Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.PaperPeritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Peritoneum: A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Hemodialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Carisoprodol: A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)Kluyvera: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. It is found in FOOD; SOIL; and SEWAGE; and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans.Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Scenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Trametes: A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.TextilesCarmine: Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.Drainage, Sanitary: A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Hemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Nitrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments and thus effect whitening.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Linuron: A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Bradyrhizobiaceae: A proposed family of bacteria belonging to the alpha-2 subgroup of PROTEOBACTERIA.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Hydrocharitaceae: A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Water SofteningDenaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Homosteroids: Steroids whose structure has been expanded by the addition of one or more carbon atoms to the ring skeleton in any of the four rings.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)o-Phthalaldehyde: A reagent that forms fluorescent conjugation products with primary amines. It is used for the detection of many biogenic amines, peptides, and proteins in nanogram quantities in body fluids.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Bacteria, AnaerobicMethane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Ischemic Postconditioning: The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.Peritoneal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The process effluents are treated in a biological effluent treatment plant, which guarantees that the effluents are not toxic ... "Effluents from Pulp Mills using Bleaching - PSL1". ISBN 0-662-18734-2 DSS. Health Canada. 1991. Retrieved 2007-09-21.. ... Effluents from pulp mills[edit]. Main articles: Kraft process, Sulfite process, and Bleaching of wood pulp ...
A Common Effluent Treatment facility of one million litre per day capacity is established to process all the sewage and ... "Water and Effluents". Cochin Special Economic Zone. Retrieved 2010-11-20. "Notification No. 397/86-C.E., dated 26-8-1986". Govt ... Zone units are required to send all their sewage and effluent to this treatment plant. Units are encouraged to undergo ISO ...
Pimpri Chinchwad sources its water from the Pavana river but release of domestic and industrial effluents, dumping of debris ... Gaikwad, Siddharth (June 13, 2011). "Effluents, debris, waste choke Pavana". Times of India. Retrieved 29 January 2012. " ...
Effluent treatment. 1. A low cost hollow fiber membrane spinning unit 2. Complete table top set up of hollow fiber membrane ...
"Effluent limitations." CWA sec. 301(b), 33 U.S.C. § 1311(b); "Effluent limitation guidelines." CWA sec. 304(b), 33 U.S.C. § ... The effluent limitations for U.S. facilities are implemented in discharge permits issued by state agencies and EPA, under the ... Effluent limitations are legal requirements governing the discharge of pollutants into surface waters. Such standards set ... The Clean Water Act requires the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop effluent guidelines - national ...
"Unconventional Extraction in the Oil and Gas Industry". Effluent Guidelines. EPA. 2016. Water Quality Act of 1987, Pub.L. 100-4 ...
"Secondary Treatment Regulation." Code of Federal Regulations, 40 C.F.R. 133 EPA (2016). "Effluent Guidelines." U.S. Resource ... National standards for industrial dischargers are called Effluent guidelines (for existing sources) and New Source Performance ...
... effluent treatment; elongated grain and filterability penalties and air pollution by developing suitable equipment to meet the ...
"Discharge of effluents into water channel continues". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 December 2016. "Wide and clean now". The Hindu. ... Most of these units discharge their untreated effluents into this canal leading to high pollution, causing several health ... "Concern over discharge of untreated effluents". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 December 2016. "Printed and dyed fabrics washed in ...
Phelps, Earle B. (1909). "The Disinfection of Sewage and Sewage Filter Effluents." Water-Supply Paper 229. Washington, DC:U.S. ... Prior to 1909, Phelps conducted numerous experiments on chlorination of sewage and sewage disposal plant effluents. He worked ... Phelps, Earle B. (1910). "Disinfection of Sewage and Sewage Effluents." Transactions American Society for Municipal ... Phelps was a strong proponent of the chlorination of sewage and sewage disposal plant effluents before discharge into a lake or ...
... in liquid effluents. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, self-illuminating exit signs improperly disposed in ...
Davies, Anna (6 June 2009). "The Effluent Society". Hackney Citizen. Retrieved 13 July 2013. "There is a Place - Exhibition @ ...
"Whole Effluent Toxicity". Environmental Protection Agency. 2013-09-12. Retrieved 2013-11-29. Washabaugh, William; Washabaugh, ...
"Dental Effluent Guidelines". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2017-07-07. "NJDEP-Division of Water ... EPA promulgated an effluent guidelines regulation in 2017 which prohibits most dental practices from disposing amalgam waste ... EPA (2017-06-14). "Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Dental Category." Federal Register, 82 FR 27154 ...
Cameroon Postline (August 30, 2011). "Affluent Cocoa Sector; Effluent Cocoa Farmers". Ernest Ndukong. Retrieved 11 September ...
"Dental Effluent Guidelines". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2017-07-07. EPA (2017-06-14). " ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated an effluent guidelines regulation in 2017 which prohibits most ... "Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Dental Category." Federal Register, 82 FR 27154 "Dental Amalgam; Fact ...
Part II: Harmful effects of fire effluents. Elsevier. pp. 123-124. ISBN 9781845698072. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Lindholm, ...
Environmental engineering: distribution of pollutant and effluents. Hydrology and oceanography: flows in rivers, estuaries and ...
This will be varied with different effluents. Effluents can be first processed by a strain of yeast Candida tropicalis JKS2 ...
There are similar problems with industrial effluents. With urbanisation and industrialisation set to accelerate, these ...
The process effluents are treated in a biological effluent treatment plant, which guarantees that the effluents are not toxic ... p. 4. ISBN 0-615-13013-5. "Effluents from Pulp Mills using Bleaching - PSL1". ISBN 0-662-18734-2 DSS. Health Canada. 1991. ...
Part II: Harmful effects of fire effluents. Elsevier. pp. 123-124. ISBN 9781845698072. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Johnson, ...
To the south of the lake is Marta, on the right bank of the Marta River, sole effluent of the lake. The shore there is straight ... no effluents enter the lake. Fertilizers are a second source of contamination. However, the chemical content of the lake is ...
Part II: Harmful effects of fire effluents. Elsevier. pp. 123-124. ISBN 9781845698072. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Lindholm, ...
... environmental effects associated with mill effluent. Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans Regulations: ... Recycling the effluent (see black liquor) and burning it, using bioremediation ponds and employing less damaging agents in the ... Effluents from Pulp Mills using Bleaching - PSL1. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada and Environment Canada. 1991. ISBN 0-662-18734-2. ... "Effluent Guidelines and Standards; Part 430-Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Point Source Category." Federal Register, 39 FR 18742, ...
... effluent that has been treated is sometimes called secondary effluent, or treated effluent. This cleaner effluent is then used ... Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure. Effluent, in engineering, is ... Effluent only refers to liquid discharge. In sugar beet processing, effluent is often settled in water tanks that allow the mud ... An effluent sump pump, for instance, pumps waste from toilets installed below a main sewage line. Similar to wastewater ...
Biotreatment of industrial effluents. [Mukesh Doble; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi] -- The most comprehensive coverage of effluents ... Biotreatment of industrial effluents. Author:. Mukesh Doble; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi. Publisher:. Amsterdam ; Boston : Elsevier ... Effluent Discharge-Points to Keep in Mind --. Different Treatment Procedures and Factors Affecting Technology Selection --. ... Tannery Effluent --. Biochemical Treatment --. Chromium --. Conclusions --. References --. Bibliography --. 13. Treatment of ...
Dental Effluent Guidelines. EPA has promulgated pretreatment standards to reduce discharges of mercury from dental offices into ... For additional information regarding the Dental Effluent Guidelines final rule, please email [email protected] . ...
An effluent sewer that uses gravity may be called a septic tank effluent gravity (STEG) system, while a pumping system may be ... Effluent sewer systems, also called septic tank effluent drainage (STED) or solids-free sewer (SFS) systems, have septic tanks ... While an effluent sewer can use gravity to move waste, the ability to move waste with a pressure system can be a big advantage ... Effluent pumping systems have pipes that are buried at a constant depth, such as a metre and a half, and rely on pumping ...
Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines. *Rule Summary. Rule Summary. EPA promulgated the Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines and Standards ... The Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines apply to wastewater discharges from facilities in six subcategories:. *Coal Preparation ... The Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines and Standards are incorporated into NPDES permits. ... For additional information regarding Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines, please contact Ron Jordan ([email protected]) or 202- ...
If treated wastewater effluent is used in carefully controlled irrigation at an application rate of 5000 m3/ha.year, an area of ... Thus, when effluent use is being planned, several factors related to soil properties must be taken into consideration. A ... and assuming an application rate of 5000 m3/ha.year, the fertilizer contribution of the effluent would be: N - 250 kg/ha. year ... It is known that nematode infections, in particular from the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, can be spread by effluent reuse ...
The dye-containing effluents are recalcitrant to biodegradation and... ... The dye-containing effluents are recalcitrant to biodegradation and responsible for toxicity and difficult to remove out from ... Elango G, Rathika G, Elango S (2017) Physico-chemical parameters of textile dyeing effluent and its impacts with case study. ... Rao KCLN, Krishnaiah K, Ashutush (1994) Color removal from a dye stuff industry effluent using activated carbon. Indian J Chem ...
Catskill Lower Effluent Chamber. Routine Monitoring Pathogen Data. DEP routinely schedules and collects samples for protozoan ...
Downloadable! The present article investigates the use of performance standards to correct environmental externalities. Each firm in an industry emits waste in the production process, and, in turn, the average waste emissions of the industry adversely affect the firms productivity. The firm, which incurs sunk costs when employing capital to abate waste emissions, is uncertain about the efficiency of capital. The firm will underestimate environmental externalities and will therefore pollute more than is socially efficient. To correct this tendency, the regulator can set a limit on either emissions or the emission‐output ratio at the socially efficient level. The firm will invest more, produce more, and pollute less when the regulator implements the former than when the regulator implements the latter.
... Pardon K. Kuipa1,2 and Olga Kuipa1 ... This requires the use of innovative and efficient methods for the removal and recycling of pesticides from aqueous effluent ...
Coagulant, deinking, effluent, flexography, magazines, newspapers, ultrafiltration, washing. Related Search. *Flexographic ... Wash filtrate effluents generated from mixtures of old flexographic and offset newspapers and old magazines were pretreated ... Coagulation pretreatment of wash filtrate effluents with a commercial cationic coagulant or alum significantly improved ... Coagulation pretreatment for ultrafiltration of deinking effluents containing flexographic inks. Progress in paper recycling. ( ...
R. P. Neupane, Effect of Industrial Effluents on Agricultural Crops and Soil [Dissertation, thesis], A Dissertation submitted ... H. K. Mandal, "Effect of temperature on electrical conductivity in industrial effluents," Recent Research in Sci and Tech, vol ... An Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Industrial Effluents in Nepal. Abhinay Man Shrestha,1 Sanjila Neupane,1 ... Samples of industrial effluents from 5 industrial regions in the country were collected and their physicochemical analysis was ...
The Rotorua Lakes Council has just moved a step closer to a new wastewater treatment plan that will see treated effluent pumped ... Treated effluent in lake scheme moves step closer 15 Jun, 2016 11:16am 3 minutes to read ... The Rotorua Lakes Council has just moved a step closer to a new wastewater treatment plan that will see treated effluent pumped ... Lake Rotorua could soon have treated effluent pumped into it. PHOTO/FILE. ...
Effluents can also contain inorganic wastes such as brine salts and metals. The Clean Water Act has standards for the permitted ...
Many refinery product streams, particularly those from Ultra Low Hydrodesulfurisation units, are prone to haze due to water emulsions. Haze is also problematic for biodiesel production, as hazy fuel cannot be used until the haze settles or is removed, which creates costly scheduling and shipping delays. This project will develop a novel membrane process for the removal of dissolved and dispersed water from fuels in real time. In Phase I, the membrane was developed and feasibility was demonstrated on multiple fuels. An economic evaluation showed that the cost of dewatering with the membranes would be very attractive. Phase II will involve the fabrication of both a small scale (e.g., 1-5 ft2) laboratory prototype and a large commercial size unit (e.g., 50 ft2). Based on the Phase I study, the long term performance of the membrane modules (both the laboratory and field unit) will be enhanced, and performance over a four-year lifetime will be demonstrated. Dewatering tests will be conducted both at ...
... industrial effluent treatment sewage treatment process industrial effluent phosphate removal ... Dairy Crest - Dairy Effluent Treatment Case Study and Partech Water Instruments. Sep. 15, 2015. In order to comply with ... In the case of the final effluent the result should be the best approximation of total phosphorus as that is the consent ... The addition of aluminium or ferric salts has the potential to lower the pH of the effluent although most UK wastewaters have ...
Get the latest effluent monitoring news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... effluent monitoring News. Related terms for "effluent monitoring ": wastewater effluent monitoring news , effluent monitoring ... QuickTOC®effluent Precise TOC measurement at the WWTPs effluent - Ideal for drinking water monitoring - Brand new product for ... system news , industrial effluent monitoring news , effluent monitoring package news , mining effluent monitoring news ...
SEWAGE & EFFLUENT. WATER MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS FOR AFRICA. ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: 6 print editions + 25 e-mail bulletins South ...
The Other Effluent. Neighbors object to unpleasant odors emitted at wastewater treatment plants, and dealing with such odors ... Odors: The Other Effluent by Richard J. Pope, Associate; Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, NY, Jeffery M. Lauria, (M.ASCE), ... Subject Headings: Odors , Biological processes , Effluents , Wastewater treatment plants , Occupational safety , Training , ...
... clarification and filtering the effluent stream to remove suspended solid particles to provide a filtered stream. The filtered ... Provided is a method of removing carboxylic acids from effluent streams comprising the steps of pretreatment which may include ... Filtered effluent is removed at a rate of 980 gpm.. The filtered effluent is added to the high pressure side of a first ... Plant effluent being introduced by the process of the invention along line 8 can contain up to 0.2 wt. % suspended solids and ...
... the government has notified a revised standards for common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) being operated at various ... Govt revises standards for effluent treatment plants. By: FE Bureau , New Delhi , Published: January 16, 2016 12:26:36 AM ... for studying the impact of disposal of treated effluent on land. "The monitoring of the soil and water quality would be carried ... the government has notified a revised standards for common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) being operated at various ...
Biopolymers in solution affect effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD). Coagulation tests were performed on the effluent with ... Modeling of effluent organics in the activated-sludge process can be enhanced through incorporation of concepts that take into ... Keywords: ACTIVATED SLUDGE; BIOPOLYMER; CATION; CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND; EFFLUENT; IRON; POLYSACCHARIDE; PROTEIN; SOLUBLE ... Laboratory experiments and field tests were conducted to determine the effect of inorganic cations on effluent from activated- ...
The copper recovery from the etching effluent using electrodialysis was experimentally studied. Cupric ions was separated and ... concentrated from the strong hydrochloric acid-based copper containing etching effluent with electrodialysis. After the ...
This decreasing trend has followed Vogtle improvements in pre-processing their liquid effluents. These effluents continue to be ... Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends ... During 1991, the radioactive effluents in the Savannah River were somewhat less than those observed in 1990. ... low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle ...
... M. Šabić ; University of Zagreb Faculty of Chemical Engineering ... meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment.. ...
  • Laboratory experiments and field tests were conducted to determine the effect of inorganic cations on effluent from activated-sludge systems. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Modeling of effluent organics in the activated-sludge process can be enhanced through incorporation of concepts that take into account the partitioning (between floc and solution) of microbial biopolymers and influent recalcitrant substrate. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The application of BioRemove 5805 to an activated sludge plant reduced effluent ammonia by 97.5% to bring the facility into compliance and meet effluent quality standards. (novozymes.com)
  • Effluent dissolved organic matter (EfOM) collected from the secondary-treated wastewater of the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) located in Fountain Valley, California, USA was compared to natural organic matter collected from the Suwannee River (SRNOM), Florida using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Furthermore, the two different treatment processes at OCSD, activated sludge and trickling filter, were separately investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. (unt.edu)
  • During 1991, the radioactive effluents in the Savannah River were somewhat less than those observed in 1990. (unt.edu)
  • This study was carried out to determine the potential of coagulation pretreatment with organic or inorganic coagulants to improve ultrafiltration performance during processing of wash deinking effluents containing flexographic inks. (usda.gov)
  • Effluents can also contain inorganic wastes such as brine salts and metals . (orst.edu)
  • This document presents the elements proposed by Environment Canada for the preparation of pollution prevention plans for ammonia 1 , inorganic chloramines and chlorinated wastewater effluents. (gc.ca)
  • This document is supporting, and is to be used with, Environment Canada's Proposed Risk Management Strategy addressing Ammonia, Inorganic Chloramines and Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents under CEPA 1999. (gc.ca)
  • The following is a working document presenting the main elements that Environment Canada proposes to include in a section 56 notice requiring the preparation and implementation of pollution prevention plans for ammonia, inorganic chloramines and chlorinated wastewater effluents under Part 4 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999). (gc.ca)
  • The installation of a Total Organic Carbon (TOC) monitor has improved the wastewater treatment process for Greencore Foods, a UK-based food manufacturer whose effluent can contain an array of inorganic salts and organic components which enter the waste water stream. (controlengeurope.com)
  • Its effluent can contain an array of inorganic salts and organic components which enter the waste stream in part from the intense wash down of processing tanks and lines during clean in place procedures for product changeover. (controlengeurope.com)
  • At this time of year, total dissolvable manganese proved to be a better as a tracer for urban effluents than dissolved inorganic silicate, which in an earlier winter study had been found to be a suitable tracer. (lu.se)
  • We strongly recommend further characterization and purification of seafood production effluents for identification of nutrients and potentially bioactive compounds for use e.g. in food, feed or as nutraceuticals. (nordicinnovation.org)
  • The dye-containing effluents are recalcitrant to biodegradation and responsible for toxicity and difficult to remove out from water bodies. (springer.com)
  • The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC 50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII 50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. (srce.hr)
  • This study demonstrated the utility of biological tests of whole effluents to determine toxicity of wastewater effluents. (usgs.gov)
  • The chambers provide a simple, inexpensive, sensitive technique to screen effluents for toxicity. (unt.edu)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that a cost-effective alternative approach would be to measure effluent toxicity by exposing aquatic organisms to effluents in "bioassays. (nap.edu)
  • Coagulation pretreatment of wash filtrate effluents with a commercial cationic coagulant or alum significantly improved ultrafiltration and reduced fouling up to a coagulant concentration of 10 mg/L. Addition of an excessive amount of a cationic coagulant had a very detrimental effect on membrane performance. (usda.gov)
  • In the case of the final effluent the result should be the best approximation of total phosphorus as that is the consent criteria, so the less filtration the better but the system needs to be protected from potential blockage. (environmental-expert.com)
  • As 0.45 micron is the declared analytical cutoff for 'soluble orthophosphate' level of filtration gives a meaningful result but is it representative of the final effluent? (environmental-expert.com)
  • Mirror industry effluent laden with metal ions (Ag+ and Cu2+/Fe3+/Fe2+) when treated with cellulose nanocomposite membranes, showed high ion removal capacity, being 100% for PCNCSL followed by CNCBE than CNCSL. (diva-portal.org)
  • Removal of fluoride from fertilizer industry effluent using carbon nanotubes stabilized in chitosan sponge. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The kinetics assays of fluoride from industry effluent were performed in different stirring rates from 100 to 300 rpm. (fluoridealert.org)
  • We report detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in hemodialysis effluent from a patient in Japan with coronavirus disease and prolonged inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • We report detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in hemodialysis effluent from a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia and prolonged inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) scan of a patient on hemodialysis diagnosed with positive reverse transcription PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in hemodialysis effluent, Japan. (cdc.gov)
  • We tested hemodialysis effluent for SARS-CoV-2 on day 2. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to evaluate the viral diversity and loads in WWTP effluents of the Paris, France, urban area, which includes about 9 million inhabitants (approximately 15% of the French population), the seasonal occurrence of astroviruses and noroviruses in 100 WWTP effluent samples was investigated over 1 year. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the viral diversity in WWTP effluents to the viral diversity found by analysis of clinical data obtained throughout France underlined the consistency between the identified genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, analysis of WWTP effluents could allow the exploration of viral diversity not only in environmental waters but also in a human population linked to a sewerage network in order to better comprehend viral epidemiology and to forecast seasonal outbreaks. (nih.gov)
  • Heat map representing the number of OTUs which were identified to be NoV GII.4 in WWTP effluents for each season. (nih.gov)
  • Calculated estradiol equivalents (EEQ) were 33.4, 22.4, 1.7 ng (EEQ) L(-1) in the hospital effluent, WWTP influent and WWTP effluent, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The main goal for the PIPE project is to test cutting edge technologies, to separate water and organic material from pelagic industries effluents and to characterize as well as valorise the organic material collected. (nordicinnovation.org)
  • Menkiti, M.C., Nnaji, P.C., Nwoye, O.D. and Onukwuli, O.D. (2010) Coa-Flocculation Kinetics and Functional Parameters Response of Mucuna Seed Coagulant to pH Variation in Organic Rich Coal Washery Effluent Medium. (scirp.org)
  • The high BOD5 content of the effluent may also affect the survival of gill breathing animals of the receiving water body and high COD value indicates toxic state of the wastewater along with presence of biologically resistant organic substances. (scirp.org)
  • Effluent organic removal and a 30-day sludge age normally support a healthy nitrifying bacterial population. (novozymes.com)
  • Low effluent pH of less than 7.0 may be caused by organic overloading or low oxygen conditions. (watertechonline.com)
  • A high effluent ammonia concentration may also be caused by organic overloading, low oxygen concentration, short hydraulic detention time and the release of ammonia from old digesting sludge, most commonly in the late summer and fall at warm lagoon temperatures. (watertechonline.com)
  • Sustainable livestock effluent management is becoming an increasingly important issue in mountain areas, with particular regard to the agro-environmental performance of forage production and the social acceptability of organic fertilizer application in mixed urban-rural contexts. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, creating multiple-farm cooperation in livestock effluent management represents a chance to address the sustainable use of organic fertilizers on alpine meadows. (frontiersin.org)
  • First off, by the time it pours forth from a Lake Monticello tap, Charlottesville's effluent has been extensively treated to remove organic content. (readthehook.com)
  • EPA promulgated the Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines and Standards ( 40 CFR Part 434 ) in 1975, and amended the regulation in 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1985 and 2002. (epa.gov)
  • The Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines and Standards are incorporated into NPDES permits . (epa.gov)
  • The following table provides links to the Government PrintingOffice's site for Effluent Guidelines and Standards of 40 CFR Subchapter N WEB pages foreach part. (scdhec.gov)
  • The effluents of mainstream anaerobic treatment processes such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) contain dissolved methane that represents a large fraction of the available energy (approximately 50% at 15 °C) and a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission if released to the atmosphere. (rsc.org)
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the efficiency of removing phosphate from a membrane bioreactor effluent (pH 7.0-7.5, 20, 35 mg phosphate/L) produced in a water reclamation plant by adsorption onto Dowex 21K XLT ion exchange resin and recover the phosphate as fertilisers. (mdpi.com)
  • Throughout the PIPE-project, effluent streams covering all steps in the marinated herring production i.e. from boat to the final marinated products, have been carefully characterized including different products type and over different seasons. (nordicinnovation.org)
  • Based on the ability of some specific aquatic plants to concentrate metals in their roots, we propose an innovative biosorption system to clean up mining effluents. (springer.com)
  • The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L −1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min). (mdpi.com)
  • Kaplay and Patode (2004) [ 3 ] observed that groundwater from the region of New Nanded, Maharashtra, India, demonstrated higher content of total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl, Total Hydrocarbons (TH), Ca, Mg, and SO 4 , with the source of pollution being reported as effluents from the nearby industries. (hindawi.com)
  • The government has approved a revised sum of Rs 135.44 crore for a common effluent treatment plant (CETP) in West Bengal that will help reduce pollution in river Ganga. (indiatimes.com)
  • The Supreme Court directed the concerned State's Pollution Control Board to issue notice to all industries through a common advertisement, to make their primary effluent treatment plant fully operational within 3 months duration, to obtain a 'consent to operate' from the concerned Pollution Control Board. (mondaq.com)
  • This direction is to ensure that all industries have a 'functional' effluent treatment plant rather than a treatment plant just for the show to obtain permission from the concerned Pollution Control Board. (mondaq.com)
  • Preliminary test work has shown that it should be possible to treat the seepage effectively with RO for pollution control, effluent volume reduction and water recovery. (csir.co.za)
  • It is considered that the use of effluent from biodigesters for growing duckweeds could be a way of increasing feed availability for animals and at the same time reducing problems of pollution to the environment. (lrrd.org)
  • Coagulation tests were performed on the effluent with ferric chloride. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Menkiti, M.C., Osoka, E.C. and Onukwuli, O.D. (2008) Perikinetics Coagulation/Flocculation of Coal Washery Effluent Colloid with high Suspended Particle: Using Periwinkle Shell Coagulant (PSC). (scirp.org)
  • Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. (mdpi.com)
  • Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. (mdpi.com)
  • Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. (mdpi.com)
  • Lv J, Feng J, Liu Q, Xie S. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work. (mdpi.com)
  • Full-scale willow evapotranspiration systems fed from the base with septic tank or secondary treated domestic effluent from single houses have been constructed and instrumented in Ireland in order to investigate whether the technology could provide a solution to the problem of on-site effluent disposal in areas with low permeability subsoils. (mdpi.com)
  • The problems focused at the evaporation plant from where secondary condensates containing black liquor were discharged to the effluent treatment plant, they were neutralised and finally released into Lake Saimaa. (upm.com)
  • The richest effluents were subjected to separation trials using electro flocculation and ceramic membranes, alone or combined. (nordicinnovation.org)
  • This study investigated the coag-flocculation performance of oxidized starch coagulant (OSC) and its blends with alum and FeCl 3 in removing turbidity from coal washery effluent at room temperature. (scirp.org)
  • The method developed demonstrated that recalcitrant or very slowly reactive forms of DON can be separated from the bioavailable effluent DON with an XAD-8 resin cartridge based on the different hydrophobicity of these two fractions of DON. (werf.org)
  • Samples taken from 10 different BNR facilities indicated that all these effluents contained a recalcitrant DON fraction, and that the hydrophobic effluent DON compounds are not readily available for algae consumption with retention times of up to about 20 days. (werf.org)
  • Dans ce rapport, nous exposerons successivement: - les possibilites de rejet du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, - les effluents du centre, - le dispositif de collecte des effluents, - le traitement de ces effluents, - les resultats de ces traitements. (osti.gov)
  • However, the catalytic reforming reaction also involves a hydrocracking function which segments hydrocarbons into relatively low molecular weight hydrocarbons, e.g. normally gaseous hydrocarbons, such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, etc. and, in particular, C2-ihydrocarbons which then become contaminants in the gaseous hydrogen which is separated from the effluent of the reaction zone. (google.com)
  • Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). (cornell.edu)
  • 40 CFR 430.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). (cornell.edu)
  • Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). (cornell.edu)