A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.

Plasticity of first-order sensory synapses: interactions between homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptically evoked dopaminergic potentiation. (1/3731)

Persistent potentiations of the chemical and electrotonic components of the eighth nerve (NVIII) EPSP recorded in vivo in the goldfish reticulospinal neuron, the Mauthner cell, can be evoked by afferent tetanization or local dendritic application of an endogenous transmitter, dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine). These modifications are attributable to the activation of distinct intracellular kinase cascades. Although dopamine-evoked potentiation (DEP) is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), tetanization most likely activates a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase via an increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We present evidence that the eighth nerve tetanus that induces LTP does not act by triggering dopamine release, because it is evoked in the presence of a broad spectrum of dopamine antagonists. To test for interactions between these pathways, we applied the potentiating paradigms sequentially. When dopamine was applied first, tetanization produced additional potentiation of the mixed synaptic response, but when the sequence was reversed, DEP was occluded, indicating that the synapses potentiated by the two procedures belong to the same or overlapping populations. Experiments were conducted to determine interactions between the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the level of their convergence. Inhibiting PKA does not impede tetanus-induced LTP, and chelating postsynaptic Ca2+ with BAPTA does not block DEP, indicating that the initial steps of the induction processes are independent. Pharmacological and voltage-clamp analyses indicate that the two pathways converge on functional AMPA/kainate receptors for the chemically mediated EPSP and gap junctions for the electrotonic component or at intermediaries common to both pathways. A cellular model incorporating these interactions is proposed on the basis of differential modulation of synaptic responses via receptor-protein phosphorylation.  (+info)

Augmentation is a potentiation of the exocytotic process. (2/3731)

Short-term synaptic enhancement is caused by an increase in the probability with which synaptic terminals release transmitter in response to presynaptic action potentials. Since exocytosed vesicles are drawn from a readily releasable pool of packaged transmitter, enhancement must result either from an increase in the size of the pool or an elevation in the fraction of releasable vesicles that undergoes exocytosis with each action potential. We show here that at least one major component of enhancement, augmentation, is not caused by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool but is instead associated with an increase in the efficiency with which action potentials induce the exocytosis of readily releasable vesicles.  (+info)

Selective induction of LTP and LTD by postsynaptic [Ca2+]i elevation. (3/3731)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), two prominent forms of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic afferents to CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, are both triggered by the elevation of postsynaptic intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). To understand how one signaling molecule can be responsible for triggering two opposing forms of synaptic modulation, different postsynaptic [Ca2+]i elevation patterns were generated by a new caged calcium compound nitrophenyl-ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid in CA1 pyramidal cells. We found that specific patterns of [Ca2+]i elevation selectively activate LTP or LTD. In particular, only LTP was triggered by a brief increase of [Ca2+]i with relatively high magnitude, which mimics the [Ca2+]i rise during electrical stimulation typically used to induce LTP. In contrast, a prolonged modest rise of [Ca2+]i reliably induced LTD. An important implication of the results is that both the amplitude and the duration of an intracellular chemical signal can carry significant biological information.  (+info)

Diffusion barriers limit the effect of mobile calcium buffers on exocytosis of large dense cored vesicles. (4/3731)

Fast exocytosis in melanotropic cells, activated by calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels, is very sensitive to mobile calcium buffers (complete block at 800 microM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)). This indicates that calcium diffuses a substantial distance from the channel to the vesicle. Surprisingly, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), having a similar KD for calcium as EGTA but a approximately 100 times faster binding rate, blocked exocytosis only twice as effectively as EGTA. Using computer simulations, we demonstrate that this result cannot be explained by free diffusion and buffer binding rates. We hypothesized that local saturation of calcium buffers is involved. A diffusion barrier for both calcium and buffer molecules, located 50-300 nm from the membrane and reducing diffusion 1000 to 10,000 times, generated similar calcium concentrations for specific concentrations of EGTA and BAPTA. With such barriers, calcium rise phase kinetics upon short step depolarizations (2-20 ms) were faster for EGTA than for BAPTA, implying that short depolarizations should allow exocytosis with 50 microM EGTA but not with 25 microM BAPTA. This prediction was confirmed experimentally with capacitance measurements. Coupling exocytosis to calcium dynamics in the model, we found that a barrier with a approximately 3000 times reduced diffusion at approximately 130 nm beneath the membrane best explains the experimentally observed effects of EGTA and BAPTA on block and kinetics of release.  (+info)

Isolation and partial characterization of Drosophila myoblasts from primary cultures of embryonic cells. (5/3731)

We describe a method for preparing highly enriched cultures of Drosophila myoblasts from a heterogeneous cell population derived from gastrulating embryos. Enriched cultures are prepared by plating this heterogeneous population of cells in medium from which much of the free calcium is chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (EGTA). Adhesion of myoblasts to tissue culture plastic is better than that of other cell types when plated in this medium. Data concerning cell identity, timing of S phase, and fusion kinetics document the degree of enrichment for myogenic cells and illustrate their synchronous differentiation in vitro.  (+info)

Acetylcholine-induced membrane potential changes in endothelial cells of rabbit aortic valve. (6/3731)

1. Using a microelectrode technique, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced membrane potential changes were characterized using various types of inhibitors of K+ and Cl- channels in rabbit aortic valve endothelial cells (RAVEC). 2. ACh produced transient then sustained membrane hyperpolarizations. Withdrawal of ACh evoked a transient depolarization. 3. High K+ blocked and low K+ potentiated the two ACh-induced hyperpolarizations. Charybdotoxin (ChTX) attenuated the ACh-induced transient and sustained hyperpolarizations; apamin inhibited only the sustained hyperpolarization. In the combined presence of ChTX and apamin, ACh produced a depolarization. 4. In Ca2+-free solution or in the presence of Co2+ or Ni2+, ACh produced a transient hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. In BAPTA-AM-treated cells, ACh produced only a depolarization. 5. A low concentration of A23187 attenuated the ACh-induced transient, but not the sustained, hyperpolarization. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid, the hyperpolarization induced by ACh was maintained after ACh removal; this maintained hyperpolarization was blocked by Co2+. 6. Both NPPB and hypertonic solution inhibited the membrane depolarization seen after ACh washout. Bumetanide also attenuated this depolarization. 7. It is concluded that in RAVEC, ACh produces a two-component hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. It is suggested that ACh-induced Ca2+ release from the storage sites causes a transient hyperpolarization due to activation of ChTX-sensitive K+ channels and that ACh-activated Ca2+ influx causes a sustained hyperpolarization by activating both ChTX- and apamin-sensitive K+ channels. Both volume-sensitive Cl- channels and the Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter probably contribute to the ACh-induced depolarization.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (7/3731)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Cross-coupling between voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in developing ascidian muscle blastomeres. (8/3731)

1. Ascidian blastomeres of muscle lineage express voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) despite isolation and cleavage arrest. Taking advantage of these large developing cells, developmental changes in functional relations between VDCC currents and intracellular Ca2+ stores were studied. 2. Inactivation of ascidian VDCCs is Ca2+ dependent, as demonstrated by two pieces of evidence: (1) a bell-shaped relationship between prepulse voltage and amplitude during the test pulse in Ca2+, but not in Ba2+, and (2) the decay kinetics of Ca2+ currents (ICa) obtained as the size of tail currents. 3. During replacement in the external solution of Ca2+ with Ba2+, the inward current appeared biphasic: it showed rapid decay followed by recovery and slow decay. This current profile was most evident in the mixed bath solution (2 % Ca2+ and 98 % Ba2+, abbreviated to '2Ca/98Ba'). 4. The biphasic profile of I2Ca/98Ba was significantly attenuated in caffeine and in ryanodine, indicating that Ca2+ release is involved in shaping the current kinetics of VDCCs. After washing out the caffeine, the biphasic pattern was reproducibly restored by depolarizing the membrane in calcium-rich solution, which is expected to refill the internal Ca2+ stores. 5. The inhibitors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCAs) cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and thapsigargin facilitated elimination of the biphasic profile with repetitive depolarization. 6. At a stage earlier than 36 h after fertilization, the biphasic profile of I2Ca/98Ba was not observed. However, caffeine induced a remarkable decrease in the amplitude of I2Ca/98Ba and this suppression was blocked by microinjection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, showing the presence of caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ stores at this stage. 7. Electron microscopic observation shows that sarcoplasmic membranes (SR) arrange closer to the sarcolemma with maturation, suggesting that the formation of the ultrastructural machinery underlies development of the cross-coupling between VDCCs and Ca2+ stores.  (+info)

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Autism is a severe developmental disorder, whose pathogenetic underpinnings are still largely unknown. Temporocortical gray matter from six matched patient-control pairs was used to perform post-mortem biochemical and genetic studies of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC), which participates in the aspartate/malate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle and is physiologically activated by calcium (Ca2+). AGC transport rates were significantly higher in tissue homogenates from all six patients, including those with no history of seizures and with normal electroencephalograms prior to death. This increase was consistently blunted by the Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid; neocortical Ca2+ levels were significantly higher in all six patients; no difference in AGC transport rates was found in isolated mitochondria from patients and controls following removal of the Ca2+-containing postmitochondrial supernatant. Expression of AGC1, the predominant AGC isoform in ...
ABSTRACT Growth factors are thought to activate estrogen receptor-alpha ERα by phosphorylating the serines in the N-terminus of the receptor. However, this mechanism does not account for the conformational changes that occur in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of receptor to render the receptor active. It is hypothesized that epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates ERα through the PLC--calcium-calmodulin pathway by increasing intracellular calcium which, upon binding to the LBD, induces a conformational change that activates the receptor. In support of this hypothesis, treatment of MCF-7 cells with EGF (150 ng/ml) lead to an increase in intracellular calcium from 150 nM to 350 nM (+/-70 nM) and the induction of the ERα responsive genes, progesterone receptor (PgR) and pS2. The ability of EGF to induce PgR and pS2 mRNA was blocked by inhibitors of phospholipase C-, calmodulin, and calmodulin kinase II, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and by an antiestrogen. Treatment with ...
Fig. 7 Activation of the P2X7 receptor on APCs by 3 μM ATP initiates the heightened immune responses associated with hypertension.. (A) Splenocytes from either C57BL/6 or P2X7 knockout mice were labeled with the Ca2+ probe Fluo-4 AM in vitro. The cells were then treated with either 3 or 500 μM ATP, and Ca2+ influx into DCs (left) and T cells (middle) was monitored continuously for 4 min by flow cytometry (right). The first minute kinetics of Ca2+ influx into DCs in the presence of 3 μM ATP is also shown. (B) Splenic DCs were stimulated with or without 3 μM ATP. Some of the ATP-treated cells were pretreated with the calcium chelator BAPTA or the calmodulin inhibitor chlorpromazine (Chlor). Surface CD86 was measured after 18 hours. (C) Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 3 or 500 μM ATP for 18 hours ex vivo, and IL-1β in the medium was measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed with paired Students t test. (D) Splenic DCs and T cells were purified from the spleen of naïve mice. DCs (2 × ...
Buy the Aqua Vision Aquatics Precision Integreat (Part A & B Calcium/Buffer) - 32 oz. Each for your aquarium and read product reviews, watch videos and see detailed specs at MarineDepot.com.
The distance between presynaptic VGCCs and exocytotic Ca2+ sensors is a major determinant of the latency from the peak Ca2+ current to the maximal vesicular release (Wadel et al., 2007; Bucurenciu et al., 2008; Eggermann et al., 2012; Nadkarni et al., 2012; Schneggenburger et al., 2012). PPRdecay was markedly suppressed by moderate concentrations of the slow Ca2+ chelator EGTA (Fig. 9), suggesting that within the single Ca2+ microdomain, the facilitation of Cav2.1 channel currents or an increase in the number of activated Cav2.1 channels leads to a higher peak free [Ca2+]i and greater activation of exocytotic Ca2+ sensors. The end result would be higher MVR.. Differential localization of VGCC subtypes at the presynaptic terminal may be involved in the induction of different types of PPF. Kulik et al. (2004) showed that Cav2.1 immunoreactivity is densely clustered at the active zone of GC axonal varicosities. At the calyx synapses, immunoreactivity for Cav2.2 and Cav2.3 subunits is more distant ...
We reported inhibition of growth of primary rat mammary carcinomas after infusions of tumor-bearer plasma absorbed with Protein A-Sepharose or inactivated CNBr Sepharose. Absorbed plasmas were depleted of the third component of complement (C3) (other complement components defined similarly) and C5 but not C1, C4, or C2. These results suggested that activation of the alternative pathway of complement might be involved in the observed antitumor effects. To test this concept sera were treated with ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid or [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid before absorption with Protein A-Sepharose. Ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid, by chelating calcium and magnesium, prevents activation of both the alternative and classical complement pathways. [Ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid, by chelating calcium but not magnesium, permits activation of the alternative pathway but inhibits activation of the classical complement pathway. Sera in the presence or absence ...
The induction of both LTP and LTD was equally sensitive to loading of the postsynaptic cell with the rapidly equilibrating Ca2+ buffer BAPTA or the slower buffer EGTA. Therefore, the volume-averaged elevation of spine [Ca2+]i is an important factor for the induction of changes in synaptic strength. The putative Ca2+ sensors that trigger the induction of LTP or LTD presumably are separated from the Ca2+ entry site by several tens of nanometers (Neher, 1998). They might be mobile Ca2+ buffers, which compete with Ca2+ extrusion and additional fixed Ca2+ buffers. Another possibility is that the Ca2+ sensors have slower binding kinetics for Ca2+ than EGTA. In this case the Ca2+ sensors might be localized in close proximity to Ca2+ channels, but still they would be sensitive mainly to the volume-averaged increases in [Ca2+]i. In the case of LTP, calmodulin is a possible candidate Ca2+ sensor. It can activate Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which translocates to the plasma ...
Dieting may possibly cause some long-term damages to the physique if not handled effectively since it locations lots of attention to food intake, a nu
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded G protein-coupled-receptor US28 is believed to participate in virus dissemination through modulation of cell migration and immune evasion. US28 binds different CC chemokines and the CX3C chemokine CX3CL1. Membrane-anchored CX3CL1 is expressed by immune-activated endothelial cells, causing redirection of CX3CR1-expressing leukocytes in the blood to sites of infection. Here, we used stable transfected cell lines to examine how US28 expression affects cell migration on immobilized full-length CX3CL1, to model how HCMV-infected leukocytes interact with inflamed endothelium. We observed that US28-expressing cells migrated more than CX3CR1-expressing cells when adhering to immobilized CX3CL1. US28-induced migration was G protein-signalling dependent and was blocked by the phospholipase Cβ inhibitor U73122 and the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. In addition, migration was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by competition from CCL2 and CCL5, whereas CCL3 ...
In the present study, we demonstrated that H2O2 modulates the relative levels of XO and XDH in endothelial cells via a pathway requiring ER calcium release. We also showed that ROS slowly released from Menadione and SIN-1 and stimulation of endogenous ROS using angiotensin II decreased the XDH content of endothelial cells in a manner similar to bolus H2O2. H2O2 evoked a progressive decline in XDH, and our metabolic labeling studies demonstrated that this was caused by conversion of XDH to XO. This conversion resulted in increased ROS production by XO as shown by ESR analysis. The effect of H2O2 was mediated by [Ca2+]i, because it was prevented by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187. Further, we demonstrated that H2O2 stimulated release of calcium from the ER, and that this was prevented by thapsigargin and the IP3 receptor antagonist 2-APB. The PLC activator m-3M3FBS mimicked the effect of H2O2, in keeping with the concept that PLC activation may be a ...
Author: Heidelberger, R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1994-10-06; Title: Calcium dependence of the rate of exocytosis in a synaptic terminal
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NGF induces neuronal differentiation by modulating [Ca2+]and the Akt pathway. by tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, either the [Ca2+]chelator(1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-alters neurite outgrowth through changes in the NGF-dependent transductional pathways (6, 9). In truth, the Ca2+ ion is definitely regarded as an essential essential second messenger in development cones because, depending on its focus level, it modulates the price, motility, […]. Read More ». ...
Studies using isogenic transductant strains mlpA+ and mlpA as well as reversion analysis suggested that the physiological consequences of a structural gene mutation in murein lipoprotein include (i) increased sensitivity toward chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid, (ii) leakage of periplasmic enzyme ribonuclease, (iii) weakened association between the outer membrane and the rigid layer accentuated by Mg2+ starvation, resulting in the formation of outer membrane blebs, and (iv) decreased growth rate in media of low ionic strength or low osmolarity. It is suggested that the bound form of lipoprotein plays an important role in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the outer membrane of the Escherichia coli cell envelope. Other outer membrane components may also contribute to the anchorage of outer membrane to the rigid layer, probably through ionic interactions with divalent cations. Using the phenotype of ...
The secretory epithehum of the mantle of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana is excitable. The ionic dependence of its action potentials was investigated. Two distinct phases could be recognized by their ionic dependences. The early spike phase, that appeared in all action potentials, was dependent on the Na+ concentration of the solution in the interstitial space and was insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX) at concentrations as high as 36μmol l−1. It was inhibited by local anesthetics, and its repolarization was inhibited by veratrine. The data show this electrogenesis is caused by TTX-insensitive sodium channels located at the basolateral membrane of this epithelium. Cardiac-like action potentials were recorded in several specimens: the rapid Na+-dependent spike was followed by a slower repolarization phase that formed a plateau and increased the action potential duration. The plateau amplitude was markedly increased when the external Ca2+ concentration was increased to (60 mmol l−1 and it was ...
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) stimulates corticosteroid secretion from adrenal cells through activation of 5-HT4 receptors positively coupled to adenylyl-cyclase. In the present study, we investigated in frog adrenocortical cells the effect of 5-HT4 receptor agonists on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and determined the sequence of events associated with 5-HT4 receptor agonist zacopride (10[-8] to 10[-5]M each in the vicinity of cultured adrenocortical cells caused a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. Preincubation of the cells with the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist [1-[2-(methylsulfonylamino)ethyl]-4- piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate maleate totally blocked the 5-HT-induced stimulation of [Ca2+]i. Chelation of extracellular calcium with ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N, N-tetraacetic acid (10 MM) suppressed the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on [Ca2+]i. Conversely, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium ATPase activity, had no effect on the [Ca2+]i ...
B Cell小鼠单克隆抗体[CA2.1D6](ab34125)可与马, 猫样本反应并经IP, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Calcium buffering describes the processes which help stabilise the concentration of free calcium ions within cells, in a similar manner to how pH buffers maintain a stable concentration of hydrogen ions. The majority of calcium ions within the cell are bound to intracellular proteins, leaving a minority freely dissociated. When calcium is added to or removed from the cytoplasm by transport across the cell membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium buffers minimise the effect on changes in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration by binding calcium to or releasing calcium from intracellular proteins. As a result, 99% of the calcium added to the cytosol of a cardiomyocyte during each cardiac cycle becomes bound to calcium buffers, creating a relatively small change in free calcium. The regulation of free calcium is of particular importance in excitable cells like cardiomyocytes and neurons. Within these cells, many intracellular proteins can act as calcium buffers. In cardiac muscle cells, the most ...
Recent improvements in light microscopic techniques, in particular laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy, in combination with optical stimulation methods, namely optical switches and caged molecules, have made it possible to study the structure and function of neurons and their synapses in intact brain tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. These novel techniques are increasingly making it possible to study the neuronal mechanisms underlying brain functions such as learning and memory. We have implemented and tested an optical technique based on epi-fluorescence microscopy to study neuronal communication at the level of single synapses. The idea was to be able to dynamically raise the concentration of Ca2+ ions in dendritic spines or presynaptic nerve terminals of neurons, affecting calcium dependent protein systems involved in synaptic transmission and therefore inducing synaptic plasticity. For this, we made use of photo-labile calcium chelators, known as calcium-cages, which ...
Large benthic foraminifera are unicellular calcifying reef organisms that can form symbiotic relationships with a range of different microalgae. However, the cellular functions, such as symbiosis and calcification, and other aspects of cellular physiology in large benthic foraminifera are not fully understood. Amphisorus kudakajimensis was used as a model to determine the detailed cellular characteristics of large benthic foraminifera. We used calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM) as a fluorescent indicator for live confocal imaging. We demonstrated that calcein AM is a useful fluorescent indicator to stain the fine network of reticulopodia and the cytoplasm in living A. kudakajimensis. We showed that at least two types of reticulopodia exist in A. kudakajimensis: the straight bundle of reticulopodia that spreads from the aperture and the fine reticulopodia along the surface of the aperture and chamber walls. The cytoplasm in outer chambers was highly branched and contained a few dinoflagellates. In
The report generally describes 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 1,3-BIS(3-AMINOPHENOXY)BENZENE market
|p|Calcein-AM is cell-permeable fluorescent dye used to determine the cell viability.|/p| |p|The calcein-AM dye used to stain the living cells is shown to have a low spontaneousleakage rate less than 15% in 4 hours at 37°C. Dilutions of targets stained b
MAIL VIA INTERNET FROM BIOSCI-REQUEST at genbank.bio.net THURSDAY 09/10/92 6:15:03 A.M. , , Received: from CU.NIH.GOV by NIHCU (Mailer) id 9613; , Thu, 10 Sep 92 06:15:03 EDT , Received: from GENBANK.BIO.NET by CU.NIH.GOV , with TCP; Thu, 10 Sep 92 6:15:00 EDT , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05730; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:24 -0700 , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05723; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:22 -0700 , Message-Id: ,9209101015.AA05723 at genbank.bio.net, , To: bio-soft at genbank.bio.net , From: Fergus_Doherty at vme.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk , Subject: Calculating free Ca2++ with EGTA buffers , Date: 10 Sep 92 10:00:35 GMT , Sender: list-admin at daresbury.ac.uk , Original-To: BIO-SOFT at uk.ac.daresbury , , Can anyone help me to calculate free Ca2++ in EGTA/CA buffers? Basically , I want to determine the effect of Ca on enzyme activity, and relatedly , translocation of an enzyme to membranes-which is Ca -dependent. I need , to include EGTA to completely inhibit the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ivana Y Kuo, Camille Keeler, Rachel Corbin, Andjelka Ćelić, Edward T Petri, Michael E Hodsdon, Barbara E Ehrlich].
Antibodies for proteins involved in calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
54/97. Gonzalez-CA Hernandezpadilla-M Dominguez-S Mederos-A Brito-F Arrieta-JM Polymer Species in Aqueous-Solutions of Para- Phenylenediamine-N,N,N,N-Tetraacetic Acid (P-Phdta) with Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II), Zinc(II) and Cadmium(II) - X-Ray Crystal-Structure of Na-4(Co-2(P- Phdta)(2))Center-Dot 8H(2)O POLYHEDRON 1997, Vol 16, Iss 17, pp 2925- ...
B-Ionic Magnesium is an easy to use one component liquid supplement which, when used with B-Ionic Calcium Buffer or kalkwasser, will not disrupt the ionic balance of closed marine aquaria.
The CSV is a delimited data format that has fields/columns separated by the semicolon character and records/rows separated by newlines. Fields that may contain a special character (semicolon, newline, or double quote), are enclosed in double quotes. For an easier handling, the list of Pre-registered substances is available in four parts ordered by EC number. They contain the same information as the following full list.. ...
2-(4-Aminophenoxy)benzene-1,4-diamine | C12H13N3O | CID 140263913 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
BAPTA has rapid-on-rate Ca2+-chelating properties that are useful for studying Ca2+ regulation of synaptic functions in close proximity to the Ca2+ source (e.g., the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel pore) (Eggermann et al., 2012), while EGTA has slow-on-rate Ca2+-chelating properties useful for studying Ca2+ regulation of synaptic functions within areas more distant from the Ca2+ source. Given the constant rate of Ca2+ diffusion in cytoplasm, the temporal kinetics of Ca2+ signals can also be measured and compared with Ca2+s spatial range. Thus, EGTA and BAPTA have been used to study the spatial and temporal Ca2+ regulation of neurotransmission (Adler et al., 1991; Augustine et al., 1991; Tymianski et al., 1994; Cummings et al., 1996; Dittman and Regehr, 1998; Angleson and Betz, 2001). In this study, using these chelators, we examined the kinetic organization of SV ability at the AZ for either low- or high-frequency AP signals in synaptically coupled SCG neurons (Mochida et al., 1994).. We first ...
The Ca2+ ionophore 4-Br A23187 is effective in increasing [Ca2+]i and eliciting secretion when ICRAC is inhibited by SK&F 96365. Antigen (Ag) (1 μg/ml) sti
The aim of this study was to investigate possible regulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(f)) by cytosolic calcium in guinea-pig sino-atrial (SA) node cells. Isolated SA node cells were superfused with physiological saline solution (36 degrees C) and the perforated patch voltage-clamp technique used to record I(f) activated by hyperpolarizing voltage steps. A 10-min loading of SA node cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA (using 10 microM BAPTA-AM) significantly reduced the amplitude of I(f) at all potentials studied (69+/-8% at -80 mV, n=6). BAPTA loading also shifted the voltage of half-activation (V(h)) of the conductance from -83+/-2 mV in control to -93+/-2 mV in BAPTA (n=6) without significantly altering the slope of activation. The calmodulin antagonists W-7 (10 microM), calmidazolium (25 microM) and ophiobolin A (20 microM) caused similar reductions in I(f) amplitude (73+/-4, 86+/-9 and 59+/-6% at -80 mV, n=6, 5 and 4, respectively) and shifts in V(h) (11+/-3, 14+/-3 and 8+/-2
Three new bismacrocyclic Ln(3+) chelates consisting of triamide derivatives of cyclen with glycine, methyl and tert-butyl substituents (L1-3, respectively) linked to an acyclic EGTA-derived calcium chelator were synthesised as potential MRI contrast agents (EGTA -ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N, N, N, N-tetraacetic acid). Eu3+ and Yb3+ complexes of L1-3 were investigated as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents. Moderate to minor CEST effects were observed for Eu2L1, Eu2L2 and Yb2L2 complexes in the absence of Ca2+, with negligible changes upon addition of this metal ion. Luminescence steady-state emission and lifetime experiments did not reveal any changes in the coordination environment of the complexes, while the number of inner-sphere water molecules remained constant in the absence and presence of Ca2+. The protonation constants of Eu2L1 and Eu2L2 and stability constants of their complexes with Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ were determined by means of potentiometric... ...
BioAssay record AID 225394 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) using CHO cells, stably transfected with human muscarinic m3 acetylcholine receptor (AChR); nd=Not determined.
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Calcium Indicators are small molecules that can chelate calcium ions. All these molecules are based on an EGTA homologue called BAPTA (with exception of coelenterazines), with high selectivity for calcium (Ca) ions versus magnesium (Mg) ions. This group of indicators includes fura-2, indo-1, fluo-3, BTC, Rhod-2, etc. These dyes are generally used with the chelator carboxyl groups masked as acetoxymethyl esters, in order to render the molecule lipophilic and to allow easy entrance into the cell. Once the indicator is in the cell, cellular esterases will free the carboxyl and the indicator will be able to bind calcium.. Fluorescent Chloride Indicators ...
This is the Pawfect choice your kitty to help reduce the risk of dental plaque formation and tartar build-up and ensure optimum oral hygiene.Tartar build-up: Does your cat have a tendency to tartar formation? Tartar build-up is the mineralization of dental plaque in contact with saliva, which can lead to sensitive gums. Oral hygiene plays an important role in your cats overall health.Oral care: What are the key benefits of this targeted nutritional solution? Oral Care is a precisely balanced nutritional formula which helps support oral health by reducing the formation of dental plaque. With double action: - Mechanical action: specifically designed for a targeted action, the ORAL CARE kibble size, texture and shape encourages the cat to chew thoroughly. This mechanical action produces a daily tooth brushing effect which helps reduce the formation of dental plaque on teeth. - Chemical action: formula enriched with an Active Dental Agent (calcium chelators) which traps the salivary calcium to ...
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ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl)tetraacetic acid 67-42-5 Precursor and Downstream products, ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl)tetraacetic acid Precursor products, ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl)tetraacetic acid Downstream products ect.
Members from the ANAs TV and Digital Marketing Committees engaged in an extensive discussion with members from the European Group on TV Advertising (egta) at a November 17, 2010 joint meeting of the TV and Digital Marketing Committees.
Id: calciumpump_destexhe.mod,v 1.4 1994/04/14 02:47:41 billl Exp $ TITLE decay of internal calcium concentration : : Internal calcium concentration due to calcium currents and pump. : Differential equations. : : Simple model of ATPase pump with 3 kinetic constants (Destexhe 92) : Cai + P ,-, CaP -, Cao + P (k1,k2,k3) : A Michaelis-Menten approximation is assumed, which reduces the complexity : of the system to 2 parameters: : kt = ,tot enzyme concentration, * k3 -, TIME CONSTANT OF THE PUMP : kd = k2/k1 (dissociation constant) -, EQUILIBRIUM CALCIUM VALUE : The values of these parameters are chosen assuming a high affinity of : the pump to calcium and a low transport capacity (cfr. Blaustein, : TINS, 11: 438, 1988, and references therein). : : Units checked using modlunit -, factor 10000 needed in ca entry : : VERSION OF PUMP + DECAY (decay can be viewed as simplified buffering) : : All variables are range variables : : : This mechanism was published in: Destexhe, A. Babloyantz, A. and : ...
0017] The new curing compositions/mixtures for the curing of the liquid or low melting phthalonitriles may afford the ability to convert to a shaped, partially cured solid at temperatures below 250° C. There are no known prior reports of gelation being achieved at these temperatures. When used alone, most of the reactive aromatic diamines [e.g. 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene; m-APB or 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene; p-APB] used as a curing additive must be added to the melt or liquid of the phthalonitrile at 250° C. for quick reaction due to the volatility of the amine curing additive (Sastri et al, Phthalonitrile Cure Reaction with Aromatic Diamines J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 36, 1885-1890 (1998)). The less reactive thermally stable diamine, bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]sulfone; p-BAPS] has been typically used to cure the phthalonitriles due to its non-volatility and thermal stability up to 450° C. Conversion of the phthalonitrile monomer to a crosslinked polymer with this curing agent ...
In a single set of ex periments, extracellular Ca2 was replaced with Ca2 totally free PSS to avoid influx of Ca2 as being a contributing mechan ism for alterations in i. A normal astrocytic response induced by ATP in Ca2 no cost PSS is presented in Figure 2C. It showed just one declining phase with no professional longed element of decay. The absence of the delayed phase of i in Ca2 no cost option is consistent with influx of extracellular Ca2 mediating this part of response. In 3 additional experiments, the secondary slow phase of response was absent in Ca2 totally free alternative. Total effects yielded a single time program of decay in Ca2 free of charge PSS was 28. 9 one. eight s. This decay time program was not appreciably diverse from your rapid time program of your con trol response evoked by one mM ATP.. The prolonged phase of i elicited by selleck ATP in standard PSS and its absence in Ca2 free PSS could reflect entry of Ca2 by way of SOC following the original release in the divalent ...
calcium How intracellular Calcium signaling, gradient and its role as a universal intracellular regulator points to design http://reasonandscience.heavenforum
16. An investigator places an isolated neuron in a calcium-free medium, gives the neuron a suprathreshold stimulus and then performs an assay to test whether neurotransmitter is released into the medium. Which of the following outcomes would you predict? ...
fprintf(\n); fprintf( Intercepts \n); fprintf( True , vgxvarx , backslash\n); fprintf(--------------------------------------\n); for j = 1:n fprintf( %8.4f , %8.4f , %8.4f\n,aTrue(j),EstMdl1.a(j),coeff(1,j)); end cB = coeff; cB = cB(:); fprintf(\n); fprintf( Coefficients \n); fprintf( True , vgxvarx , backslash\n); fprintf(--------------------------------------\n); for j = 1:r1 fprintf( %8.4f , %8.4f , %8.4f\n,bTrue(j),... EstMdl1.b(j),cB(n + j)); end fprintf(\n); fprintf( Innovations Covariance\n); fprintf( True , vgxvarx\n); fprintf(----------------------------------------------------------\n); for j = 1:n fprintf(%8.4f %8.4f %8.4f , %8.4f %8.4f %8.4f\n,... InnovCov(j,:),EstMdl1.Q(j,:)); end ...
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
Nerve transection is a condition in which nerve fibers that run throughout the body are cut. There are several common causes of...
EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid), also known as egtazic acid (INN, USAN), is an ... aminopolycarboxylic acid, a chelating agent. It is a white solid that is related to the better known EDTA. Compared to EDTA, it ...
... egtazic acid (INN) egualen (INN) elacridar (INN) elacytarabine (USAN, INN) elagolix (USAN, INN) elantrine (INN) elanzepine (INN ... edetic acid (INN) edetol (INN) Edex. Redirects to Prostaglandin E1. edifoligide (USAN) edifolone (INN) edobacomab (INN) ... redirects to rasburicase Elixicon Elixomin Elixophyllin ellagic acid (INN) Ellence Ellence (Pharmacia & Upjohn Company) ...
Egtazic Acid * Cyclic AMP * 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid ...
Egtazic Acid * 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid ...
Egtazic Acid. Grant support. *P41 RR001192-30/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States ...
Egtazic Acid); 8Y164V895Y (Carbachol); K22DDW77C0 (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid); N9YNS0M02X ( ... tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism were affected. Finally, ...
Egtazic Acid / analogs & derivatives, pharmacology. Electric Stimulation. Evoked Potentials / drug effects, physiology*. Female ... 3. STDs and slow waves were abolished by niflumic acid or low chloride solution and also by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), BAPTA or ... 67-42-5/Egtazic Acid; 7292-42-4/alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5-triphosphate; K22DDW77C0/1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N, ... Niflumic Acid / pharmacology. Phenylephrine / pharmacology. Stochastic Processes. Synaptic Transmission / drug effects, ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Calcium Signaling/drug effects*; Cell Line; Chelating Agents; Chromones; Egtazic Acid/analogs & ...
Also, the calcium-chelating agent egtazic acid, which was used by Chu et al. 24 to open up tight junctions to facilitate the ...
Egtazic Acid/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology. *Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism. *Humans. *Ionophores. *Kinetics. *Mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium regulates the commitment of murine erythroleukemia cells to terminal erythroid differentiation.. AU - Bridges, K.. AU - Levenson, R.. AU - Housman, D.. AU - Cantley, L.. PY - 1981/8. Y1 - 1981/8. N2 - An alteration in the rate of calcium transport appears to be the rate-limiting event for the commitment of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells to initiate a program of terminal erythroid differentiation. The dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced commitment of MEL cells to erythroid differentiation can be inhibited by treatment of cells with the calcium-chelating agent EGTA. Upon removal of EGTA, cells initiate commitment without the 12-h lag normally observed after treatment with DMSO alone. Treatment of cells with DMSO in the presence of calcium ionophore A23187 causes cells to initiate commitment from time zero with no lag. These results suggest that the lag is the time required for DMSO to alter the calcium transport properties of the cell.. AB - An alteration in the rate of ...
H2O3, glucose 10, HEPES 10 and egtazic acid 0.5 was adjusted to pH7.40 with KOH. Isosmotic solution containing (in mmol/L) NaCl ... Pipette solution containing (in mmol/L) K-aspartic acid 110, Mg-ATP 5, MgCl2. H2O 1, KCl 20, EGTA 10, di-tris-creatine ... 2-ethanesulphonic acid] (HEPES) 10 was adjusted to pH7.4 with Tris [hydroxymethyl] aminomethane (TRIZMA). Modified K-B solution ...
Synonyms: Egtazic Acid Tetrasodium; EGTA Tetrasodium; Ethylene-bis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic Acid Tetrasodium ... Ethylene Glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl Ether)-N,N,N ,N -tetraacetic Acid Tetrasodium Salt - 50g. ...
Egtazic Acid/pharmacology. MESH. Forskolin/pharmacology. MESH. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus/secretion. MESH. Male. MESH. ...
Germination of C. difficile spores was significantly diminished in the presence of the chelating agent egtazic acid, which has ... Glycine is the most efficient amino acid cogerminant for C. difficile spores, but it can also be replaced by other amino acids ... ROLE OF CALCIUM AND DIPICOLINIC ACID IN GERMINATION. Calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) is a major component of bacterial spores ... Inhibiting the initiation of Clostridium difficile spore germination using analogs of chenodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid. J ...
In some experiments, samples of human plasma or serum were treated with 0.05 M egtazic acid (EGTA) for 30 min at room ... 3). MAbs 12/1.1, 662/1.1, and 746/16.2 recognized amino acid positions 418 to 562, 1 to 232, and 304 to 417 of the Zaire GP, ... Identification of protective epitopes on Ebola virus glycoprotein at the single amino acid level by using recombinant vesicular ...
Egtazic Acid/metabolism. *Gene Expression Profiling. *Gene Expression Regulation. *Humans. *Intercellular Junctions/ ...
EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid), also known as egtazic acid (INN, USAN), is an ... aminopolycarboxylic acid, a chelating agent. It is a white solid that is related to the better known EDTA. Compared to EDTA, it ...
... egtazic acid 1 mmol L-1, aprotinin 1 mg L-1 and PMSF 100 mg L-1). After centrifugation, 50 L of Griess reagent (equal volume of ... The freeze-dried powder was extracted using methanol/water/acetic acid (85 : 15 : 0.5, v/v, MeOH/H2O/AcOH) thrice as previously ... In this study, we reconstructed the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model in mice and monitored for ... Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) colitis by intranasal administration of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 plasmid: TGF- ...
1 mmol/L egtazic acid [EGTA]). Cell lysates were precleared with 30 μL washed protein-A sepharose beads (Pharmacia Biotech, ...
... egtazic acid (INN) egualen (INN) elacridar (INN) elacytarabine (USAN, INN) elagolix (USAN, INN) elantrine (INN) elanzepine (INN ... edetic acid (INN) edetol (INN) Edex. Redirects to Prostaglandin E1. edifoligide (USAN) edifolone (INN) edobacomab (INN) ... redirects to rasburicase Elixicon Elixomin Elixophyllin ellagic acid (INN) Ellence Ellence (Pharmacia & Upjohn Company) ...
1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid Medicine & Life Sciences ... Egtazic Acid Medicine & Life Sciences View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA * Author ...
... egtazic acid, egtazic acid usan:inn, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, ethylenebis oxyethylenenitrilo tetraacetic acid, gedta, ... egtazic acid, egtazic acid usan:inn, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, ethylenebis oxyethylenenitrilo tetraacetic acid, gedta, ... Ethylene Glycol-bis-(β-Aminoethylether)-N,N,N,N- tetraacetic acid, Molecular Biology Reagent Grade, MP Biomedicals™ ... Ethylene Glycol-bis-(β-Aminoethylether)-N,N,N,N- tetraacetic acid, Molecular Biology Reagent Grade, MP Biomedicals™ ...
The dispersed cells were stored in KB medium (in mM: glutamic acid 70, taurine 15, KCl 30, KH2PO4 10, MgCl2 0.5, egtazic acid ... 3 mmol/liter of pyruvic acid, 15 mmol/liter of HEPES, 100 μmol/liter of ascorbic acid, 100 μg/ml of ampicillin, 5 μg/ml of ... linoleic acid, 1% penicillin, 1% streptomycin, and 100 μmol/liter of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and were seeded into six-well ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium‐dependent enhancement by carbachol of the VIP‐induced cyclic AMP accumulation in cat submandibular gland. AU - ENYEDI, PETER. AU - FREDHOLM, BERTIL B.. PY - 1984/4. Y1 - 1984/4. N2 - The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. Carbachol was found to potentiate the cyclic AMP increase induced by VIP by an atropine sensitive mechanism. The effect of carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by including EGTA in the incubation medium as was the carbachol mediated potentiation of VIP responses. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine had a similar, but less marked effect. The effect of carbachol was mimicked by phenylephrine (30 μM) and by the calcium inophore A 23187 (3 μM), and also by ethanol in a concentration reported to enhance membrane fluidity. The phospholipase A2 inhibitor, mepacrine, tended to ...
Acetylsalicylic acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and ketanserin did not affect platelet activation by cathepsin G, whereas the ... Acetylsalicylic acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and ketanserin did not affect platelet activation by cathepsin G, whereas the ... Acetylsalicylic acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and ketanserin did not affect platelet activation by cathepsin G, whereas the ... Acetylsalicylic acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and ketanserin did not affect platelet activation by cathepsin G, whereas the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Actin‐containing microprocesses in the fusion of cultured chick myoblasts. AU - Huang, Helena L.. AU - Singer, Robert H.. AU - Lazarides, Elias. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. N2 - Scanning electron microscopic studies of myoblasts from 11‐to 13‐day‐old chick embryonic breast muscle cultred on collagen‐coated glass coverslips showed six stages of development into multinucleated myotubes: (1) growth of flattened, spread‐out cells for 20-30 hr following initiation of monolayer cultures; (2) extension of microprocesses (1-150 μm) from cells that have become spindle shaped; (3) contact and adherence of microprocesses from adjacent cells; (4) thickening of fused processes; (5) approximation of the cells; and (6) coalescence of the cells to form a spindle‐shaped myotube. When the calcium‐ion concentration in the growth medium was lowered‐either by increasing the concentration of ethylene‐glycol‐bis (aminoethyl ether) N, N‐tetraacetate (EGTA) or by decresing the ...
Agrin; Animals; Calcium; Chelating Agents; Chick Embryo; Egtazic Acid; Phosphorylation; *Receptor Aggregation; Receptors, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Post-stimulation retrieval of luminal surface membrane in parotid acinar cells is calcium-dependent. AU - Koike, Heiichiro. AU - Meldolesi, Jacopo. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - The Ca2+ dependence of surface membrane retrieval (i.e., the process by which the excess surface membrane resulting from exocytosis is recycled to the cytoplasm of secretory cells) has been investigated in rat parotid tissue lobules first incubated for 40 min in the presence of a secretagogue drug (the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline) and then in the presence of the β-blocker, 1-propranolol, up to 4 h. The dynamics of the luminal surface membrane was monitored by measuring, in ultrathin sections, the length of the luminal profile of all examined acinar cells abutting to a lumen before and immediately at the end of the stimulation, as well as at various times thereafter. Such a profile doubled during isoprenaline stimulation, concomitantly with the discharge of most secretion granules. After the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of calcium and sodium fluxes in anoxic myelinated central nervous system axons. AU - Stys, P. K.. AU - LoPachin, Richard M.. PY - 1997/9/25. Y1 - 1997/9/25. N2 - Electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to measure water content and concentrations of elements (i.e. Na, K, Cl and Ca) in selected morphological compartments of rat optic nerve myelinated axons. Transaxolemmal movements of Na+ and Ca2+ were modified experimentally and corresponding effects on axon element and water compositions were determined under control conditions and following in vitro anoxic challenge. Also characterized were effects of modified ion transport on axon responses to postanoxia reoxygenation. Blockade of Na+ entry by tetrodotoxin (1 μM) or zero Na+/Li+-substituted perfusion reduced anoxic increases in axonal Na and Ca concentrations. Incubation with zero-Ca2+/EGTA perfusate prevented axoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca accumulation during anoxia but did not affect Na increases or K losses ...
  • In some experiments, samples of human plasma or serum were treated with 0.05 M egtazic acid (EGTA) for 30 min at room temperature. (asm.org)
  • 7. The ACh-induced transient outward current was never recorded when [Ca2+]i was chelated by the acetoxymethyl ester form of 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA AM). On the other hand, in Ca(2+)-free external solution containing 2 mM EGTA and 10 mM Mg2+, the ACh response was elicited by the first application and successive ACh applications did not induce any response. (nih.gov)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) also increased [Ca 2+ ](i), but the sustained Ca 2+ response was inhibited by EGTA. (elsevier.com)
  • Soluble cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase showed marked inhibition by the calcium chelator, ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), and the anticalmodulin drugs, chlorpromazine, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), and calmidazolium. (elsevier.com)
  • A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID. (bvsalud.org)
  • An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. (umassmed.edu)
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of anthocyanins extract of blueberry on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model of mice. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we reconstructed the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model in mice and monitored for diarrhea, the resulting loss of body weight and animal death every day in the whole experimental course. (hindawi.com)
  • Finally, we have developed a new method to prevent the endogenous metabolism of NAADP by chelating Ca2+ with bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), thereby reducing the difficulty of catching a small transient rise in NAADP levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Depressor responses to nicotine microinjected into the NTS of Wistar-Kyoto rats were elicited in the absence and presence of an antagonist of α7 nAChR, the calcium chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, a calmodulin-specific inhibitor, nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor, endothelial NOS (eNOS)-selective inhibitor or neuronal NOS (nNOS)-specific inhibitor. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Sialic acids are negatively charged groups in the carbohydrate side chains of glycolipids and glycoproteins which line the external membrane surface. (elsevier.com)
  • The goal of this study was to characterize the effect of neuraminidase, which selectively cleaves sialic acids, on contractile activity in vascular smooth muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • The measurement of changes in nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) levels in cells has been, and remains, key to the investigation of the functions of NAADP as a Ca2+ -releasing second messenger. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we provide details of how to isolate NAADP from cells by extraction with perchloric acid and then measure the NAADP using a radioreceptor assay. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • 3. STDs and slow waves were abolished by niflumic acid or low chloride solution and also by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), BAPTA or high concentrations of caffeine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The augmentation of norepinephrine-induced contractions following neuraminidase treatment was reversed by incubation of the arterial strips with N-acetylneuraminic acid (10 -4 M). Neuraminidase had no effect on contractile responses to potassium chloride, angiotensin II, and caffeine. (elsevier.com)
  • 5. Examination of the size of the depolarization-induced response after 5 min bathing without stimulation in a very low [Ca2+] solution (-log10[Ca2+] (pCa) greater than 8.0, 1 mM-BAPTA (1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid), indicated that the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lost far more Ca2+ at pH 7.6 and 8.0 than at pH 7.1 or 6.1. (edu.au)
  • Propranolol, an inhibitor of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, inhibited both the thrombin-induced diacylglycerol formation and DNA synthesis. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In carbohydrate science , Sugar Acids , as an acyclic acid , are acidic sugars. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • It is concluded that a component for the control of the transmembrane calcium movement in response to norepinephrine is dependent on the presence of sialic acid residues. (elsevier.com)
  • Fogelson H. Protein C deficiency related to valproic acid therapy:.Dose drug of choice for status epilepticus what does pills look like does. (egesirket.tk)
  • A.R. y Feria-Velasco, A.: Effects of corn-feeding and protein restriction on free amino acid. (egesirket.tk)
  • Pentetic Acid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • patients if serum valproic acid rest as then got. (bitcoinan.ga)
  • Verapamil and egtazic acid were used to testify whether the. (s-game.tk)
  • 40 20 0 (S)-Verapamil (µg/L) Time (h). mg/kg/day significantly reduced mortality in male.Do not exceed 10 mg simvastatin daily: Amiodarone Amlodipine Verapamil Diltiazem: Do not exceed 20 mg simvastatin daily: Fusidic acid: Patients should.En esta página encontrarás 4 proveedores proveedores de Verapamil a quienes puedes solicitarles cotización sin costo ni compromiso de Verapamil. (s-game.tk)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Pentetic Acid" by people in this website by year, and whether "Pentetic Acid" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Pentetic Acid" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • We have investigated possible roles of RhoA and H 2 O 2 in the elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ](i)) by phosphatidic acid (PA) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. (elsevier.com)