Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Manuscripts, MedicalMandrillus: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, comprising two species: the drill (M. leucophaeus) and the mandrill (M. sphinx). They are usually found in thick rainforest and have a gentle disposition despite their ferocious reputation. Some authors consider Mandrillus a subgenus of PAPIO.Arab World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.TurkeyLaw Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Religion and ScienceEthiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.WashingtonGovernment Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Myositis, Inclusion Body: Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Punched-Card SystemsComputersMyocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Airports: Terminal facilities used for aircraft takeoff and landing and including facilities for handling passengers. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.

Cluster survey evaluation of coverage and risk factors for failure to be immunized during the 1995 National Immunization Days in Egypt. (1/1008)

BACKGROUND: In 1995, Egypt continued to experience endemic wild poliovirus transmission despite achieving high routine immunization coverage with at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) and implementing National Immunization Days (NIDs) annually for several years. METHODS: Parents of 4188 children in 3216 households throughout Egypt were surveyed after the second round of the 1995 NIDs. RESULTS: Nationwide, 74% of children are estimated to have received both NID doses, 17% one NID dose, and 9% neither NID dose. Previously unimmunized (47%) or partially immunized (64%) children were less likely to receive two NID doses of OPV than were fully immunized children (76%) (P < 0.001). Other risk factors nationwide for failure to receive NID OPV included distance from residence to nearest NID site >10 minute walk (P < 0.001), not being informed about the NID at least one day in advance (P < 0.001), and residing in a household which does not watch television (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, subsequent NIDs in Egypt were modified to improve coverage, which has resulted in a marked decrease in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: In selected situations, surveys can provide important information that is useful for planning future NIDs.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis gene reveals a high frequency of the intron 8 splice variant 5T in Egyptian males with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. (2/1008)

It has previously been shown that defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are largely responsible for the condition of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), without associated renal abnormalities, in Caucasian populations. To assess the involvement of the CFTR in CBAVD in a population with presumed low cystic fibrosis (CF) frequency, we have analysed 20 CBAVD males from Egypt for the presence of 12 common Caucasian CFTR mutations and the intron 8 5T splice variant, IVS-5T, known to be a major cause of CBAVD in Caucasian patients. In 16 of the males without associated renal abnormalities only one deltaF508 carrier was identified, but an exceptionally high frequency of the IVS-5T variant was found (14 of 32 alleles or 43.7%), confirming that this variant is involved in many cases of CBAVD, even in populations where CF is rare. CFTR mutations or the IVS-5T variant were found neither in the remaining four patients with associated renal abnormalities nor in the spouses of the 20 CBAVD patients. However, one patient was homozygous for a leucine to proline substitution at amino acid position 541 (L541P) of the CFTR. It is as yet not clear whether this change is involved in CBAVD in this male.  (+info)

Canine sexual dimorphism in Egyptian Eocene anthropoid primates: Catopithecus and Proteopithecus. (3/1008)

Two very small late Eocene anthropoid primates, Catopithecus browni and Proteopithecus sylviae, from Fayum, Egypt show evidence of substantial sexual dimorphism in canine teeth. The degree of dimorphism suggests that these early anthropoids lived in social groups with a polygynous mating system and intense male-male competition. Catopithecus and Proteopithecus are smaller in estimated body size than any living primates showing canine dimorphism. The origin of canine dimorphism and polygyny in anthropoids was not associated with the evolution of large body size.  (+info)

High seroprevalence of antibodies to human herpesvirus-8 in Egyptian children: evidence of nonsexual transmission. (4/1008)

BACKGROUND: In western countries, human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) appears to be transmitted mainly by sexual contact. To evaluate the role of other transmission routes, especially in developing countries, we estimated the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in Egyptian children, who, if seropositive, would have acquired the virus through a nonsexual route. METHODS: Sera from 196 children (<1-12 years of age), 20 adolescents (13-20 years of age), and 30 young adults (21-25 years of age) attending a vaccination program in Alexandria, Egypt, were studied. Immunofluorescence assays were used to detect antibodies against HHV-8 lytic-phase antigens (anti-lytic) and latent-phase antigens (anti-latent). Antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus viral cap antigen, cytomegalovirus, and HHV-6 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Seroprevalence of these herpesviruses was calculated after stratifying the subjects by age. RESULTS: Anti-lytic and anti-latent HHV-8 antibodies were detected in 44.7% and 8.5% of the study participants, respectively. The prevalence of anti-lytic antibodies tended to increase with age, exceeding 50% in children older than 6 years; once children reached the age of 10 years, the prevalence tended to stabilize. The seroprevalence of other herpesviruses tended to be higher than that of HHV-8, ranging from approximately 83% to more than 97% in the 9- to 12-year age group. One- to 3-year-old children had higher titers of antilytic HHV-8 antibodies than children in the other age groups. Anti-latent antibodies were more frequently detected in individuals with high anti-lytic antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: HHV-8 antibodies are highly prevalent in Egyptian children, suggesting that, in developing countries, HHV-8 infection may be acquired early in life through routes other than sexual transmission. The lower seroprevalence of HHV-8 relative to that of the other herpesviruses suggests that HHV-8 is less transmissible than other common herpesviruses.  (+info)

mtDNA analysis of Nile River Valley populations: A genetic corridor or a barrier to migration? (5/1008)

To assess the extent to which the Nile River Valley has been a corridor for human migrations between Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa, we analyzed mtDNA variation in 224 individuals from various locations along the river. Sequences of the first hypervariable segment (HV1) of the mtDNA control region and a polymorphic HpaI site at position 3592 allowed us to designate each mtDNA as being of "northern" or "southern" affiliation. Proportions of northern and southern mtDNA differed significantly between Egypt, Nubia, and the southern Sudan. At slowly evolving sites within HV1, northern-mtDNA diversity was highest in Egypt and lowest in the southern Sudan, and southern-mtDNA diversity was highest in the southern Sudan and lowest in Egypt, indicating that migrations had occurred bidirectionally along the Nile River Valley. Egypt and Nubia have low and similar amounts of divergence for both mtDNA types, which is consistent with historical evidence for long-term interactions between Egypt and Nubia. Spatial autocorrelation analysis demonstrates a smooth gradient of decreasing genetic similarity of mtDNA types as geographic distance between sampling localities increases, strongly suggesting gene flow along the Nile, with no evident barriers. We conclude that these migrations probably occurred within the past few hundred to few thousand years and that the migration from north to south was either earlier or lesser in the extent of gene flow than the migration from south to north.  (+info)

Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair. (6/1008)

Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artefacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information, for example, concerning incidence of disease, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopic compositions, especially those made on isolates of collagen from bones, have been used to help suggest principal dietary components. A significant problem in the use of collagen is its long-term stability, and the possibility of isotopic alteration during early diagenesis, or through contaminating condensation reactions. In this study, we suggest that a commonly overlooked material, human hair, may represent an ideal material to be used in addressing human diets of ancient civilizations. Through the analysis of the amino-acid composition of modern hair, as well as samples that were subjected to radiation (thus simulating ageing of the hair) and hair from humans that is up to 5200 years old, we have observed little in the way of chemical change. The principal amino acids observed in all of these samples are essentially identical in relative abundances and content. Dominating the compositions are serine, glutamic acid, threonine, glycine and leucine, respectively accounting for approximately 15%, 17%, 10%, 8% and 8% of the total hydrolysable amino acids. Even minor components (for example, alanine, valine, isoleucine) show similar constancy between the samples of different ages. This constancy clearly indicates minimal alteration of the amino-acid composition of the hair. Further, it would indicate that hair is well preserved and is amenable to isotopic analysis as a tool for distinguishing sources of nutrition. Based on this observation, we have isotopically characterized modern individuals for whom the diet has been documented. Both stable nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions were assessed, and together provide an indication of trophic status, and principal type (C3 or C4) of vegetation consumed. True vegans have nitrogen isotope compositions of about 7/1000 whereas humans consuming larger amounts of meat, eggs, or milk are more enriched in the heavy nitrogen isotope. We have also analysed large cross-sections of modern humans from North America and Europe to provide an indication of the variability seen in a population (the supermarket diet). There is a wide diversity in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values based at least partially on the levels of seafood, corn-fed beef and grains in the diets. Following analysis of the ancient hair, we have observed similar trends in certain ancient populations. For example, the Coptics of Egypt (1000 BP) and Chinchorro of Chile (5000-800 BP) have diets of similar diversity to those observed in the modern group but were isotopically influenced by local nutritional sources. In other ancient hair (Egyptian Late Middle Kingdom mummies, ca. 4000 BP), we have observed a much more uniform isotopic signature, indicating a more constant diet. We have also recognized a primary vegetarian component in the diet of the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP). In certain cases, it appears that sulphur isotopes may help to further constrain dietary interpretations, owing to the good preservation and sulphur content of hair. It appears that analysis of the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites may represent a significant new approach for understanding ancient human communities.  (+info)

Haplotypes and mutations of the PAH locus in Egyptian families with PKU. (7/1008)

A high degree of molecular heterogeneneity at the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus was established by examining RFLP haplotypes and PAH mutations in the families of 13 Egyptians with phenylketenouria (PKU). Thirteen different haplotypes were unequivocally determined in these kindreds. Haplotypes 1.8, 3.9, 4.3, 7.8, 22.11, 27.6, and 52.8 were found segregating with normal chromosomes, whilst haplotypes 1.8, 5.9, 23.8, 32.8, the newly assigned 73.9, and two as yet incomplete but novel haplotypes were found segregating with the mutant chromosomes. There was no particular preference for a single haplotype among normal or mutant chromosomes. Nine different mutations were also identified among the 26 alleles. IVS 10nt11g (8/26), IVS 2nt5g-c (4/26), R261Q (3/26), R176X (2/26), Y206D (2/26), S231P (2/26), Y198fs [593-614del22bp]; (2/26), G46fs [136/137delG]; (1/26), and E178G (1/26). Six of these mutations (IVS 2nt5g-c, R176X, Y198fs, R261Q, S231P, and IVS 10nt11g) are common to other Mediterranean populations. Two mutations not previously reported in the Mediterranean basin were also observed (Y206D and G46fs). These intriguing preliminary findings confirm IVS 10nt11g as a major mutation among Mediterranean mutations and demonstrate the need for a more comprehensive study of Arab populations to confirm the uniqueness of the two novel mutations to the Egyptian population.  (+info)

Emergence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in upper Egypt: the Giza governorate. (8/1008)

We found an unexpectedly high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in a village in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Giza. Historically, S. mansoni is endemic in the northern Egyptian Nile Delta rather than in the southern Upper Egypt. This observation was made during an evaluation of a rural health care schistosomiasis surveillance program using a cross sectional survey for S. haematobium and S. mansoni in the village of El-Gezira El-Shakra El-Saf district in the Upper Egypt Giza Governorate. A 10% systematic random sample of households of the village was chosen. All persons in the selected houses were invited to submit urine and stool samples. All students from a primary school were also included in the study. Urine was screened by a polycarbonate filtration method and stool was examined using modified Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence of S. mansoni in the population sample and in the school children was 33.7% and 57.7%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the population sample and the school children was 7.4% and 10.6%, respectively. The prevalence of infection was highest in the younger age groups, and males were infected more than females. Review of Ministry of Health records showed that both species of vector snails, Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were present from 1991 to 1995, and that B. alexandrina was more abundant than B. truncatus in the canals surrounding this village. The unexpected high prevalence of S. mansoni in this village indicates an urgent need to include training programs for S. mansoni surveillance in the primary health care facilities of Giza and to educate villagers to request examinations for S. mansoni as well as for S. haematobium infection.  (+info)

  • For most of pharaonic Egypt's history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. (
  • Turkey and Egypt recalled their ambassadors in August following Turkey's sharp criticism of Egypt's leaders and Morsi's ouster. (
  • But Egypt does not want to burn its bridges with Sudan, which sits astride the upper reaches of Egypt's life-line, the Nile. (
  • It also highlights Egypt's key reform priorities and describes the challenges and opportunities in improving Egypt's business climate to help Egypt realise its full potential as a high-growth economy. (
  • NEW YORK CITY -- As the people of my homeland, Egypt, stage a popular uprising against the 30-year dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak, the White Stripes keep singing in my head: "I'm gonna fight 'em off /A seven-nation army couldn't hold me back! (
  • In the 17 months since Egypt 's longstanding dictator Hosni Mubarak was toppled by a popular uprising, the Brothers had marched from one electoral victory to the next. (
  • CAIRO - Austrian President Kurt Waldheim has accepted an invitation from President Hosni Mubarak to make an official visit to Egypt, Austrian Foreign Affairs Minister Alois Mock said Saturday in Cairo. (
  • Now that Hosni Mubarak is officially out of office, how will the people of Egypt achieve the democracy they have been demanding? (
  • Egypt accuses Sudan of supporting its Islamist insurgency and, in particular, assisting an assassination attempt on President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia in 1995. (
  • Aswān , also spelled Assuan or Assouan, Greek Syene , city, capital of Aswān muḥāfaẓah (governorate), Egypt , on the east bank of the Nile River just below the First Cataract. (
  • Alexandria , Arabic Al-Iskandariyyah , major city and urban muḥāfaẓah (governorate) in Egypt . (
  • In Upper Egypt - a swath of arid land from south of Cairo to Sudan that is home to many hard-line Islamist Egyptians - four Christians were killed when a mob of several hundred people in the Luxor governorate attacked with knives, tree limbs and hammers two days days after the overthrow of Morsi, Amnesty International said. (
  • And the occasion he laid hold of was this: - The Ethiopians, who are next neighbors to the Egypt ians, made an inroad into their country, which they seized upon, and carried off the effects of the Egyptians, who, in their rage, fought against them, and revenged the affronts they had received from. (
  • The Muslim Brotherhood certainly has some support in Egypt - estimates put it at 20 to 35 per cent - and as Egyptians who have been systematically targeted by the regime, jailed and tortured, of course its members would protest. (
  • Israel says it has reached a deal with Egypt to swap 25 Egyptians in Israeli custody for a U.S.-Israeli dual national accused by Cairo of espionage. (
  • The ancient Egyptians did not call their home "Egypt" (that name is based on the Greek pronunciation of the name of Ptah's temple in Memphis - "Hwt-ka-Ptah"), instead, they referred to it as Kemet (or Kem - the black land) or Ta Mery (the beautiful land). (
  • In the 11th century, large numbers of pastoralists, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya and as far as Tunis. (
  • The CWC will not be global because Iraq, Libya, Syria, North Korea and Egypt have not signed the treaty, while others who have a confirmed or suspected chemical weapons program have signed but may not ratify it. (
  • These groups threaten not only Israel and the West, but also the recently-established Muslim regimes in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Yemen and other countries. (
  • An outgrowth of the popular San Francisco improvisational jazz quartet Tabula Rasa, Neon Egypt is widely considered to have pioneered a new jazz-based hybrid of Karlheinz Stockhausens Intuitive Music. (
  • This just in: Reports from bloggers and Egyptian twitterati have confirmed that the Internet has been restored in Egypt by the country's major Internet Service Providers ISPs. (
  • Tensions are high in Egypt amid reports that soldiers have surrounded protesters and embattled president Mohammed Morsi has proposed a consensus government as a way out of the country's crisis. (
  • Pope Shenouda III, the head of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria in Egypt, died Saturday at the age of 88, according to the country's official Middle East News Agency. (
  • However, the report notes that to attract further private investment, Egypt needs to improve the country's anti-corruption measures, skills development, infrastructure and access to finance, especially for the country's small-and-medium sized enterprises. (
  • ANKARA, Turkey (AP) - Turkey's leaders kept up their criticism of Egypt on Friday, calling the violence there a "shame for Islam and the Arab world," a day after the two countries recalled their ambassadors following the crackdown on supporters of Mohammed Morsi, the ousted Egyptian president. (
  • Ties between the two countries have been strained since Egypt ousted its Islamist president, Mohamed Morsi, from office several months ago. (
  • President Mohamed Morsi and his advisors cannot have expected that his November 22 constitutional declaration would throw Egypt into a renewed state of turmoil. (
  • مصر الوسطى ‎ Misr al-Wista ) is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta ) and Upper Egypt , stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north. (
  • Middle Egypt today can be identified as the part of the Nile Valley that, while geographically part of Upper Egypt, is culturally closer to Lower Egypt. (
  • pronounced [esˤːe.ˈʕiːd], Coptic: ⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt. (
  • At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process. (
  • Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often. (
  • During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt under his single rule. (
  • The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence): Sa'idi people Upper and Lower Egypt Geography of Egypt Edel, Elmar (1961) Zu den Inschriften auf den Jahreszeitenreliefs der "Weltkammer" aus dem Sonnenheiligtum des Niuserre Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, OCLC 309958651, in German. (
  • The city lies on the Mediterranean Sea at the western edge of the Nile River delta, about 114 miles (183 km) northwest of Cairo in Lower Egypt . (
  • Found in limestone deposits created on the floor of a 45-million-year-old sea where Cairo, Egypt, now sits, the archaic cetacean was represented by a nearly complete skull and a series of vertebrae from the neck down to the hip. (
  • Egyptian Christians chant anti-Muslim Brotherhood slogans during a funeral service, at the Saint Mark Coptic cathedral in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, April 7, 2013. (
  • A tear gas canister is fired by Egyptian riot police into the compound of the Coptic Orthodox Cathedral after the funeral of four Christians killed in sectarian clashes near Cairo over the weekend in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, April 7, 2013. (
  • Egyptian riot police watch over the Coptic cathedral in the early hours of Monday, April 8, 2013, in Cairo, Egypt. (
  • UNICEF Egypt supports Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) to strengthen the capability of its primary health premises to be able to cope with the increased number of population seeking for primary health care services, particularly maternal and child health. (
  • 19 January 2012 - The Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt has notified WHO of two cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. (
  • Time-lapse video of Alexandria, Egypt. (
  • The mosque of Abū al-ʿAbbās al-Mursī, Alexandria, Egypt. (
  • Alexandria, Egypt. (
  • By the time French troops invaded Egypt in 1798, Alexandria had been reduced to a town of some 10,000 inhabitants, significant mainly for its role in Ottoman maritime networks. (
  • Alexandria has generally been characterized by a cultural ambivalence inherent in the city's location-extending along a spit of land with its back to Egypt and its face to the Mediterranean. (
  • He repeats various items from pagan reporters concerning the Jewish revolt in Egypt under Trajan (EH 4.2), quotes excerpts from Philo and in his desperation even allows Philo's Therapeutae ( below, n.14 ) to appear as the oldest Christians of Egypt and to be converted by Mark, the first bishop of Alexandria, after Philo previously had been in touch with Peter in Rome (EH 2.16-17). (
  • It is precisely because of the strength of the Jewish community in Alexandria [[* that Christianity cannot long have been absent from Egypt. (
  • But this is nothing new in Egypt and particularly Alexandria, which has a notorious record. (
  • CARE's work in Egypt began in 1954 with the introduction of a nationwide school meals program. (
  • Starting with the description of Pakicetus in 1981, paleontologists began reporting on a wealth of early whales found in a geological swath from Egypt to India in strata spanning approximately 55 to 35 million years ago. (
  • And despite having this sturdy biblical tale to work with, despite being faithful enough to the spirit of the story to please a wide swath of scholars and theologians, the creators of "Prince of Egypt" have been unable to relate it in a completely compelling way. (
  • It is also reported that on the eve of the 1973 Yom Kippur war Egypt supplied Syria with chemical weapons. (
  • ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia (AP) - Ethiopia's prime minister on Wednesday hailed the first filling of a massive dam that has led to tensions with Egypt, saying two turbines will begin generating power next year. (
  • On May 10, 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published a Federal Register Notice titled, " Notice of Temporary Suspension of Dogs Entering the United States from Egypt . (
  • Sisi was the youngest member of this council, and reportedly he assumed a leading role in secret talks with the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization that had been banned in Egypt until the revolution. (
  • Morsi's support for President Barack Obama's truce initiative during the fighting in Gaza clearly reassured the U.S. president that under a Muslim Brotherhood (MB) president Egypt would keep the peace with Israel. (
  • The third "victim" was supposed to be the Muslim Brotherhood movement in Egypt, which global jihad deems too moderate. (
  • The past few decades saw a majority of Muslim women in Egypt adopt the attire. (
  • Illustrates EGYPT-ASSESS (category i) by Mariam Fam and Caroline Alexander (c) 2014, Bloomberg News. (
  • News on Egypt continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. (
  • Barely a week goes by in Egypt without news of a collapsed building. (
  • In September 1993 the London Times reported that Egypt had purchased "large quantities" of chemical weapons precursors from India, including about 90 tons of trimethyl phosphate, which is used in the production of mustard gas. (
  • As part of the campaign against the Israeli nuclear weapons program, in 1993 Egypt instituted a policy against signing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which bans the acquisition, development, stockpiling, transfer, retention and use of chemical weapons. (
  • JOHANNESBURG (AP) - Ethiopia's prime minister said Tuesday his country, Egypt and Sudan have reached a "major common understanding which paves the way for a breakthrough agreement" on a massive dam project that has led to sharp regional tensions and led some to fear military conflict. (
  • About 4 million Egyptian Copts are believed to live outside of Egypt, including communities in Sudan, United States, Canada, and Australia. (
  • The move was triggered by Ethiopia's move to start filling the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam before reaching agreement with Egypt and Sudan. (
  • Neon Egypt is a collaboration of just two members of Legend, with occasional guest performances by other artists including musicians, dancers, and visual artists. (
  • The blessing of gas brings regional cooperation with Arab and European countries, the first of its kind in history, including contracts to export $30 billion of blue-and-white gas to Jordan and Egypt, and that s only the beginning, Steinitz said. (
  • Due to political unrest and insecurity, socioeconomic conditions in Egypt continue to deteriorate: the unemployment rate among youth has reached 39% and rural-urban income disparities are widening. (
  • The role of technology in geopolitical diplomacy and global media coverage and the ongoing unrest in Egypt will be the topic of our inaugural AMP Summit Series discussion on February 22 at 2 p.m. (
  • Women mourn for their relative, Ahmed Abdul Khalim, 24, who was killed with a bullet to his head during recent clashes with Egyptian security forces in Port Said, Egypt, Friday, March 8, 2013. (
  • The main city of prehistoric Upper Egypt was Nekhen, whose patron deity was the vulture goddess Nekhbet. (
  • CAIRO (Reuters) - Thousands of mourners packed Cairo's main cathedral on Tuesday for the funeral of Pope Shenouda, who spent his final years trying to comfort a Coptic Orthodox community worried about the rise of political Islam in Egypt. (
  • Syrian Refugees in Egypt: "See the Sun Rising? (
  • U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice met with Syrian officials in Egypt Thursday to talk about Syria's role in determining Iraq's future. (
  • Christians shouldn't be moved by this, shouldn't be dragged to fulfill the target that lies behind this, which is segregating the national solidarity between Christians and Muslims in the very difficult time Egypt is passing through," Sidhom said. (
  • As of 1990 the Defense Intelligence Agency study "Offensive Chemical Warfare Programs in the Middle East" concluded that Egypt was continuing to conduct research related to chemical agents. (
  • Turkey's ambassador returned to Egypt a few weeks later, but Egypt has declined to return its ambassador to Turkey. (
  • Dogs from Egypt may be imported only with CDC's advance written approval , including dogs imported from a third-party country if they lived in the other country for less than 6 months. (
  • Egypt was the first country in the Middle East to obtain chemical weapons training, indoctrination, and mat riel. (
  • But after the 24-year-old Lebanese tourist posted a video in which she complained of sexual harassment-calling Egypt a lowly, dirty country and its citizens "pimps and prostitutes"-el-Mazbouh was arrested at Cairo's airport and. (
  • With 87 million people, Egypt is by far the most populous country in the Arab world. (
  • In Egypt, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), which has run the country since Feb. 11, appears to be carving out a lasting role in power. (
  • Suggesting that the judiciary will intervene in the political realm to rescue Egypt from its current state of 'free-fall ,' al-Zend warned parliament, 'From this day forward, judges will have a say in determining the future of this country and its fate. (
  • Tour Egypt aims to offer the ultimate Egyptian adventure and intimate knowledge about the country. (
  • While this book suffers greatly from hastiness of construction, a fault the writer acknowledges frankly enough, it does possess the value he claims for it, namely, that it presents, however chaotically, truthful impressions of what must be the hardships of European and American officers who serve in the army of a semi-barbarous country like Egypt. (
  • Egypt is the top country of visitors to the site, followed by the US. (
  • SOT Zahi Hawass, Minister of Antiquities: "Museums all over Egypt are safe, Sakkara, the Valley of the Kings, all the synagogues, all the Coptic monasteries. (
  • - Magnificent Egypt is presented in a newly updated edition that guides visitors from Cairo and Luxor to the Valley of the Kings and Aswan Dam, and on to the Red Sea. (
  • While protests in both Tunisia and Egypt have focused on the corruption of their respective dictators and the ensuing unemployment and poverty, there are two demands that fuel the mass protests: freedom and dignity. (
  • If you're entering Egypt overland from Israel and the Palestinian Territories, the scruffy border town of Taba, loomed over by the monolithic Taba Hotel and backed by barren hills, will be your first taste of Sinai. (
  • Egypt stopped supplying Israel with gas in 2012 after the supply pipeline was repeatedly attacked by militants. (
  • Egypt froze gas export deal talks after it was ordered to pay Israel $1.8 b after past deal collapsed because of pipeline attack. (
  • Egypt sold natural gas to Israel under a 20-year agreement until it collapsed in 2012 after months of attacks on the pipeline. (
  • The site is the earliest farm settlement yet found in Egypt, providing a major breakthrough in understanding the enigmatic people of the late Stone Age who lived long before the appearance of the Egyptian pharaohs, experts say. (
  • Tanis (Djâni en copte) est un important site archéologique au nord-est de l'Égypte sur une branche du Nil. (
  • Launch event - The Business Climate Development Strategy for Egypt was presented in Cairo on 7 November 2010 in the presence of Egyptian Minister for Trade and Industry Mr. Rachid Mahmoud Rachid and World Bank Managing Director Mr. Mahmoud Mohieldin, who launched the BCDS project while serving as Egyptian Minister of Investment. (
  • The OECD assessment is the first phase of a Business Climate Development Strategy (BCDS) which identifies policy priorities and proposes specific reforms and actions to enable Egypt to achieve measurable improvements in its business climate. (
  • The publication outlines only the key findings to emerge from Phase 1 of the business climate assessment of Egypt. (
  • WorldRemit , the global money transfer app, today launches remittances to Egypt. (
  • It was not until the 19th century that archaeologists felt the need to divide Upper Egypt in two. (
  • This loan is administered by Together Association for Development and Environment, a nonprofit organization working for sustainable community development in Upper Egypt. (
  • Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile above modern-day Aswan, downriver (northwards) to the area between Dahshur and El-Ayait,[citation needed] which is south of modern-day Cairo. (
  • The northern (downriver) part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag and El-Ayait, is also known as Middle Egypt. (
  • Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet, and its symbols were the flowering lotus and the sedge. (
  • It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, were the root cause of the migration. (
  • In the 20th-century Egypt, the title Prince of the Sa'id (meaning Prince of Upper Egypt) was used by the heir apparent to the Egyptian throne. (
  • Since then, CARE has become actively involved in development programming particularly in Upper Egypt, where more than 50 percent of the nation's poor live. (
  • Erdogan also accused the West of ignoring bloodshed in Egypt and called for an urgent United Nations Security Council meeting. (
  • Egypt says it has ordered the Turkish ambassador to be expelled, following comments by Turkey's prime minister. (
  • Egypt seized a tanker loaded with Iranian crude oil in the latest incident to rattle the tense Mideast trade lane. (
DataOps - Egypt | IBM
DataOps - Egypt | IBM (
IBM Graph - Overview - Egypt
IBM Graph - Overview - Egypt (
IBM Spectrum MPI - Overview - Egypt
IBM Spectrum MPI - Overview - Egypt (
Chemicals Industry Solutions | IBM Egypt
Chemicals Industry Solutions | IBM Egypt (
Cloud Event Management - Purchase - Egypt
Cloud Event Management - Purchase - Egypt (
AI Infrastructure Solutions - Egypt | IBM
AI Infrastructure Solutions - Egypt | IBM (
IMS Enterprise Suite - Overview - Egypt
IMS Enterprise Suite - Overview - Egypt (
IBM Cloud Solutions - Egypt | IBM
IBM Cloud Solutions - Egypt | IBM (
Informix Express Edition - Overview - Egypt
Informix Express Edition - Overview - Egypt (
Talent and Engagement Services - Egypt | IBM
Talent and Engagement Services - Egypt | IBM (
Weather Company Max Mobile - Details - Egypt
Weather Company Max Mobile - Details - Egypt (
Informix Advanced Enterprise Edition - Details - Egypt
Informix Advanced Enterprise Edition - Details - Egypt (
IBM SAN Volume Controller - Details - Egypt
IBM SAN Volume Controller - Details - Egypt (
IBM Connections Engagement Center - Details - Egypt
IBM Connections Engagement Center - Details - Egypt (
IBM IoT for Automotive - Resources - Egypt
IBM IoT for Automotive - Resources - Egypt (
IBM Plant Performance Analytics - Details - Egypt
IBM Plant Performance Analytics - Details - Egypt (
IBM Cloud Automation Manager - Details - Egypt
IBM Cloud Automation Manager - Details - Egypt (
Weather Company Operations Dashboard - Overview - Egypt
Weather Company Operations Dashboard - Overview - Egypt (
IBM Cognos Integration Server - Overview - Egypt | IBM
IBM Cognos Integration Server - Overview - Egypt | IBM (
IBM Predictive Maintenance and Optimization - Details - Egypt
IBM Predictive Maintenance and Optimization - Details - Egypt (
Egypt Crosses the Line | The New Yorker
Egypt Crosses the Line | The New Yorker (
IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog - Pricing - Egypt
IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog - Pricing - Egypt (
IBM Z Batch Resiliency - Overview - Egypt | IBM
IBM Z Batch Resiliency - Overview - Egypt | IBM (
IBM i2 Analyst's Notebook Premium - Overview - Egypt
IBM i2 Analyst's Notebook Premium - Overview - Egypt (
Weather Company Power Generation Forecasts - Details - Egypt
Weather Company Power Generation Forecasts - Details - Egypt (
Finance Transformation and Consulting Services - Egypt | IBM
Finance Transformation and Consulting Services - Egypt | IBM (
Egypt | Board Game | BoardGameGeek
Egypt | Board Game | BoardGameGeek (
Egypt discovers more than 100 coffins in Saqqara
Egypt discovers more than 100 coffins in Saqqara (
IBM Services for Managed SAP Applications - Egypt | IBM
IBM Services for Managed SAP Applications - Egypt | IBM (
IBM Financial Crimes Geographic Risk Insight - Resources - Egypt
IBM Financial Crimes Geographic Risk Insight - Resources - Egypt (
Morsy signs Egypt's constitution into law - CNN
Morsy signs Egypt's constitution into law - CNN (
Pressure Rises for Dialogue in Egypt - WSJ
Pressure Rises for Dialogue in Egypt - WSJ (
Sara - cairo, Egypt (339 books)
Sara - cairo, Egypt (339 books) (
Egypt Plane Crash Aftermath  - NBC4 Washington
Egypt Plane Crash Aftermath - NBC4 Washington (