods to changes in the income of individuals: the percentage of the quantity demanded of a good varies when the consumers rent varies by one percent. In the case of the inferior goods, the income elasticity is negative since the increase of this causes the contraction of ...
Downloadable! This paper performs a meta-analysis of empirical estimates of uncompensated labour supply elasticities. We find that much of the variation in elasticities can be explained by the variation in gender, participation rates, and country fixed effects. Country differences appear to be small though. There is no systematic impact of the model specification or marital status on reported elasticities. The decision to participate is more responsive than is the decision regarding hours worked. Even at the intensive margin, we find that the elasticity for women exceeds that for men. For men and women in the Netherlands, we predict an uncompensated labour supply elasticity of 0.1 (or 0.2 if an alternative specification is preferred) and 0.5, respectively. These values are robust for alternative samples and specifications of the meta regression.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We estimate the income elasticity of government expenditures using variation in the international oil price as a plausibly exogenous source of within-country variation of countries permanent income. Our short run elasticity estimates, between 0.25-0.50, are generally somewhat smaller than the previously obtained ones, and they, in particular, indicate that Wagners law does not hold; long run elasticities are larger, but still smaller than unity. We also explore the correlates of the income elasticity of government spending and find no support for views that either democracy, inequality, or openness are associated with a larger elasticity. However, we find evidence consistent with
Definition of Elasticity of Demand and Supply in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Elasticity of Demand and Supply? Meaning of Elasticity of Demand and Supply as a finance term. What does Elasticity of Demand and Supply mean in finance?
... of demand Output elasticity Price elasticity of demand Price elasticity of supply Yield elasticity of bond value Elasticity of ... Cross elasticity of demand Elasticity of substitution Frisch elasticity of labor supply Income elasticity ... a mathematical definition of point elasticity Arc elasticity Elasticity, a 2021 EP by Serj Tankian Elasticity coefficient, a ... Look up elasticity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Elasticity often refers to: Elasticity (physics), continuum mechanics of ...
It represents the elasticity of substitution between products of different countries, and is based on the assumption made by ... An Armington elasticity is an economic parameter commonly used in models of consumer theory and international trade. ... Yet no consensus on the magnitude of the elasticity exists. In different contexts, researchers tend to obtain substantially ... A quantitative survey of 3,524 estimates of the Armington elasticity available in 2019 shows that - conditional on these ...
Elasticity tensor Elastography Tactile imaging Elastic modulus Linear elasticity Pseudoelasticity Resilience Rubber elasticity ... Elasticity is not exhibited only by solids; non-Newtonian fluids, such as viscoelastic fluids, will also exhibit elasticity in ... Theory of Elasticity, 3rd Edition, 1970: 1-172. Treloar, L. R. G. (1975). The Physics of Rubber Elasticity. Oxford: Clarendon ... Because the elasticity of a material is described in terms of a stress-strain relation, it is essential that the terms stress ...
The title track "Elasticity" was released as an advance single and features a music video directed by Vlad Kaptur. The song " ... Elasticity is the third EP by American alternative metal singer Serj Tankian, released on 19 March 2021 by Alchemy Recordings ... "Serj Tankian's nutso new song Elasticity will fill the System Of A Down-shaped hole in your life". Metal Hammer Magazine. ... "Serj Tankian's Elasticity EP (Mostly) Scratches the SOAD Itch". 2021-03-18. Retrieved 2021-06-07. ...
Eugene Guth and Hubert M. James proposed the entropic origins of rubber elasticity in 1941. Temperature affects the elasticity ... The Flory theory of rubber elasticity has pointed out the rubber elasticity has primarily entropic origins. By using the ... Rubber elasticity refers to a property of crosslinked rubber: it can be stretched by up to a factor of 10 from its original ... What the observer is noticing are the changes in the modulus of elasticity that are due to the different molecular mechanisms. ...
... is a top-line measure, as the commercial energy sources used by the country in question are normally further ... Energy elasticity is a term used with reference to the energy intensity of Gross Domestic Product. It is "the percentage change ... For example, India's national Integrated Energy Policy of 2005 noted current elasticity at 0.80, while planning for 7-8% GDP ... by 2003-4 observers placed Chinese energy elasticity at approximately 1.5. For every one percent increase in GDP, energy demand ...
These include price elasticity of demand, price elasticity of supply, income elasticity of demand, elasticity of substitution ... price-elasticity of demand, price elasticity of supply, and cross-price elasticity) all have the same form: P-elasticity of Q: ... Economics portal Arc elasticity Elasticity of a function Hayes, Adam. "Learn About Elasticity". Investopedia. Retrieved 2021-04 ... Real-world examples of cross-price elasticity: Elasticity of scale or output elasticity measures the percentage change in ...
As with every elasticity, this measure is defined locally, i.e. defined at a point. If the production function contains only ... In economics, output elasticity is the percentage change of output (GDP or production of a single firm) divided by the ... The coefficient of output elasticity can be used to estimate returns to scale. The mathematical formula is E Q = ∂ Q ∂ x ⋅ x Q ... Elasticity (economics) Charnes, A.; Cooper, W. W.; Schinnar, A. P. (1976). "A theorem on homogeneous functions and extended ...
Elasticity of a function Elasticity (economics) Allen, R. G. D. (1933). "The Concept of Arc Elasticity of Demand". Review of ... Like the point elasticity, the arc elasticity can vary in value depending on the starting point. For example, the arc ... It is common to refer to the absolute value of the price elasticity as simply price elasticity, since for a normal (decreasing ... It contrasts with the point elasticity, which is the limit of the arc elasticity as the distance between the two points ...
Castigliano's method Clapeyron's theorem (elasticity) Contact mechanics Deformation Elasticity (physics) GRADELA Hooke's law ... The elasticity of the material provides the restoring force of the wave. When they occur in the Earth as the result of an ... Linear elasticity is a mathematical model of how solid objects deform and become internally stressed due to prescribed loading ... In addition linear elasticity is valid only for stress states that do not produce yielding. These assumptions are reasonable ...
This means the elasticity is bounded between zero and the Hill coefficient. Elasticities coefficient can also be computed ... The unscaled elasticities can be depicted in matrix form, called the unscaled elasticity matrix, E {\displaystyle {\mathcal {E ... Elasticity coefficients can be calculated either algebraically or by numerical means. Given the definition of the elasticity ... the elasticity for a mass-action rate law is equal to the order of reaction of the species. For example the elasticity of A in ...
The inverse of elasticity of complementarity is elasticity of substitution. Hamermesh, Daniel S., Labor Demand, Princeton ... Elasticity of complementarity (Hamermesh, 1993) is the percentage responsiveness of relative factor prices to a 1 percent ... Given the production function f ( x 1 , x 2 ) {\displaystyle f(x_{1},x_{2})} then the elasticity of complementarity is defined ... University Press, Princeton NJ, 1993, ISBN 0-691-02587-8 v t e (Elasticity (economics), All stub articles, Economics and ...
First of all, elasticity is at the data modeling level. Your data will live longer than your business rules and softness in the ... But elasticity is also about infrastructure and cluster sizing. Adding a new node to Cassandra is simple. Just turn on the ... The elasticity of a data store relates to the flexibility of its data model and clustering capabilities. The greater the number ... Clustering elasticity is the ease of adding or removing nodes from the distributed data store. Usually, this is a difficult and ...
... : The Physical and Mathematical Science of Solids is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all ... "Journal of Elasticity". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. "Journal of ... aspects of elasticity. It is published seven times a year by Springer Science+Business Media. The editor-in-chief is Roger ... Elasticity". Master Journal List. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 2011-03-04. Official website (Articles with short description, ...
Cloud Elasticity Provisioning Herbst, Nikolas; Samuel Kounev; Ralf Reussner (2013). "Elasticity in Cloud Computing: What It Is ... In cloud computing, elasticity is defined as "the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning ... Elasticity aims at matching the amount of resource allocated to a service with the amount of resource it actually requires, ... One potential problem is that elasticity takes time. A cloud virtual machine (VM) can be acquired at any time by the user; ...
In the linear theory of elasticity Clapeyron's theorem states that the potential energy of deformation of a body, which is in ... Love, A.E.H., "A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity", 4th ed. Cambridge, 1927, p. 173 Roger Fosdick & Lev ... Truskinovsky (2003) About Clapeyron's Theorem in Linear Elasticity, Journal of Elasticity 72(1-3): 145-72, Springer. v t e ( ...
The inverse of elasticity of substitution is elasticity of complementarity. Consider Cobb-Douglas production function f ( x 1 ... The Elasticity of Substitution, Gonçalo L. Fonsekca, essay, The New School for Social Research. (Consumer theory, Elasticity ( ... the larger the magnitude of the elasticity of substitution (the marginal rate of substitution elasticity of the relative ... Which of these effects dominates depends on the magnitude of the elasticity of substitution. When the elasticity of ...
cross elasticity of demand (XED) price elasticity of demand (PED) price elasticity of supply (PES) Frank, Robert (2008). p. 125 ... If the elasticity of demand is greater than 1, it is a luxury good or a superior good. A zero income elasticity of demand means ... That depends on whether the elasticity is below or above +1. If the elasticity is negative, such as margarine's -.20 (from the ... The most commonly used elasticity in economics, the price elasticity of demand, is almost always negative, but many goods have ...
A naïve assumption (or first approximation) linking the wealth and income elasticities of demand is: Income elasticity = Wealth ... The wealth elasticity of consumption quantity for some good will determine the size of the expenditure shift due to unexpected ... The wealth elasticity of demand, in microeconomics and macroeconomics, is the proportional change in the consumption of a good ... However, some patterns are widely believed to hold: The wealth elasticity of the poor is much higher than the rich: If a pauper ...
Arc elasticity Cross elasticity of demand Income elasticity of demand Price elasticity of supply Supply and demand "Price ... The above measure of elasticity is sometimes referred to as the own-price elasticity of demand for a good, i.e., the elasticity ... arc elasticity and point elasticity. Arc elasticity was introduced very early on by Hugh Dalton. It is very similar to an ... the price elasticity is different at every point on the curve. Demand elasticity, in combination with the price elasticity of ...
... (or simply Advertising Elasticity, often shortened to AED) is an elasticity measuring the ... The rule of thumb combines the AED with a known price elasticity of demand (PED) for the same good. The optimal relationship is ... the firm's advertising to sales ratio should be equal to minus the ratio of the advertising and price elasticities of demand." ...
... (CET) was first advanced by Alan Powell and Fred Gruen in a 1968 publication. It is a new ... Powell, Alan A.; Gruen, F.H.G. (October 1968). "The Constant Elasticity of Transformation Production Frontier and Linear Supply ...
... (GEP) is the percentage reduction in poverty rates associated with a percentage change in mean ( ... Generally, increases in per capita income tend to decrease the poverty rate, hence the elasticity is positive. Standard ... "Growth Elasticity of Poverty Reduction: Explaining Heterogeneity across Countries and Time Periods" in Inequality and Growth, ...
Arc elasticity Elasticity (economics) Elasticity coefficient (biochemistry) Homogeneous function The elasticity can also be ... The concept of elasticity is widely used in economics and Metabolic Control Analysis; see elasticity (economics) and Elasticity ... In mathematics, the elasticity or point elasticity of a positive differentiable function f of a positive variable (positive ... the price elasticity of demand refers to the elasticity of a demand function Q(P), and can be expressed as (dQ/dP)/(Q(P)/P) or ...
... (or intertemporal elasticity of substitution, EIS, IES) is a measure of responsiveness ... If the elasticity is high, then large changes in consumption are not very costly to consumers and, as a result, if the real ... If the elasticity is low, the consumption smoothing motive is very strong and because of this consumers will save a little and ... Empirical estimates of the elasticity vary. Part of the difficulty stems from the fact that microeconomic studies come to ...
The price elasticity of supply (PES or Es) is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the ... Curves which go through the origin have a = 0 and hence have an elasticity of 1. When looking at the price elasticity of supply ... but the elasticity is b(P/Q), so the elasticity rises with greater P both from the direct effect and the increase in Q(P). ... while the elasticity is a simple number, independent of the units (e.g., 1.2). This is a major advantage of elasticities. The ...
6] Z. C. Tu and Z. C. Ou-Yang, A Geometric Theory on the Elasticity of Bio-membranes, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 (2004) 11407- ... 7] L. Miao, et al., Budding transitions of fluid-bilayer vesicles: The effect of area-difference elasticity, Phys. Rev. E 49 ( ... The last two terms come from the entropic elasticity of the membrane skeleton. Singer, S. Jonathan; Nicolson, Garth L. (1972 ...
... with constant partial elasticities of substitution require either that all elasticities between pairs of factors be identical, ... Constant elasticity of substitution (CES), in economics, is a property of some production functions and utility functions. ... This means the use of the CES functional form for more than 2 factors will generally mean that there is not constant elasticity ... On the contrary of restricting direct empirical evaluation, the constant Elasticity of Substitution are simple to use and hence ...
1 {\displaystyle ,XED,>1} If the absolute value of the cross elasticity of demand between 1 and 0, the cross elasticity of ... In economics, the cross elasticity of demand or cross-price elasticity of demand measures the percentage change of the quantity ... Cross elasticity of demand of product B with respect to product A (ηBA): η B A = Δ Q B / Q B Δ P A / P A = P A Q B ⋅ Δ Q B Δ P ... Example: the cross elasticity of demand of butter with respect to margarine is 0.81, so 1% increase in the price of margarine ...
The elasticity of supply is given by: change of supply of labor in % / change of salary in % If the elasticity is higher than 1 ... If the elasticity is less than 1, then the supply of labor is "inelastic". Generally, the elasticity of labor supply varies by ... The elasticity of labor supply is the percent change in amount of labor supplied due to a percent change in wages. ...
... of demand Output elasticity Price elasticity of demand Price elasticity of supply Yield elasticity of bond value Elasticity of ... Cross elasticity of demand Elasticity of substitution Frisch elasticity of labor supply Income elasticity ... a mathematical definition of point elasticity Arc elasticity Elasticity, a 2021 EP by Serj Tankian Elasticity coefficient, a ... Look up elasticity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Elasticity often refers to: Elasticity (physics), continuum mechanics of ...
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Tag: Elasticity. Using AWS to enable SAP Application Auto Scaling. by Chris Williams , on 16 DEC 2019. , in Auto Scaling, SAP ...
These include price elasticity of demand, price elasticity of supply, income elasticity of demand, elasticity of substitution ... In economics, the common elasticities (price-elasticity of demand, price elasticity of supply, and cross-price elasticity) all ... Elasticity of ScaleEdit. Main article: Returns to scale. Elasticity of scale or output elasticity measures the percentage ... Income Elasticity of DemandEdit. Main article: Income elasticity of demand. Income Elasticity of Demand is a measure used to ...
This graduate-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential ... Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity. By: Jerrold E. Marsden, Thomas J. R. Hughes ... This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential ... the use of functional analysis in elasticity, and bifurcation theory. Carefully selected problems are interspersed throughout, ...
Elasticity Services. Get full access to AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Video Course and 60K+ other titles, with free 10-day ...
Database elasticity: The primary challenge for digital transformation. Businesses large and small are making strategic ...
Elasticity -- old-fashioned load balancing -- is nothing new for IT, even if cloud providers are now discovering it ... Amazon.coms vaunted new cloud elasticity is so 1999. Elasticity -- old-fashioned load balancing -- is nothing new for IT, ... Elasticity is really about load balancing, or moving processes among servers to support a changing processing load -- also ... This story, "Amazon.coms vaunted new cloud elasticity is so 1999," was originally published at Follow the ...
Chemists from Missouri University of Science and Technology have made aerogels that have rubber-like elasticity and can ... Their flexibility, combined with elasticity, greatly enhance the range of possible uses.". Leventis and his teams work can be ... from Missouri University of Science and Technology have done just that by making aerogels that have rubber-like elasticity and ...
... chemists and theoreticalphysicists with a view to understanding the role of elasticity in biological processes such as ... Biopolymer Elasticity. @inproceedings{Sinha2003BiopolymerE, title={Biopolymer Elasticity}, author={Supurna Sinha}, year={2003 ...
Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may improve the elasticity of blood vessels and improve overall cardiovascular health ... The researchers, led by Professor Ai-Qun Ma, report that fish oil supplementation improved large artery elasticity, compared to ... Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may improve the elasticity of blood vessels and improve overall cardiovascular health ... "Fish oil supplementation certainly would improve large arterial elasticity but no effect [was observed] on blood pressure in ...
Titin regulates myocyte stiffness through uncoiling and unfolding but these two processes cannot fully explain its elasticity. ... we show that disulfide isomerization reactions within Ig domains enable a third mechanism of titin elasticity. Oxidation of Ig ... showing that disulfide isomerization represents a third mode of titin elasticity. ... We modeled the molecular elasticity of the I-band of titin from the summed elasticity of the two entropic regions (N2B and PEVK ...
... elasticity from English into German by PROMT, advertising elasticity, coefficient of elasticity of demand, coefficient of ... elasticity of supply, transcription, pronunciation, translation examples, grammar, online translator and dictionary PROMT.One ... coefficient of elasticity of demand - Koeffizient der Nachfrageelastizität * coefficient of elasticity of supply - Koeffizient ...
Malaria parasites differentially sense environmental elasticity during transmission. View ORCID ProfileJohanna Ripp, View ORCID ... Malaria parasites differentially sense environmental elasticity during transmission Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Determination of the actual modulus of elasticity ...
Anisotropic Elasticity for HCP Crystal Structures. Matthew W. Priddy. *. Angle of Torsion in the Elastic Range. Osman Tuna ... Megan Frary (Boise State University) Anisotropic Elasticity. ...
... the data on mechanical behavior and elasticity are collected, pertaining to the simplest forms of the following molecular ... n this handbook, the data on mechanical behavior and elasticity are collected, pertaining to the simplest forms of the ... ホーム Begell Digital Portal Begell eBook Platform Plasticity and Elasticity of Cryocrystals ...
Beyond elasticity in ground motion simulations. Steven M. Day Published August 15, 2019, SCEC Contribution #9854, 2019 SCEC ... Day, S. M. (2019, 08). Beyond elasticity in ground motion simulations. Oral Presentation at 2019 SCEC Annual Meeting. ...
The clouds ability to truly deliver on the promise of limitless scale-both up and down- and do so rapidly is one of the defining characteristics and sets this technology apart from anything in the past. With the cloud, companies can scale up very quickly when their business demands it and also rapidly scale down when the need is no longer present.
Definition of price elasticity of supply. Examples and diagrams. Explaining the difference between elastic and inelastic supply ... Importance of elasticity of supply. *If supply is elastic, an increase in demand will cause only a small rise in price, but a ... Question on the price elasticity of supply equation. *If the PES is 2.0 for CDS: and the firm supplied 4,000 when the price was ... Price Elasticity of Supply. 28 April 2021. 28 August 2019. by Tejvan Pettinger ...
... Economic Theory 32(3): 579-587. ... conditions under which changes in income inequality lead to an increase or decrease in the market demand elasticities. The ...
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We introduce Odd Elasticity as a generalized theory of continuum mechanics that breaks key symmetries of the elastic (stiffness ... The theory of elasticity provides a foundation for describing the mechanics of deformations of continuous media. However, ... We show that odd elasticity describes solids in which activity depends on the deformation of microscopic bonds. As a minimal ... Abstract: X53.00003 : Odd Elasticity in Active Metamaterials. 9:12 AM-9:48 AM ...
Explain 5 factors that influence price elasticity of demand. and find homework help for other Business questions at eNotes ... Price elasticity of demand measures the change in quantity demand when the price of a commodity changes. For a commodity with ... Price elasticity of demand measures the change in quantity demand when the price of a commodity changes. For a commodity with ... Why do managers need to know about elasticity of demand? * If both supply and demand increase at the same time, what will ...
Although the importance of the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor (σ) has long been recognized in several ... "Elasticity of Substitution, Technical Progress and Returns to Scale in Branches of Soviet Industry: A New CES Production ... "The Substitution Elasticity, Factor Shares, Long-Run Growth, and the Low-Frequency Panel Model," CESifo Working Paper Series ... "Economic Growth, Technical Change Biases, and the Elasticity of Substitution: A Test of the De La Grandville Hypothesis," The ...
The most important point elasticity for managerial economics is the point price elasticity of demand. This value is used to ... Similarly, you can calculate point elasticities for the income elasticity of demand, cross-price elasticity of demand, and ... you can calculate point elasticities for the income elasticity of demand, cross-price elasticity of demand, and advertising ... you can calculate point elasticities for the income elasticity of demand, cross-price elasticity of demand, and advertising ...
How Does Advertising Affect Price Elasticity?. Consumer demand fluctuates constantly, for many reasons. To discuss the effects ... Price Elasticity of Demand. * Price elasticity of demand refers to how altering the price of a product affects the quantity ... Advertising Elasticity of Demand. * The advertising elasticity of demand refers to how advertising a product can affect the ... To discuss the effects of a specific factor on demand, economists use the term "elasticity" to describe how responsive ...
Immigration, Elasticity and Why Americans Wont Pick Onions (Yet). October 6, 2011. By Stephen J. Dubner ... Elasticity, it seems, has its limits. States that crack down on immigrants are likely facing an uncertain agricultural future, ... A study released this week by NBER measures the elasticity of substitution between American workers and their immigrant ... In terms of the elasticity of substitution between equally skilled immigrants and natives, we conclude that the OP data, ...
  • availability of substitutes: a commodity with a large number of potential substitutes will have high elasticity, since a small change in price will encourage the consumers to use a substitute. (
  • Uses of the commodity: A commodity with multiple potential uses will have high elasticity of demand. (
  • 2. There are 3 kinds of elasticity: High Elasticity (two-sided stretched), Medium Elasticity (one-sided stretched) and Nonelastic (can not stretched). (
  • The effects of fertilizer application frequency and two stem heights on elasticity and strength in static bending (modulus of elasticity, stress at proportional limit and modulus of rupture) of Pinus radiata wood, growing in a silvopastoral system were evaluated. (
  • This constant which stands for the double refraction produced in a gel of unit concentration per unit strain is termed here the optical modulus of elasticity since it is proportional to the internal elastic stress in the swollen gelatin. (
  • It was found that the optical modulus of elasticity is the same both for gels cast on slides and in frames, although the mode of swelling is different in the two forms of gels. (
  • The experiments show that below M /8 salts affect very slightly the optical modulus of elasticity of the gel. (
  • Fiber-reinforced thermoset polymer composite (FRPC) materials such as aramid fibers used in body armor, have high theoretical values of acoustic impedance due to a fundamentally high modulus of elasticity and may offer a superior level of hearing protection over original equipment (OE) thermoplastic CAHPDs. (
  • For example, oral rose hip supplementation has significantly influenced the depth of crow's feet wrinkles, elasticity, and skin moisture content. (
  • Now formulated with patented Thiamidol, to reduce the appearance of age-spots, Hyaluron to plump up deep wrinkles, and Collagen-Elastin Complex to increase the skin's elasticity. (
  • Anti-aging day cream for mature skin Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Elasticity Day SPF 15 is an anti-aging day cream that plumps up deep wrinkles and improves skin's elasticity. (
  • From diminishing the appearance of dark circles, redness, and blemishes, enabling our skin to absorb products effectively, enhancing circulation, and improving the elasticity of the skin to soothing inflammation, draining fluids from the face, tightening the skin, and repelling wrinkles - these gemstone rollers are our skincare sidekick. (
  • Anti-aging effects: SARMS have been shown to have anti-aging effects, such as improving skin elasticity and reducing wrinkles. (
  • Unlike Botox, dermal fillers can be used to smoothen out static wrinkles caused by the loss of collagen, elasticity, and fat, as well as gravity and sun damage. (
  • The most dramatic of all the metals is 24-karat gold flakes, in this case, suspended in a toner that improves facial elasticity and firmness. (
  • An elastic variable (with an absolute elasticity value greater than 1) responds more than proportionally to changes in other variables. (
  • Subsequent chapters deal with elastic materials, linearization, variational principles, the use of functional analysis in elasticity, and bifurcation theory. (
  • However, elastic theories of active matter must confront a fundamental challenge: the starting point of elasticity, the elastic energy, is not well defined due to microscopic activity. (
  • We introduce Odd Elasticity as a generalized theory of continuum mechanics that breaks key symmetries of the elastic (stiffness) tensor otherwise required by conservation of energy. (
  • Time and Elasticity: In a relatively longer time frame, it is easier for consumers and businesses to adopt substitutes and hence, over a longer time interval, the demand is more elastic. (
  • Having last released a trio of singles in early 2015 (for Hypercolour, Secret Sundaze and Elastic Dreams), 'Elasticity' marks a return for A Sagittariun, and fans of the slippery and elastic sounds that hallmarked his debut album will not be disappointed. (
  • We experience elasticity everywhere in daily life: in the straightening or curling of hairs, the irreversible deformations of car bodies after a crash, or the bouncing of elastic balls in ping-pong or soccer. (
  • In general price elasticity of demand is also time sensitive (it might be very elastic in the short term - maybe no reasonable supply of alternatives). (
  • The relationship between price elasticity and the revenue earned by the monopoly is such that at high prices and smaller quantities, demand is relatively elastic as small changes in price change quantity by a larger percentage. (
  • If the price elasticity of demand is greater than one, we call this a price-elastic demand. (
  • The most important point elasticity for managerial economics is the point price elasticity of demand. (
  • That is why some economists favor the approach of point elasticity. (
  • It improves the skin's elasticity and flexibility. (
  • Manuka honey, applied topically, is highly anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antimicrobial, and Calcium Ketogluconate - a French-patented, non-toxic, natural complex molecule helps restore the skin's elasticity for a youthful, plump appearance, helping to deliver a sculptured and contoured look, whenever you use the product. (
  • These include price elasticity of demand , price elasticity of supply , income elasticity of demand , elasticity of substitution between factors of production , cross-price elasticity of demand , and elasticity of intertemporal substitution . (
  • Although the importance of the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor (σ) has long been recognized in several branches of economics, it has not received enough attention in the growth literature. (
  • The role of the elasticity of substitution in economic growth: A cross-country investigation ," Labour Economics , Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 682-694. (
  • A Note on Unionization and the Elasticity of Substitution ," Canadian Journal of Economics , Canadian Economics Association, vol. 20(4), pages 792-801, November. (
  • A study released this week by NBER measures the elasticity of substitution between American workers and their immigrant counterparts - in non-economic speak, the study asks whether immigrants are good substitutes for equally skilled native workers. (
  • In terms of the elasticity of substitution between equally skilled immigrants and natives, we conclude that the OP data, correctly analyzed, imply that the two groups are perfect substitutes. (
  • In fact, by using a statistically valid set of regression weights and by defining the earnings of a skill group as the mean log wage of the group (rather than the unconventional log mean wage used by OP), we find that the OP data reveal an effectively infinite substitution elasticity. (
  • 3. Describe how the necessity of a good and the availability of a substitution affect price elasticity. (
  • In addition, the degree of product differentiation is relatively high in the livestock sectors, and the elasticity of substitution is as high as three, which is similar to findings in earlier studies on agriculture and manufacturing. (
  • Rejuvenate your skin and improve elasticity with our Award-Winning innovative cream combining the finest Neroli essential oil and Aloe Vera plus protective Vitamin E. (
  • Packed full of natural botanicals, the unique formulation of this natural skincare cream also works to rejuvenate and improve elasticity, leaving skin soft and supple. (
  • The formula also includes a unique, innovative and active combination of Arctiin (which accelerates the renewal process of collagen in skin cells) and Creatine, (which reenergizes collagen production and increases skin elasticity). (
  • Skin elasticity and collagen production? (
  • Improves elasticity for firmer, younger-looking skin. (
  • The building block of youth, collagen improves skin elasticity and smoothes fine lines while antioxidants in Vitamin E protect skin from free radicals that can accelerate the aging process. (
  • With regular use, the cleanser balances the skin and improves elasticity. (
  • Soothing anti-inflammatory properties diminish age lines and increase skin elasticity. (
  • A vegan formulation formulated with Seaberry, known as the natural alternative to retinol that is abundant in vitamin E, fatty acids, provitamin A carotenoids, antioxidants and phytosterols to provide moisture, sun protection, cell regeneration and elasticity for hair and skin that lasts all day. (
  • The hydrating anti aging eye cream Restores skin elasticity for firm skin. (
  • The skin becomes dry and loses its elasticity, whereby the animal exhibits a wrinkled look. (
  • This cream helps keep away from the gross-bond of proteins and helps the skin retain its contours and elasticity. (
  • The Neroli essential oil in this mist has antibacterial properties to help combat breakouts and boosts skin elasticity. (
  • Aloe vera boosts collagen production and is used to make skin smoother, increasing the elasticity of the skin. (
  • Retinoids can reduce the appearance of fine lines, improve texture, skin tone and elasticity, as well as slow down ageing. (
  • Goat milk is packed with vitamins and minerals known to help slow down skin aging, rebuild damaged skin, add elasticity and retain your skin's moisture. (
  • Many women may discover during their menopause years, that their skin is losing elasticity and is becoming thinner due to declining estrogen and collagen production. (
  • How Does Advertising Affect Price Elasticity? (
  • The theory of elasticity provides a foundation for describing the mechanics of deformations of continuous media. (
  • The theory of elasticity is essential to the recent developments of applied and fundamental science, such as the bio-mechanics of DNA filaments and other macro-molecules, and the animation of virtual characters in computer graphics and materials science. (
  • Elasticity often refers to: Elasticity (physics), continuum mechanics of bodies that deform reversibly under stress Elasticity may also refer to: Elasticity (data store), the flexibility of the data model and the clustering Elasticity (cloud computing), a defining feature of cloud computing Elasticity (economics), a general term for a ratio of change. (
  • Their flexibility, combined with elasticity, greatly enhance the range of possible uses. (
  • My understanding of elasticity was stretching, suppleness, flexibility. (
  • The position promotes the flexibility and elasticity of the vertebrae while stretching the back muscles and reducing acidity and heartburn. (
  • in addition, mica has good splitting properties (flakes along the dissociation surface), elasticity and flexibility, so it is widely used in industry. (
  • For price elasticity, the relationship between the two variables on the x-axis and y-axis can be obtained by analyzing the linear slope of the demand or supply curve or the tangent to a point on the curve. (
  • The concept of price elasticity was first cited in an informal form in the book Principles of Economics published by the author Alfred Marshall in 1890. (
  • [2] Subsequently, a major study of the price elasticity of supply and the price elasticity of demand for US products was undertaken by Joshua Levy and Trevor Pollock in the late 1960s. (
  • Price elasticity of supply measures the responsiveness of quantity supplied to a change in price. (
  • The price elasticity of supply (PES) is measured by % change in Q.S divided by % change in price. (
  • Explain 5 factors that influence price elasticity of demand. (
  • 2015, (
  • Price elasticity of demand measures the change in quantity demand when the price of a commodity changes. (
  • The point price elasticity of demand equals -3. (
  • If you know the point price elasticity of demand, η, the following formula can enable you to quickly determine marginal revenue, MR, for any given price. (
  • Assume your company charges a $1.50 per bottle of soft drink, and the point price elasticity of demand is -3. (
  • Price elasticity of demand refers to how altering the price of a product affects the quantity sold, according to the book "Microeconomics," by William J. Boyes and Michael Melvin. (
  • The necessity of a good and the availability of substitutions influence price elasticity. (
  • The following Elasticity of Demand example provides an outline of the most common Demand Price Elasticity. (
  • Price elasticity of demand refers to the sensitivity in demand for goods to a change in their price. (
  • Calculate the price elasticity of demand for petrol. (
  • The price elasticity of demand has to do with what the effect of a price change is on demand. (
  • In order to study the relevance of price elasticity in different market structures, it is imperative that the behavior of firms in each structure be known and discussed in detail before the rationale is sought out. (
  • In either, case the price elasticity of the firm is a relevant consideration in the firms' pricing decisions. (
  • The Price Elasticity of Demand (commonly known as just price elasticity) measures the rate of response of quantity demanded due to a price change. (
  • In case a product is highly substitutable, the price elasticity is high, greater than -1and in case of few alternates, price elasticity is lower than one. (
  • The kinked demand curve indicates different price elasticities at both the intervals- before and after the kink. (
  • This paper, newly published in the FSR Climate Working Papers series, quantitatively summarizes the recent empirical evidence on Price Elasticity of Energy Demand to facilitate a sounder economic assessment of energy price changes. (
  • We conduct a meta-analysis of parking price elasticities based on 50 studies. (
  • Using seemingly unrelated regression models we account for the interdependence between the price elasticity of occupancy (EPO), dwell time (EPD), and volume (EPV). (
  • Given a large amount of reported and unreported variation between the existing studies on parking price elasticities, we provide concrete recommendations for future studies that should warrant a higher degree of comparability and coherence in research design, conduction, and reporting. (
  • Lehner, S & Peer, S 2019, ' The price elasticity of parking: A meta-analysis ', Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice , Jg. (
  • How to use our price elasticity of demand calculator? (
  • What are the types of price elasticity of demand? (
  • What are the factors that can affect the price elasticity of demand? (
  • Why is Price Elasticity of Demand Usually Negative? (
  • The price elasticity calculator is used to calculate the price elasticity of demand based on the change in price and demand of a product. (
  • In this post, we will explain how to use price elasticity of demand calculator, what is the price elasticity of demand in general, its formulas, how to calculate PED, and its types as well. (
  • Manual calculation of price elasticity can be very complicated because the formulas involved in its calculations are complex. (
  • Our midpoint method calculator is a perfect tool to save your time while calculating price elasticity of demand. (
  • It will provide you with the most accurate values when you calculate the price elasticity of demand. (
  • It will give you price elasticity of demand, elasticity verdict, initial revenue, final revenue, and the percentage of revenue increased as well. (
  • Price elasticity of demand measures the quantity demanded required to change the price. (
  • There are several demand elasticity formulas used to calculate the price elasticity of demand. (
  • We will discuss two of the important formulas to calculate the price elasticity of demand. (
  • Price elasticity of demand can be calculated by dividing the percentage change in demand by the percentage change in price. (
  • In order to calculate elasticity, economists often use the average percentage change both in price and quantity rather than by basic percentage changes. (
  • The benefit of the midpoint approach is that between two price points, whether there is a rise or a reduction, we have the same elasticity. (
  • Different Kinds of Price Elasticities 4. (
  • Determinants of Price Elasticity 7. (
  • Elasticity is a measure of the relationship between quantity demanded or supplied and another variable, such as price or income, which affects the quantity demanded or supplied. (
  • Price Elasticity of demand measures the degree of responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a commodity to change in its price. (
  • We have different ranges of price elasticities, depending on whether a 1% change in price elicits more or less than a 1% change in quantity demanded. (
  • We will demonstrate that along a linear demand curve (that is, a straight line with a constant slope) elasticity falls with price. (
  • We must, therefore, specify the price range when discussing price elasticity of demand, since most goods have ranges of both elasticity and inelasticity. (
  • That means the price elasticity of demand is zero here. (
  • The real answers to these questions depend on the price elasticity of demand. (
  • Price elasticity, defined as the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a product given a 1% change in product price(4), is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness of consumers to changes in price. (
  • We calculated the price elasticity for salads. (
  • The increase in salad bar sales by weight in March compared with other months was 366%, representing a price elasticity of 7.32. (
  • In this appendix, we derive the formulas for FMDM price elasticities. (
  • 366%, representing a price elasticity of 7.32. (
  • With regular use, it will restore elasticity, hair growth in thinning areas, moisturise your scalp leaving your hair luscious and shiny. (
  • invati™ with hydrolyzed soy protein and arginine derived from sugar beets is clinically proven to restore strength and improve the hair's elasticity, therefore helping reduce breakage. (
  • Ammonium Thyoglycolate breaks disulphide bonds, and Wheat Proteins and Vegetal Phospolipids deeply penetrate to restore and fortify the hair structure, increasing its elasticity, softness and shine. (
  • In empirical work, an elasticity is the estimated coefficient in a linear regression equation where both the dependent variable and the independent variable are in natural logs. (
  • The expenditure elasticities for the FMDM model are also more complicated than those for the conventional DM model because of the presence of current budget shares on the right-hand side of the demand equation. (
  • It stimulates collagen production, intensively moisturises, and increases elasticity. (
  • The phosphor bronze fastener also has corrosion resistance, and fatigue strength and possesses good elasticity. (
  • They characterize the exact displacement through a direct sum of rigid body modes and solutions to local elasticity problems with Neumann boundary conditions driven by the multipliers. (
  • In this study, we examined the sub-membrane mechanical structures of normal fibroblasts TIG-1 cells, and cervical cancer Hela cells using local elasticity mapping method of atomic force microscope. (
  • Participants were assigned to receive daily fish oil capsules (three grams per day of fish oil) or placebo for eight weeks, with arterial elasticity determined using a CVProfilor DO-2020. (
  • "Fish oil supplementation certainly would improve large arterial elasticity but no effect [was observed] on blood pressure in overweight hypertensive patients," ​ wrote the authors. (
  • Arterial Elasticity in Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes. (
  • Two terms are important here: plasticity and elasticity. (
  • It is water repellent, soft and supple, and has elasticity. (
  • Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916), Elasticity , 1912. (
  • In contrast, an inelastic variable (with an absolute elasticity value less than 1) changes less than proportionally in response to changes in other variables. (
  • Serj Tankian's 2021 Elasticity EP features his trademark eclecticism and one-of-a-kind vocal style that delivers a collection of 5 songs that hits on many of the stylistic musical characteristics fans love. (
  • In differential calculus , elasticity is a tool for measuring the responsiveness of one variable to changes in another causative variable. (
  • Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. (
  • Its innovative characteristics are elasticity and high strength. (
  • The versatile devices offer excellent strength and elasticity. (
  • Ceramic fiber vacuum forming wet felt not only has excellent properties corresponding to bulk ceramic fiber cotton, but also has good strength and elasticity. (
  • Keratin is a protein that makes up the majority of the hair shaft, and it is responsible for giving the hair its strength and elasticity. (
  • Our empirical evidence, based on a rich plant level dataset, shows that the extent of local linkages does indeed generally reduce the wage elasticity of labour demand. (
  • Foam rolling is great for recovery with a focus on self-myofascial release to reduce muscle tension, increase blood flow and increase elasticity within the targeted area. (
  • For the cloud computing term, see Elasticity (cloud computing) . (
  • This story, "'s vaunted new cloud 'elasticity' is so 1999 ," was originally published at . (
  • The slides include schemes that deal with the different cloud aspects such as elasticity, performance and security. (
  • We will take advantage of the elasticity of the cloud and use more servers when we need them and less when we don't (auto-scaling). (
  • It is totally different from what you have read above in Cloud Elasticity. (
  • As workload changes, cloud elasticity sees the resources allocated at any given point in time changing to meet that demand. (
  • Scalability vs elasticity in cloud computingToday, the term "scalability" is often used interchangeably with "elasticity. (
  • A use case that could easily have the need for cloud elasticity would be in retail with increased seasonal activity. (
  • This statistical Riemannian elasticity was able to handle anisotropic deformations but its isotropic stationary version was locally inverse-consistent. (
  • In economics , elasticity measures the percentage change of one economic variable in response to a percentage change in another. (
  • The advertising elasticity of demand refers to how advertising a product can affect the quantity sold, according to the book "Managerial Economics," by Arun Kumar and Rachana Sharma. (
  • Addison, JT , Centeno, M & Portugal, P 2010, ' Unemployment benefits and reservation wages: key elasticities from a stripped-down job search approach ', Economica , vol. 77, no. 305, pp. 46-59. (
  • One downside of the midpoint method is that the elasticity value loses its importance as both points become more separated. (
  • As a hairdresser you know that, over time, as keratin gradually decreases, your clients' hair loses elasticity, shine and density. (
  • I use this difference to design a perturbation matrix that links data from common empirical sampling schemes with rigorous theory for stochastic elasticities. (
  • Rich in essential fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid, Vitamin A, helps retain elasticity, clarity and suppleness. (
  • Here I develop an approach to computing new stochastic elasticities to address this question. (
  • The stochastic approach simplifies in a fixed environment, yielding a compact formula for deterministic elasticity to a driving factor. (
  • Designs made with Elasticity drape elegantly and will retain their stretch. (
  • The elasticity of demand refers to the sensitivity in demand for goods to changes in other economic variables . (
  • Elasticity, after all, refers to the ability to grow or shrink infrastructure resources dynamically. (
  • Elasticity refers to the ability of a system to drastically change computing capacity to match an ever fluctuating workload. (
  • This work presents a family of stable finite element methods for two-and three-dimensional linear elasticity models. (
  • We show that odd elasticity describes solids in which activity depends on the deformation of microscopic bonds. (
  • We obtain sufficient conditions under which changes in income inequality lead to an increase or decrease in the market demand elasticities. (
  • A classic example of income elasticity of demand here - and it looks like bad news for retailers and others selling "non-essential" goods in the key Xmas season. (
  • And this on the heels of a paper that shows the income elasticity of demand for environmental quality far exceeds one. (
  • A Finance Manager in an organization wants to calculate the elasticity of demand for a product sold by the organization. (
  • It has also been proposed that oxidative stress can limit the elasticity of titin through intramolecular disulfide formation of the cardiac-specific, unstructured N2B region 10 . (
  • For the physical property, see Elasticity (physics) . (
  • Wang, CM & Duan, W 2008, ' Free vibration of nanorings/arches based on nonlocal elasticity ', Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 1 - 8. (
  • Let's take an example to understand the calculation of the Elasticity of Demand in a better manner. (