Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Relating to the size of solids.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The consumption of edible substances.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
The motion of air currents.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values. (1/1092)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area.  (+info)

Image processing strategies in picture archiving and communication systems. (2/1092)

An image processing strategy is presented that assures very similar soft-copy presentation on diagnostic workstations of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) over the lifetime of an image file and simultaneously provides efficient work-flow. The strategy is based on rigid partitioning of image processing into application- and display-device-specific processing. Application-specific processing is optimized for a reference display system. A description of this system is attached to the file header of the application-specifically processed image which is stored in the PACS. Every diagnostic display system automatically reproduces the image quality for which the application-specific processing was optimized by adjusting its properties by display-system-specific processing so that the system becomes effectively equal to the reference display system.  (+info)

Referral of patients to an anticoagulant clinic: implications for better management. (3/1092)

The quality of anticoagulant treatment of ambulatory patients is affected by the content of referral letters and administrative processes. To assess these influences a method was developed to audit against the hospital standard the referral of patients to one hospital anticoagulant clinic in a prospective study of all (80) new patients referred to the clinic over eight months. Administrative information was provided by the clinic coordinator, and the referral letters were audited by the researchers. Referral letters were not received by the clinic for 10% (8/80) of patients. Among the 72 referral letters received, indication for anticoagulation and anticipated duration of treatment were specified in most (99%, 71 and 81%, 58 respectively), but only 3% (two) to 46% (33) reported other important clinical information (objective investigations, date of starting anticoagulation, current anticoagulant dose, date and result of latest international normalised ratio, whether it should be the anticoagulant clinic that was eventually to stop anticoagulation, patients' other medical problems and concurrent treatment. Twenty two per cent (16/80) of new attenders were unexpected at the anticoagulant clinic. Most patients' case notes were obtained for the appointment (61%, 47/77 beforehand and 30% 23/77 on the day), but case notes were not obtained for 9% (7/77). The authors conclude that health professionals should better appreciate the administrative and organisational influences that affect team work and quality of care. Compliance with a well documented protocol remained below the acceptable standard. The quality of the referral process may be improved by using a more comprehensive and helpful referral form, which has been drawn up, and by educating referring doctors. Measures to increase the efficiency of the administrative process include telephoning the clinic coordinator directly, direct referrals through a computerised referral system, and telephone reminders by haematology office staff to ward staff to ensure availability of the hospital notes. The effect of these changes will be assessed in a repeat audit.  (+info)

The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options. (4/1092)

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government.  (+info)

Quality: link with effectiveness. (5/1092)

In summary, though the notion of "quality of care" has become fashionable, most of the focus has been on initiatives such as the patient's charter, waiting times, quality of the physical environment, patient centredness in outcomes measurement, etc. Nevertheless, at the heart of quality must be the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of interventions. Without ensuring that health technologies are effective and are delivered appropriately then many of the other dimensions of quality may simply be window dressing. Substantial variations in the rates of procedures, the way in which similar patients are treated, and the degree to which professionals often ignore the best scientific evidence have all been well documented. The NHS needs methods for ensuring that the effectiveness dimension of quality is brought to the fore and becomes a routine part of quality assessment and activity. Clinical autonomy can no longer be an excuse for inappropriate care. The challenge for the future is twofold: to increase the amount of health technology assessment carried out and to develop methods of ensuring that health care converges with this best practice--that is, the promotion of evidence based practice. By introducing evidence based clinical guidelines and associated utilisation review and persuading purchasers to "purchase protocols" rather than just procedures the effectiveness dimension may become more routine, but it will require a radical rethink of the type of data collected and the way in which the purchaser provider split is managed.  (+info)

Managing the health care market in developing countries: prospects and problems. (6/1092)

There is increasing interest in the prospects for managed market reforms in developing countries, stimulated by current reforms and policy debates in developed countries, and by perceptions of widespread public sector inefficiency in many countries. This review examines the prospects for such reforms in a developing country context, primarily by drawing on the arguments and evidence emerging from developed countries, with a specific focus on the provision of hospital services. The paper begins with a discussion of the current policy context of these reforms, and their main features. It argues that while current and proposed reforms vary in detail, most have in common the introduction of competition in the provision of health care, with the retention of a public monopoly of financing, and that this structure emerges from the dual goals of addressing current public sector inefficiencies while retaining the known equity and efficiency advantages of public health systems. The paper then explores the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence for and against these reforms, and examines their relevance for developing countries. Managed markets are argued to enhance both efficiency and equity. These arguments are analysed in terms of three distinct claims made by their proponents: that managed markets will promote increased provider competition, and hence, provider efficiency; that contractual relationships are more efficient than direct management; and that the benefits of managed markets will outweigh their costs. The analysis suggests that on all three issues, the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence remain ambiguous, and that this ambiguity is attributable in part to poor understanding of the behaviour of health sector agents within the market, and to the limited experience with these reforms. In the context of developing countries, the paper argues that most of the conditions required for successful implementation of these reforms are absent in all but a few, richer developing countries, and that the costs of these reforms, particularly in equity terms, are likely to pose substantial problems. Extensive managed market reforms are therefore unlikely to succeed, although limited introduction of particular elements of these reforms may be more successful. Developed country experience is useful in defining the conditions under which such limited reforms may succeed. There is an urgent need to evaluate the existing experience of different forms of contracting in developing countries, as well as to interpret emerging evidence from developed country reforms in the light of conditions in developing countries.  (+info)

Community asthma clinics: 1993 survey of primary care by the National Asthma Task Force. (7/1092)

OBJECTIVES: To establish a baseline of work done in primary care asthma clinics in the United Kingdom and to assess the degree of clinical delegation to nurses and the appropriateness of their training. DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire survey of asthma care in general practices and a subsidiary survey of all family health services authorities (FHSAs) of the number of asthma clinics in their area. SETTING: All 14,251 general practices in the United Kingdom and 117 FHSAs or health boards (Scotland and Northern Ireland). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 4327 (30.4%) general practices, 54% being completed by practice nurses and 22% by general practitioners; in 24% profession was not stated. In all, 77.2% (3339/4327) of respondents ran an asthma clinic. 60 FHSAs state the number of asthma clinics at the time of the general practice survey (total 3653 clinics); within responding FHSAs 1702 (46.6%) practices running an asthma clinic replied to the general practice survey. Clinics exclusive for patients with asthma mostly occurred in practices with five or more general practitioners (70.2%), compared with single-handed practices (31.7%). The average number of asthma clinics run per practice was five a month; the average duration was 2 hours and 20 minutes. 1131 (48.8%) nurses ran clinics by themselves, 1180 (47.9%) with the doctor, and 39 (1.7%) had no medical input. Comprehensive questioning occurred other than for nasal (872, 26.1%) or oesophageal (335, 10.0%) symptoms and use of aspirin and non-steroidal drugs (1161, 33.4%). Growth in children was measured by only a third of respondents. Of the 1131 nurses who ran clinics alone, 251 (22.2%) did so without formal training entailing assessment. CONCLUSION: Asthma clinics are now common in general practice and much of their work is done by nurses, a significant minority of whom may not have had sufficient training. IMPLICATIONS: As this survey is probably biased toward the more asthma aware practices, greater deficiencies in training and standards may exist in other practices. Further evaluation of the effectiveness of asthma clinics is needed.  (+info)

Health services research in the English-speaking Caribbean 1984-93: a quantitative review. (8/1092)

Evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of health services is important for all countries, especially those with limited resources. This study aimed to evaluate the volume and quality of health services research (HSR) conducted in one developing region, the English-speaking Caribbean. Data were abstracted from all 770 abstracts describing presentations at the annual scientific meetings of the Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council for the decade 1984 to 1993. Of these, 341 abstracts were judged to report health services research and were from the English-speaking Caribbean. Hospital services were evaluated in 240 (70%) reports while primary health services were evaluated in only 90 (26%). Most hospital-based studies evaluated the use and outcome of medical and surgical services through the collection of case series and cohorts of cases, with a median sample size of 104 (interquartile range 38 to 320). Evaluations at primary level were more likely to evaluate need or demand for services, were more likely to report cross sectional surveys or randomized trials and included larger numbers of subjects (median 343, interquartile range 121 to 661). Patient-based measures of health status and measures of resource use were not often reported at either primary or secondary level. Estimation and hypothesis testing were infrequently employed in data analysis. A large proportion of the research presented could be classified as HSR but measures are needed to increase the motivation for research into primary care and to improve skills in HSR study design, conduct and analysis among those presently conducting research.  (+info)

Previous researches have proved the positive effect of creative human capital and its development on the development of economy. Yet, the technical efficiency of creative human capital and its effects are still under research. The authors are trying to estimate the technical efficiency value in Chinese context, which is adjusted by the environmental variables and statistical noises, by establishing a three-stage data envelopment analysis model, using data from 2003 to 2010. The research results indicate that, in this period, the entirety of creative human capital in China and the technical efficiency value in different regions and different provinces is still in the low level and could be promoted. Otherwise, technical non-efficiency is mostly derived from the scale nonefficiency and rarely affected by pure technical efficiency. The research also examines environmental variables’ marked effects on the technical efficiency, and it shows that different environmental variables differ in the aspect
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Evaluation of efficiency in the health care sector is an important topic of public policy. This paper analyzes technical efficiency of 119 Czech hospitals in 2005 by data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA is a method based on the production theory and the mathematical programming that specifies the production frontier as the most pessimistic piecewise linear envelopment of the data. We analyze the sample with the input-oriented constant-returns-to-scale model (the CCR-I model) and the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model (the BCC-I model). For an inefficient hospital, the method determines the sources of inefficiency and corresponding target values. We found no strong correlation between technical efficiency and wages of health personnel ...
Past literature has examined the importance of farm programs on the volatility and returns on general and agriculture economic growth. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of farm program payments on technical efficiency. The study used aggregate state level panel data from the U.S agricultural sector. Results indicate production increasing with increasing units of inputs. Results from this study indicate that farm program payments play an important role in technical efficiency. For example, farm program payments indicate a negative and positive effect on mean and variance of technical efficiency in the long-run and short-run, respectively Ranjan, Rahul; Shaik, Saleem; Mishra, Ashok K.
Background Improving efficiency of health sector is of particular importance in all countries. To reach this end, it is paramount to measure the efficiency. On the other hand, there are many factors that affect the efficiency of health systems. This study aimed to measure the Technical Efficiency (TE) of health systems in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries during 2004-10 and to determine the factors affecting their TE. Methods This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. The required data were gathered using library and field studies, available statistics and international websites through completing data collection forms. In this study, the TE of health systems in 10 ECO countries was measured using their available data and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) through two approaches. The first approach used GDP per capita, education and smoking as its inputs and life expectancy and infant mortality rates as the outputs. The second approach, also, used the health expenditures per
This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas-the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, Chinas technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the
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Se övriga modeller. Toyota har just nu omkring 82 fordon i produktion. Deras modeller sträcker sig mellan allt från personbilar, sedaner och minibussar till lastbilar, hybridbilar och crossoverbilar. Biltillverkarens framgång beror dock främst på försäljningen av personbilar. Blocket är Sveriges största marknadsplats inom kategorin toyota, highlander i hela sverige. Toyota Highlander HYBRID V6 AWD Automat 7. Butik. Förutom den oerhört populära hybridbilen Prius har Toyota även fått stort genomslag med bilfamiljerna Yaris, Corolla, Camry och Avalon. 2 begagnade Toyota Highlander blev prisjämförda. hämtade från -6% begagnad Toyota Highlander V6 Hybrid 4WD-i Automat · Toyota Highlander Här loggar du in för obegränsad läsning av allt innehåll på di. I dag har vi nått halvvägs sverige vårt unika test av vätgasbilen Toyota Mirai. Bilen har rullat i sex månader och mil - och bilens styrkor och svagheter har bekräftats ytterligare. Frågan är: varför highlander Toyota ...
Downloadable! It has often been argued that the results of efficiency analyses in health care are influenced by the modelling choices made by the researchers involved. In this paper we use meta-regression analysis in an attempt to quantify the degree to which modelling factors influence efficiency estimates. The data set is derived from 253 estimated models reported in 95 empirical analyses of hospital efficiency in the 22-year period from 1987 to 2008. A meta-regression model is used to investigate the degree to which differences in mean efficiency estimates can be explained by factors such as: sample size; dimension (number of variables); parametric versus non-parametric method; returns to scale (RTS) assumptions; functional form; error distributional form; input versus output orientation; cost versus technical efficiency measure; and cross-sectional versus panel data. Sample size, dimension and RTS are found to have statistically significant effects at the 1% level. Sample size has a negative (and
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We consider a stochastic frontier model with error [epsilon]=v-u, where v is normal and u is half normal. We derive the distribution of the usual estimate of u,E(u[epsilon]). We show that as the variance of v approaches zero, E(u[epsilon])-u converges to zero, while as the variance of v approaches infinity, E(u[epsilon]) converges to E(u). We graph the density of E(u[epsilon]) for intermediate cases. To show that E(u[epsilon]) is a shrinkage of u towards its mean, we derive and graph the distribution of E(u[epsilon]) conditional on u. We also consider the distribution of estimated inefficiency in the fixed-effects panel data setting.
This paper investigates the sales innovation of the automotive dealer, particularly Toyota in Japan. In the face of recent demographic conditions such as population decline and rapid aging, passenger car sales in Japan have been stagnant at 3.5 million per year. Despite these challenging conditions, one dealer in particular, Nets Toyota Nangoku, has doubled its sales/visitors and ranked number one in customer satisfaction among 300 Japanese Toyota dealers for the past 10 years. In order to learn more about its management innovation and business practices, Nets and 10 other Toyota dealers in Shikoku-prefecture were surveyed and interviewed. Results suggest that Nets performance may be explained by motivation theory, internal service quality, and organizational culture. Five hypotheses were tested using a questionnaire that provided 1343 responses. The following three hypotheses were statistically verified: (1) employee satisfaction at Nets Toyota Nangoku is higher than at the other Toyota ...
As we mentioned a few months ago, Aeroplan and Toyota signed an agreement to award Aeroplan miles on Toyota & Scion purchases and other services. At that time details of the partnership were vague but as of yesterday we now know what it entails. It is very similar to the Aeroplan-Volvo partnership in that you can earn miles for vehicle purchases, servicing and test drives! The best part is that with test drives you earn 250 Aeroplan miles for free! However unlike the Volvo deal where you can earn 250 miles every 30 days the Toyota deal limits you to 3 test drives per year with the 30 day limitation between test drives. This means you can earn 750 Aeroplan Miles per year for free just for test driving Toyota vehicles. Add in 3,000 miles if you test drive a Volvo every month and you have 3,750 Aeroplan miles. You can learn all about the partnership and current offers at http://www.toyota.ca/toyota/en/aeroplan ...
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The Toyota S Series engines are a family of straight-4 engines with displacement from 1.8 L to 2.2 L produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from January 1980 to August 2007. The series has cast iron engine blocks and alloy cylinder heads. The 1.8 L (1,832 cc) 1S is the first version of the S-series engine. It is a member of Toyotas Lasre engine family (Lightweight Advanced Super Response Engine). Bore and stroke are 80.5 x 90.0 mm. The engine was first seen in 1981, and was fitted to a wide range of Toyotas, in both RWD and FWD applications. Original 1S engine, designed for longitudinal, rear-wheel-drive applications. Designated 1S-U with Japanese emissions controls. Production: July 1981 - unknown Displacement: 1832 cc Mounting: longitudinal Type: SOHC 8-valve Bore/stroke: 80.5 × 89.9 mm Compression ratio: 9.1 Outputs: 100 PS (74 kW) at 5,400 rpm / 152 N·m (112 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpm Applications: Toyota Celica (SA60) Toyota Carina (SA60) Toyota Corona (ST140) Toyota Mark II (SX70) Adaption of ...
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Toyota Kirloskar Motor News: Latest and Breaking News on Toyota Kirloskar Motor. Explore Toyota Kirloskar Motor profile at Times of India for photos, videos and latest news of Toyota Kirloskar Motor. Also find news, photos and videos on Toyota Kirloskar Motor - Page 6
Toyota Motor Corporation and its subsidiaries sold over 7.3 million cars, trucks and buses worldwide under the Toyota, Scion, Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino brands in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The company manufactures vehicles and parts in 26 countries and regions around the world and sells them in approximately 170 countries and locations. Toyota established operations in the United States in 1957 and currently operates 10 manufacturing plants. Toyota directly employs over 30,000 in the U.S. and its U.S. investment is currently valued at more than $18 billion, including sales and manufacturing operations, research and development, financial services and design. In an effort to develop the vehicles and technologies of the future, Toyotas R&D is far reaching and includes investing more than $1 million an hour globally in areas such as vehicle safety, quality and sustainability. While Toyota remains committed to hybrids as the core of its environmental technology, their sustainable mobility ...
Last week, a top Toyota exec told Reuters that Toyota Motor Corp. expects to cut costs for hybrid cars enough to be able to make as much money on them as it does on conventional gasoline cars by around 2010.. Toyota has been keen to see the fuel-saving powertrain enter the mainstream since launching the Prius, the worlds first hybrid car, in 1997, but sales have come at the expense of profitability, given the high production costs of hybrid cars.. Masatami Takimoto, executive vice president in charge of powertrain development, said cost-cutting efforts on the systems motor, battery, and inverter were bearing fruit, and the cost structure would improve drastically by the time Toyota reaches its sales goal of one million hybrids annually in 2010 or soon after. By then, we expect margins to be equal to gasoline cars, he told Reuters in an interview.. If it succeeds, Toyota would be removing the main hurdle preventing rivals from pushing the expensive powertrain, which twins a conventional ...
Last week, a top Toyota exec told Reuters that Toyota Motor Corp. expects to cut costs for hybrid cars enough to be able to make as much money on them as it does on conventional gasoline cars by around 2010.. Toyota has been keen to see the fuel-saving powertrain enter the mainstream since launching the Prius, the worlds first hybrid car, in 1997, but sales have come at the expense of profitability, given the high production costs of hybrid cars.. Masatami Takimoto, executive vice president in charge of powertrain development, said cost-cutting efforts on the systems motor, battery, and inverter were bearing fruit, and the cost structure would improve drastically by the time Toyota reaches its sales goal of one million hybrids annually in 2010 or soon after. By then, we expect margins to be equal to gasoline cars, he told Reuters in an interview.. If it succeeds, Toyota would be removing the main hurdle preventing rivals from pushing the expensive powertrain, which twins a conventional ...
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In stochastic frontier analysis, firm-specific efficiencies and their distribution are often main variables of interest. If firms fall into several groups, it is natural to allow each group to have its own distribution. This paper considers a method for nonparametrically modelling these distributions using Dirichlet processes. A common problem when applying nonparametric methods to grouped data is small sample sizes for some groups which can lead to poor inference. Methods that allow dependence between each groups distribution are one set of solutions. The proposed model clusters the groups and assumes that the unknown distribution for each group in a cluster are the same. These clusters are inferred from the data. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are necessary for model-fitting and efficient methods are described. The model is illustrated on a cost frontier application to US hospitals.. ...
TOYOTA, Japan - Toyota will open six new offices in North America to gather information about vehicle problems as the automaker works to recover from huge recalls that started last year.. Toyota Motor Corp. says it will open four offices in the U.S. and two in Canada over the next 12 months to collect feedback to study vehicle problems and customer complaints.. The Japanese automaker has been trying to improve the safety and quality of its vehicles since recalling more than 8.5 million cars and trucks starting in October. Most of the recalls were related to unintended acceleration, a problem that the U.S. government has tied to dozens of deaths.. This week, Toyota launched a recall of 270,000 of its Lexus luxury vehicles.. ...
Toyota Motor North America (TMNA) recently announced plans to build a new fuel-cell power generation plant with a hydrogen fueling station to support its operations at the Port of Long Beach in Long Beach, California. The Tri-Gen facility will use bio-waste sourced from California agricultural waste to generate water, electricity and hydrogen.. The facility will be 100-percent renewable and supply all Toyota fuel-cell vehicles moving through the port, including new deliveries of the Mirai sedan and Toyotas Heavy-Duty hydrogen fuel-cell class 8 truck. To support these refueling operations, Toyota has also built one of the worlds largest hydrogen fueling stations onsite.. When the facility comes online in 2020, it is expected to generate approximately 2.35 megawatts of electricity and 1.2 tons of hydrogen per day, which is enough to power 2,350 average-sized homes and meet the daily driving needs of nearly 1,500 vehicles.. For more than 20 years, Toyota has been leading the development of ...
LOS ANGELES (AP) - Toyota Motor Corp. said Wednesday it has reached a settlement worth more than $1 billion in a case involving unintended acceleration problems in its vehicles.. The company said the deal will resolve hundreds of lawsuits from Toyota owners who said the value of their cars and trucks plummeted after a series of recalls stemming from claims that Toyota vehicles accelerated unintentionally.. Steve Berman, a lawyer representing Toyota owners, said the settlement is the largest in U.S. history involving automobile defects.. ...
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PLANO, Texas (July 1, 2020) - The 2021 Toyota RAV4 Prime will break ground as the most powerful and quickest RAV4 ever, hitting dealerships this summer with a starting MSRP of $38,100. The RAV4s first-ever plug-in model has up to 302 horsepower with an ability to do 0-60 mph in a projected 5.7 seconds, which makes it the quickest four-door model in the Toyota lineup. But, it doesnt end there. The RAV4 Prime also has up to a manufacturer-estimated 42 miles on battery alone on a single charge, making it the highest EV range of any PHEV SUV on the market. The RAV4 Prime also has up to a manufacturer-estimated 94 combined MPGe. Even more, what sets RAV4 Prime apart is the standard Electronic On-Demand AWD.. How Does It Do That?. Toyota hybrids have for years demonstrated high performance with low fuel consumption, and now the 2021 RAV4 Prime makes one of the strongest cases yet. The RAV4 Prime uses a differently tuned version of the RAV4 Hybrids 2.5-liter four-cylinder Atkinson-cycle gas engine. ...
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The Goal is legendary in my family as a guide for unlocking throughput in manufacturing. Garvey Corps entire business model is helping companies exploit constraints and increase profits. It got me off to a great start in manufacturing, but the reality of workflow always seemed a little more complicated than Goldratts stories lead you to believe.. Later I devoured Jeffery Likers The Toyota Way, which describes the infamous Toyota Production System. It seemed to me that if you carried Goldratts constraint theory logically throughout your production system, youd probably end up with TPS or something like it. As good as it is, the Toyota Ways strategies always seemed better suited for a different type of manufacturing. One where you were producing roughly the same thing, slightly customized. My manufacturing reality had tremendous customization and variability.. The Principles of Product Development Flow by Don Reinertsen was what I was looking for. Here are ten things Im incorporating into ...
German makers team up to buy autonomous vehicle mapping company. For more, Click Here.). While initial use of the system is expected to be limited to expressways, future development goals include expanding functionality to cover ordinary roads and assist in hazard avoidance. Toyota will also seek to collaborate with mapmakers, with the goal of encouraging the use of high precision map data in services offered by both the public and private sectors.. The mapping technology is part of Toyotas larger autonomous vehicle program, the Mobility Teammate Concept, introduced in October. The idea behind it is to bring self-driving vehicles to the market without losing the enjoyment and fun often associated with driving.. To that end, the Mobility Teammate Concept envisages a driver-car relationship based on a shared purpose, Toyota says, somewhat like a relationship between close friends who alternately watch over each other and help each other out.. Toyota will continue to develop of technologies that ...
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A multiple criteria approach to data envelopment analysis. A multivariate statistical approach to reducing the number of variables in data envelopment analysis
Table 3: Designing an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Network Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Efficiency Evaluation of Decision-Making Units with Two-Stage Structures
Many serious accidents have happened in the world, in which systems have been large-scale and complex, and caused heavy damage and a social sense of instability. Furthermore, advanced nations have almost finished public infrastructure and rushed into a maintenance period. Since maintenance is more important than production and construction, then more maintenance for environmental considerations and protection of natural resources is required. So, in the past four decades, valuable contributions to maintenance policies in the reliability theory have been made. In this paper, a maintenance planning problem is considered. First, maintenance activities are simulated via Awesim. Production and maintenance functions are estimated using historical data. Then simulation is carried out for different scenarios which are combinations of periodic maintenance, and outputs are computed. Since the problem is multi-criteria decision making, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is used to select the preferred policy
effectiveness in the prevention and control of tuberculosis - a comparative analysis of countries using data envelopment analysis dissertação de mestr
The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method has been fruitfully used in many countries in Asia, Europe and North America to shed light on the efficiency of health facilities and programmes. There is, however, a dearth of such studies in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Since hospitals and health centres are important instruments in the efforts to scale up pro-poor cost-effective interventions aimed at achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, decision-makers need to ensure that these health facilities provide efficient services. The objective of this study was to measure the technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public peripheral health units (PHUs) in Sierra Leone. This study applied the Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the TE and SE among a sample of 37 PHUs in Sierra Leone. Twenty-two (59%) of the 37 health units analysed were found to be technically inefficient, with an average score of 63% (standard deviation = 18%). On the other hand,
This study was conducted in Musanze and Bugesera districts of Rwanda .The objective were to estimate the level of technical efficiency in maize production. The study also attempted to determine some socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. It used primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected using questionnaire from random sample of 276 farmers, and it covered the socio-economic characteristics of farmers. Secondary data were collected from different sources, e.g., Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet. The Stochastic Production Frontier (SPF) analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency of producing maize, and to determine the factors behind inefficiency such as age, educational level, marital status, family size, main occupation, type of seeds, and extension services. Also, descriptive statistics were used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of farmers. The results indicated ...
Generally, a typical problem which is crucial in a manufacturing system is increasing the production rate. To cope with the problem, different types of techniques are used in companies by trial and error which imposes high costs on them. Using simulation as a tool for assessing the effect of alterations on the performance of the overall system might be significant. This paper considers a simulation based data envelopment analysis goal programming (DEAGP) applied into a well-known automobile spare part manufacturer in Kurdistan to improve production rate. The objective is to develop a simulation model based on real system to identify the imbalances and improve the performance of production system. For this purpose, in 2013 data are collected from existing system and applying full factorial design of experiments technique, different scenarios have been considered then to find the best one we used data envelopment analysis goal programming technique as a method for measuring the relative efficiency of
models provide useful information about the impact of location, traffic, facility and operations in the motor fuel volume of a petrol station. On the other hand DEA identifies the best performers in terms of specific criteria chosen. The network analysis explores the effects of closing a station or aggregating two stations into one, in the other stations located in the same city. The main findings are that manned hours, effective positions, brand preference have a positive relationship with volume (in Milan). In Amsterdam shop sales is the most significant variable. Moreover two type of sites Hypermarket followed by service area have very good motor fuel sales in both cities. The effect of closing a station is the redistribution of ...
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by Aldo Benini, July 2015 Priority indices have grown popular for identifying communities most affected by disasters. Responders have produced a number of formats and formulas. Most of these combine indicators using weights and aggregations decided by analysts.
The paper investigates relative efficiency of the banking industry in Bahrain by employing a panel of 31 banks for the years 1998 and 2000. We employ non‐parametric (Data Envelopment Analysis) to examine five efficiency measures, namely, cost, allocative, technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores. We also investigate the conventional accounting measures of performance, and correlate them with five measures of efficiency to investigate whether higher accounting performance impact the bank cost efficiency. Our results show that, on the average, the banking industry in Bahrain is profitable with average ROE and ROA being 10.36% 1.622% in 1998 while 13.49% and 2.097% in 2000 respectively. The average allocative efficiency (inefficiency) is about 73% (37%), whereas the average technical efficiency (inefficiency) is about 56% (78%). This indicates that the dominant source of inefficiency in Bahrain banks is due to technical inefficiency rather than allocative inefficiency, which is ...
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This paper combines the use of (binary) logistic regression and stochastic frontier analysis to assess the operational effectiveness of the UK Coastguard (Maritime Rescue) coordination centres over the period 1995-1998. In particular, the rationale for the Governments decision - confirmed in 1999 - to close a number of coordination centres is scrutinized. We conclude that the regression models developed in this paper represent a performance measurement framework that is considerably more realistic and complex than the one apparently used by the UK Government. Furthermore, we have found that the coordination centres selected for closure were not necessarily the ones that were least effective in their primary purpose - that is, to save lives. In a related paper, we demonstrate how the regression models developed here can be used to inform the application of data envelopment analysis to this case.. ...
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The role of information technology (IT) in the world of business process improvement can take many forms. From an automation standpoint, no one knows more about the subject than the IT professionals within an organization. From the business unit perspective, no one knows more than the department professionals. The article selected for this analysis is titled Whose is Process Improvement Anyway? by Meridith Levinson. It describes two separate organizations that utilize IT in their business process improvement strategies. It further describes the hurdles that must be overcome to make IT a leader in business process improvement initiatives. As technology improves and newer business process improvement software is developed, IT becomes more ingrained in the practice of automating outdated business practices. As one might guess would happen, lines are drawn in the proverbial sand and political infighting ensues between those that want to automate and those that see an outside organization telling ...
- The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry, which has undergone significant transformations since the economy deregulation in the mid-1990s. The main research objective is to determine whether or not different types of cargoes and geographic regions serviced significantly impact trucking managerial efficiency levels. , - Research objectives are accomplished by applying a two-stage data envelopment analysis model with bootstrapped estimates. Based on an unbalanced panel model, secondary data from the annual study published by Transporte Moderno (years 2002-2010) were collected and analyzed. , - Results support anecdotal evidence regarding a heterogeneous impact of cargo mix and route mix on efficiency levels. , - A major limitation of this work concerns the fact of working with secondary data instead of primary data, especially with respect to the set of inputs and outputs used in the analysis, which may not cover all aspects relevant to
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Babalola, Rilwan Olanrewaju (1999) Technical Efficiency and Impact of Ownership on Performance: The Case of the Nigerian Electricity Industry Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey. ...
This study evaluated the technical efficiency of aquaculturists in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Eighty respondents were selected via a multistage sampling technique. The primar..
Na tendência atual da integração de fontes de energias renováveis nos sistemas electroprodutores, de forma a minimizar as emissões de dióxido de carbono e a reduzir a dependência dos combustíveis fósseis, a energia eólica desempenha um papel primordial, com uma penetração na Europa da ordem de 20%. Neste âmbito, a melhoria das práticas neste setor, que envolve um grande investimento em tecnologia, torna-se muito relevante. Este estudo pretende avaliar o desempenho dos parques eólicos pertencentes a dois promotores presentes no setor energético Português de forma a apoiar o benchmarking e a melhoria das práticas durante a operação dos parques. A técnica de Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) tem sido aceite como instrumento principal de benchmarking nos setores da energia, particularmente no setor da eletricidade, embora seja escassa a sua aplicação ao setor da energia eólica. Pretende-se avaliar o desempenho dos parques eólicos na maximização da geração de energia ...
Background: Negotiating intersections is one of the principal concerns for older drivers as it requires precision and efficiency in visual-motor coordination (VMC). The complex intersection manoeuvre places high demands on visual perception, attention, motor control and executive functioning. Understanding the relationship between VMC and cognitive abilities in older drivers is important, but yet to be systematically explored.. Methods: We recorded 38 older adults driving manoeuvre at intersections using eye tracking and advanced surveying positioning technologies. VCM performance of the participants were indexed using multiple parameters of visual and motor behaviors with a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. Participants also performed a battery of cognitive tests of visual attention, spatial abilities, visual-motor speed and executive functions.. Results: Significant correlations were identified between VMC performance and eight cognitive measurements: UFOV 2 and 3, Block Design, Bentons ...
New: Normative theories of decision making. Emphasizes structuring of hard decision problems arising in business and public policy contexts. Decision trees, expected utility theory, screening prospects by dominance, assessment of subjective probability, multiple attribute utility, analytic hierarchy process, benchmarking with data envelopment analysis, basics of game theory ...
Process Improvement from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In this course you will focus on process improvement. You will learn how to set organizational priorities for continuous process improvement, how to execute process improvement ...
TOKYO (AP) -- Toyota Motor Corp. is recalling nearly 650,000 vehicles in Japan and repeating a recall for problems with front passenger air bag inflators announced last year, seeking to fix some 2.27 million vehicles.. The company, the worlds biggest automaker, said Wednesday that it was renotifying owners of some vehicles involved in a 2013 safety recall of 2.14 million vehicles. It said the initial recall was based on incomplete serial numbers from the part supplier, Japans Takata Corp.. The inflators contained improperly made propellant that could cause them to work abnormally, and possibly cause fires, in case of a crash. Toyota said it had received one report of a burn on a seat cover from faulty air bag deployment.. The recall involves about 20 Toyota models, including some Corolla compacts and Tundra pickups made in 2003-2004 and some 2002-2004 Lexus SC 430 coupes made in the U.S. The models being recalled in Japan were made in 2000-2003.. Toyota has been striving to restore its ...
Addressing the Activation Overpotential in Fuel Cell Cathodes. Electrochemical research has already informed the development and improvement of innovative batteries, electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and fuel cells. Through this fellowship, ECS and Toyota hope to see further innovative and unconventional technologies borne from electrochemical research.. The ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship Selection Committee has chosen two recipients to receive the 2018-2019 fellowship awards for projects in green energy technology. The awardees are Prof. Kimberly See, California Institute of Technology, and Prof. Iryna Zenyuk, University of California, Irvine.. The selected fellows will receive restricted grants of $50,000 to conduct the research outlined in their proposals within one year. They will also receive a one-year complimentary ECS membership as well as the opportunity to present and/or publish their research with ECS.. The ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship is an annual program, and ...
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TOKYO (Reuters) - Toyota Motor Corp. said on Wednesday it is recalling 11,000 Lexus cars in Japan and 46,000 overseas to fix a faulty seat belt part.. Toyota will replace seat belts in both front seats, which can become jammed inside the holding due to a faulty part, it said.. No accidents have been reported due to the defect, it said.. Toyota, close to overtaking General Motors Corp. as the worlds No.1 seller of automobiles, has sold 9,600 Lexus in Japan since it ushered in the 16-year-old Lexus brand to its home market in August 2005 in what it said is a major step toward taking on top luxury marques everywhere else.. It did not disclose estimated recall costs.. ...
leather heated seats, metallic dash trim, and special floor mats. Toyota plans on 3000 copies of the special edition. Each will be priced from $31,680. Related Articles Toyota Hybrid X Bows in Geneva by Richard Yarrow (2/16/2007) New hybrid concept teased with photo. Blind Want Prius to Make Noise by Marty Padgett (2/13/2007) Hybrids are too quiet for sightless pedestrians, group says. 2008 Scion tC Preview by Marty Padgett (2/12/2007) Presenting a new family face to the world. 2009 Toyota Land Cruiser Spy Shots by Hans Lehmann/Hidden Image (2/12/2007) A new... Read More ...
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Asahi.coms rendering of the plug-in. Asahi.com. Toyota Motor Co. will obtain permission from Japans Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport by the end of July for the testing of a prototype plug-in Prius on public roads. Toyota will be the first car maker to obtain permission for a plug-in hybrid...
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Toyota Bets Against Tesla With New Hydrogen Car, blares the headline at fool.com. That is a bad bet. It may even prove to be a major blunder for Toyota, which actually severed its RAV4 partnership with electric vehicle (EV) company Tesla back in May (though they kept their investment in Tesla).. I say that even though I own a Prius. In fact, I say it in part because I own a Prius. Fuel cell cars running on hydrogen simply wont be greener than the Prius running on gasoline (!) - or even as practical as a mass-market vehicle - for a long, long time, if ever. So why buy one?. Right now, not only is electricity ubiquitous (i.e. relatively near where most cars are parked), but green electricity is nearly ubiquitous - and it is far cheaper to run ones car on it than gasoline. Hydrogen, however, is not where cars are. Green hydrogen is nearly nonexistent. And it would be more expensive to run ones car on green hydrogen than gasoline.. When I helped oversee the hydrogen and fuel cell and ...
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Designed for intense applications, the high-tonnage Tonero models are equipped with a durable chassis and powerful Toyota engines for maximum performance. These reliable trucks come with an industrial LPG or diesel engine compliant with stage IIIB emission regulation and are easy to service. We also offer engine-powered forklifts with cushion tyres for narrow indoor operations.. ...
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2011). Personality, Talent Management and Organizational Efficiency. Keynote Speech Beijing China.. *Saville, P., MacIver, R., ... "Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 88 (4): 797-834. doi:10.1111/joop.12098. ISSN 2044-8325.. ... Presented at the Society for Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Nashville, USA.. *Saville, P. Sik, G. Nyfield, G., ... Paper at the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP) Congress, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, May ...
Strengthen governance and organizational efficiency. October 30, 1897: The North American Yacht Racing Union (NAYRU) was ...
Pagano, Ugo (February 1992). "Organizational equilibria and production efficiency". Metroeconomica. 43 (1-2): 227-246. doi: ... Pagano, Ugo (February 1992). "Organizational equilibria and production efficiency". Metroeconomica. 43 (1-2): 227-246. doi: ... the technological efficiency is not any more an essential requirement for economic efficiency; and the maximisation of profit ... Combining the literatures of the Neo-institutional and Radical schools he has defined organizational equilibria as situations ...
... increase the efficiency of their health services delivery; and strengthen their organizational effectiveness. NCCHC offers ...
Organizational Research Methods, 19, 651-682. doi:10.1177/1094428116656239. Flanagan, J. C. (1937). A proposed procedure for ... increasing the efficiency of objective tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 28, 17-21. doi: 10.1037 / h0057430. Rulon, P. ... Organizational Research Methods, 19, 651-682. doi: 10.1177 / 1094428116656239. Raju, N. S. (1970). New formula for estimating ... Organizational Research Methods, 19, 651-682. doi:10.1177/1094428116656239. Cowles, M. (2005) Statistics in psychology: An ...
Its resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General Organizational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura ... Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (Fall 1996). "Administrative Efficiency and Effectiveness: An Islamic Perspective". The Islamic ... Although the organization had no "formal organizational presence" in the Kingdom, (no political groups or parties are allowed ... 97-98; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (1995). "An Islamic Perspective on Organizational Motivation". The American Journal of ...
relative managerial efficiency;. *advanced technology, organizational capabilities, and expertise in marketing;. *extensive ... and generally increased efficiency in production and marketing operations - insofar as these things enable lenders to reduce ...
Milgrom, Paul; Roberts, John (1990a). "The Efficiency of Equity in Organizational Decision Processes". The American Economic ... The FCC's goals included economic efficiency and revenue (although the legislation suggests an emphasis on efficiency over ... Organizational and information economics[edit]. Agency theory[edit]. Milgrom, together with Bengt Holmstrom, asked what ... Organizational economics[edit]. In the late 1980s, Milgrom began working with John Roberts to apply ideas from game theory and ...
Problems associated with lateness include compromised organizational efficiency. Tardy and late employees responsible for ... and organizational constraints have been found to be predictors of organizational aggression. Other factors significantly ... including organizational constraints, lack of rewards, illegitimate tasks, interpersonal conflicts, and lack of organizational ... The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational ...
Pagano U (1992) Organizational equilibria and production efficiency. Metroeconomica 43: 227-246. Pagano U, Rowthorn R (1994) ... The organizational equilibria approach integrate the approach of Oliver Williamson, which have pointed out the influence of ... A similar approach has been used to explain organizational diversity in knowledge-intensive industries, such as software. ... Monthly Review Press, New York Landini F (2012) Technology, property rights and organizational diversity in the software ...
... www.defense.gov/Explore/News/Article/Article/1089561/defense-secretary-asks-dod-to-seek-organizational-efficiencies/ GAO-18-513 ... The purpose of the cross-functional teams was: to provide for effective collaboration and integration across organizational and ... The SECDEF CFTs are designed to help the Department improve mission effectiveness and efficiencies, improve business operations ... "Defense Secretary Asks DoD to Seek Organizational Efficiencies." DOD News. https:// ...
Industrial Organizational Psychology, ed. W.C. Borman, D.R. Ilgen, R.J. Klimoski, pp. 225-54. New York: Wiley. Emmons 1999; ... Mechanistic improvements are focused on improving the efficiency of the job design. Biological improvements focus on ... Concepts of organizational justice later expanded upon the fundamentals of Equity Theory and pointed to the importance of ... Organizational cultures can be broken down into three groups: Strong, Strategically Appropriate, and Adaptive. Each has been ...
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As schools adopted the industrial model of organizational efficiency; the instructional emphasis swung away from oral ... A variety of organizational models for the Middle School academic program were tried with little success. 1970-1974 Student and ...
Jiang, X. (2001). China's Industrial Transition: Organizational Change , Efficiency Gains, and Growth Dynamics. New York: Nova ...
He improved the efficiency of the office through organizational improvements. The facilities at the Ballistic Research ...
Organizational Dynamics, 48(2), 37-42. March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. ... Eisenhardt, K., Furr, N., & Bingham, C. (2010). Microfoundations of performance: Balancing efficiency and flexibility in ... Oehmichen, J., Heyden, M. L. M., Georgakakis, D., & Volberda, H. W. (2017). Boards of directors and organizational ... According to researchers, different organizational levels may need different behaviors on behalf of individuals to manage ...
... organizational change, efficiency gains and growth dynamics. Huntington, New York: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 93-94. ISBN 1- ... That year, Sun Min became the company chief and started a turnaround plan focused on increasing efficiency and streamlining ...
Wellik, Rhonda (2012-04-02). "Global Food Safety Initiative Improves Organizational Culture, Efficiency in Food Industry". Food ... safety management systems Manage cost in the global food system by eliminating redundancy and improving operational efficiency ...
CSE organizes two-way exchanges with partners on energy efficiency and climate change. It alternates between hosting experts ... She is an experienced trainer, organizational consultant and women's rights activist. ... and projects to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and mitigate climate change by increasing energy efficiency and promoting ...
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Efficiency and effectiveness which are key words in management are achieved only through proper planning and control of ... Managers influence his subordinates to work willingly for achieving organizational goals. Importance of office management is ... The success of a business depends upon the efficiency of its office. The volume of paper work in offices has increased manifold ... Management helps in maintaining efficiency in an office. A manager not only performs and produces results, but also does it in ...
It "increases organizational commitment and decreases employee resistance to changes." There is a significant correlation ... between the teachers self-efficiency and the principles style of collaborative leadership. According to Gialamas, Pelonis, and ... Collaborative leadership is a management practice which is focused on leadership skills across functional and organizational ... and organizational resources in order to affect the perspective, beliefs, and behaviors of another person (generally a ...
This shifts the paradigm on how to approach these organizational questions in research, whether lab-based or in the field, ... This can be in the form of combined output, individual output, process efficiency, or something else entirely. The benefits of ... While this sometimes can be mediated by applying concepts of organizational behavior, this usually results in a net loss in ... Theoretical perspectives on diversity in teams have been a focus of organizational psychology since 1985. Many theories have ...
Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and Organizational Behavior (5th ed.). Wiley: Hoboken, NJ. Traupmann, J. (1978). A ... efficiency, productivity, and turnover.[citation needed] The three primary assumptions applied to most business applications of ... These perceptions of inequity are perceptions of organizational justice, or more specifically, injustice.[citation needed] ...
Operational audit is a systematic review of effectiveness, efficiency and economy of operation. Operational audit is a future- ... but the primary sources of evidence are the operational policies and achievements related to organizational objectives. ... efficiency and economy of operations under management's control and reporting to appropriate persons the results of the ... oriented, systematic, and independent evaluation of organizational activities. In Operational audit financial data may be used ...
An important leap in manufacturing efficiency came in the late eighteenth century as Eli Whitney popularized the concept of ... TQM is a strategy for implementing and managing quality improvement on an organizational basis, this includes: participation, ... Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is defined as the product between system availability, cycle time efficiency and quality ... A production system comprises both the technological elements (machines and tools) and organizational behavior (division of ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "For organizational efficiency: Maharashtra and Gujarat naval areas divided". ...
Needs in the irrigation sector are related to improving efficiency, productivity and organizational aspects. According to the ... Contrary to some WUBs, which have receive extended support from IMTP, WUAs are mostly weak when their organizational ... and water management efficiency. There are a total of 28 Irrigation Users Boards (Juntas de Regantes-WUB) represent a total of ... irrigation efficiency. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), irrigation development in the Dominican ...
Health system efficiency: how to make measurement matter for policy and management  ...
The MFT solution also creates efficiencies by automating email sends, file reviews, server backups, reports, scans, batch ... Gain Efficiencies Through Automation See how Datalogix used South River Technologies automation capabilities to run antivirus ...
Organizational Efficiency. Optimize resources and save your IT team from undue hassles with highly efficient applications to ...
Organizational Right-Sizing. Optimizing head count and upgrading talent. Improved Workforce Efficiency. Reducing administrative ...
Study area 1: Organizational efficiency. Does the Global Fund as an organization (Board, Secretariat, Technical Review Panel, ... Study area 1 was completed in November 2007 and examined the organizational efficiency and effectiveness of the Global Fund, ...
Organized for Efficiency » Blog Archive » Reclaiming time to enhance our itinerary on Make your words sweet - you may have to ... Organized for Efficiency » Blog Archive » Reclaiming time to enhance our itinerary on The gift of gab on parchment ... Organized for Efficiency » Blog Archive » Reclaiming time to enhance our itinerary on Dress for success to impress ... Organized for Efficiency » Blog Archive » Reclaiming time to enhance our itinerary on Optimum performance through team input ...
Organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Early GEF-6 data on process efficiency and effectiveness indicators are either on ...
Results of search for su:{Efficiency, Organizational.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items ... Measuring efficiency in health care : analytic techniques and health policy / Rowena Jacobs, Peter C. Smith and Andrew Street. ...
How To Align Efficiency To Organizational Goals And Objectives. Posted: July 14, 2014/Under: Financial Planning/By: Alan Fisher ... How To Align Efficiency To Organizational Goals And Objectives by Alan Fisher ... How To Align Performance To Organizational Goals And Objectives. *. How To Align Performance To Organizational Goals And ...
F&S Webinar Building Strategy to Improve Organizational Efficiency in Telehealth Join Frost & Sullivans Senior Vice President ...
... , Login ... Efficiency in project networks : the role of inter-organizational relationships in project implementation. ... Efficiency in project networks : the role of inter-organizational relationships in project implementation. ... project network, project management, inter-organizational relationships, efficiency, transaction costs, project business, ...
Drive Organizational Efficiency. Consolidate sourcing, contracts, and payment processing into a single strategic supplier ...
Efficiency: Lean Integration teams typically realize 50 percent labor productivity improvements and 90 percent lead-time ... Constant Rapid Change and Organizational Agility. Much has been written about the accelerating pace of change in the global ... the chances are you are among the majority of IT professionals who understand the need for efficiency and the value of reuse ... the focus from integration as a point-in-time activity to integration as a sustainable activity that enables organizational ...
Organizational agility and efficiency. *3. Preparing for the Digital Future *3.1. The business case for software modernization ... Organizational agility and efficiency. Talking about business opportunities, timing proves to be crucial. How fast can you ... But the primary motivators are greater efficiency and cost reduction.[22] The latter was proven back in 2013: Javelin Strategy ... The efficiency of the invested funds will heavily rely on the approach an enterprise chooses to follow. ...
Section 967 Organizational Assessment. Section 967 of the Act directed the agency to engage the services of an independent ... improving controls and efficiency; and enhancing the workforce. Between May and November of this year we have focused on the ... Since passage of the Dodd-Frank Act, the FSOC has taken steps to create an organizational structure, coordinate interagency ... efficiency and capital formation. Analysis of the likely economic effects of proposed rules, while critical to the rulemaking ...
Managing Organizational Knowledge in the Age of Social Computing: 10.4018/978-1-60566-026-4.ch398: Technology, since the days ... Kochikar, V. P. "Managing Organizational Knowledge in the Age of Social Computing." In Encyclopedia of Information Science and ... Kochikar, V. P. "Managing Organizational Knowledge in the Age of Social Computing." Encyclopedia of Information Science and ... Managing Organizational Knowledge in the Age of Social Computing. V. P. Kochikar (Infosys Technologies Ltd., India). ...
Organizational Units. * Institute for Entrepreneurship * Chair of Entrepreneurship and Leadership Original Source URL. Link ... Anger superiority effect in peripheral vision: visual field and target emotion interact in determining search efficiency ... visual field and target emotion interact in determining search efficiency. Presented at the 57th Conference of Experimental ...
The efforts of the IDEA World Fitness Award finalists start at home but, like ripples from a stone thrown in a pond, their actions fan across the
The IDEA World Fitness Awards highlight professionals who consistently give their all to motivate their clients, their communities and the fitness
Improving Hospital Efficiency: A Process Model of Organizational Change Commitments Nigam, A.. Huising, R. and B. Golden ... New Organizational Forms For Enhancing Innovation: The Case of Internal Corporate Joint Ventures Zajac, E.J., Golden, B.R., and ... Selection of routines in organizational search: Performances and roles in the search process Nigam, Amit, Huising, R. and ... Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholder? Predicting Organizational Identification and its Consequences Using Identity and Image ...
Streamlining the organisational form of government businesses In regulated sectors, particularly public utilities and network ... 151/2005/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister to enhance efficiency in the use of state capital, with a view to separating the ... Open URLReferences[8] Thanh Hong, N. (2016), Vietnam State-owned Enterprise (SOE) Reform: A productivity and efficiency ... 5. Enhancing SOE efficiency in Viet Nam. Abstract. Reforming the governance of SOEs would contribute significantly to ...
Find out if a masters in industrial organizational psychology is worth it! Learn about salary, types of i/o psychology programs ... Reducing staff turnover is one way to boost output and efficiency. This demand is fueling, per BLS.gov, an 8 percent increase ... PhD in Industrial Organizational Psychology. The masters and PhD in industrial organizational psychology differ in level and ... PhD in Business Administration - Industrial Organizational Psychology PhD in Psychology - Industrial Organizational Psychology ...
Its about feeling good-and what Gill believes is the key to clarity, efficiency, even empowerment. ... Organizational expert Shira Gill helps clients understand the correlation between decluttering and mental health. This is about ... An Organizational Expert on Getting Rid of Clutter as an Act of Wellness. Its not just that your T-shirt stacks are toppled ... An Organizational Expert on Getting Rid of Clutter as an Act of Wellness. Photo courtesy of Vivian Johnson Photography for ...
No Organizational Impact Stateless solutions adopt a clear separation between the IP/transport layers and the service layers; ... IPv4 Port Utilisation Efficiency CGN-based solutions, because they can dynamically assign ports, provide better IPv4 address ... Operational Tasks and Network Maintenance Efficiency 3.2.1. Preserve Current Practices Service Providers require as much as ... 14) Does not require organizational changes. (15) Assumes a clear separation between the service and the network layer and ...
Organizational Consulting (Efficiency, Change-Management, Strategy. I am a professional tutor and teacher with many years of ... My High Honors Bachelors degree is in Organizational Development and Management. My greatest asset in educating is using ...
Improve Performance and Increase Organizational Efficiency. Financial institutions operate in a complex and regulated ... Improve Performance and Increase Organizational Efficiency. Financial institutions operate in a complex and regulated ...
Strengthen Organizational Government. Add appropriate expertise to the HAS Board while strengthening and clarifying ... Collaborate and Partner to Maximize Efficiency. Pursue partnerships and integration with government and other health agencies ... Upgrade out-of-date telecommunications and information technology systems to maximize efficiency and resources. ...
Efficiency, stability, timeliness, replicability of output. Increased productivity, work quality; external positioning; ... Organizational Effectiveness and the Workplace. The idea of designing a workplace to support organizational effectiveness is ... Organizational Context Analysis. The client engagement process begins with an analysis of the organizational context. The ... This led to a reexamination of all organizational links. The organizational benefits included avoidance of unnecessary ...
Improving energy performance standards under the Energy Efficiency Act. *Pursuing domestic and international partnerships in RD ... Organizational Context. Raison dêtre. NRCan works to improve the quality of life of Canadians by ensuring that our natural ... Organizational Priorities. For 2016-17, the Departments focus will be on the five key commitments laid out in the Prime ... Organizational Profile. Minister: The Honourable Gordon James Carr, P.C., M.P. ...
Efficiency gains Organizational advantages •Independence from 3rd party •Collaboration 1. Why collaborate? 2. What to share? ... Efficiency gains Organizational advantages •Independence from 3rd party •Collaboration GOVERNANCE MODEL IS DECISIVE FOR ...
  • The Vermont Oxford Network is a voluntary collaborative group of health professionals committed to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of medical care for newborn infants and their families through a coordinated program of research, education, and quality-improvement projects. (aappublications.org)
  • The Vermont Oxford Network was established in 1989 with the goal of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of medical care for newborn infants and their families through a coordinated program of research, education, and quality-improvement projects. (aappublications.org)
  • We achieve this through increasing the productivity - effectiveness and efficiency. (oil-offshore-marine.com)
  • Thus, the first step in evaluating organizational effectiveness is to understand the organization itself-how it functions, how it is structured, and what it emphasizes. (wbdg.org)
  • In this Resource Page, we explore two topics: 1) how models of organization can be used to identify effectiveness goals and measures and, 2) how new organizational analysis techniques can be used as part of the design process to generate solutions tailored to organizational business needs. (wbdg.org)
  • Arnetz discussed his research in measuring individual and organizational stress, and how stress can be linked to organization performance. (nap.edu)
  • The study concluded that fundraising efforts and how funds are distributed to the various strategic activities and operations influence the level of efficiency in the organization process. (scirp.org)
  • Downsizing refers to activities undertaken by management to improve the efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness of the organization by reducing the workforce size. (scribd.com)
  • Where does your organization fall on the organizational maturity spectrum? (huronconsultinggroup.com)
  • Organizational change is any single action or set of actions that result in a shift in direction or process that affects the way the organization works. (hindawi.com)
  • Improving organizational performance involves, amongst other things, qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating the cost-benefit balance of performing activities within the context of ensuring that all efforts are directly aligned to a clearly defined and understood mission, goals, objectives, and strategy of the organization. (cdc.gov)
  • Organizational intelligence (OI) is the capability of an organization to comprehend and create knowledge relevant to its purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • While operational intelligence is activity-focused and BI is data-focused, organizational intelligence differs from these other approaches in being workforce- or organization-focused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, developments in theory and prescriptions for practice show disagreement about the purposes and uses of a theory of organization, the issues to which it should address itself (such as supervisory style and organizational culture), and the concepts and variables that should enter into such a theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • improve organisational learning, resilience and sustainability. (edu.au)
  • The November 2011 workshop included a session that focused on the various tools and considerations for measuring stress, employees' experience of work, and individual and organizational measures of resilience. (nap.edu)
  • In his article " To innovate, turn your pecking order upside down " Tribel argues that innovation cannot proceed without " breakthrough organizational design " - where hierarchy is turned on its head, and in which employees are empowered to serve customers. (organizedforefficiency.com)
  • Conversely, the for-profit sector is driven by increasing its market share, improving its performance through continuous innovation, having good financial management and stability, increasing efficiency, increasing customer accountability and satisfaction, improving its access to government officials, and improving public relations. (cdc.gov)
  • Operating income advanced 24% to USD 7.3 billion thanks to the strong business expansion, as well as productivity gains from Forward, the Group-wide efficiency initiative that has provided resources for investments in strategic initiatives such as stepping up innovation and expanding in high-growth markets. (drugs.com)
  • Brian conducts research and teaches in the areas of strategic change and implementation, health system integration and funding, governance, organizational strategy and leadership. (utoronto.ca)
  • Aids financial operational efficiency. (omg.org)
  • During the collaborative, participants will contribute to a knowledge bank of clinical, organizational, and operational change ideas for improving neonatal care. (aappublications.org)
  • These best practices help you increase profitability by leveraging the appropriate financial and operational data, processes, and tools to improve planning, efficiency, and accuracy. (cutimes.com)
  • Organizational intelligence and operational intelligence are usually seen as subsets of business analytics, since both are types of know-how that have the goal of improving business performance across the enterprise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CSU Organisational Risk Management (ORM) Framework will be used to manage uncertainty and will be supported by efficient, effective and robust processes to assist the organisation achieve its mission and objectives. (edu.au)
  • The ideal book for undergraduate and graduate students of organizational behavior, Organizational Behavior: Securing Competitive Advantage is written to motivate exceptional student performance and contribute to their lasting managerial success. (routledge.com)
  • Some industrial-organizational psychologists go on to earn a PhD. This or the PsyD is the typical path to pursue for clinical, counseling, and research jobs. (gradschools.com)
  • This is challenging, but also offers multiple opportunities for EHR optimization, chances to improve they systems for better clinical quality and cost efficiencies. (healthcareitnews.com)
  • ART answers the growing need to treat trauma while increasing clinical efficiency and efficacy. (prnewswire.com)
  • The management of organizational behavior is a critically important source of competitive advantage in today's organizations. (routledge.com)
  • Management and Managers Part II: Micro Organizational Behavior 3. (routledge.com)
  • Satisfaction and Stress Part III: Meso Organizational Behavior 7. (routledge.com)
  • Leadership of Groups and Organizations Part IV: Macro Organizational Behavior 11. (routledge.com)
  • International Organizational Behavior 16. (routledge.com)
  • 2) how does technology influence organizational and personal aspects of police including - operations, culture, behavior, and satisfaction? (umich.edu)
  • 1. Management Theory & Organizational Behavior INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT Management is universal in the modern industrial world and there is no substitute for good management. (slideshare.net)
  • 2. Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Management is goal-oriented. (slideshare.net)
  • Justice is a key issue for understanding organizational behavior [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Organizational justice is an umbrella term used to refer to individuals' perceptions about the fairness of decisions and decision-making processes within organizations and the influences of those perceptions on behavior [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In many studies, it has been suggested that fairness affects several employee attitudes and behaviors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, sabotage, turnover intention, stress, organizational citizenship behavior, job performance, and trust [ 9 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Employers who want the most productive workforce, which includes the hard-of-hearing, can improve productivity and efficiency by going beyond the ADA requirements and provide health plans that include hearing aid coverage. (brightkite.com)
  • MINNEAPOLIS , Oct. 9, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- NAADAC, the Association for Addiction Professionals, names NUWAY the recipient of its 2019 Organizational Achievement Award. (prnewswire.com)
  • The objective of this dissertation is to explore how inter-organizational relationships influence the efficiency of the implementation phase in project networks. (aalto.fi)
  • Furthermore, it is examined how project implementation influences the development of inter-organizational relationships between firms involved in project networks. (aalto.fi)
  • The results of this study demonstrate evidence of a relation between inter-organizational relationships and the efficiency of project implementation. (aalto.fi)
  • A part of these critical incidents was found to be related to inter-organizational relationships and to contribute to the efficiency of project implementation by affecting the ex post transaction costs of monitoring, planning, and adapting transactions between involved firms. (aalto.fi)
  • Furthermore, the contribution of critical incidents on the efficiency of project implementation was found to be predominantly unfavorable as increases, as opposed to decreases, in transaction costs were found as frequent. (aalto.fi)
  • In two studied project networks, in which inter-organizational relationships between project network actors were characterized by high degrees of trust and dependence, inter-organizational relationships were found to frequently constitute strengths which reduced the unfavorable contribution of critical incidents to the efficiency of project implementation. (aalto.fi)
  • In all four studied project networks, inter-organizational relationships were also found to frequently constitute weaknesses which increased the unfavorable contribution of critical incidents to efficiency of project implementation. (aalto.fi)
  • The results of this study also illustrate that the influence of project implementation on the development of inter-organizational relationships between project network actors can often be characterized as modest, as inter-organizational relationships in three studied project networks were rather stable across the observed one year period. (aalto.fi)
  • Further, this dissertation sheds new light to our understanding of the factors that contribute to the efficiency of work carried out in project contexts by emphasizing the importance of transaction costs that incur between involved firms during the implementation phase of the project life cycle. (aalto.fi)
  • 5) what organizational practices help to optimize the use of technology with an emphasis on enhance effectiveness and legitimacy? (umich.edu)
  • Learning from the proven consistent success of high-performance organizations, leadership should constantly assess how well investment of limited organizational resources is allocated, utilized, managed, and performing. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on a review of literature on project business, inter-organizational relationships, transaction cost economics, and critical incidents, a conceptual framework is developed to guide the multiple case study involving four project networks from the Finnish shipbuilding industry. (aalto.fi)
  • During the past twenty-five years, the study of fairness has received major research attention from a variety of disciplines, including economics, psychology, law, and organizational science [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our group's strengths lie in our ability to change the organizational behaviour and focus which results in increased sales, reduced costs and increased margins. (oil-offshore-marine.com)
  • He has helped generate award winning tools and frameworks that assess alignment between strategies, organizational capabilities, HR practices, HR competencies, and customer and investor results. (inquirer.net)
  • Such practices applied consistently across the enterprise reduce portfolio risk and improve outcomes by promoting consistency and cost efficiencies, enhance transparency, and improve interoperability, quality, and reliability. (cdc.gov)
  • Early GEF-6 data on process efficiency and effectiveness indicators are either on track (e.g. quality at entry for gender, gender diversity, and share of private sector co-financing) or cannot yet be measured (e.g. project cycle performance and involvement of civil society organizations). (thegef.org)
  • From manufacturing plants to healthcare facilities, boosting efficiency is a goal for virtually all organizations. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • To reach the ideal efficiency of 100%, organizations may have to look at reorganizing the way they work and how they're investing in employees. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • Institut national d'excellence en santé et services sociaux, CISSS and ICSUHS du Québec, Institut national de santé publique, Centre de recherche en santé publique, Direction régionale de santé publique de Montréal) as well as with many private organizations. (cirano.qc.ca)
  • The drive for ever increasing efficiency, productivity, quality, cost savings, and value delivery is constantly pressuring organizations and leaders to improve performance. (cdc.gov)
  • With relevant organizational intelligence comes great potential value for companies and therefore organizations find study where their strengths and weaknesses lie in responding to change and complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organizational intelligence helps companies understand the relationships that drive their business-by identifying communities as well as employee workflow and collaborative communications patterns across geographies, divisions, and internal and external organizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organizations are defined as social units comprising people who are managed in such a way as to enable them to meet organizational needs, pursue collective goals, and adapt to a changing organizational environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These organizations were less personal, more distant, and more centralized, but what they lacked in locality they made up for in efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boosting efficiency is best done with a continuous improvement mindset - identifying, reducing, and eliminating suboptimal processes. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • It calls for critically evaluating and redesigning several dimensions of how we work, from the content and delivery approaches of our programmes to identifying where we need organisational change. (brac.net)
  • Organizational theory consists of many approaches to organizational analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seminar: Regulating Organizational Change in Health Care Facilities: How Effective? (cirano.qc.ca)
  • In the final section we discuss a new U.S. General Services Administration program, WorkPlace 20·20 , that aims to create strategic workplaces and evaluate their success using an organizational effectiveness framework. (wbdg.org)
  • Assuming a direct correlation between fatality estimates and insurance cost, the $19.50 additional cost of the electric ignition would reduce liability cost by $22.50, increasing social efficiency. (majortests.com)
  • Since 2003, Organizational Solutions Inc. has been helping companies manage the increasing cost and human impact of illness, injury, disability, absenteeism, and mental health problems in their workplaces. (orgsoln.com)
  • Consistent record of increasing revenue, reducing costs, and improving efficiency. (oil-offshore-marine.com)
  • Industrial-organizational psychologists typically need a master's degree to initiate a career. (gradschools.com)
  • It's defined as " the ability to do something or produce something without wasting materials, time or energy," and manufacturing efficiency is typically expressed by a percentage. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • Tools used for data collection included (1) questionnaire sheet which is used to measure health workers' perception of organizational justices. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides, it is emphasized that the perception of people about the rights and fairness in the organizational life is one of the definitions of organizational justice. (hindawi.com)
  • Having an effective workplace safety strategy can reduce time lost for injury and illness and boost employee morale, in turn improving both efficiency and productivity. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • In recent years, however, workplace consultants and strategists have become increasingly interested in designing physical environments that promote organizational success. (wbdg.org)
  • The importance of studying organizational justice in the workplace has been underscored by findings that caused a sense of working for justice or lack of fairness in the workplace, which can lead to a decline in levels of organizational performance. (hindawi.com)
  • Organizational justice research, which focuses on the role of fairness as a consideration in the workplace, has demonstrated that fair treatment has important effect on individual employee attitudes, such as satisfaction, absenteeism, and commitment [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Benefits for providers include improved workplace satisfaction and organizational efficiencies. (cambridge.org)
  • In fact, in the most recent update of the data (2009/10), across the U.S, there were 1,156 industrial and organizational psychology degrees awarded to graduate students. (gradschools.com)
  • Staff members are encouraged to make suggestions and to share ideas to improve organizational performance. (nzdl.org)
  • So, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and quality performance among health care workers. (hindawi.com)
  • Reducing staff turnover is one way to boost output and efficiency. (gradschools.com)
  • Staff empowerment, negatively though, significantly influenced process efficiency. (scirp.org)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Efficiency, Organizational. (who.int)
  • The discipline of knowledge management (KM) thus encompasses the organizational activities directed toward the assimilation, dissemination, harvest, and reuse of knowledge. (igi-global.com)
  • Efficiency hinders on quality and so does the quality management methodology Six Sigma. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • My High Honors Bachelor's degree is in Organizational Development and Management. (wyzant.com)
  • The study of organizational effectiveness has long been the province of those in the management sciences. (wbdg.org)
  • 2 Organizational Structure of Integrated Management System. (isciii.es)
  • Organizational intelligence embraces both knowledge management and organizational learning, as it is the application of knowledge management concepts to a business environment, additionally including learning mechanisms, comprehension models and business value network models, such as the balanced scorecard concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present data represents an officer-level survey of four law enforcement agencies, designed to answer the following questions: (1) how are technologies used in police agencies across ranks and organizational sub-units? (umich.edu)
  • Below you will find our best resources for improving facility efficiency. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • Upgrade out-of-date telecommunications and information technology systems to maximize efficiency and resources. (hashaiti.org)
  • The research purpose was to examine the influence of available resources on organizational effectiveness. (scirp.org)
  • We focused on how physicians, administrative, healthcare and non-healthcare staff either in the public or in the private perceived their work environment and each organizational climate dimension. (elsevier.es)
  • Organizational intelligence consists of the ability to make sense of complex situations and act effectively, to interpret and act upon relevant events and signals in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several ingredients that go into organizational success, and leveraging assets well is one of these. (igi-global.com)
  • Measuring efficiency in health care : analytic techniques and health policy / Rowena Jacobs, Peter C. Smith and Andrew Street. (who.int)
  • The CIRANO Pole on the Efficiency of Health Services and Policies brings together researchers interested in issues related to the health care system and the Quebec health care system. (cirano.qc.ca)
  • The American Board of Organizational and Business Consulting Psychology certifies eligible persons. (gradschools.com)
  • MISSOULA, MT, October 13, 2017 /24-7PressRelease/ -- Karin E. Fried of Organizational Consulting Services has earned her advanced Level II: Hoarding Specialist Certificate from the Institute for Challenging Disorganization (ICD). (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Organizational Consulting Services provides both business and residential organizing services. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Organizational Consulting Services provides Professional Organizing and Productivity Consulting to both business and residential clients. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • These partnerships also can help overcome organizational boundaries and allow parties to work together on a shared goal. (cdc.gov)
  • Enables health service orders to be electronically given and tracked across organizational boundaries. (omg.org)
  • Will enable transactions across diverse organizational and automated information system boundaries. (omg.org)
  • Enables presriptions to be electronically given, tracked and dispensed across organizational and disparate computing boundaries. (omg.org)
  • The results of this study have also implications for practitioners responsible for marketing and managing inter-firm projects who can be considered, to a considerable extent, accountable for both the development of inter-organizational relationships between firms they are employed by and other firms in the surrounding business environment, and the efficiency of work carried out in projects in which their employing firms participate. (aalto.fi)
  • Efficiency is more than just upping production, it's about the quality and effectiveness of work being done. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • The work of the pole on health aims to contribute to improving the efficiency of health services and policies in Quebec. (cirano.qc.ca)
  • Efficiency, Motivation, and Quality in Work Design 8. (routledge.com)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Collaborative Care, Integrated Health Systems and Organizational Models are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • Kochikar, V. P. "Managing Organizational Knowledge in the Age of Social Computing. (igi-global.com)
  • Baron states "social efficiency requires balancing the cost of injuries and the cost of care" (2013: 393). (majortests.com)
  • Data came from organizational-climate questionnaires administered in 2010 and 2012 to 19616 and 1276 health employees in public and private hospitals in the Tuscany Region respectively. (elsevier.es)
  • This study compares the organizational climate differences within professional roles in private and public hospitals. (elsevier.es)
  • Este estudio compara las diferencias de clima organizacional en los roles profesionales de hospitales públicos y privados. (elsevier.es)
  • Masters in industrial organizational psychology degrees are reported by the National Center for Education Statistics under the category of Industrial and organizational psychology. (gradschools.com)
  • What Can you do with a Master's in Industrial Organizational Psychology? (gradschools.com)
  • Do I need a Master's in Industrial Organizational Psychology? (gradschools.com)
  • The masters and PhD in industrial organizational psychology differ in level and scope. (gradschools.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Collaborative Care, Integrated Health Systems and Organizational Models. (waset.org)