Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The behaviors of materials under force.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Painful sensation in the muscles.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
The molecular unit of collagen fibrils that consist of repeating three-stranded polypeptide units arranged head to tail in parallel bundles. It is a right-handed triple helix composed of 2 polypeptide chains. It is rich in glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.

Connectin, an elastic protein from myofibrils. (1/4621)

The elastic protein isolated from myofibrils of chicken skeletal muscle was compared with extracellular non-collagenous reticulin prepared from chicken liver and skeletal muscle. The amino acid compositions of these proteins were similar except that their contents of Phe, Leu, Cys/2, and Hyp were different. The impregnations of the elastic protein and reticulin with silver were also different. The reticulin was not at all elastic. It also differed from reticulin in solubility and antigenicity. It is proposed to call the intracellular elastic protein connectin.  (+info)

Surface-induced polymerization of actin. (2/4621)

Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m.  (+info)

Adhesion energy of receptor-mediated interaction measured by elastic deformation. (3/4621)

We investigated the role of receptor binding affinity in surface adhesion. A sensitive technique was developed to measure the surface energy of receptor-mediated adhesion. The experimental system involved a functionalized elastic agarose bead resting on a functionalized glass coverslip. Attractive intersurface forces pulled the two surfaces together, deforming the bead to produce an enlarged contact area. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was used to relate the surface energy of the interaction to the elasticity of the bead and the area of contact. The surface energies for different combinations of modified surfaces in solution were obtained from reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) measurements of the contact area formed by the bead and the coverslip. Studies with surfaces functionalized with ligand-receptor pairs showed that the relationship between surface energy and the association constant of the ligand binding has two regimes. At low binding affinity, surface energy increased linearly with the association constant, while surface energy increased logarithmically with the association constant in the high affinity regime.  (+info)

Impact of vascular adaptation to chronic aortic regurgitation on left ventricular performance. (4/4621)

BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that vascular adaptation occurs in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation to maintain left ventricular (LV) performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (mean age 50+/-14 years) were studied using a micromanometer LV catheter to obtain LV pressures and radionuclide ventriculography to obtain LV volumes during multiple loading conditions and right atrial pacing. These 45 patients were subgrouped according to their LV contractility (Ees) and ejection fraction values. Group I consisted of 24 patients with a normal Ees. Group IIa consisted of 10 patients with impaired Ees values (Ees <1.00 mm Hg/mL) but normal LV ejection fractions; Group IIb consisted of 11 patients with impaired contractility and reduced LV ejection fractions. The left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio, Ees/Ea, where Ea was calculated by dividing the LV end-systolic pressure by LV stroke volume, averaged 1.60+/-0.91 in Group I. It decreased to 0.91+/-0.27 in Group IIa (P<0.05 versus Group I), and it decreased further in Group IIb to 0.43+/-0.24 (P<0.001 versus Groups I and IIa). The LV ejection fractions were inversely related to the Ea values in both the normal and impaired contractility groups (r=-0.48, P<0.05 and r=-0.56, P<0.01, respectively), although the slopes of these relationships differed (P<0.05). The average LV work was maximal in Group IIa when the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio was near 1.0 because of a significant decrease in total arterial elastance (P<0.01 versus Group I). In contrast, the decrease in the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio in Group IIb was caused by an increase in total arterial elastance, effectively double loading the LV, contributing to a decrease in LV pump efficiency (P<0.01 versus Group IIa and P<0.001 versus Group I). CONCLUSIONS: Vascular adaptation may be heterogeneous in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. In some, total arterial elastance decreases to maximize LV work and maintain LV performance, whereas in others, it increases, thereby double loading the LV, contributing to afterload excess and a deterioration in LV performance that is most prominent in those with impaired contractility.  (+info)

Dynamics and elasticity of the fibronectin matrix in living cell culture visualized by fibronectin-green fluorescent protein. (5/4621)

Fibronectin (FN) forms the primitive fibrillar matrix in both embryos and healing wounds. To study the matrix in living cell cultures, we have constructed a cell line that secretes FN molecules chimeric with green fluorescent protein. These FN-green fluorescent protein molecules were assembled into a typical matrix that was easily visualized by fluorescence over periods of several hours. FN fibrils remained mostly straight, and they were seen to extend and contract to accommodate movements of the cells, indicating that they are elastic. When fibrils were broken or detached from cells, they contracted to less than one-fourth of their extended length, demonstrating that they are highly stretched in the living culture. Previous work from other laboratories has suggested that cryptic sites for FN assembly may be exposed by tension on FN. Our results show directly that FN matrix fibrils are not only under tension but are also highly stretched. This stretched state of FN is an obvious candidate for exposing the cryptic assembly sites.  (+info)

Altered crossbridge kinetics in the alphaMHC403/+ mouse model of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (6/4621)

A mutation in the cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain, Arg403Gln (R403Q), causes a severe form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) in humans. We used small-amplitude (0.25%) length-perturbation analysis to examine the mechanical properties of skinned left ventricular papillary muscle strips from mouse hearts bearing the R403Q mutation in the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC403/+). Myofibrillar disarray with variable penetrance occurred in the left ventricular free wall of the alphaMHC403/+ hearts. In resting strips (pCa 8), dynamic stiffness was approximately 40% greater than in wild-type strips, consistent with elevated diastolic stiffness reported for murine hearts with FHC. At pCa 6 (submaximal activation), strip isometric tension was approximately 3 times higher than for wild-type strips, whereas at pCa 5 (maximal activation), tension was marginally lower. At submaximal calcium activation the characteristic frequencies of the work-producing (b) and work-absorbing (c) steps of the crossbridge were less in alphaMHC403/+ strips than in wild-type strips (b=11+/-1 versus 15+/-1 Hz; c= 58+/-3 versus 66+/-3 Hz; 27 degrees C). At maximal calcium activation, strip oscillatory power was reduced (0. 53+/-0.25 versus 1.03+/-0.18 mW/mm3; 27 degrees C), which is partly attributable to the reduced frequency b, at which crossbridge work is maximum. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the R403Q mutation reduces the strong binding affinity of myosin for actin. Myosin heads may accumulate in a preforce state that promotes cooperative activation of the thin filament at submaximal calcium but blunts maximal tension and oscillatory power output at maximal calcium. The calcium-dependent effect of the mutation (whether facilitating or debilitating), together with a variable degree of fibrosis and myofibrillar disorder, may contribute to the diversity of clinical symptoms observed in murine FHC.  (+info)

Effects of AT1 receptor blockade after myocardial infarct on myocardial fibrosis, stiffness, and contractility. (7/4621)

Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade attenuates myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether inhibition of fibrosis by AT1 receptor blockade influences myocardial stiffness and contractility is unknown. We measured left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics, papillary muscle function, and myocardial stiffness and fibrosis in rats randomized to losartan or placebo 1 day after MI and treated subsequently for 8 wk. Losartan decreased LV and right ventricular weights as well as mean aortic and LV systolic pressures in sham and MI rats. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI and was decreased with losartan. Maximal developed tension and peak rate of tension rise and decline were decreased in MI vs. sham rats. Interstitial fibrosis developed after MI and was prevented in losartan-treated MI rats. The development of abnormal myocardial stiffness after MI was prevented by losartan. After MI, AT1 receptor blockade prevents an abnormal increase in myocardial collagen content. This effect was associated with a normalization of passive myocardial stiffness.  (+info)

Aortic pressure-diameter relationship assessed by intravascular ultrasound: experimental validation in dogs. (8/4621)

Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic method for evaluating vessel diameter and vessel wall motion. To evaluate the validity of IVUS in assessing changes in the pressure-diameter relationship we compared measurements of abdominal aortic diameters derived from IVUS with those simultaneously obtained at the same site using implanted sonomicrometers in five chronically instrumented conscious dogs and in seven acutely instrumented anesthetized dogs. Five hundred eighty beats were analyzed to obtain peak systolic and end-diastolic diameters and to calculate aortic compliance at different blood pressure levels induced either by an aortic pneumatic cuff or by intravenous injections of nitroglycerin or norepinephrine. IVUS agreed closely with sonomicrometer measurements at different blood pressure levels. However, IVUS slightly but significantly underestimated aortic diameters by 0.6 +/- 0.7 mm for systolic diameters (P < 0.001) and by 0.7 +/- 0.6 mm for diastolic diameters (P < 0.001) compared with the sonomicrometer measurements. We conclude that IVUS is a feasible and reliable method to measure dynamic changes in aortic dimensions and has the potential to provide ready access to assess aortic compliance in humans.  (+info)

Hardening of polycrystalline copper subjected to tension-compression loading cycles in the plastic region is discussed with reference to changes in flow stress determined from equations describing dislocation glide. It is suggested that hardening is as a result of the accumulation of strain on a monotonic stress-strain curve. On initial loading, the behavior is monotonic. On stress reversal, a characteristic cyclic stress-strain curve is followed until the stress reaches a value in reverse loading corresponding to the maximum attained during the preceding half cycle. Thereafter, the monotonic path is followed until strain reversal occurs at completion of the half cycle. Repetition of the process results in cyclic hardening. Steady state cyclic behavior is reached when a stress associated with the monotonic stress-strain curve is reached which is equal to the stress associated with the cyclic stress-strain curve corresponding to the imposed strain amplitude. ...
An acoustic time of flight technique is described in detail for measuring the elastic constants of cubic single crystals that allows for the constants to be determined at elevated temperature. Although the overall technique is not new, various aspects of the present work may prove extremely useful to othersinterested in finding these values, especially for aerospace materials applications. Elastic constants were determined for the nickel based alloy, Hastelloy X from room temperature to 1000°C. Accurate elastic constants were needed as part of an effort to predict both polycrystal mechanical properties and the nature of grain induced heterogeneous mechanical response. The increased accuracy of the acoustically determined constants resulted in up to a 15 percent change in the predicted stresses in individual grains. These results indicate that the use of elastic single crystal constants of pure nickel as an approximation for the constants of gas turbine single crystal alloys, which is often done ...
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abstract = {We consider a class of second-gradient elasticity models for which the internal potential energy is taken as the sum of a convex function of the second gradient of the deformation and a general function of the gradient. However, in consonance with classical nonlinear elasticity, the latter is assumed to grow unboundedly as the determinant of the gradient approaches zero. While the existence of a minimizer is routine, the existence of weak solutions is not, and we focus our efforts on that question here. In particular, we demonstrate that the determinant of the gradient of any admissible deformation with finite energy is strictly positive on the closure of the domain. With this in hand, Gâteaux differentiability of the potential energy at a minimizer is automatic, yielding the existence of a weak solution. We indicate how our results hold for a general class of boundary value problems, including mixed boundary conditions. For each of the two possible pure displacement formulations ...
Results (1) baPWV, cfPWV and ABI were significantly higher in EH group than that in NS group. C1, C2 and GFR were significantly lower in EH group than that in NS group. (2) baPWV and cfPWV increased progressively with decreasing GFR (p,0.05), but C1, C2 and ABI had insignificantly change with decreasing GFR. With increasing mAlb, no significant difference was found in all indexes of arterial elasticity function. (3) There was a significant and negative correlation between PWV and GFR. baPWV showed the best correlation with GFR (r=−0.405, p,0.01). C2 correlated positively with GFR (p,0.05). No correlation was found between mAlb and all indexes of arterial elasticity function. Adjusting for age and blood pressure, even significant association between all indices of arterial elasticity and GFR disappeared.. ...
An apparatus for measuring arterial elasticity includes a cuff member having a light source and light detector, a variable pressure generating device, a fluid pressure sensor, a digital signal processor and a difference detecting element. The fluid pressure in a fluid pressure chamber in the cuff member is varied by a variable fluid pressure generating device. The digital signal processor responds to the output of the fluid pressure sensor and the output of the difference detecting element and delivers a digitally processed signal corresponding to an arterial volume change based on a simulated arterial elasticity. The arterial elasticity and the frequency characteristic thereof are derived based on the operation of the digital signal processor.
E.g. 6/2/2020 Elasticity of Demand Learning Topic Elasticity of Demand We know from the law of demand how the quantity demanded will If Ferrari was to increase its prices to $250,000 and 99 customers buy it, then the product is very inelastic. Factors Determining 5. ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us make an in-depth study of Elasticity of Demand. Ed= 9 Management Managerial Economics Elasticity of Demand 4. On most curves the elasticity of a curve varies depending upon where you are. It is argued that in the short term, buyers are often locked into spending patterns through habit, lack of information or because of durable goods that have already been purchased. Goods can be classified as normal goods or inferior goods. Arc Elasticity Method Arc elasticity of demand measures elasticity between two points on a curve. Of one good when the price changes for another good 0.78 % increase in wealth would lead 0.78. Goods and inferior goods Before we get to elasticity, we need to mention Normal goods vs contracts. ...
Hope the above listing of antonyms for elasticity is useful. This page may interest people looking for the opposite of elasticity and elasticity opposite.. Popular phrases for this post include, opposite of elasticity, Elasticity is opposite to, elasticity opposite, ELESTICITY IS OPPOSITE TO, opposite od elasticity, opposite of elasticity is ??, opposite to elasticity ...
We discuss the limiting behavior (using the notion of gamma-limit) of the 3d nonlinear elasticity for thin shells around an arbitrary smooth 2d surface. In particular, under the assumption that the elastic energy of deformations scales like h4, h being the thickness of a shell, we derive a limiting theory which is a generalization of the von Karman theory for plates.. ...
Voir en ligne : PMID : 27656191 R. Malgat, F. Faure & A. Boudaoud* A mechanical model to interpret cell-scale indentation experiments on plant tissues in terms of cell wall elasticity and turgor pressure.. Front Plant Sci. 7 1351 (2016 ...
On the basis of the general non-linear theory of a hyperelastic material with initial stress, initially without consideration of the origin of the initial stress, we determine explicit expressions for the stress-dependent tensor of incremental elastic moduli. In considering three special cases of initial stress within the general framework, namely hydrostatic stress, uniaxial stress and planar shear stress, we then elucidate in general form the dependence of various elastic moduli on the initial stress. In each case, the effect of initial stress on the wave speed of homogeneous plane waves is studied and it is shown how various special theories from the earlier literature fit within the general framework. We then consider the situation in which the initial stress is a pre-stress associated with a finite deformation and, in particular, we discuss the specialization to the second-order theory of elasticity and highlight connections between several classical approaches to the topic, again with ...
2002, v.8, Issue 2, 351-364 ABSTRACT. A method is suggested for defining a deformation-dependent free energy in microscopic terms for a deformed elastic solid and applied to a simple microscopic model of such a solid. Some of the convexity and continuity properties of this free energy function are derived.. Keywords: nonlinear elasticity,restricted ensembles in statistical mechanics. COMMENTS. Please log in or register to leave a comment. ...
Index[1851 26]/Info 1850 0 R/Length 85/Prev 263560/Root 1852 0 R/Size 1877/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream In most metals G is about 0.4 E ; if the value of one modulus is known, the other may be approximated. Ppt. L L 7 -4 6.37 x 10 Pa 3.08 x 10 Stress Modulus Strain Modulus = 207 x 109 Pa This longitudinal modulus of elasticity is called Youngs Modulus and is denoted by the symbol Y. The modulus of elasticity (= Youngs modulus) E is a material property, that describes its stiffness and is therefore one of the most important properties of solid materials. Youngs modulus (E) slope of stress-strain curve with sample in tension (aka Elastic modulus). K m no. Alternatively, elastic constants K (bulk modulus) and/or G (shear modulus) can also be used. (c) Representative force, P, versus change in displacement, Δx, experimental result for a typical buckling experiment.The red dashed lines show the tangent intersection approach used to determine the critical buckling load, P cr. Basic Elasticity and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myriad Radial Cavitating Equilibria in Nonlinear Elasticity. AU - Sivaloganathan, J. AU - Spector, S J. PY - 2003/1. Y1 - 2003/1. M3 - Article. VL - 63. SP - 1461. EP - 1473. JO - SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics. JF - SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics. SN - 0036-1399. ER - ...
Nonlinear elasticity of borocarbide superconductor YNi2B2C: A first-principles study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Whats an elasticity in economics. Desk of Contents Cover 1 Whats Revenue Elasticity of Demand. Whats Elasticity of Demand. In different phrases demand elasticity or. Elasticity is an financial measure of how delicate an financial issue is to a different for instance modifications in value to produce or demand or modifications in demand to modifications in earnings. Elasticity of Demand Proportion change in amount demanded Proportion change in Worth LAW OF DEMAND Legislation of demand states that if value of commodity will increase amount. In enterprise and economics elasticity refers back to the diploma to which people customers or producers change their demand or the quantity equipped in response to cost or earnings modifications. In economics elasticity refers to how one amount or variable is delicate to a change in one other amount or variable when all the opposite elements are held fixed. Its predominantly used to evaluate the change in client demand because of a change in a very good or ...
Rock physics is an essential link connecting seismic data to the properties of rocks and fluids in the subsurface. One of the most fundamental questions of rock physics is how to model the effects of pore fluids on rock velocity and density. Contemporary scientific computing allows geophysicists to conduct extremely complex virtual (computational) experiments on realistic digital representations of complex porous media, and thus directly relate the measurable properties of the media to their microstructure and saturation. Computational (digital) rock physics can also serve as an effective tool in examining new and existing rock physics models. The finite element method (FEM) has been proved effective in simulations of the linear elastic properties of porous rock under static conditions. In this thesis, FEM is used to study the effect of patchy saturation on elastic velocities of digital images of rocks. However, FEM belongs to a group of grid methods, and its accuracy is limited by ...
A nonwoven web material that includes an elastic component or material (e.g., nonwoven web, nonwoven web laminated to an elastic material, etc.) is provided. The elastic component contains a crosslinked network formed from a pentablock copolymer containing at least two monoalkenyl aromatic midblocks positioned between conjugated diene endblocks, such as butadiene-styrene-butadiene-styrene-butadiene (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface-stress effects on elastic properties. II. Metallic multilayers. AU - Streitz, F. H.. AU - Cammarata, R. C.. AU - Sieradzki, K.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - In the adjoining paper we presented a detailed model describing the effects of surface stress on the equilibrium spacing and biaxial modulus of thin metal films. We extend the model to describe the effects of interface stress on metallic multilayers. The model predicts that very thin layers will equilibrate to a spacing in the plane smaller than the bulk spacing for the material, and that this effect will vanish as the reciprocal of the layer thickness. The model predicts enhancements in the biaxial modulus of metallic multilayers which scale with the reciprocal of the layer thickness. The magnitude of both the strain and the resulting change in biaxial modulus are proportional to the magnitude of the interface stress. In order to verify the predictions of the interface stress model, we performed molecular-dynamics ...
In this method, we compare the total outlay of the consumer before and after variation in price.. Here Elasticity of demand is expressed in three ways:. a) Unity. b) Greater than unity. c) Less than unity. a) Elasticity Equal To Unity:. If the quantity demanded of a product changes due to a change in price and the total outlay of the consumer remains constant then the elasticity of demand will be equal to unity.. b) Elasticity More Than Unity:. If the quantity demanded of a product rises due to a change in price and the total outlay of the consumer increases then the elasticity of demand will be more than unity.. c) Elasticity Less Than Unity:. If a fall in the price results in the quantity demanded for the product to increase and the total outlay of the consumer to fall, elasticity of demand would be less than unity.. ...
We describe, analyze, and test a direct numerical approach to a homogenized problem in nonlinear elasticity at finite strain. The main advantage of this approach is that it does not modify the overall structure of standard softwares in use for computational elasticity. Our analysis includes a convergence result for a general class of energy densities and an error estimate in the convex case. We relate this approach to the multiscale finite element method and show our analysis also applies to this method. Microscopic buck- ling and macroscopic instabilities are numerically investigated. The application of our approach to some numerical tests on an idealized rubber foam is also presented. For consistency a short review of the homogenization theory in nonlinear elasticity is provided.
We referred to the proportionality constant between stress and strain as the elastic modulus. But why do we call it that? What does it mean for an object to be elastic and how do we describe its behavior?. Elasticity is the tendency of solid objects and materials to return to their original shape after the external forces (load) causing a deformation are removed. An object is elastic when it comes back to its original size and shape when the load is no longer present. Physical reasons for elastic behavior vary among materials and depend on the microscopic structure of the material. For example, the elasticity of polymers and rubbers is caused by stretching polymer chains under an applied force. In contrast, the elasticity of metals is caused by resizing and reshaping the crystalline cells of the lattices (which are the material structures of metals) under the action of externally applied forces.. The two parameters that determine the elasticity of a material are its elastic modulus and its ...
Myofibroblastic activation of valvular interstitial cells is modulated by spatial variations in matrix elasticity and its organization Journal Article ...
Bone Broth Skin Elasticitywere reared in a very healthy Bone Broth Skin Elasticity. Bones and nails Theres no denying that might prevent you from dealing with something that my consumers whore vegans but, for dogs, is about the newest work reducer was making Bone Broth Skin Elasticity? As we are re use the bones for an alternate time First, there was the very rich smell of enormous stock pot and add water as stock. If you dont know one single word to. to simmer and cook on in advance comment I made when it can just easily grab your tongs, remove the bones are cooked in liquid, as cows or chickens which have grown vastly in recognition over a soft drink or candy bar However, while many societies around the world still consume on the go. It is a superfood source of this blog…I started doing this because the end result is a little gelled, sippable elixir. I like. benefits of Bone Broth Skin Elasticity and the way long be sure to cook it with stinging nettle. and do make it into my broth. Both ...
In this study, we provide a set of model examples for which we compare the values of the shear modulus under increasing compression or tension with experimental data for brain and fat tissues. The viscoelasticity of brain and adipose tissues was measured following the protocol described in [4]. The dynamic shear storage modulus G′ was measured as a function of time for increasing tensile or compressive strain (from 0% to 40%). Details are given in appendix A.. A hyperelastic constitutive material has a unique stress-strain relationship, independent of strain rate. However, the stress-strain response for viscoelastic materials changes with strain rate, and a strain-energy density function does not exist for these materials. Nonetheless, for many soft tissues, the shape of the nonlinear stress-strain curve is typically invariant with respect to strain rate. In this case, at fixed strain rate, the shear modulus may be captured by a nonlinear hyperelastic model (an example of this approach for fat ...
Aorta functions not only as a conduit delivering blood to the tissues but also as an important modulator of the entire cardiovascular system, buffering the intermittent pulsatile output from the heart to provide steady flow to capillary beds.1 By virtue of its elastic properties, aorta influences left ventricular function and coronary blood flow.2 3 4 5 Systemic hypertension, a common disorder with potentially serious complications, exerts further ill effects through structural and functional modifications of the arterial wall.6 7 Previous studies using different techniques have shown that aortic elastic properties are compromised in patients with arterial hypertension.8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Measurement of pulse wave velocity has been extensively used,9 10 11 providing only indirect estimations of the elastic properties of the aorta. Noninvasive methods11 12 13 14 using formulas involving pulsatile change in aortic dimensions and pulse pressure (the former is measured with echocardiography or ...
In physics, elasticity is the tendency of solid materials to return to their original shape after being deformed. Solid objects will deform when forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed.. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied.. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world and few materials remain purely elastic even after very small deformations. In engineering, the amount of elasticity of a material is determined by two types of material parameter. The first type of material parameter is called a modulus which measures the amount of ...
Arterial atherosclerotic fatty streak involvement is inversely related to HDL-C level and directly to TC level.3 In epidemiological studies, HDL-C/TC ratio has been a better marker of coronary heart disease risk than either TC or HDL-C levels alone.20 In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis would be different in young healthy men with either constantly high or low HDL-C/TC ratio level and that these groups would therefore have differences in vascular elastic properties. The comparison of 2 groups of carefully matched men with different HDL-C/TC ratio did not reveal differences in aortic elasticity but showed decreased carotid distensibility in the group with low HDL-C/TC ratio. Diminished carotid elasticity has been demonstrated previously in healthy children and adolescents with elevated serum TC and blood pressure levels.21 The realization that changes in arterial elasticity can be detected noninvasively in young asymptomatic subjects and ...
The size-dependent static deflection, pull-in instability and resonant frequency of a circular microplate under capillary force have been studied using modified couple stress elasticity theory. Size-dependency is a phenomenon in which the normalized quantities that classical elasticity theory predicts to be independent of the structure size, such as normalized deflection or normalized frequency, vary significantly as the structure size changes. This phenomenon has been observed in micro-scale structures such as micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). Since classical elasticity theory is unable to predict the size-dependency, non-classical elasticity theories such as modified couple stress theory have been developed recently.. In this paper, modified couple stress theory is used for the first time to develop the governing equation and boundary conditions of circular microplates when subjected to capillary force. Consideration of capillary force is important since it is has a significant role in ...
Synonyms for elasticity of shear in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for elasticity of shear. 2 words related to elasticity of shear: elasticity, snap. What are synonyms for elasticity of shear?
Elasticity of a function is a mathematical concept that is widely used in economics. In particular, price elasticity of demand or supply. But generally elasticity in economic is the measurement of how an economic variable responds to a change in another.. Yet I found the term ambiguous and I dont understand why we didnt choose sensitivity or reactivity instead. To make matter worst, economists often call Price elasticity of the demand only, Elasticity of the demand.. What is the history of the term elasticity? Why do we use this term?. ...
The analytical solution of the Eshelby problem, which describes the deformation of an elastic medium inside and outside a spherical inclusion with uniform internal eigenstrain and specified remote stress, is generalized taking into account both surface elasticity and residual surface stress. Expressions are derived for the internal and external Eshelby tensors and stress concentration tensors with regard to the above effects. A characteristic strain field inhomogeneity and its dependence on the inclusion diameter in the nanometer range (the scale effect) are found. It is shown that under certain conditions, the effect of residual surface stress surpasses that of surface elasticity.
The three-dimensional elasticity model is developed to determine the critical buckling load for isotropic, anisotropic, and auxetic beams and plates. Different beam theories are studied and compared to the elasticity theory. The study was based on the assessment of those beam theories using different beam cross-sections and boundary conditions. The elasticity theory for anisotropic beams obtained well results for large slenderness ratios when it compared with Euler-Bernoulli theory which is considered in this study the main area of comparison study. For small values of slenderness ratio ...
Using combustion synthesis approach we fabricated B2 NiAl intermetallic compound as well as quasibinary Ni(Al50Ti50) alloy, where half Al atoms are randomly substituted by transitional metal Ti. Youngs modulus for synthesized materials was measured and appeared to be 222 +/- 10 GPa for NiAl and 175 +/- 15 GPa for Ni(Al50Ti50) phases. Using first-principles simulations in the framework of the Density Functional Theory, we investigate the elastic properties of Ni(Al1-xTix) system, including single-crystal, as well as polycrystalline elastic moduli. Direct comparison of the experimental and theoretical values of the Youngs modulus demonstrates that the employed theoretical approach allows carefully predict elastic properties of NiAl-based intermetallics. In particular, we predict that alloying NiAl with Ti should increase the ductility of the intermetallic phase. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
Recently, several theoretical and computational studies have also been performed to investigate the membrane wrapping efficiency of elastic NPs during endocytosis, which has been shown regulated synergistically by NP size, shape, and elasticity (22, 23, 33). However, despite the fact that the effects of NP elasticity on different endocytic uptake mechanisms have been experimentally explored in this work, the theoretical modeling of these uptake mechanisms remains challenging. More thorough and realistic modelings with explicit consideration of the actin network and adaptor proteins underneath the cell membrane are called for. Clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis can be modeled using a membrane wrapping based on the Helfrich-Canham membrane theory (34), suggesting that stiff NPs are energetically more prone to full wrapping than soft ones (21). This elasticity effect on the simple membrane wrapping of an NP gradually becomes less significant as the NP elasticity increases. For isotropic ...
Up to the elastic limit of a sample, all the work done in stretching it is stored potential energy, or Elastic Strain Energy. This value can be determined by calculating the area under the the force-extension graph. If the sample obeys Hookes Law, and is below the elastic limit, the Elastic Strain Energy can be calculated by the formula:
When an elastic material is deformed due to an external force, it experiences internal resistance to the deformation and restores it to its original state if the external force is no longer applied. There are various elastic moduli, such as Youngs modulus, the shear modulus, and the bulk modulus, all of which are measures of the inherent elastic properties of a material as a resistance to deformation under an applied load. The various moduli apply to different kinds of deformation. For instance, Youngs modulus applies to extension/compression of a body, whereas the shear modulus applies to its shear.[1]. The elasticity of materials is described by a stress-strain curve, which shows the relation between stress (the average restorative internal force per unit area) and strain (the relative deformation).[2] The curve is generally nonlinear, but it can (by use of a Taylor series) be approximated as linear for sufficiently small deformations (in which higher-order terms are negligible). If the ...
Arterial stiffness is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and death.. Most of existing technique need dedicated device for arterial stiffness evaluation and indirect calculation of intra arterial pressure. Supersonic Shear Imaging (SSI) is a novel non-invasive technique based on remote palpation of biological tissues that can image with very high temporal resolution (up to 10,000 images/s) and quantify the local viscoelastic properties of tissues. The investigators goal was to apply this SSI technique for arterial stiffness evaluation and local pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation.. As a first step, the primary goal of this study is to establish normal values of local pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness (carotid and femoral) by SSI on hundred healthy volunteers. ...
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Cross-linked semiflexible polymer networks are omnipresent in living cells. Typical examples are actin networks in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, which play an essential role in cell motility, and the spectrin network, a key element in maintaining the integrity of erythrocytes in the blood circulatory system. We introduce a simple mechanical network model at the length scale of the typical mesh size and derive a continuous constitutive law relating the stress to deformation. The continuous constitutive law is found to be generically nonlinear even if the microscopic law at the scale of the mesh size is linear. The nonlinear bulk mechanical properties are in good agreement with the experimental data for semiflexible polymer networks, i.e., the network stiffens and exhibits a negative normal stress in response to a volume-conserving shear deformation, whereby the normal stress is of the same order as the shear stress. Furthermore, it shows a strain localization behavior in response to an uniaxial
Elasticity theory is the most well developed and popular topic in solid mechanics. The theory improves over previous ad hoc (strength of materials) approaches for determining the stresses and deformations of elastic materials. An elastic material is one which, after loading and subsequent removal of the load returns to its original shape (if given sufficient time). There are several theories of elastic materials: ...
Analysis of Structures on Elastic Foundations is a practical guide for structural and geotechnical engineers as well as graduate students working in foundation engineering.
In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of interfacial waves in account of surface elasticity at the interface. A sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of a subsonic interfacial wave between two elastic half spaces is obtained for general anisotropic materials. Further, we explicitly calculate the dispersion relations of interfacial waves for interfaces between two solids and solid and fluid, and parametrically study the effects of surface elasticity on the dispersion relations. We observe that the dispersion relations of interfacial waves are nonlinear at the presence of surface elasticity and depend on surface elastic properties. This nonlinear feature can be used for probing the bulk and surface properties by acoustic measurements and designing waves guides or filters.. ...
Congratulations to my co-authors Mercedes Rodriguez-Teja, Claudia Briet, Mitchell Clarke, Kamil Talar, Kai Wang, Mohammad A Mohammad, Guillermina Etchandy, Sage Pixie and Graeme Stasiuk on acceptance of our methodology paper by The Journal of Visualized Experiments.... How to study basement membrane stiffness as a biophysical trigger in prostate cancer and other age-related pathologies or metabolic diseases The journal will be sending a camera crew to the lab to film us performing the
There are different kinds of elasticity. The phenomenon that we have been analyzing under the name of elasticity to dry, we could have called it with more property elasticity-price since it was to measure the sensitivity of the demand to the variations in the prices. But demand may also be more or less sensitive to other factors. We will call elasticity-income to the measure of the sensitivity of the demand of a good to the variations in the income of the consumer. We will call cross-elasticity to the measure of the sensitivity of the demand of a good to the variations in the price of other goods.. More from Business Study Notes:- Elasticity of Supply. The concept of income elasticity is used to measure the sensitivity of goods to changes in the income of individuals: the percentage of the quantity demanded of a good varies when the consumers rent varies by one percent. In the case of the inferior goods, the income elasticity is negative since the increase of this causes the contraction of ...
Downloadable! This paper performs a meta-analysis of empirical estimates of uncompensated labour supply elasticities. We find that much of the variation in elasticities can be explained by the variation in gender, participation rates, and country fixed effects. Country differences appear to be small though. There is no systematic impact of the model specification or marital status on reported elasticities. The decision to participate is more responsive than is the decision regarding hours worked. Even at the intensive margin, we find that the elasticity for women exceeds that for men. For men and women in the Netherlands, we predict an uncompensated labour supply elasticity of 0.1 (or 0.2 if an alternative specification is preferred) and 0.5, respectively. These values are robust for alternative samples and specifications of the meta regression.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We estimate the income elasticity of government expenditures using variation in the international oil price as a plausibly exogenous source of within-country variation of countries permanent income. Our short run elasticity estimates, between 0.25-0.50, are generally somewhat smaller than the previously obtained ones, and they, in particular, indicate that Wagners law does not hold; long run elasticities are larger, but still smaller than unity. We also explore the correlates of the income elasticity of government spending and find no support for views that either democracy, inequality, or openness are associated with a larger elasticity. However, we find evidence consistent with
Definition of Elasticity of Demand and Supply in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Elasticity of Demand and Supply? Meaning of Elasticity of Demand and Supply as a finance term. What does Elasticity of Demand and Supply mean in finance?
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substances resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress-strain curve in the elastic deformation region: A stiffer material will have a higher elastic modulus. An elastic modulus has the form: where stress is the force causing the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied and str…. ...
Elasticity of Demand: The price elasticity of demand is the percentage change of demand caused by a one percent change of ... 401-02.] Note that the manager may be able to obtain industry elasticities, which are far more inelastic than the elasticity ... The inverse elasticity rule[edit]. A monopoly chooses that price that maximizes the difference between total revenue and total ... is the price elasticity of demand the firm faces.[32] The markup rules indicate that the ratio between profit margin and the ...
Elasticity under confinement. Confined liquids may exhibit different mechanical properties compared to bulk liquids. For ... Because liquids have little elasticity they can literally be pulled apart in areas of high turbulence or dramatic change in ... "Explaining the low-frequency shear elasticity of confined liquids". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA ...
Elasticity and tensile strength. Usually, attempting to deform bulk diamond crystal by tension or bending results in brittle ...
Young's modulus of elasticity. Young's modulus quantifies the elasticity of the polymer. It is defined, for small strains, as ...
Elasticity[edit]. Insects gain kinetic energy, provided by the muscles, when they accelerate. When the wings begin to ...
Stiffness and elasticity[edit]. The ECM can exist in varying degrees of stiffness and elasticity, from soft brain tissues to ... Stiffness and elasticity also guide cell migration, this process is called durotaxis. The term was coined by Lo CM and ... The elasticity of the ECM can differ by several orders of magnitude. This property is primarily dependent on collagen and ... ECM elasticity can direct cellular differentiation, the process by which a cell changes from one cell type to another. In ...
Elasticity along linear supply curves[edit]. The slope of a linear supply curve is constant; the elasticity is not. If the ... Elasticity[edit]. The price elasticity of supply (PES) measures the responsiveness of quantity supplied to changes in price, as ... Other elasticities can be calculated for non-price determinants of supply. For example, the percentage change the amount of the ... Since supply is usually increasing in price, the price elasticity of supply is usually positive. For example, if the PES for a ...
"Frozen" rubber's elasticity is low and strain results from small changes of bond lengths and angles: this caused the Challenger ... Natural rubber offers good elasticity, while synthetic materials tend to offer better resistance to environmental factors such ... peroxide or bisphenol are added to improve resistance and elasticity and to prevent it from perishing. Carbon black is often ... its elasticity makes it suitable for various kinds of shock absorbers and for specialized machinery mountings designed to ...
Elasticity is essentially a time independent processes, as the strains appear the moment the stress is applied, without any ... Elasticity. Describes materials that return to their rest shape after applied stresses are removed. ... The difference in material behaviour is characterized by the level and nature of elasticity present in the material when it ... viscous and plastic behavior by properly combining elasticity and (Newtonian) fluid mechanics. It is also concerned with ...
Elasticity brittle brittle if solid soft and easily crushed when frozen Atomic structure close-packed* or polyatomic polyatomic ...
Elasticity Modulus (Ksi) Elongation at Break (%) Water Absorption (%) Melting Point (℃) Maximum Working Temp (℃) ...
W.S. Slaughter, The Linearized Theory of Elasticity, Birkhäuser, ISBN 0-8176-4117-3, (2002) ... whereas in the context of elasticity, μ is called the shear modulus,[2]:p.333 and is sometimes denoted by G instead of μ. ...
elasticities approach to the balance of payments. *elasticity. *elasticity of intertemporal substitution ...
Elasticity; especially the expansibility of a gas. It may be said that the swelling, of the compressed water in the pewter ...
He authored the two volume classic, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. He was the author of several articles ... Augustus E. Love (1944). A treatise on the mathematical theory of elasticity. Mineola, N.Y: Dover. ISBN 0-486-60174-9. Love, A ... was a mathematician famous for his work on the mathematical theory of elasticity. He also worked on wave propagation and his ... E. H. (1911). "Elasticity" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press - via ...
"Elasticity". HyperPhysics. University of Guelph. Retrieved 2013-10-28. Mallette, Vincent (1982-2008). "The Coriolis Force". ...
Elasticity modulus (E) 8530 to 17200 MPa Tensile strength (σt) 52.8 to 185 MPa ...
Elasticity 326. Inelasticity 327. Tenacity 328. Brittleness 329. Texture 330. Pulverulence 331. Friction 332. Lubrication 2. ...
"The divergence of a tensor field". Introduction to Elasticity/Tensors. Wikiversity. Retrieved 2010-11-26. Further reading ... Theoretical Elasticity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-853486-8. Ogden, R. W. (2000). Nonlinear elastic deformations. Dover ...
R. Brannon's E-Book on Curvilinear Coordinates Wikiversity:Introduction to Elasticity/Tensors#The divergence of a tensor field ... 1. ISBN 0-486-60373-3. Green, A. E.; Zerna, W. (1968). Theoretical Elasticity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-853486-8. ...
von (1913). "Elastizität" [Elasticity]. de:Handwörterbuch der Naturwissenschaften (in German). 3. Kármán, Th. von (1913). " ... Approximate solutions of problems of elasticity theory]. Physikalische Zeitschrift (in German). 14. Kármán, Th. von; Bolza, H ...
ISBN 978-0-521-57421-1. Sircar, Sabyasachi (2008). "Muscle elasticity". Principles of Medical Physiology (1st ed.). New York, ...
Emerging approaches for managing elasticity include the use of machine learning techniques to propose efficient elasticity ... Scalability and elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis in near ... Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly ... Kuperberg, Michael; Herbst, Nikolas; Kistowski, Joakim Von; Reussner, Ralf (2011). "Defining and Measuring Cloud Elasticity". ...
"PSICalgary2019 , Schedule". PSICalgary2019 - Elasticity. Retrieved 7 June 2019. "Sozita Goudouna - DARE conferences". ...
Russo, Remigio (1996). Mathematical Problems in Elasticity. World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-2576-8.. ...
changes in curvature elasticity. According to the lateral phase separation theory[18] anaesthetics exert their action by ...
A high modulus of elasticity is sought when deflection is undesirable, while a low modulus of elasticity is required when ... Relationship to elasticityEdit. The elastic modulus of a material is not the same as the stiffness of a component made from ... The stiffness of a structure is of principal importance in many engineering applications, so the modulus of elasticity is often ... A description including all possible stretch and shear parameters is given by the elasticity tensor. ...
Elastography (ultrasound elasticity imaging)Edit. Main article: Elastography. Ultrasound is also used for elastography, which ... Ophir, J.; Céspides, I.; Ponnekanti, H.; Li, X. (1991). "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of ... "Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity". Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 8 (64): 1521-1549 ...
Elasticity and tax incidenceEdit. Compared to previous phenomenas, elasticity of the demand and supply curve is an essential ... Where the tax incidence falls depends (in the short run) on the price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply. Tax ... This is because both the price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply effect upon whom the incidence of the tax ... "Elasticity and taxation".. *^ The Tax Foundation - Who Really Pays the Corporate Income Tax? Archived 2008-05-31 at the Wayback ...
Shear-wave elasticity imaging (SWEI)Edit. In shear-wave elasticity imaging (SWEI),[7] similar to ARFI, a 'push' is induced deep ... One strength of MRE is the resulting 3D elasticity map, which can cover an entire organ.[2] Because MRI is not limited by air ... Shear wave elasticity imaging: a new ultrasonic technology of medical diagnostics. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1998; 24(9): 1419-35. ... Since the terms "elasticity imaging" and "elastography" are synonyms, the original term SWEI denoting the technology for ...
Arc elasticity is the elasticity of one variable with respect to another between two given points. It is used when there is no ... What Is Arc Elasticity? Arc elasticity is the elasticity of one variable with respect to another between two given points. It ... To eliminate this problem, the arc elasticity can be used. Arc elasticity measures elasticity at the midpoint between two ... elasticity of demand and arc elasticity of demand. The arc price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of quantity ...
Yield elasticity of bond value. Notes[edit]. *^ Bordley, R., "Relating Cross-Elasticities to First Choice/Second Choice Data", ... Selected cross price elasticities of demand[edit]. Below are some examples of the cross-price elasticity of demand (XED) for ... In economics, the cross elasticity of demand or cross-price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity ... Sabatelli L (2016) Relationship between the Uncompensated Price Elasticity and the Income Elasticity of Demand under Conditions ...
The income elasticity of demand measures the relationship between a change in the quantity demanded for a particular good and a ... Interpretation of Income Elasticity of Demand Depending on the values of the income elasticity of demand, goods can be broadly ... Understanding the Income Elasticity of Demand Income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of demand for a ... What Is Advertising Elasticity of Demand (AED)? Advertising elasticity of demand (AED) measures a markets sensitivity to ...
This property of an object is known as elasticity. In Economics, elasticity refers to the sensitivity of one variable to ... elasticity is the amount of stretch that an object contains. It is property by virtue of which matter keeps its shape from ... more of a product consumers will purchase when the price of that product falls is a specific example of economic elasticity. ... In economics what are the types of elasticity?. price elasticity income elasticity cross elasticity promotional elasticity ...
We compare aggregate elasticities that impose equality across sectors, to estimates allowing for heterogeneity. The former are ... We use disaggregated multilateral trade data to structurally identify imports elasticities in the US. We spell out a partial ... Estimates of the elasticity of substitution between domestic and foreign varieties are small in macroeconomic data, but ... "Elasticity optimism," Working Papers hal-00362403, HAL. * Jean Imbs & Isabelle Mˆmjean, 2008. "Elasticity Optimism," Working ...
The Youngs modulus of elasticity is a material constant. A strip of material subjected to a force will lengthen. Force F, over ... The Youngs modulus of elasticity is a material constant. A strip of material subjected to a force will lengthen. Force F, over ... Elasticity of soft tissues in simple elongation. Am J Phys. 1967;28:1532-44.Google Scholar ... The Youngs modulus of elasticity is actually a stiffness modulus.. Keywords. Youngs modulus Hooke Incremental modulus Stress- ...
... the SparkNotes Elasticity Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. ...
A model is proposed to explain the super elasticity and energy conversion mechanisms of resilin, providing important insight ... However, insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for resilin elasticity remains undefined. Here we report ... and a mechanical model is proposed to account for its elasticity. ... Resilin is critical in the flight and jumping systems of insects as a polymeric rubber-like protein with outstanding elasticity ...
... the elasticity of caoutchouc; the elasticity of the air. ... Income elasticity of demand. Cloth Physics. Gabriel Lamé. stiff ... Surface of elasticity Geom., the pedal surface of an ellipsoid (see Pedal); a surface used in explaining the phenomena of ... Coefficient of elasticity, the quotient of a stress (of a given kind), by the strain (of a given kind) which it produces; -- ... Price elasticity of demand. Thomas Young. How Our Bodies Are Used--and Our Minds. Toughness. ...
For the rubber elasticity models listed above, you can take MPa. To fit the remaining parameters, you can assume the material ... This is a rubber elasticity model, and is intended to be used with . The stress can be computed using the formulas in the ... This is a rubber elasticity model, so . The potential was derived by calculating the entropy of a simple network of long-chain ... This is a rubber elasticity model, for rubbers with very limited compressibility, and should be used with . The stress-strain ...
A dimensionless numbers|dimensionless number used in momentum transfer in general and viscoelastic flow calculations in particular. Proportional to (Ela...
Elastomers and Rubber Elasticity, edited by J.E. Mark and J. Lal and published by the American Chemical Society in 1982. It is ... Advances in Elastomers and Rubber Elasticity. Joginder Lal,James E. Mark. No preview available - 2013. ... The present book is a sequel to "Elastomers and Rubber Elasticity," edited by J.E. Mark and J. Lal and published by the ... Advances in Elastomers and Rubber Elasticity. Joginder Lal,James E. Mark. Limited preview - 2013. ...
... of demand Output elasticity Price elasticity of demand Price elasticity of supply Yield elasticity of bond value Elasticity of ... Cross elasticity of demand Elasticity of substitution Frisch elasticity of labor supply Income elasticity ... a mathematical definition of point elasticity Arc elasticity Elasticity, a 2021 EP by Serj Tankian Elasticity coefficient, a ... Elasticity often refers to: Elasticity (physics), continuum mechanics of bodies that deform reversibly under stress Elasticity ...
elasticity. How can vaginas not vary much in size, for real?. Anonymous ...
Three major sections cover general theory, two-dimensional elasticity, and three-dimensional elasticity. An ideal text for a ... two-course sequence on elasticity, this volume can also introduce the subject in a more general math course. ... This instructive volume offers a comprehensive survey of the methods and theories of linear elasticity. ... and linear elasticity. The second section, on two-dimensional elasticity, treats the general theory of plane elasticity, ...
"Armington elasticities for United States manufacturing sectors," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 631- ... "The International Elasticity Puzzle," Working Papers 08-30, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, ... "Innovation and the trade elasticity," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 32-46. ... Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement; Innovation and trade; Trade elasticity; Statistics. Access and download statistics ...
The first third of the book contains the fundamentals of the theory of elasticity. Kinematics of continuous media, the notions ...
It represents the elasticity of substitution between products of different countries, and is based on the assumption made by ... An Armington elasticity is an economic parameter commonly used in models of consumer theory and international trade. ... Yet no consensus on the magnitude of the elasticity exists. In different contexts, researchers tend to obtain substantially ... A quantitative survey of 3,524 estimates of the Armington elasticity available in 2019 shows that - conditional on these ...
Glossary of terms for the photographic industry Photo elasticity A method of determining stress patterns in structures with the ... Photo elasticity A method of determining stress patterns in structures with the aid of polarized light. Search SWPP. ...
We primarily concerned with two types of elasticity - price elasticity of demand, and what Ill call attention elasticity. ... Elasticity for Entrepreneurs. by Rob May March 28, 2006, 6:17 pm. 3.4k Views ... Attention elasticity, which Im not even sure is a real thing (at least, Ive never heard an economist mention it) is how a ... Elasticity is a concept taught in most entry level economics courses, yet it is something that entrepreneurs never seem to ...
w10044 Tax Bases, Tax Rates and the Elasticity of Reported Income. Chetty. w13844 Is the Taxable Income Elasticity Sufficient ... We find that the overall elasticity of taxable income is approximately 0.4; the elasticity of real income, not including tax ... who have an elasticity of 0.57, while for those with incomes below $100,000 per year the elasticity is less than one-third as ... The Elasticity of Taxable Income: Evidence and Implications. Jon Gruber, Emmanuel Saez. NBER Working Paper No. 7512. Issued in ...
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I am interested in knowing how to calculate the elasticity between two objects when colliding. Lets say I have object A and B ... There are different kinds of elasticity. Typically, elasticity refers to colisions. The elasticity of a colision is:. [tex]\ ... I am interested in knowing how to calculate the elasticity between two objects when colliding. Lets say I have object A and B ...
Housing supply elasticities can be well-characterized as functions of both physical and regulatory constraints, which in turn ... What determines local housing supply elasticities and prices? In this paper I give empirical content to the concept of land ... The results provide operational estimates of local supply elasticities in all major US metropolitan areas. ... Saiz, Albert, On Local Housing Supply Elasticity (July 31, 2008). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1193422 or http ...
Soft Elasticity elongates and snaps back like a rubberband but wont stretch-out like elastic thread and string. Ideal for ... Soft Elasticity elongates and snaps back like a rubberband but wont "stretch-out" like elastic thread and string. Ideal for ...
Buy Theory of Elasticity by Aldo Maceri from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK ... Theory of Elasticity (Paperback). Aldo Maceri (author) Sign in to write a review ... The Theory of elasticity moves freely within an uni ed mathematical fra- ... The Theory of elasticity moves freely within an uni ed mathematical fra- ...
These equations of fractional elasticity are solved for some special cases: subgradient elasticity and supergradient elasticity ... A weak nonlocality of power-law type in the nonlocal elasticity theory is derived from the fractional weak spatial dispersion ... the gradient elasticity models (weak nonlocality) and the integral nonlocal models (strong nonlocality). This paper focuses on ... can be considered as a fractional generalization of the gradient elasticity. ...
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  • Linear elasticity theory is thus the best known and most widely used branch of solid mechanics. (brown.edu)
  • The first section presents a review of mathematical notation and continuum mechanics, covering vectors and tensors, kinematics, stress, basic equations of continuum mechanics, and linear elasticity. (doverpublications.com)
  • The plane strain and generalized plane stress boundary value problems of linear elasticity are the focus of this graduate-level text, which formulates and solves these problems by employing complex variable theory. (doverpublications.com)
  • This refined description brings up new terms---missing in the classical coupling of linear Stokes flow and linear elasticity---in the matching of the normal stresses and the velocities on the interface. (aimsciences.org)
  • Here, we implement a finite element scheme for approximating solutions of this fluid-elasticity dynamics and numerically investigate the dependence of the discretized model on the ``new" terms present therein, in contrast with the classical Stokes-linear elasticity system. (aimsciences.org)
  • Symmetry and positive definiteness of the tensor-valued spring constant derived from P1-FEM for the equations of linear elasticity. (aimsciences.org)
  • On the derivation of linear elasticity from atomistic models. (aimsciences.org)
  • Topological optimization and minimal compliance in linear elasticity. (aimsciences.org)
  • Identification of Lamé parameters in linear elasticity: a fixed point approach. (aimsciences.org)
  • Locking-free nonconforming finite elements for planar linear elasticity. (aimsciences.org)
  • A number of reasons could limit the applicability of the model: (i) non-bending collective motions, (ii) non-linear elasticity terms, (iii) a length scale dependence of K , (iv) breakdown of the mean field approach. (esrf.eu)
  • The continuum equations with derivatives of noninteger orders, which are obtained from the lattice model, can be considered as a fractional generalization of the gradient elasticity. (hindawi.com)
  • These equations of fractional elasticity are solved for some special cases: subgradient elasticity and supergradient elasticity. (hindawi.com)
  • The idea to include some fractional integral term in the equations of the elasticity has been proposed by Lazopoulos in [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The continuum equations of fractional elasticity are solved for some special cases: subgradient elasticity and supergradient elasticity. (hindawi.com)
  • Its five-part treatment covers functions of a complex variable, the basic equations of two-dimensional elasticity, plane and half-plane problems, regions with circular boundaries, and regions with curvilinear boundaries. (doverpublications.com)
  • L. Bociu and J.-P. Zolésio, Linearization of a coupled system of nonlinear elasticity and viscous fluid,, in Modern aspects of the theory of partial differential equations , (2011), 93. (aimsciences.org)
  • Basic equations of theory of elasticity. (vutbr.cz)
  • A quantitative survey of 3,524 estimates of the Armington elasticity available in 2019 shows that - conditional on these differences and corrected for the publication bias using meta-regression techniques - the Armington elasticity lies in the range 2.5-5.1 with a median estimate at 3.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then you'll get a chance to use regressions as you learn about three types of elasticities--relationships between demand and price or other factors--and the drivers of these elasticities. (coursera.org)
  • Students are asked to react to various price changes for different product representing the various types of elasticities: elastic, unit elastic and inelastic. (oercommons.org)
  • There are many different types of elasticities distinguished by the pair of variables that each one considers, but at their core they are all simply comparisons of how one thing changes in response to changes in another. (econlib.org)
  • The definition of elasticity is the state of being able to stretch and expand, or to be able to bounce back. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Notice from the definition of income elasticity that if the income elasticity of demand is positive , the good must be a normal good, and if the income elasticity of demand is negative , the good must be an inferior good. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • author = {X. Pennec and R. Stefanescu and V. Arsigny and P. Fillard and N. Ayache}, title = {Riemannian elasticity: A statistical regularization framework for nonlinear registration}, booktitle = {in Proceedings of the 8th Int. Conf. (psu.edu)
  • Symmetry groups in nonlinear elasticity: an exercise in vintage mathematics. (aimsciences.org)
  • If there is a person interested in doing research in nonlinear elasticity and continuum mechanics with me as a sponsoring researcher, please feel free to contact me for further enquiries ( [email protected] ). (imechanica.org)
  • In economics, there are two possible ways of calculating elasticity of demand-price (or point) elasticity of demand and arc elasticity of demand. (investopedia.com)
  • In economics , the cross elasticity of demand or cross-price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded for a good to a change in the price of another good, ceteris paribus . (wikipedia.org)
  • In Economics , elasticity refers to the sensitivity of one variable to changes in a different variable. (answers.com)
  • Elasticity Optimism ," EIEF Working Papers Series 0805, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Mar 2008. (repec.org)
  • Elasticity often refers to: Elasticity (physics), continuum mechanics of bodies that deform reversibly under stress Elasticity may also refer to: Elasticity (data store), the flexibility of the data model and the clustering Elasticity (cloud computing), a defining feature of cloud computing Elasticity (economics), a general term for a ratio of change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innovation and the trade elasticity ," Journal of Monetary Economics , Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 32-46. (repec.org)
  • Elasticity is a concept taught in most entry level economics courses, yet it is something that entrepreneurs never seem to think about. (businesspundit.com)
  • Soderbery, Anson, "Estimating Import Supply and Demand Elasticities: Analysis and Implications," Journal of International Economics , 96(1), May 2015: pp 1-17. (purdue.edu)
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elasticity_(economics) search for the differnt types of elasticity you want to deal with. (physicsforums.com)
  • In this Teacher's Corner, we will define what elasticity means in economics, explain how one particular type of elasticity is calculated, and discuss why the concept is critical to economic agents trying to maximize their revenue. (econlib.org)
  • In economics, an elasticity is a measurement of the responsiveness of one variable to a change in another variable. (econlib.org)
  • In economics , people talk about elasticity of an economic variable, usually supply or demand , in relation to another economic variable such as income or price . (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are several types of elasticity in economics (see below), the most commonly used is demand elasticity (aka price elasticity ), which shows how consumer demand is affected when prices go up or down. (investinganswers.com)
  • The formula for calculating income elasticity of demand is the percent change in quantity demanded divided by the percent change in income. (investopedia.com)
  • The arc price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded to a price. (investopedia.com)
  • It takes the elasticity of demand at a particular point on the demand curve , or between two points on the curve. (investopedia.com)
  • In the concept of arc elasticity, elasticity is measured over the arc of the demand curve on a graph. (investopedia.com)
  • One of the problems with the price elasticity of demand formula is that it gives different values depending on whether price rises or falls. (investopedia.com)
  • Arc elasticity measures elasticity at the midpoint between two selected points on the demand curve by using a midpoint between the two points. (investopedia.com)
  • Price elasticity of demand is a measure of the change in the quantity demanded or purchased of a product in relation to its price change. (investopedia.com)
  • The cross elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness in the quantity demanded of one good when the price changes for another good. (investopedia.com)
  • An increase in the price of fuel will decrease demand for cars that are not fuel efficient A negative cross elasticity denotes two products that are complements , while a positive cross elasticity denotes two substitute products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assume products A and B are complements , meaning that an increase in the price of B leads to a decrease in the quantity demanded for A. Equivalently, if the price of product B decreases, the demand curve for product A shifts to the right reflecting an increase in A's demand, resulting in a negative value for the cross elasticity of demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cases the cross elasticity of demand will be negative , as shown by the decrease in demand for cars when the price for fuel will rise. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of perfect substitutes, the cross elasticity of demand is equal to positive infinity (at the point when both goods can be consumed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Where the two goods are independent , or, as described in consumer theory , if a good is independent in demand then the demand of that good is independent of the quantity consumed of all other goods available to the consumer, the cross elasticity of demand will be zero i.e. if the price of one good changes, there will be no change in demand for the other good. (wikipedia.org)
  • When goods are substitutable, the diversion ratio, which quantifies how much of the displaced demand for product j switches to product i , is measured by the ratio of the cross-elasticity to the own-elasticity multiplied by the ratio of product i ' s demand to product j ' s demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximate estimates of the cross price elasticities of preference-independent bundles of goods (e.g. food and education, healthcare and clothing, etc.) can be calculated from the income elasticities of demand and market shares of individual bundles, using established models of demand based on a differential approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sabatelli L (2016) Relationship between the Uncompensated Price Elasticity and the Income Elasticity of Demand under Conditions of Additive Preferences. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is the Income Elasticity of Demand? (investopedia.com)
  • Income elasticity of demand refers to the sensitivity of the quantity demanded for a certain good to a change in real income of consumers who buy this good, keeping all other things constant. (investopedia.com)
  • With income elasticity of demand, you can tell if a particular good represents a necessity or a luxury. (investopedia.com)
  • Income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of demand for a particular good to changes in consumer income. (investopedia.com)
  • The higher the income elasticity of demand in absolute terms for a particular good, the bigger consumers' response in their purchasing habits-if their real income changes. (investopedia.com)
  • Businesses typically evaluate income elasticity of demand for their products to help predict the impact of a business cycle on product sales. (investopedia.com)
  • Income elasticity of demand is an economic measure of how responsive the quantity demand for a good or service is to a change in income. (investopedia.com)
  • The income elasticity of demand is calculated by taking a negative 50% change in demand, a drop of 5,000 divided by the initial demand of 10,000 cars, and dividing it by a 20% change in real income-the $10,000 change in income divided by the initial value of $50,000. (investopedia.com)
  • Depending on the values of the income elasticity of demand, goods can be broadly categorized as inferior goods and normal goods . (investopedia.com)
  • Normal goods whose income elasticity of demand is between zero and one are typically referred to as necessity goods, which are products and services that consumers will buy regardless of changes in their income levels. (investopedia.com)
  • Luxury goods represent normal goods associated with income elasticities of demand greater than one. (investopedia.com)
  • Basically, a negative income elasticity of demand is linked with inferior goods, meaning rising incomes will lead to a drop in demand and may mean changes to luxury goods. (investopedia.com)
  • What Is Advertising Elasticity of Demand (AED)? (investopedia.com)
  • Advertising elasticity of demand (AED) measures a market's sensitivity to increases or decreases in advertising saturation and its effect on sales. (investopedia.com)
  • We primarily concerned with two types of elasticity - price elasticity of demand , and what I'll call attention elasticity. (businesspundit.com)
  • If gasoline had a unit elasticity, then doubling the price would cut the demand in half. (businesspundit.com)
  • The following import demand and supply elasticities are produced using the hybrid Feenstra (1994) / Broda & Weinstein (2006) methodology described in Soderbery (2015) . (purdue.edu)
  • To understand the elasticity of employment to local labor demand shocks, we develop a quantitative general equilibrium model that incorporates spatial linkages in goods markets (trade) and factor markets (commuting and migration). (nber.org)
  • Typically, Elasticity in supply/demand is defined as the percentage change in the quantity supplied/demanded resulting from a given percentage change in the price of the commodity. (physicsforums.com)
  • If you draw the supply demand curves on a logarithmic scale, a low slope represents a high elasticity. (physicsforums.com)
  • The concept of elasticity is very useful to understand the economic behavior of transport supply and demand. (hofstra.edu)
  • There is no elasticity, oil demand and oil price are tied together with a tense overstretched rubberband acting like a rope. (oil-price.net)
  • Reply-To: [email protected] Subject: st: QUAIDS Elasticities Hello, I am trying to obtain QUAIDS elasticities after running Poi(2008) program to estimate a 5-good demand system. (stata.com)
  • This type of elasticity, called the "price elasticity of demand," is probably the most intuitive and readily accessible type, and so serves as the best introduction into the subject. (econlib.org)
  • To illustrate the importance of a price elasticity of demand, consider a young boy, Henry, who sells lemonade on Saturdays for 50 cents a glass from a stand in his front yard in Austin, Texas. (econlib.org)
  • If a 2% increase in price causes people to buy 1% fewer of a product, it has a price elasticity of demand of -0.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The responsiveness of demand or supply to changes in prices or incomes is measured by the elasticity of demand or supply. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The price elasticity of demand or supply will differ among goods. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • There are two cases where the price elasticity of demand or supply can take on extreme values. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Generally, cloud elasticity can be defined as how a system can adapt to workload changes and demand by automatically provisioning and de-provisioning resources. (cmswire.com)
  • On the other hand, elasticity focuses on matching available resources with demand, without changing the infrastructure. (cmswire.com)
  • If demand elasticity is greater than one, the good or service is considered to be price-sensitive and therefore elastic. (investinganswers.com)
  • If the demand elasticity of a good or service is less than one, it is considered to be price-insensitive and relatively inelastic. (investinganswers.com)
  • With an elasticity of less than 1, that means this good is very inelastic as the demand is almost constant. (investinganswers.com)
  • Elasticity of demand is the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a commodity to changes in one of the variables on which demand depends. (investinganswers.com)
  • Other types of elasticity are the income elasticity of demand , which is the responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in income, and price elasticity of demand (PED) , which is the responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in price. (investinganswers.com)
  • Instructor] We've done many videos on the price elasticity of demand, now we're going to focus on the price elasticity of supply. (khanacademy.org)
  • So, just as we saw when we calculated price elasticity of demand, either when you have a linear curve here, your price elasticity of supply can change. (khanacademy.org)
  • References to other elasticities of demand, such as the income elasticity are normally explicit. (investorguide.com)
  • See import demand elasticity. (investorguide.com)
  • Don't Forget Oil Demand Elasticity! (safehaven.com)
  • In technical terms, what is labor's elasticity of demand ? (econlib.org)
  • Notice: As expected, labor demand elasticity has a negative slope, with modal estimates around -.4. (econlib.org)
  • Fig. 4 plots the predicted labor demand elasticities against the country-specific OECD Employment Legislation Index. (econlib.org)
  • The graph shows a positive relationship between overall employment protection and the wage elasticity, with labor demand being less elastic in countries that have rather strict rules of employment protection legislation (for example, Spain and Mexico). (econlib.org)
  • Differences in employment protection legislation among countries may thus contribute to the country-specific estimates of the labor demand elasticity. (econlib.org)
  • Compared to this interval, we note that (i) many estimates of the own-wage elasticity of labor demand given in the literature are upwardly in inflated (with a mean value larger than -0.5 in absolute terms) and (ii) our preferred estimate is close to the best guess provided by Hamermesh (1993), albeit with our confidence interval for values of the elasticity being smaller. (econlib.org)
  • Twitter mentions for "labor demand elasticity" average about one per month ! (econlib.org)
  • But if people actually cared about the effects of labor market regulation on worker and human well-being, labor demand elasticity would fascinate them. (econlib.org)
  • How much weight should we attach to this positive association between strict labor market regulation and labor demand elasticity? (econlib.org)
  • Excessive skin elasticity/looseness may be caused by rapid weight loss. (fitday.com)
  • Soft Elasticity elongates and snaps back like a rubberband but won't "stretch-out" like elastic thread and string. (dickblick.com)
  • The code seems to work fine but I am obtaining unusually large own-price elasticities (mostly greater than one in absolute value) which are inconsistent with the literature. (stata.com)
  • Estimates of the elasticity of substitution between domestic and foreign varieties are small in macroeconomic data, but substantially larger in disaggregated microeconomic studies. (repec.org)
  • It represents the elasticity of substitution between products of different countries, and is based on the assumption made by Paul Armington in 1969 that products traded internationally are differentiated by country of origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is Elasticity Of Substitution? (investorwords.com)
  • Nonlocal elasticity models in continuum mechanics can be treated with two different approaches: the gradient elasticity models (weak nonlocality) and the integral nonlocal models (strong nonlocality). (hindawi.com)
  • We show how the continuous limit for the lattice with fractional weak spatial dispersion gives the corresponding continuum equation of the fractional gradient elasticity. (hindawi.com)
  • there are entire courses devoted to the theory of elasticity, viscoelasticity and plasticity, which you are no doubt looking forward to taking. (brown.edu)
  • But their most characteristic, though not perhaps their most general, property is that they combine in themselves the apparently incompatible properties of elasticity and rigidity on the one hand and plasticity on the other. (yourdictionary.com)
  • N. Auffray, R. Bouchet and Y. Bréchet, Derivation of anisotropic matrix for bi-dimensional strain-gradient elasticity behavior ,, International Journal of Solids and Structures , 46 (2009), 440. (aimsciences.org)
  • While it may be tempting to place your stretching routine on the back burner, there are multiple reasons to increase your muscle elasticity, or flexibility. (livestrong.com)
  • Organizations that don't currently have a VDI solution can take advantage of the flexibility offered by cloud elasticity. (cmswire.com)
  • We compare aggregate elasticities that impose equality across sectors, to estimates allowing for heterogeneity. (repec.org)
  • We provide new estimates of this elasticity which address identification problems with previous work, by exploiting a long panel of tax returns to study a series of tax reforms throughout the 1980s. (nber.org)
  • The results provide operational estimates of local supply elasticities in all major US metropolitan areas. (ssrn.com)
  • Motivated by the growing popularity of database-as-aservice clouds, this paper presents ShuttleDB, a holistic approach enabling flexible, automated elasticity of database tenants in the cloud. (usenix.org)
  • There was a limit to the "elasticity" of the Cloud service. (gartner.com)
  • Think of Cloud service elasticity like a rubber band. (gartner.com)
  • In a cloud service environment, elasticity may also imply that the ability the service can expand and contract in real time , using service level agreements ( SLAs ) to make changes autonomically , instead of relying on human administrators. (techtarget.com)
  • Leveraging cloud elasticity within a company's cloud of choice is one way to quickly scale and automate virtual desktop and app delivery without needing a full VDI solution. (cmswire.com)
  • Cloud elasticity can refer to several possible solutions depending on purpose and intent. (cmswire.com)
  • The best cloud computing programs have elasticity built in, so resources are provisioned without employees noticing. (cmswire.com)
  • With a solution that includes cloud elasticity, companies can deliver virtual desktops and apps through their preferred cloud of choice. (cmswire.com)
  • Cloud elasticity supports the digital strategy by giving employees immediate access to programs and applications when they need them most. (cmswire.com)
  • One of the key features of cloud elasticity is its ability to scale horizontally. (cmswire.com)
  • Elasticity and scalability are often misunderstood as interchangeable terms in cloud computing. (cmswire.com)
  • One industry where the need for cloud elasticity over scalability is more apparent is education. (cmswire.com)
  • With schools moving to virtual classrooms for the immediate future - but not permanently - schools need the advantages offered by cloud elasticity to provision the resources they have. (cmswire.com)
  • Although the words scalability and elasticity are sometimes used as synonyms, scalability is more often used to describe the ability a system has to successfully cope with an expanding workload , while elasticity implies that the system is also capable of decommissioning capacity or resources when they are no longer needed. (techtarget.com)
  • Furthermore, this model offers a view of elastomeric proteins in general where beta-turn-related structures serve as fundamental units of the structure and elasticity. (nature.com)
  • We then derive optimal income tax structures using these elasticities. (nber.org)
  • In October 2008, German researchers identified how the visible light works - by changing the molecular structure of a glue-like layer of water on elastin, the protein that provides elasticity in skin, blood vessels, heart and other body structures. (truthinaging.com)
  • During the course the student will obtain knowledge about basic quantities and relations of theory of elasticity for solid, beam, plane and plate structures. (vutbr.cz)
  • Elasticity is the ability of an IT infrastructure to quickly expand or cut back capacity and services without hindering or jeopardizing the infrastructure's stability, performance, security, governance or compliance protocols. (techtarget.com)
  • In his preface, Soutas-Little offers a brief survey of the development of the theory of elasticity, the major mathematical formulation of which was developed in the 19th century after the first concept was proposed by Robert Hooke in 1678. (doverpublications.com)
  • The Theory of elasticity moves freely within an uni ed mathematical fra- workthatprovidestheanalyticaltoolsforcalculatingstressesanddeformationsin astrainedelasticbody. (waterstones.com)
  • Mathematical Elasticity. (aimsciences.org)
  • Although there are several books in print dealing with elasticity, many focus on specialized topics such as mathematical foundations, anisotropic materials, two-dimensional problems, thermoelasticity, non-linear theory, etc. (ebooks.com)
  • We explicitly give a linear frame of the elasticity tensor space in which the representation of the rotation group is decomposed into irreducible subspaces. (aimsciences.org)
  • Thanks to five independent invariants choosen among six, an elasticity tensor in 2D can be represented by a compact line or, in degenerated cases, by a circle or a point. (aimsciences.org)
  • The elasticity tensor space, parameterized with these invariants, consists in the union of a manifold of dimension $5$, two volumes and a surface. (aimsciences.org)
  • Source: Adapted from Victoria Transport Policy Institute (2002) Transportation Elasticities. (hofstra.edu)
  • The Youngs modulus of elasticity is a material constant. (springer.com)
  • If the stress-strain relationship is linear, the material obeys Hooke's law and the slope of the relation is called the Youngs modulus of elasticity, E. The stress-strain relation of biological tissues is curved, and the local slope is the incremental elastic modulus, E inc , which is strain (or stress) dependent. (springer.com)
  • Modulus of rigidity (G LT ) of veneer laminates was shown to be unrelated to dynamic modulus of elasticity (E d ) of single veneers and also, within the range of samples tested, unrelated to specific gravity. (usda.gov)
  • In this sense, elasticity is a synonym for adaptability. (techtarget.com)
  • Elasticity is a measure of a variable's sensitivity to a change in another variable. (investopedia.com)
  • His current research interests pertain to the physical chemistry of polymers, including the elasticity of polymer networks, hybrid organic-inorganic composites, liquid-crystalline polymers, and a variety of computer simulations. (cambridge.org)
  • The second section, on two-dimensional elasticity, treats the general theory of plane elasticity, problems in Cartesian coordinates, problems in polar coordinates, complex variable solutions, finite difference and finite element methods, and energy theorems and variational techniques. (doverpublications.com)
  • We estimate that this overall elasticity is primarily due to a very elastic response of taxable income for taxpayers who have incomes above $100,000 per year, who have an elasticity of 0.57, while for those with incomes below $100,000 per year the elasticity is less than one-third as large. (nber.org)
  • Elasticity of supply is the responsiveness of the quantity supplied to a change in price . (investinganswers.com)
  • Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. (mit.edu)
  • By finishing the course, the student will know fundamental equation of elasticity describing the linear behavior of element. (vutbr.cz)
  • We show that local employment elasticities differ substantially across U.S. counties and commuting zones in ways that are not well explained by standard empirical controls but are captured by commuting measures. (nber.org)
  • Commuting has also a very low elasticity as this category of movements is related to a fundamental economic activity that provides income. (hofstra.edu)
  • What determines local housing supply elasticities and prices? (ssrn.com)
  • Housing supply elasticities can be well-characterized as functions of both physical and regulatory constraints, which in turn are endogenous to prices and past growth. (ssrn.com)
  • We then examine whether the formation of supply chains has affected this elasticity using different measures of GVC integration. (imf.org)
  • Underinvestment in oil exploration causes lack of elasticity in oil supply and soaring oil prices. (oil-price.net)
  • Economists disagree on the size of labour supply elasticities. (voxeu.org)
  • It is not possible to think about labour supply elasticity as a unique structural parameter. (voxeu.org)
  • Tax avoidance behaviour strongly influences the elasticity of the very top earners, while there is less support for the role of labour supply responses across earners. (voxeu.org)
  • This program will compute and interpret the elasticity of supply for a commodity. (ticalc.org)
  • Elasticity is a measure of how much the quantity demanded of a service or good changes in relation to its price , consumer income, or supply. (investinganswers.com)
  • What is Supply Elasticity? (investorguide.com)
  • Supply elasticity can be calculated by dividing a product's quantity percent change by its price percent change. (investorguide.com)
  • A higher rate of supply elasticity corresponds to a product's price change being more dramatic should its level of supply be altered. (investorguide.com)
  • Supply elasticity tends to be much higher when a product is experiencing low levels of supply, while high levels of supply results in the reduction of supply elasticity. (investorguide.com)
  • So, let's think about our price elasticity of supply as we go from point A, point A, to point B. Well, on the supply schedule, point A is this point right over here, our price is four, our quantity is one. (khanacademy.org)
  • So let us calculate from point A to point B our price elasticity of supply. (khanacademy.org)
  • I encourage you, pause this video and see if you can calculate the price elasticity of supply when going from point B to point C. Well, we're going to do a similar calculation. (khanacademy.org)
  • So, one way to think about it is, if the magnitude of your price elasticity of supply is less than one, and of course this is magnitude so it's going to be greater than or equal to zero, well, then you're talking about inelastic price elasticity of supply, inelastic. (khanacademy.org)
  • Now, if our price elasticity of supply is greater than one, that's generally considered to be elastic, for a given percent change in price, you're getting a larger than that percent change in quantity supplied. (khanacademy.org)
  • Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that attacks the skin's supply of hyaluroic acid, which improves elasticity and smoothness. (truthinaging.com)
  • GDP elasticity in the context you mention it would be in the form % change in GDP / % change in chemcal projects ( probably measure in $) they would (should) have projected the impact of future chemical projects based on a calculated elasticity using available data. (physicsforums.com)
  • These statistics are then used as parameters in a Mahalanobis distance to measure the statistical deviation from the observed variability, giving a new regularization criterion that we called the statistical Riemannian elasticity. (psu.edu)
  • The elasticity of a variable is a measure of how much the variable changes in response to a change in a second variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elasticity is an important economic measure for the sellers of goods or services because it measures the amount buyers will consume when the price inevitably changes. (investinganswers.com)
  • In general terms, elasticity is the amount of stretch that an object contains. (answers.com)
  • An example of elasticity is the ability of a woman's stomach to stretch during pregnancy. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Westerhof N, Noordergraaf A. Arterial elasticity: a generalized model. (springer.com)
  • Get Advanced Mechanics of Materials and Applied Elasticity now with O'Reilly online learning. (oreilly.com)
  • Our experimental evaluation of the ShuttleDB prototype shows that by applying migration and replication techniques at the tenant level, automated elasticity can be achieved both intra- and inter-datacenter in a database agnostic way. (usenix.org)
  • We further show that ShuttleDB can reduce the time and data transfer needed for elasticity by 80% or more compared to tenant-oblivious approaches. (usenix.org)
  • The formulas are provided by Banks,Blundell and Lewbel (RESTAT,1997) and I am trying to use the coefficients to compute the elasticities for each household with predictnl. (stata.com)
  • Mucopolysaccharides are also thought to be responsible for the elasticity, resilience and the strength of the skin. (truthinaging.com)