A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
Postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxin gene of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix: structure, organization, and phylogenetic analysis. (1/193)The venom of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix contains highly potent alpha-neurotoxins (NTXs) in addition to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cardiotoxin (CTX). In this study, we report the complete characterization of three genes that are responsible for the synthesis of three isoforms of alpha-NTX in the venom of a single spitting cobra. DNA amplification by long-distance polymerase chain reaction (LD-PCR) and genome walking have provided information on the gene structure including their promoter and 5' and 3' UTRs. Each NTX isoform is approximately 4 kb in size and contains three exons and two introns. The sequence homology among these isoforms was found to be 99%. Two possible transcription sites were identified by primer extension analysis and they corresponded to the adenine (A) nucleotide at positions +1 and -45. The promoter also contains two TATA boxes and a CCAAT box. Putative binding sites for transcriptional factors AP-2 and GATA are also present. The high percentage of similarity observed among the NTX gene isoforms of N. n. sputatrix as well as with the alpha-NTX and kappa-NTX genes from other land snakes suggests that the NTX gene has probably evolved from a common ancestral gene. (+info)
Probing the role of C-1 ester group in Naja naja phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions using butanetriol-containing phosphatidylcholine analogues. (2/193)To understand the role of the ester moiety of the sn-1 acyl chain in phospholipase A2-glycerophospholipid interactions, we introduced an additional methylene residue between the glycerol C1 and C2 carbon atoms of phosphatidylcholines, and then studied the kinetics of hydrolysis and the binding of such butanetriol-containing phospholipids with Naja naja phospholipase A2. Hydrolysis was monitored by using phospholipids containing a NBD-labelled sn-2 acyl chain and binding was ascertained by measuring the protein tryptophan fluorescence. The hydrolysis of butanetriol-containing phospholipids was invariably slower than that of the glycerol-containing phospholipids. In addition, the enzyme binding with the substrate was markedly decreased upon replacing the glycerol residue with the 1,3,4-butanetriol moiety in phosphatidylcholines. These results have been interpreted to suggest that the sn-1 ester group in glycerophospholipids could play an important role in phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions. (+info)
Purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of a phospholipase A2 inhibitor from the serum of the non-venomous snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. (3/193)The serum of a non-venomous striated snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, was found to contain phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitory proteins (PLIs). One of these inhibitors was purified by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, Q-Sepharose FF ion-exchange chromatography and Butyl Sepharose 4FF hydrophobic chromatography. The purified PLI inhibited the enzymic activities of all PLA2 groups, including Elapidae venom (group-I), Viperidae venom (group-II) and honeybee PLA2s (group-III). The inhibitor was a 130 kDa glycoprotein consisting of two distinct subunits, A and B, of 30 and 29 kDa respectively; each of which was glycosylated with N-linked oligosaccharide chains. The cDNAs encoding the respective inhibitor subunits were isolated from a liver cDNA library by the use of probes, prepared by PCR, based on the partially determined amino-acid sequences of the corresponding subunits. The respective nucleotide sequences encoded 19-amino-acid-residue signal sequences, followed by 183- and 181-residue protein sequences for the A and B subunits respectively. The amino-acid sequences revealed that the E. quadrivirgata inhibitor corresponded to PLIgamma, one of three kinds of inhibitors purified from venomous snakes. The existence of PLIgamma in the serum of this non-venomous snake suggested that, besides having a protective role against the venom PLA2s of other venomous snakes, PLIgamma has other important physiological functions in regulating local PLA2 activities; and thus it raises the possibility that PLIgamma occurs in other animals, including mammals. (+info)
Comparative study on the ability of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize lethal and myotoxic effects induced by Micrurus nigrocinctus (coral snake) venom. (4/193)A comparative study was performed on the ability of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize lethal and myotoxic activities of Micrurus nigrocinctus venom. Both antivenoms were adjusted to a similar neutralizing potency in experiments where venom and antivenoms were preincubated prior to injection. No significant differences were observed between IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms concerning neutralization of lethal effect in rescue experiments, i.e., when antivenom was administered intravenously after envenomation. However, F(ab')2 antivenom was more effective in prolonging the time of death when subneutralizing doses were administered immediately after venom injection. Both products partially reversed the binding of M. nigrocinctus alpha-neurotoxins to acetylcholine receptor in vitro. The IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms effectively neutralized venom-induced myotoxicity when administered intravenously immediately after envenomation, although neutralization was poor if antivenom injections were delayed. Intramuscular injection of venom promoted diffusion of antivenom antibodies throughout muscle tissue, and F(ab')2 diffused to a higher extent than IgG molecules. Thus, despite the observation that F(ab')2 antivenom was more effective than IgG antivenom in prolonging the time of death when subneutralizing doses were administered immediately after envenomation, no major differences were observed in antivenom neutralization of lethal and myotoxic effects or in their capacity to reverse neurotoxin binding to the acetylcholine receptor. (+info)
Postsynaptic short-chain neurotoxins from Pseudonaja textilis. cDNA cloning, expression and protein characterization. (5/193)Two lethal proteins, which specifically bind to the nAChR from Torpedo californica, were isolated from the venom of Pseudonaja textilis, the common brown snake from Australia. The isolated proteins have masses of 6236 and 6345 Da and are structurally related to short-chain neurotoxins from other elapids. Six cDNAs encoding isoforms of related neurotoxins were cloned using the RT-PCR of the venom gland mRNAs. The sequences of the corresponding proteins consist of 57-58 amino acid residues and display several unique features when compared with all known short-chain neurotoxins. Accordingly, they grouped separately in phylogenetic analysis. The six cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant proteins were characterized. They have similar masses and display similar toxicities and binding constants to the nAChR as the native toxins isolated from the venom. Thus, a new group of short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins from the venom of an Australian elapid has been characterized. (+info)
m2-toxin: A selective ligand for M2 muscarinic receptors. (6/193)Selective ligands are needed for distinguishing the functional roles of M2 receptors in tissues containing several muscarinic receptor subtypes. Because the venom of the green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps contains the most specific antagonists known for M1 and M4 receptors (m1-toxin and m4-toxin), it was screened for toxins that inhibit the binding of [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) to cloned M2 receptors. Desalted venom had as much anti-M2 as anti-M4 activity. The most active anti-M2 toxin in the venom was isolated by gel filtration, cation-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase HPLC, and called m2-toxin. Spectrometry yielded a mass of 7095 Da, and N-terminal sequencing of 53 amino acids showed RICHSQMSSQPPTTTFCRVNSCYRRTLRDPHDPRGT-IIVRGCGCPRMKPGTKL. This sequence is more homologous to antinicotinic than antimuscarinic toxins, but it lacks three almost invariant residues of antinicotinic toxins required for their activity. m2-Toxin fully blocked the binding of [(3)H]NMS and [(3)H]oxotremorine-M to M2 receptors with Hill coefficients near 1, and blocked 77% of the binding sites for 0.1 nM [(3)H]NMS in the rat brainstem (K(i) = 11 nM). Concentrations that fully blocked cloned M2 receptors had no effect on M4 receptors, but slightly increased [(3)H]NMS binding to M1 receptors, an allosteric effect. In accord with these results, light microscopic autoradiography of the rat brain showed that m2-toxin decreased [(3)H]NMS binding in regions rich in M2 receptors and increased binding in regions rich in M1 receptors. Thus m2-toxin is a novel M2-selective, short-chain neurotoxin that may prove useful for binding and functional studies. (+info)
Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium serpentis in a wild-caught corn snake (Elaphe guttata guttata) and a five-species restriction fragment length polymorphism- based assay that can additionally discern C. parvum from C. wrairi. (7/193)An adult wild-caught corn snake (Elaphe guttata guttata) was presented for humane euthanasia and necropsy because of severe cryptosporidiosis. The animal was lethargic and >5% dehydrated but in good flesh. Gastric lavage was performed prior to euthanasia. Histopathologic findings included gastric mucosal hypertrophy and a hemorrhagic erosive gastritis. Numerous 5- to 7-microm-diameter round extracellular organisms were associated with the mucosal hypertrophy. A PCR, acid-fast stains, Giemsa stains, and an enzyme immunoassay were all positive for Cryptosporidium spp. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on gastric lavage and gastric mucosal specimens, and subsequent sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, enabled a distinct molecular characterization of the infecting organism as Cryptosporidium serpentis. Until recently, studies on snake Cryptosporidium have relied on host specificity and gross and histopathologic observations to identify the infecting species. A multiple alignment of our sequence against recently published sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of C. serpentis (GenBank accession no. AF093499, AF093500, and AF093501 [L. Xiao et al., unpublished data, 1998]) revealed 100% homology with the C. serpentis (Snake) sequence (AF093499) previously described by Xiao et al. An RFLP method to differentiate the five presently sequenced strains of Cryptosporidium at this locus was developed. This assay, which uses SpeI and SspI, complements a previously reported assay by additionally distinguishing the bovine strain of Cryptosporidium from Cryptosporidium wrairi. (+info)
Functional characteristics of a phospholipase A(2) inhibitor from Notechis ater serum. (8/193)A phospholipase A(2) inhibitor has been purified p6om the serum of Notechis ater using DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. The inhibitor was found to be composed of two protein subunits (alpha and beta) that form the intact complex of approximately 110 kDa. The alpha-chain is a 30-kDa glycoprotein and the beta-chain a nonglycosylated, 25-kDa protein. N-terminal sequence analysis reveals a high level of homology to other snake phospholipase A(2) inhibitors. The inhibitor was shown to be extremely pH and temperature stable. The inhibitor was tested against a wide variety of phospholipase A(2) enzymes and inhibited the enzymatic activity of all phospholipase A(2) enzymes tested, binding with micromole to nanomole affinity. Furthermore, the inhibitor was compared with the Eli-Lilly compound LY311727 and found to have a higher affinity for human secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase A(2) than this chemical inhibitor. The role of the carbohydrate moiety was investigated and found not to affect the in vitro function of the inhibitor. (+info)
... (/ɪˈlæpɪdiː/, commonly known as elapids /ˈɛləpɪdz/; Ancient Greek: ἔλλοψ éllops "sea-fish") is a family of snakes ... The type genus for the Elapidae was originally Elaps, but the group was moved to another family. In contrast to what is typical ... In the meantime, Elaps was renamed Homoroselaps and moved back to the Elapidae. However, Nagy et al. (2005) regard it as a ... Venoms of species in the Elapidae are mainly neurotoxic for immobilizing prey and defense. The main group of toxins are PLA2 ...
List of reptile genera
"Elapidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 November 2006. "Homalopsisnae". Homalopsisnae.com. Archived ... dagger-tooth vine snake Genus Zamenis Family Cylindrophiidae Genus Cylindrophis Family Elapidae Genus Acanthophis Genus ...
The katuali or flat-tail sea snake (Laticauda schistorhyncha) is a species of venomous sea snake in the family Elapidae. The ... Elapidae; Laticauda)". Herpetological Monographs 31 (1): 1-17. v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
ISBN 978-9971-69-193-6. "Elapidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 7 August 2007. Elapidae Archived 2008-10 ... 2022). "Elapidae". The Reptile Database. Retrieved 2022-05-09. Minton, S. A. (1983). "Lethal toxicity of venoms of snakes from ... Like their relatives in the family Elapidae, the majority of the sea snakes are highly venomous, but rarely inject it when ... Some taxonomists responded by moving the sea snakes to the Elapidae. Most taxonomists now place the sea snakes in the elapid ...
Epidemiology of snakebites
There are two major families of venomous snakes, Elapidae and Viperidae. Three hundred twenty five species in 61 genera are ... "Elapidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 November 2006. "Viperidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information ... Although Africa is home to four venomous snake families-Atractaspididae, Colubridae, Elapidae, and Viperidae-approximately 60% ... Elapidae, Serpentes)" (PDF). Toxicon. 40 (11): 1581-92. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(02)00175-7. PMID 12419509. Retrieved 2009-07-03 ...
List of reptiles in Qatar
There are over 40 species in the family Order: Squamata Family: Elapidae Elapidae is a family of highly venomous snakes with ... ". "Elapidae species". "Walterinnesia morgani death". (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ...
Central Ranges taipan
2007). "A new species of taipan (Elapidae: Oxyuranus) from central Australia" (PDF). www.mapress.com/zootaxa. Retrieved 2008-06 ... "Oxyuranus temporalis - Central Ranges taipan". Elapidae - 2007 Publications. Wolfgang Wüster, School of Biological Sciences, ...
... s and cobras are in the same family: the Elapidae. Like cobras, a mamba may rear and form a hood as part of its threat ... Branch, W (January 1979). "The venomous snakes of Southern Africa Part 2. Elapidae and Hydrophidae". The Snake. 11 (2): 199-225 ... in the family Elapidae. Four extant species are recognised currently; three of those four species are essentially arboreal and ...
... is a genus of venomous snakes in the family Elapidae. It contains the group of elapid species commonly referred to ... "Reptiles / Squamata / Elapidae / Pseudechis ". Australian Reptile Online Database. Retrieved 16 May 2017. Pseudechis at the ... Elapidae: Serpentes)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 107: 48-55. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.005. PMID 27637992 ... Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus and Pseudechis)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 34 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... , also known commonly as Diana's coral snake, is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The species ... Pires MG, Feitosa DT, Prudente ALC, Silva NJ Jr (2013). "First record of Micrurus diana Roze, 1983 (Serpentes: Elapidae) for ... Harvey MB, Aparicio J, Gonzales L (2003). "Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia: Part 1. The coralsnakes (Elapidae: ... Micrurus frontalis diana, new subspecies). Roze JA (1994). "Notes on taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South ...
... is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The species is endemic to Australia. The specific name ... ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Cacophis krefftii, p. 146). "Species profile - Cacophis krefftii (Elapidae)". Department of ...
The snakes include the Elapidae; speckled brown snake (Pseudonaja guttata), Ingram's brown snake (Pseudonaja ingrami), and ...
For instance, many sources classify Boidae and Pythonidae as one family, while some keep the Elapidae and Hydrophiidae (sea ... ISBN 0-7136-6817-2. Elapidae at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 3 December 2008. Rivas JA (2000). The life history ...
King brown snake
The king brown snake (Pseudechis australis) is a species of highly venomous snake of the family Elapidae, native to northern, ... Smith, L.A. (1982). "Variation in Pseudechis australis (Serpentes:Elapidae) in Western Australia and description of a new ... Hoser, Raymond (2000). "A New Species of Snake (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Irian Jaya". Litteratura Serpentium. 20 (6): 178-186 ... Hoser, Raymond (1998). "A new snake from Queensland, Australia (Serpentes: Elapidae)". Monitor. 10 (1): 5-9, 31. ...
"Family Elapidae (cobras, coral snakes, and seasnakes etc.)". The Reptile Database. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. ... Hydrophis is a genus of sea snakes, venomous snakes in the subfamily Hydrophiinae of the family Elapidae. Species in the genus ...
Eastern dwarf mulga snake
Hoser R (1998). "A New Snake from Queensland, Australia (Serpentes: Elapidae)". Monitor 10 (1): 5-9, 31. (Pailsus, new genus; ... is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The species, which is native to Australia, was genetically confirmed as ... Elapidae: Serpentes)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 107: 48-55. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.005. Archived from ... Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, and Pseudechis)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34 (1): 1-14. v t e (Articles with ...
Rasmussen, Sara; Young, B.; Krimm, Heather (September 1995). "On the 'spitting' behaviour in cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae)". ... Elapidae)" (PDF). Herpetologica. 48 (4): 424-434. JSTOR 3892862. Greene, Harry W. (1997) Snakes: The Evolution of Mystery in ... Elapidae, Snakes of Africa, Snakes of Asia). ...
Storr, G. M. (1984). "Revision of Denisonia suta (Serpentes: Elapidae) and the description of a new species closely related to ... Paroplocephalus is a genus of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The genus is monotypic, containing only the species ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00626.x. Storr, G. M. (1980). "A new Brachyaspis (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Western Australia". ... Storr, G. M. (1982). "The genus Notechis (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Western Australia". Records of the Western Australian Museum ...
Suta is a genus of venomous snakes in the family Elapidae. The genus is endemic to mainland Australia. Suta dwyeri (Worrell, ... "Common Names of Australian Reptiles - Elapidae - venomous snakes". Australianherpetology.com. 1 August 2002. Retrieved 2016-01- ...
Naja is a genus in the family Elapidae. Linnaeus first described Naja nivea in 1758. He originally assigned the binomial name ... ISBN 1-86872-932-X. Phelps, T. "Observations of the Cape cobra, Naja nivea (Serpentes: Elapidae) in the De Hoop Nature Reserve ... ISBN 0-7137-2394-7. Photo from Simplon (Namibia) see German Page Simplon (Namibia) Phelps, T. "Elapidae (Naja nivea) Scavenging ... Elapidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2236: 26-36. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2236.1.2. Retrieved 2 March 2014. Marais, Johan (2004). A Complete ...
Kimberley death adder
The Kimberley death adder (Acanthophis cryptamydros) is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae native to ... Storr, G. M. (1981). "The genus Acanthophis (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Western Australia". Records of the Western Australian ... Elapidae), with notes on the Desert Death Adder, A. pyrrhus Boulenger, and identification of a possible hybrid zone". Records ... Elapidae) from north-western Australia". Zootaxa. 4007 (3): 301-26 . doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4007.3.1. PMID 26623813. Ellis, ...
H. semperi is classified with the rest of the "true" sea snakes in the subfamily Hydrophiinae of the family Elapidae. Like all ... EMBL Reptile Database: Subfamily Hydrophiinae (Sea Snakes). Family Elapidae (cobras, coral snakes, and seasnakes etc.). ...
Sexual selection in scaled reptiles
Wallach, V. (1985). "A cladistic analysis of the terrestrial Australian elapidae". In Grigg, Gordon Clifford; Shine, Richard; ...
Spectacled hooded snake
512-513, Figure 6). Storr GM (1988). "A new Rhinoplocephalus (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Western Australia". Rec. Western ... is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The species is native to central-southern Australia. There are three ... Elapidae) in Western Australia". Records of the Western Australian Museum 8 (4): 501-515. (Denisonia spectabilis nullarbor, new ...
List of dangerous snakes
But unlike some other members of the family Elapidae (the species of the genus Bungarus, genus Oxyuranus, genus Pseudohaje, and ... Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species collected, one-third were dangerous, and the proportions of Viperidae, Elapidae and ... Rasmussen, Sara; Young, B.; Krimm, Heather (1995). "On the 'spitting' behaviour in cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae)". Journal of ... Elapidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2236 (1): 26-36. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2236.1.2. S2CID 14702999. Warrell, DA; Theakston RD; Griffiths ...
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti
Elapidae, Hydrophiidae, Viperidae und Crotalidae ". In: Elwert (1963). Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Wirkung und Antigenitat der ...
Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen: Elapidae, Hydropheidae, Viperidae und Crotalidae. Marburg: N.G. Elwert. 210 pp. Saint-Girons ...
... is a genus of venomous coral snake in the family Elapidae. The genus is monotypic, containing only the species ... ISBN 0-307-13666-3 (paperback). ("Elapids - family Elapidae" and "Micruroides euryxanthus", pp. 196-197). Schmidt KP, Davis DD ... in 2 volumes) (Family Elapidae, p. 885; Genus Micruroides, pp. 885-886; Micruroides euryxanthus, pp. 886-890, Figures 253-255 ... Elapidae, Monotypic snake genera, Taxa named by Karl Patterson Schmidt, Reptiles described in 1860). ...
... , commonly known as the yellow sea snake, is a species of venomous sea snake in the family Elapidae. This is ... Buzas, Balazs; Farkas, Balázs; Gulyas, Eszter; Geczy, Csaba (2019-02-21). "The sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) of Fujairah ...
Indochinese spitting cobra
Naja siamensis is classified under the genus Naja of the family Elapidae. It was first described by Austrian-born Italian ... Wüster, W; Slowinski, J (2000). "A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma)" (PDF). Herpetologica. 56 (2): 257-270. ... Russell, FE; Saunders, PR (1967). Animal Toxins (Low molecular weight toxins isolated from Elapidae ed.). Oxford: Pergamon ... Elapidae), a widely overlooked spitting cobra from Southeast Asia: geographic variation, medical importance and designation of ...
Two cases of epibiosis in the Pelagic Seasnake, Hydrophis platurus (Serpentes: Elapidae), on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica ...
Bungarus - Wikispecies
Familia: Elapidae. Genus: Bungarus. Species (17): B. andamanensis - B. bungaroides - B. caeruleus - B. candidus - B. ceylonicus ... A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus (Elapidae) based on morphological characters. Journal of Herpetology 28(4): 440-446. DOI: ... A new species of krait, Bungarus (Reptilia, Elapidae, Bungarinae) and the first record of that genus in Iran. Russian Journal ... Multiple lines of evidence reveal a new species of Krait (Squamata, Elapidae, Bungarus) from Southwestern China and Northern ...
Kače - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Podobno kot drugi luskarji so kače ektotermni amnioti, katerih telo preraščajo rožene luske. Njihova posebnost je oblika telesa, ki je prilagojeno plazenju skozi luknje. Je podolgovato in vitko (»kačasto«) ter brez okončin. Od podobnih breznogih kuščarjev (npr. slepca) jih ločimo po tem, da nimajo vek in zunanjega ušesa. Po navadi imajo 200 do 400 ali celo več vretenc in samo eno delujoče pljučno krilo. V čeljusti imajo mnoge kače mnogo več sklepov kot drugi plazilci, kar jim omogoča da zelo široko razprejo usta ko požirajo plen. Z razcepljenim jezikom mahajo gor in dol, nato pa konici potisnejo v parni odprtini Jacobsonovega (oz. vomeronazalnega) organa v ustih, ki zaznava kemične delce v zraku (vonj). Ker je odprtina parna, lahko s tem do neke mere določijo tudi smer dražljaja. Nekatere kače imajo tudi čutila, občutljiva na infrardeče valovanje, ki se nahajajo med nosnicami in očmi. Omogočajo jim, da »vidijo« toploto, ki jo oddaja njihov plen. Telo kač je ...
Western Australian Organism List | Agriculture and Food
Laticauda frontalis | The Reptile Database
from Vanuatu and New Caledonia (Serpentes: Elapidae: Laticaudinae) - a new lineage of sea kraits? Rec. Austral. Mus. 58 (2): ... Phylogenetic relationships within laticaudine sea snakes (Elapidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59 (3): 567-577 - ... Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, and the Evolution and Distribution of Sea Kraits (Serpentes; Elapidae; Laticauda). ...
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WHO EMRO | Systematic review and meta-analysis of global prevalence of neurotoxic and hemotoxic snakebite envenomation | Volume...
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Cobra Dies After Receiving Child Bite In India | IFLScience
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Kaarangay:Squamata - Wikipedia
Terrestrial venomous snakes and snakebites in the Arab countries of the Middle East. - Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global...
The 12 Arab countries of the Middle East are inhabited by 21 species of terrestrial venomous snakes of varying medical importance. This review considers these species, consisting of 16 viperids, 3 elapids and 2 atractaspidines. Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen report the largest numbers of snakebites and envenomings. Accessible literature in English and Arabic on venomous snakes and snakebites and available antivenoms is reviewed. Clinical effects include potentially misleading symptoms attributable to anxiety and traditional pre-hospital treatments.
Template:Slowinski, Boundy & Lawson, 2001 - Wikispecies
- A new Rhinoplocephalus (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Western Australia. (iinet.net.au)
- from Vanuatu and New Caledonia (Serpentes: Elapidae: Laticaudinae) - a new lineage of sea kraits? (reptarium.cz)
- 2020. On the systematic status of Calliophis macclellandi nigriventer Wall, 1908 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae) . (ncbs.res.in)
- A new species of krait, Bungarus (Reptilia, Elapidae, Bungarinae) and the first record of that genus in Iran. (wikimedia.org)
- Multiple lines of evidence reveal a new species of Krait (Squamata, Elapidae, Bungarus ) from Southwestern China and Northern Myanmar. (wikimedia.org)
- Among the 2000 species of snakes globally, 400 are venomous and belong to 4 families: Viperidae (vipers), Elapidae (cobra, krait and coral snake), Hydrophidae (sea snake) and Colubridae (6). (who.int)
- However, some varieties (e.g., can be a genus of venomous elapidae, known as cobras also. (icem2012.org)
- Phylogenetic relationships within laticaudine sea snakes (Elapidae). (reptarium.cz)
- Coral snakes are in the family Elapidae , which is the same family as cobras, mambas and kraits,' says Coleman M. Sheehy III, Ph.D. , who works in the division of herpetology at the Florida Museum of Natural History , in an email interview. (howstuffworks.com)
- And they all, but one, belong to a group called pit vipers (The other group is called short fanged snakes, or Elapidae, and they are coral snakes). (simplesurvival.net)
- While playing outside his home in India, a young boy recently found himself in such a conflict with a cobra , one of the elapidae snakes characterized by a hood, fixed fangs, and venom. (iflscience.com)
- Despite the high frequency of Elapidae (cobra, krait and coral snake), Hydrophidae (sea envenomation, physicians do not see snakebite patients snake) and Colubridae ( 6 ). (who.int)
- 7. Comparative study of anticoagulant and procoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms from families Elapidae, Viperidae, and purified Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X). (nih.gov)
- A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus (Elapidae) based on morphological characters. (wikimedia.org)
- 2. Integrative characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus dumerilii (Elapidae) from Colombia: Proteome, toxicity, and cross-neutralization by antivenom. (nih.gov)
- 5. Proteomic and biological characterization of the venom of the redtail coral snake, Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae), from Colombia and Costa Rica. (nih.gov)
- 7. Venomic and antivenomic analyses of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus (Elapidae). (nih.gov)
- Despite the high frequency of Elapidae (cobra, krait and coral snake), Hydrophidae (sea envenomation, physicians do not see snakebite patients snake) and Colubridae ( 6 ). (who.int)