Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Relating to the size of solids.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The consumption of edible substances.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
The motion of air currents.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (1/801)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

The effects of clonazepam on quality of life and work productivity in panic disorder. (2/801)

Although panic disorder has been associated with impaired quality of life (QOL) and financial dependence, no prior study has examined whether a clinical intervention will improve these outcomes. This study examines the effects of clinically titrated doses of clonazepam versus placebo on QOL and work productivity (WP) in patients with panic disorder. QOL and WP were measured in conjunction with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Work Productivity and Impairment questionnaire were used to assess QOL and WP, respectively. Baseline assessments were obtained before randomizing patients to receive clinically titrated doses of clonazepam or placebo. Follow-up assessments were obtained after 6 weeks of therapy with the test drug or at premature termination from the study. Improvement on the SF-36 Mental Health Component Summary scale was more than twice as great with clonazepam than with placebo (P = 0.03). Clonazepam patients improved (P < 0.05) on all five measures of mental health-related QOL, and both measures of physical health-related QOL, and both measures of WP. Placebo patients improved on three of five measures of mental health-related QOL, but on no other measures. Patients with marked improvements on clinical measures of panic disorder severity, especially avoidance and fear of the main phobia, showed the greatest gains on the SF-36 Mental Health Component Summary scale. Clinically titrated doses of clonazepam significantly improved mental health-related QOL and WP in panic disorder patients. Lesser improvements were obtained with placebo.  (+info)

Effect of compensation method on the behavior of primary care physicians in managed care organizations: evidence from interviews with physicians and medical leaders in Washington State. (3/801)

The perceived relationship between primary care physician compensation and utilization of medical services in medical groups affiliated with one or more among six managed care organizations in the state of Washington was examined. Representatives from 67 medical group practices completed a survey designed to determine the organizational arrangements and norms that influence primary care practice and to provide information on how groups translate the payments they receive from health plans into individual physician compensation. Semistructured interviews with 72 individual key informants from 31 of the 67 groups were conducted to ascertain how compensation method affects physician practice. A team of raters read the transcripts and identified key themes that emerged from the interviews. The themes generated from the key informant interviews fell into three broad categories. The first was self-selection and satisfaction. Compensation method was a key factor for physicians in deciding where to practice. Physicians' satisfaction with compensation method was high in part because they chose compensation methods that fit with their practice styles and lifestyles. Second, compensation drives production. Physician production, particularly the number of patients seen, was believed to be strongly influenced by compensation method, whereas utilization of ancillary services, patient outcomes, and satisfaction are seen as much less likely to be influenced. The third theme involved future changes in compensation methods. Medical leaders, administrators, and primary care physicians in several groups indicated that they expected changes in the current compensation methods in the near future in the direction of incentive-based methods. The responses revealed in interviews with physicians and administrative leaders underscored the critical role compensation arrangements play in driving physician satisfaction and behavior.  (+info)

Atypical antipsychotics and formulary decisions. (4/801)

Although drug costs are a small fraction of the total direct costs of treating schizophrenia, managed care has focused on drug acquisition costs as an area of concern. There is pressure to demonstrate by outcome measures that the increased cost of the newer atypical antipsychotics versus traditional neuroleptics is justified. Decision makers want to be convinced that newer, more expensive treatment translates to value. Evidence accumulated to date suggests that the atypical agents are cost-effective. Studies show patients taking atypical antipsychotics have an improved quality of life, are more easily rehabilitated and reintegrated into the community, return to full- or part-time work more often, and prefer the newer agents to conventional antipsychotics. These benefits have been shown in studies of olanzapine versus haloperidol. Just as important, patients taking atypical antipsychotics show decreased medical care resource utilization, which results in cost savings.  (+info)

Health insurance and productivity. (5/801)

AIM: To provide a conceptual understanding of the basic relationship between health insurance and overall economic productivity, and to look at the human development index as a proxy for the quality of human capital. METHODS: Economic data and data related to human development in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Croatia, were compared to the European Union (EU) average. Data were selected out of databases provided by the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations. Income and growth rates were related to the EU averages. The human development index was used to compare the level of the average achievements in the longevity of life, knowledge, and quality of living in CEE countries. RESULTS: Relative to the EU-average, human development is lagging behind in CEE countries. Considering the world as a benchmark regarding human development, 8 out of 13 CEE countries exceed the world. However, all CEE countries have 3-28% lower human development than the industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS: The specific challenge for transition countries is how to adopt strategies to translate economic progress into health and social gains through reliable institutions, among them social health insurance bodies. The institutions and the provision of social health insurance are particularly challenged at a turning point when transition in terms of macroeconomic stabilization, along with the consolidated organization and financing of social and health insurance schemes, is accommodated to a business cycle-driven market economy.  (+info)

Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: the need for sustainable and efficient practices. (6/801)

The recent intensification of agriculture, and the prospects of future intensification, will have major detrimental impacts on the nonagricultural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the world. The doubling of agricultural food production during the past 35 years was associated with a 6.87-fold increase in nitrogen fertilization, a 3.48-fold increase in phosphorus fertilization, a 1.68-fold increase in the amount of irrigated cropland, and a 1.1-fold increase in land in cultivation. Based on a simple linear extension of past trends, the anticipated next doubling of global food production would be associated with approximately 3-fold increases in nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates, a doubling of the irrigated land area, and an 18% increase in cropland. These projected changes would have dramatic impacts on the diversity, composition, and functioning of the remaining natural ecosystems of the world, and on their ability to provide society with a variety of essential ecosystem services. The largest impacts would be on freshwater and marine ecosystems, which would be greatly eutrophied by high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus release from agricultural fields. Aquatic nutrient eutrophication can lead to loss of biodiversity, outbreaks of nuisance species, shifts in the structure of food chains, and impairment of fisheries. Because of aerial redistribution of various forms of nitrogen, agricultural intensification also would eutrophy many natural terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases. These detrimental environmental impacts of agriculture can be minimized only if there is much more efficient use and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in agroecosystems.  (+info)

Challenges associated with the incorporation of digital radiography into a picture archival and communication system. (7/801)

Digital radiography (DR) has recently emerged as an attractive alternative to computed radiography (CR) for the acquisition of general radiographic studies in a digital environment. It offers the possibility of improved spatial and contrast resolution, decreased radiation dose due to improved efficiency of detection of x-ray photons, and perhaps most importantly, holds out the promise of increased technologist productivity. To achieve maximum efficiency, DR must be completely integrated into existing information systems, including the hospital and radiology information systems (HIS/RIS) and, when present, the picture archival and communication system (PACS). The early experience with the integration of DR at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) has identified several challenges that exist to the successful integration of DR. DR has only recently been defined as a separate Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) modality and images obtained will, at first, be listed under the category of CR. Matrix sizes with some DR products on the market exceed the current size limitations of some PACS. The patient throughput may be substantially greater with DR than with CR, and this in combination with the larger size of image files may result in greater demands for network and computer performance in the process of communication with the HIS/RIS and PACS. Additionally, in a hybrid department using both CR and DR, new rules must be defined for prefetching and display of general radiographic studies to permit these examinations to be retrieved and compared together. Advanced features that are planned for DR systems, such as dual-energy subtraction, tomosynthesis, and temporal subtraction, will likely require additional workstation tools beyond those currently available for CR.  (+info)

Effects of scatter substraction on detection and quantitation in hepatic SPECT. (8/801)

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of subtractive scatter compensation methods on lesion detection and quantitation. METHODS: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology was used to measure human observer detection accuracy for tumors in the liver using synthetic images. Furthermore, ROC results were compared with mathematical models for detection and activity quantitation to examine (a) the potential for predicting human performance and (b) the relationship between the detection and quantitation tasks. Images with both low and high amounts of scatter were compared with the ideal case of images of primary photons only (i.e., perfect scatter rejection) and with images corrected by subtracting a scatter image estimated by the dual photopeak window method. RESULTS: With low contrast tumors in a low count background, the results showed that scatter subtraction improved quantitation but did not produce statistically significant increases in detection accuracy. However, primary images did produce some statistically significant improvements in detection accuracy when compared with uncorrected images, particularly for high levels of scatter. CONCLUSION: Although scatter subtraction methods may provide improved activity quantitation, they may not significantly improve detection for liver SPECT. The results imply that significant improvement in detection accuracy for the conditions tested may depend on the development of gamma cameras with better scatter rejection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of estradiol valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. AU - Wasiak, Radoslaw. AU - Filonenko, Anna. AU - Vanness, David J.. AU - Law, Amy. AU - Jeddi, Mark. AU - Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U.. AU - Stull, Donald E.. AU - Siak, Steven. AU - Jensen, Jeffrey T.. PY - 2013/4/1. Y1 - 2013/4/1. N2 - Objectives: To quantify the change in work productivity and activities of daily living in North American women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) treated with estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira ®/Natazia®) compared to placebo. Methods: Women in the United States and Canada, aged 20-53 years with an objective diagnosis of HMB and no recognizable anatomical pathology, were treated with E 2V/DNG or placebo for seven cycles (196 days). Main outcome measures included work productivity (i.e., productivity while at work) and activities of daily living measured using a modified Work Productivity and Activity ...
WebMD Symptom Checker helps you find the most common medical conditions indicated by the symptoms Fatigue, Hunger and Reduced productivity at work and including Depression (Adult), Sleep deprivation and Acute stress reaction.
WebMD Symptom Checker helps you find the most common medical conditions indicated by the symptoms Decreased appetite, Fatigue, Reduced productivity at work and Tires quickly and including Depression (Adult), Emphysema and Mononucleosis.
In this paper, a micro theoretic model of the simultaneous determination of labor productivity and union density is developed and estimated using British establishment-level data from the 1990 Workplace Employee Relations Survey. The main empirical finding is that higher union bargaining power does not necessarily lower labor productivity in union firms, ceteris paribus. Separate bargaining by multiple unions has a negative effect but productivity is higher if management recommends union membership. There is also evidence that, if unions can more effectively provide services to their members and secure management support for union membership, union density may recover. Copyright 1999 by Royal Economic Society.
Many chronic illnesses that affect the working population can cause losses in productivity. The extent to which these productivity losses can be reduced by pharmacological treatment is of particular interest to employers, who bear the productivity costs and subsidize the cost of employees health care. In the past several years, the effects of pharmaceuticals on productivity losses have been tested in numerous studies, including randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In this article, we summarize and critically review these studies and, where appropriate, provide quantitative overviews. The evidence is very good for about a dozen drug classes that pharmaceuticals reduce productivity losses caused by respiratory illnesses (ie, asthma, allergic disorders, bronchitis, upper respiratory infections, and influenza) diabetes, depression, dysmenorrhea, and migraine. We also discuss the calculation of productivity costs, reductions in which may partially or completely offset the costs of treatment.
Downloadable! The latest crisis has exacerbated two negative macroeconomic phenomena, particularly in Southern Europe. The size and persistence of youth unemployment has become unacceptable after 2010. Stagnation in labour productivity instead goes back to the 90s, but it has not improved since then and even worsen with the crisis. In this paper we analysed these two macroeconomic features, using aggregate data, in relation to labour market characteristics. Reforms of regulation, in many countries over the past twenty years, introduced a set of newly designed job contracts that allowed the use of temporary work. At the same time, Employment Protection Regulation encompassed temporary workers too. The availability of new contracts and EPLT changed the incentives of firms to vary their labour needs, and to invest in new technology. Eventually, this should have an impact on labour productivity and unemployment. We distinguished between temporary young and adult workers and, conditional to the level of
[email protected]® is an employer-based training program. The ultimate aim of the program is to improve the organizational health of participating employers and certified trainers, with an emphasis on strategies to reduce chronic disease and injury risk to employees and an eye to improving overall worker productivity.
Data Availability StatementEli Lilly provides usage of all data on person participants collected through the trial after anonymization, apart from genetic or pharmacokinetic data. will be provided inside a secure data-sharing environment for to 2 up?years per proposal. For information on submitting a demand, see the guidelines offered at www.clinicalstudydatarequest.com. Abstract Intro The Work Efficiency and Activity Impairment Specific Health Problem Questionnaire (WPAI:SHP) is used to assess the impact of an intervention on work productivity in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Unfortunately, studies reporting changes or improvements in domains of WPAI:SHP by patients with PsA have a limited threshold of meaning due to the absence of published minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs). Our objective was to determine the MCIDs for improvement in WPAI:SHP in patients with active PsA. Methods MCIDs for WPAI:SHP domains (presenteeism, work productivity loss, and activity impairment) ...
The recession and modest economic recovery have reduced employee productivity and shifted employers benefits objectives, according to MetLifes 8th annual Employee Benefits Trends Study, based on a survey conducted during the fourth quarter of 2009.. Controlling costs is now the top benefits objective for U.S. employers, edging out employee retention for the first time since 2006, while improving employee productivity remains the third most important benefits objective.. At the same time, economic pressures have impacted workers. According to the study, released in April 2010, 68 percent of employees said that over the previous 12 months they were affected by increased feelings of job insecurity, a decrease in the quality of their work, an increase in their workload or being distracted at work because of financial worries.. In a still-fragile economy, organizations are searching for ways to maximize their benefits programs to improve employee productivity and control costs. Programs that help ...
Background Alcohol use is a global health issue and may influence activity performance in a variety of domains, including the occupational and domestic spheres. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of annual drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥6 units at one occasion) on activity impairments both at work (sickness presenteeism) and outside the workplace. Methods Employees (n = 3278), recruited from 14 Norwegian private and public companies, responded to a questionnaire containing questions from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Workplace Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI). Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that binge drinking was associated with both sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities, even after controlling for gender, age, educational level, living status and employment sector. Annual drinking frequency was associated with impaired daily activities, but not sickness presenteeism.
N05-I14 Assessing the Historical Salmon Presence and Productivity at Transboundary Sockeye Nursery Lakes Using Stable Isotopes Within the Paleolimnologic Sediment ...
Behrenfeld, Michael J; Falkowski, Paul G (2003): Ocean Primary Productivity at OPPWG_0065. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.108618
in Indian Manufacturing M Upender With a view to generate empirical information, an attempt is made in this paper to estimate the elasticity of labour productivity so as to find the substitution possibilities of labour for capital in the Indian manufacturing sector covering the period 1973-74 to 1989-90. The results of this exercise show that Indian manufacturing (factory)
Between 1997 and 2014, multifactor productivity gains in air transportation were the second highest among 63 industries and represented a considerable share of the nations total multifactor productivity growth.
Empower your organization to digitize and automate workflows with powerful workplace productivity tools. Explore our workflow automation solutions today.
Empower your organization to digitize and automate workflows with powerful workplace productivity tools. Explore our workflow automation solutions today.
Can Improved Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis Improve Workplace Productivity? The Role of Intranasal Formulation of Azelastine Hydrochloride and Fluticasone Propionate (Dymista)
A common view in economic theory is that cleaning up air pollution - along with other environmental protections - creates a burden or tax on consumers as well as on those producing the pollution or environmental damage. But a new study by the National Bureau of Economic Research, The Impact of Air Pollution on Worker Productivity, flips that idea on its ear. Since they found that pollution significantly reduces worker productivity, they argue that cleaning up pollution would benefit the economy by improving labor conditions and investing in human capital.. The study is timely because the US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed setting a tougher standard for ground-level ozone, which is presently at 75 ppb (parts per billion) over an 8-hour period.. Joshua Graff Zivin and Matthew Neidell assessed how changes in ozone exposure affected the productivity of agricultural workers from Californias Central Valley, and the study provides the first rigorous assessment of this issue. The ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Causality Between Trade and Productivity in Rapidly Developing Asian Countries: A Multivariate VAR Analysis. AU - Rajaguru, Gulasekaran. AU - Thangavelu, Shandre M. N1 - Conference code: 7. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The paper investigates the causal relationship between trade and labour productivity for 10 rapidly developing Asian countries using a Vector Error-Correction Model. In particular, exports and imports are used jointly as trade variables to examine the relationship between trade and productivity. The study found evidence of import-led rather than export-led productivity growth for some of the Asian countries. The long-run result shows that there is no effect from exports to labour productivity growth for Indonesia, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan; thus suggesting that there is no export-led productivity growth in these countries. However, we do find significant effects from imports on productivity growth, suggesting import-led productivity growth in Korea and Japan. The ...
Author(s): Fisk, William J.; Price, Phillip; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Federspiel, Cliff; Liu, Gang; Lahiff, Maureen
Its a popular work-place computer program which help handle employees operation, monitor worker rewards, and track worker productivity. Square worker direction gets the Subsequent functionalities:. Square employee Direction Stipulates These Functions:. Employee productivity. It gives a monitoring technique to assist you boost employee productivity. The computer software exhibits the operation of each and every employee at distinct work preferences. This permits you to see that employees work properly, and also which ones are not doing.. Employee rewards. This gives you the opportunity to ascertain which personnel do very well, which employees have much less access to advantages. You can even track worker benefits such as health, dental, vision, and injury insurancecoverage.. Square employee direction helps manage payroll, and produce reports that enable you to boost the performance of every and every employee. It shows you the range of worker days, the range of staff members per day, the ...
UCB today announced data which showed that Cimzia®, the only approved PEGylated anti-TNF for the treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), plus methotrexate (MTX), versus placebo plus MTX provided a significant improvement in patient physical function, fatigue and pain. A clear association between clinically meaningful improvements in these outcomes and increased work productivity were observed both within and outside the home.. The data (taken from two large multinational Phase III, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies [RAPID 1 and 2]) published in Rheumatology, showed that a clinically meaningful reduction in RA symptoms was associated with improved productivity at work outside and within the home, as achieved in patients treated with certolizumab pegol plus MTX. Five times as many patients treated with certolizumab pegol plus MTX versus placebo plus MTX reported clinically meaningful improvements in RA-associated pain, and two-to-three times as many ...
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) plays a key role in determining occupants productivity at work; however, the analyses in the interconnected factors among building physical, attitudinal, social and demographic components in one study are lacking. To link this research gap, this study investigates these interconnected factors influence on occupants IEQ-productivity belief, defined as personal subjective evaluation on the linkage between the impacts of five IEQ aspects (the qualities of indoor temperature, air, natural and electric lighting and acoustics) and productivity. A cross-sectional survey data is collected in university offices from six countries (Brazil, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, Taiwan and the U.S.). Results of multiple linear regression model indicate that IEQ satisfaction is the strongest positive predictor of the IEQ-productivity belief; this relationship is stronger in private offices. Country of residence is the second primary predictor. Several attitudinal-behavioral ...
World Health Organization classified fine dust as the group 1 carcinogenic substance which causes a serious health risk along with direct impact on work productivity, academic performance and work efficiency. The inconvenience and the anxiety of the people due to the fine dust has been increasing, on the other hand the utilization/accumulation of the data on the air pollution regarding the fine dust and its countermeasures against the fine dust are not properly performed. The real-time measurement data about air quality is the big data of new field which should be complemented with the national meteorological data in order to meet the demands for public people and relevant industry.. The changes in the frequency of dust generation, changes in power usage patterns, outbreaks of the disease, and the movement pattern of people can be provided valuable information not only to the private sectors such as energy companies, electronics companies, medical institutions, and insurance companies, but also ...
Once you take the time to think about it, it is easy to make the connection to how better health and fitness increases productivity and happiness at work. According to Chron.com stress impacts everything in your life, including memory and processing new information towards analytical situations. These stressors not only impact concentration, but can also result in costly mistakes in any career field. Furthermore, energy around an office is contagious and employees with low energy and high stress will negatively impact the office atmosphere as a whole. In addition, when we dont feel well we are more likely to call in sick, thus getting further behind on our work and, in turn, creating more stress. It is a vicious cycle. Encouraging employees to work out with specific goals of increased functionality and mobility will help them to alleviate stress and increase focus and productivity at work.. This is just one example of how working out with Function First changed a life.. Before I found Function ...
INTRODUCTION. Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are the leading cause of mortality and burden of disease in most countries in the world.1 In the United States of America, estimates of the total cost of cardiovascular diseases, including heart disease and strokes, totaled US$ 444 billion in 2010.2 For medium/high income countries such as Brazil, the estimated annual cost is 4% of the GDP, i.e. approximately US$ 139 per capita per year.3 Estimates for Brazil suggest that the loss of productivity at work and decreased family income resulting from merely three CNCD (diabetes, heart disease and stroke) will lead to a loss in the Brazilian economy of US$ 4.18 billion between 2006 and 2015.4 Faced with the exponential growth of health costs, many employers are implementing evidence-based health promotion programs, including individual risk reduction programs, connected to environmental support for healthy behaviors, coordinated and integrated into other activities related to wellbeing, which has ...
Little is known about the economic benefits of providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas. In South Africa, an increasing number of private sector firms are providing access to ART for their employees. One of the barriers to such action, however, is the lack of available information on the success of ART in restoring workers to full productivity, retaining skilled employees in the workforce, and reducing the costs of medical care and death and disability benefits. HIV infected employees on ART may be absent from work less often than untreated HIV infected employees, but more often than HIV uninfected employees. This study will collect data from an independent HIV/AIDS disease treatment program and a large private sector employer in Johannesburg, South Africa to estimate the benefits and costs for businesses to provide ART to eligible employees.. The study will combine individual-level medical outcome and treatment cost ...
Do you struggle with constantly getting sick over the winter months? Or perhaps is just a nagging sore throat and fatigue, but youre able to power through your workdays (even though you dont feel like yourself). Catching nasty a cold or flu, or constantly fighting off infections from co-workers or family members, derails your productivity at work (and in the gym) and zaps your energy at home. Many people struggle to get through the fall and winter season with sub-par health, holding their breath until spring and warm weather returns. There is another alternative. Ask anyone what traditional remedy theyve heard is effective for the common cold and theyll likely tell you… grandmas (or grandpas) chicken soup. This age-old remedy for colds and flu goes back centuries, across many different cultures, and is still widely practised today. Does the latest research support the use of chicken bone broth (or chicken soup) for supporting immunity and fighting off colds and flu? Lets take a closer ...
Frequent visits to the bathroom at night could cost the U.S. economy $44.4 billion a year. Waking up more than twice a night due to nocturia, a health condition that affects the lower urinary tract, can have a detrimental effect on a persons wellbeing and productivity at work, which in turn has an impact on a countrys GDP.. ...
How can something so simple as sleeping with weighted blankets be a solution to stress, anxiety, insomnia and more? Messed up sleep can create a long list of secondary issues that can quickly become primary concerns if insomnia or other disturbances continue untreated. Lack of sleep, whether its medically related or anxiety-driven, can throw off your normal functioning during the day. Concentration becomes difficult, productivity at work or school begins to suffer, irritability can have you lashing out at family and friends, and you also become at risk for serious health issues like heart attacks.. Deep pressure touch stimulation (or DPTS) is a type of therapy that almost anyone can benefit from. Similar to getting a massage, pressure exerted over the body has physical and psychological advantages. According toTemple Grandin, Ph.D., Deep touch pressure is the type of surface pressure that is exerted in most types of firm touching, holding, stroking, petting of animals, or swaddling. [sic] ...
More than three-fourths of adults who had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as children, still experience symptoms-and no matter the setting, its a challenge every day.. Starting from childhood, its critical for school counselors to use evidence-based interventions to help students with ADHD stay organized and manage their time. And those skills can translate into the workplace as adults. According to [email protected], which offers an online masters in school counseling from NYU Steinhardt, small steps to manage a childs time in the classroom efficiently and minimize distractions can make a big difference in the long run.. As an adult, you can use similar practical tactics that school counselors would use to manage your ADHD. You might not struggle with all these issues, and all these solutions may not work for you, but these tips may help boost your productivity at work.. ...
Back pain, chronic or otherwise, can affect your quality of life and lower your productivity at work. The Pain Management Centre at Singapore General Hospital shares the facts and how to manage the pain.
The effect of climate change on health is staking up factors causing diseases, less productivity at work and even rising suicide rates, a new report says.
Has Nissan designed the office workstation of the future? Ever suffered a drop in productivity at work? Fallen asleep at your desk? Or missed out on t...
Jan 10, 2017 , Contributor: Nicolle Monico. Every January 1, as a part of the new years tradition, people resolve to do all kinds of things such as eat healthier, get back in shape or finally ask for that much-deserved raise. While its typically hard to keep such promises throughout the year (when was the last time you used your gym membership?), one pledge you should really keep is your resolution to travel more. Plus, jet-setting from destination to destination typically leads to lower stress levels, more productivity at work and can even produce better relationships with friends and family. To help you out with a few ideas, we gathered together a list of South American cruises that you can embark on in 2017.. ... Read More ...
Volume 19: Maize-Soybean Intercropping System: Effects on |i|Striga|/i| Control, Grain Yields and Economic Productivity at Tarka, Benue State, Nigeria
OBJECTIVES: The impact of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its effect on work productivity at a population level remains unknown in Indonesia. This study estimates the health and productivity lost to CHD in terms of years of life, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and productivity-adjusted life years (PALYs). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A life-table model was constructed to simulate the experiences of Indonesians currently aged 15-54 years (working age) with CHD, followed-up to 55 years (retirement age). The life-table analysis was then repeated assuming that the cohort did not have CHD. Differences in the results reflected the impact of CHD. Demographical, prevalence and mortality data were based on the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study and 2018 Indonesian National Health Survey. Costs, productivity indices and utilities were derived from published sources. The cost of each PALY was assumed to be equivalent to gross domestic product per equivalent full-time worker (US$11 765). Future costs ...
Objective: To ascertain the impact of advanced access and productivity-based pay on physician productivity and compensation, patient satisfaction, and medical group cost of delivering care. Study Design: Longitudinal case study. Methods: Study subjects were 105 primary care physicians (PCPs) continuously employed at a Minnesota medical group that implemented major changes in access to primary care appointments and to PCP compensation arrangements in 2000. We tracked physician productivity, physician compensation, patient satisfaction, and cost to the medical group per relative value unit (RVU) of patient care from 1998 through 2002. Results: In 1998, 105 PCPs (99.6 full-time equivalents [FTEs]) generated 275 000 work RVUs (WRVUs), and PCP pay averaged $123 500 per FTE. In 2002, the same 105 PCPs (now 98.1 FTEs) generated 374 000 WRVUs and $148 000 pay per FTE. From 1998 through 2002, WRVUs per FTE rose 38%, PCP compensation increased 20%, cost of PCP compensation per WRVU produced fell by 13%, ...
Starfish Ventures is an experienced venture capital manager that understands the challenges of building and managing high growth technology businesses from an Australian base. Our investment focus includes high growth information technology, life sciences, and clean technology companies.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a workplace-based weight loss program (Workplace POWER [Preventing Obesity Without Eating like a Rabbit]) for male shift workers on a number of work-related outcomes. Methods: A total of 110 overweight/obese (body mass index = 25-40) (mean [SD] age = 44.3 [8.6] years; body mass index = 30.5 [3.6]) male employees at Tomago Aluminium (New South Wales, Australia) were randomized to either (i) Workplace POWER program (n = 65) or (ii) a 14-week wait-list control group (n = 45). Men were assessed at baseline and 14-week follow-up for weight, quality of life, sleepiness, productivity at work (presenteeism), absenteeism, and workplace injuries. Results: Retention was 81%. Intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models revealed a significant intervention effect for weight, quality of life (mental), presenteeism, absenteeism, and injuries. Conclusions: The Workplace POWER weight loss program improved a number of important work-related ...
Such chronic diseases as asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol impact nearly 70% of working-age adults in the United States. While research has demonstrated the impact of medication adherence on reducing overall healthcare costs, there has been less evidence available to date on whether adherence improves employee productivity. However, the new research, published on Monday in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, found that employees with chronic conditions who were adherent to their prescribed medications had up to seven fewer days away from work annually (including absenteeism and short-term disability days) than those who were not adherent. This translated into estimated annual savings of up to nearly $1,700 per adherent employee.. These research findings clearly show that employees who receive appropriate medical care and follow their doctors directions about taking their medication are healthier and more productive, stated Troyen Brennan, EVP ...
Results A total of 381 AxSpA patients (279 AS) were analyzed. Nr-axSpA group, were younger (39.4 vs 43.1, p=0.007), more likely to be female (54% vs 33%, p,0.001), had a shorter disease duration (10.1 vs 16.0 years, p,0.001) and lower CRP (5.9 vs 13.2, p,0.001) and less common use of biologics (41.2% vs 26.5, p=0.008) despite higher BASDAI scores (Table). Broadly similar results were found for the other clinical outcome measures. Of all the axSpA patients, 58% were employed, with non-manual (25%), mixed (19%) and manual works (14%). Only 1.1% of the patients could not work due to arthritis. Patients with nr-axSpA reported more work productivity loss at workplace and at home over the last month, but the difference was significant only for household activities. Subgroup analysis showed that this difference was only found in females. ...
Paid sick leave gives workers an opportunity to regain their health, return to full productivity at work, and avoid spreading disease to their co-workers, all of which reduces employers overall absence expense. When used to care for sick children, it helps them get well faster and reduces job turnover of working parents. Workers who care for adult relatives, including the elderly, need paid sick leave to take care of their loved ones chronic and acute medical problems. However, new analysis of data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reveals the inadequacy of paid sick leave coverage: more than 59 million workers have no such leave. Even more -- nearly 86 million -- do not have paid sick leave to care for sick children. Full-time workers, those in the public sector, and union members have the best sick leave coverage, while part-timers and low-wage workers have very low coverage rates. Expansion of paid sick leave and integration of family caregiving activities into authorized uses of
During the 2010-2013 period, in the experimental field of Crop Science Department at the Agricultural University - Plovdiv a field experiment was conducted. Randomized complete block design was displayed with three replications and size of the experimental plot 10 m2.Eight new Bulgarian wintering oat lines and two varieties (Dunav 1 and Resor 1), as a standards for yield and quality in Bulgaria, were researched. Yield structural elements formation in different oat genotypes, depending on the agro-meteorological features over the years was traced. The statistical processing of the experimental data was made by SPSS V.9.0 for Microsoft Windows. The highest number of tillers in all studied wintering oat genotypes formed line №1 (4,2) and line M-K (3,6). These two genotypes formed and highest number productive tillers. From all structural elements of panicle with highest number of spikeletts per panicle proven stands line 08/Z 2 (59,3), followed by 07 / Z 1 (27,3). Line 08 / Z2 formed and the ...
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is associated with decreased learning, performance and productivity at work and school, as well as a reduced quality of life. With a staggering annual economic impact between $6 billion and $8 billion, AR affects 20% of the adult population and up to 40% of children. Effective therapy for allergic rhinitis requires understanding the pathophysiology of the disease, as well as the role of various inflammatory mechanisms. As such, various classes of medication are at the physicians disposal to treat patients with allergic rhinitis. Among these are second-generation antihistamines and anticholinergic agents, intranasal corticosteroids, and mast cell stabilizers. Recently, montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been added to the modes of therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for allergic rhinitis. For patients refractive to standard pharmacologic intervention, immunotherapy has shown some promising results. As newer strategies emerge, treatment ...
Lower back pain is a serious issue faced by many individuals in the United States. Low back pain is the fifth most common reason for all physician visits, and is the second most common symptomatic reason (upper respiratory symptoms are first). As these patients are attempting to find a solution for their low back pain they are likely to have to pay medical bills and have decreased productivity at work. The estimated annual national bill for the care of low back problems is $38 to $50 billion. Low back pain can be a symptom of a wide array of mechanical and nonmechanical conditions. The mechanical conditions typically include muscular or ligament strains/sprains as well as degenerative disk disease, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or osteoporosis. Radiculopathy is another large contributor to low back pain and is often identifiable as a sciatica, herniated intervertebral disk, as well as fractures, tumors, infection, or a vascular compromise. Nonmechanical spine disorders are less common but ...
We estimated that in 2015 there were 201, 857, 463 and 515 million people globally with myopia that would cause mild VI (≤-0.75D but ,-1.00D), moderate VI (≤-1.00D but ,-2.50D), severe VI (≤-2.50D but ,-4.00D) or blindness (≤-4.00D) respectively if uncorrected. Published country-level spectacle coverage rates were best modelled using the natural log of health expenditure per capita and adult literacy rates, and varied between urban and rural and across age groups. We estimated that in 2015 there were 82, 344, 187 and 211 million people globally with uncorrected myopia causing mild VI, moderate VI, severe VI and blindness respectively, and that there were 5.5 and 4.8 million people globally with moderate-severe VI and blindness respectively caused by MMD. The global economic productivity loss associated with the burden of VI from uncorrected myopia was estimated at US$389.5 billion (95% confidence interval US$142.0 billion - US$960.9 billion), including US$27.2 billion (US$10.0 - 66.0 ...
NB: this is the subject of a news briefing by Dr. Kelechi Nnoaham at 11.45hrs (CEST) on Monday 28 June [Hall 10, Room A]. Rome, Italy: The first worldwide study of the societal impact of endometriosis has found a significant loss of work productivity among those women who suffer from the condition, a researcher told the 26th annual meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology today (Monday). Dr. Kelechi Nnoaham, from the Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, UK, said that the results of this multi-centre study would help highlight the previously unrecognised plight of an estimated 176 million women around the world whose lives are affected by endometriosis.. Endometriosis is a painful inflammatory disease that, for many women, is chronic during their reproductive years. The inflammation occurs in cells similar to the endometrial cells of the uterus, which are found primarily in the pelvic cavity, on pelvic organs, and also on the bowel, bladder and (rarely) ...
Depressive disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, and subsyndromal depression (including minor depression) may be serious disabling illnesses. MDD is the most prevalent, affecting more than 16 percent (lifetime) of U.S. adults. It was recently reported that in the US workforce, MDD has a monthly depression-related worker productivity losses that resulted in human capital costs of almost $2 billion (Birnbaum 2009). In 2000, the U.S. economic burden of depressive disorders was estimated to be $83.1 billion. More than 30 percent of these costs are attributable to direct medical expenses.. Pharmacotherapy dominates the medical management of depressive disorders and may include first-generation antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors) and more recently developed second-generation antidepressants. These second-generation treatments include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors ...
This systematic review was conducted using best practice methods as recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration6 13; important decisions on study selection, analyses, and data synthesis were made in advance of the searches being conducted. Risk of bias assessments were conducted independently by two raters and were incorporated into interpretation of the quality of the evidence. These factors, along with the relatively large number of studies and participants, provide confidence in the reported effect estimates. Although the methodological quality of the studies was mixed, sensitivity analyses suggest that effect estimates were not unduly influenced by studies at high risk of bias.. As with any systematic review, a degree of clinical heterogeneity was present among the studies contributing to the pooled estimates. A further weakness is in the measurement and reporting of work outcomes. Work productivity losses account for a large proportion of the indirect costs of chronic low back pain and should ...
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(Prevalence of Employee Drug Testing) The majority of human resource professionals surveyed in this brief study report that their organizations have a drug testing program; furthermore a majority of those respondents report some perceived benefits in reduced absenteeism and workers compensation claims, and increased worker productivity/performance. More than half of
[email protected]® is an employer-based training program. The ultimate aim of the program is to improve the organizational health of participating employers and certified trainers, with an emphasis on strategies to reduce chronic disease and injury risk to employees and an eye to improving overall worker productivity.
ERGONOMICS at WSU-TC Completion of this unit fulfills required WSU-TC safety training for: Ergonomics Lifting Slips, trips and falls Lezlie Couch EH&S- WSU-TC What is “Ergonomics”? Ergonomics is the scientific study of human work. Ergonomic principals adapt work to a specific person by designing tasks & tools or equipment to fit the individual to prevent injuries to the musculoskeletal system. What are the benefits of ergonomics? •Reduction of work-related injuries •Increased worker productivity •Increased work quality YOU JUST •Reduced absenteeism FEEL BETTER! •Increased morale Ergonomics provides a win-win situation…..on and off the job What are the risks of ignoring ergonomic principles?  An “MSD” is an illness or injury that affects one or more parts of the musculoskeletal system         Bones Muscles Tendons Ligaments Cartilage Nerves Blood vessels MSD Other common terms for ...
Lower back pains and hand problems are the main symptoms of a poorly designed office. A typist spends most of the day using a keyboard and therefore will experience hand problems in their lifetime. Loss of hand function is the number one reason that a person enters a nursing home (Materials Handling Engineering, Jun 1996). Experts say that people that spend more than four hours at a keyboard each day are most likely to suffer from some kind of repetitive strain injury, (Managing Office Technology, Jul 1996). A natural straight posture during keying with the wrist laying horizontal is the best way to avoid such RSIs. The mouse has to be kept as close to the keyboard as possible and can be rotated to each side of the keyboard to minimise dominant hand overuse.. The introduction of computers into the workplace has reduced the need to move constantly and often leads to a more sedentary employee. This in turn produces higher levels of discomfort and reduces worker productivity. Sun Microsystems has ...
Ergonomics Definition: Fitting the job to the worker. Goals: APHIS Ergonomics Program creating healthy workspaces through healthy work habits Ergonomics Definition: Fitting the job to the worker. Goals: Fit you to your car so you can drive in a way that maximizes the natural ability of your body to move and respond to physical stress. Decrease risk of injury/illness. Enhance worker productivity.
Banners LED light bar is a better solution for industrial lighting compared to traditional fluorescent lighting. The LED light bars provide a directional lighting effect, providing even, concentrated illumination where it is needed. Increased lighting can also help improve worker productivity while minimizing eye strain. ...
Summary. Single-pass tangential flow filtration (SPTFF) followed by multi-column chromatography (MCC) was used to continuously process a cell culture supernatant containing a monoclonal antibody (MAb) via Protein A affinity chromatography. This study demonstrates the benefit of such a combination in term of process robustness, productivity and economics of continuous processing. The SPTFF technique can readily be implemented for continuous processing via automated skids, and the flexibility of the technique allows for better control of the purification steps by normalizing the protein concentration from cell culture to chromatography. Moreover, while continuous multi-column operation results in high productivity at high protein titer, combining SPTFF and MCC when a low protein titer is used maintains this process productivity and economical gain compared to conventional batch chromatography. Perfusion cell culture, seen as the method of choice for continuous upstream processing, currently ...
The companies in question had on-site exercise facilities, which facilitated the workout days for the employees. However, this doesnt mean that companies need to have on-site gyms to reap the benefits. Offering gym memberships and allowances to employees as a benefit is a good start, as is motivating them and keeping them on track to ensure they utilize the opportunity.. Another method to easily start an exercise program is to schedule it within work hours. Japanese companies have long discovered the effectiveness of beginning the workday with a quick exercise session. This method came from their kaizen philosophy of continual improvement; in this case, investing in the employees themselves and making them the best they can be.. Companies like Honda took it one step further: instead of standard on-the-job training, Honda would put new assembly line workers through a two-week exercise program with classes that simulated the movements they needed to perform doing their job. If your company deals ...
Paper: Talc is used in both uncoated and coated rotogravure papers where it improves printability as well as reducing surface friction, giving substantial improvements in productivity at the paper mill and print house. It also improves mattness and reduce ink scuff in offset papers. Used as pitch control agents, talc cleans the paper making process by adsorbing any sticky resinous particles in the pulp onto their platy surfaces, thereby preventing the agglomeration and deposition of these on the felts and calenders. As opposed to chemical pitch-control products that pollute the process water, talc is removed together with the pulp, enabling the papermaker to operate more easily in closed-circuit. In specialty papers such as colored papers or labels, talc helps to improve quality and productivity ...
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Date Published: June 1, 2018 Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Author(s): Alexandra Hofer, Christoph Herwig, Oliver Spadiut. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0625-0 Abstract Complex raw materials are widely used as supplements in biopharmaceutical production processes due to their positive effect on biomass growth and productivity at low cost. However, their use negatively impacts process reproducibility due to high lot-to-lot variability…
The Alaskan Tundra is in between the latitude lines 60-75° N and is not very biologically diverse. The temperatures are too cold and the winds too strong for trees to grow, and there are only a few dozen animals adapted to living there. The land is very similar to that of a dessert and most of the living organisms there are shrubs, mosses, grasses, and flowers.. Compared to the other biomes, the Tundra receives much less rainfall, has extremely little growing season, and has the second lowest net primary productivity at 600 kilocalories/square meter/year, but makes up the most percent of earths land surface. While the tropical rain forest, estuary, swamps and marshes receive more than 60 inches of rainfall, temperate grassland receive 10-30 inches, deciduous temperate forest receives 30-60 inches, and boreal forest receives 12-33 inches, the tundra and desert only receive less than 10 inches of rainfall each year. While the majority of the biomes have 365 days of growing season, the boreal ...
As tall seamounts may be stepping stones for dispersion and migration of deep open ocean fauna, an improved understanding of the productivity at and food supply to such systems needs to be formed. Here, the 234Th/238U approach for tracing settling particulate matter was applied to Senghor Seamount a tall sub-marine mountain near the tropical Cape Verde archipelago in order to elucidate the effects of topographically-influenced physical flow regimes on the export flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the near-surface (topmost ⩽ 100 m) into deeper waters. The comparison of a suitable reference site and the seamount sites revealed that POC export at the seamount sites was ∼2 4 times higher than at the reference site. For three out of five seamount sites, the calculated POC export fluxes are likely to be underestimates. If this is taken into account, it can be concluded that POC export fluxes increase while the passing waters are advected around and over the seamount, with the highest ...
Although not as significant numerically, final heights of European men who reached maturity have also been increasing over the past two centuries, as shown in Table 2.2. In some countries, average heights increased by as much as 10 cm per century. Body weight has also increased. Figure 2.1 shows that for some age groups, the body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight adjusted for height (equal to kg/m increased by about 10-15% within the past 100 years. This chapter aims to elucidate the long-run relationship between labor productivity and body size. In particular, it will be shown that improvements in the nutritional status of a number of societies in Western Europe since the early eighteenth century may have initiated a virtuous circle of technophysio evolution. The theory of technophysio evolution posits the existence of a synergism between technological and physiological improvements that has produced a form of human evolution that is biological but not genetic, rapid, culturally ...
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of firm size to the economic performance of firm belonging to the raising of swine sector (CZ-NACE 01.460). The economic performance is assessed using multiple- criteria evaluation of alternatives methods where the selected coefficients of the profitability ratios, labour productivity and operating ratio are used as the indicator of economic performance. To assess the relationship between firm size and firm performance, the linear regression model is used. The study uses data collected from the database Albertina CZ Gold Edition for the year 2013 that are provided by Bisnode company and from Business Register. The results showed that the larger firms reached higher economic performance compared with smaller ones. These finding indicates that economies of scale are likely to play an important role in sector of raising swine. Kuncová, M.; Hedija, V.; Fiala, R.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Educational attainment and work disability in cancer survivors. T2 - Do diagnosis and comorbidity affect this association?. AU - Stapelfeldt, Christina M.. AU - Duijts, Saskia F. A.. AU - Horsboel, Trine A.. AU - Momsen, Anne-Mette H.. AU - Andersen, Niels T.. AU - Larsen, Finn B.. AU - Friis, Karina. AU - Nielsen, Claus. PY - 2020/7. Y1 - 2020/7. N2 - Objectives To study whether educational attainment had less impact on work disability in cancer survivors than in individuals without cancer. To study whether comorbidity had a higher impact on work disability in low-educated cancer survivors than in high-educated and whether this impact differed when compared with individuals without cancer. Methods Linkage of population-based public health survey data and the Danish Cancer Registry formed two groups: cancer survivors (n = 3,514) and cancer-free individuals (n = 171,262). In logistic regression models, the risk of experiencing an 8-week sick leave spell and the granting of ...
Raising labour productivity and enhancing competitiveness will be a priority during the next years as Viet Nam looks to move up in regional and global production networks. In order to meet this goal, the ILO, through its various programmes and projects as well as employment-related researches and analyses, is helping Viet Nam to develop national employment strategies, job-centred development policies, promote skills and enterprise development, youth employment and better job creation ...
Cedefops forecasts and their assumptions are regularly discussed with national experts. Hanne Shapiro, director of the Danish Technological Institute considers the forecasts underlying assumptions and results plausible.. She adds that cash benefit reform targeting young people not in employment, education or training and reform to early retirement reform are beginning to show positive effects. Reform to ensure university students complete their studies in less time period is contributing to the increase of highly-qualified people. Reform to increase the attractiveness of VET includes a double qualification pathway and qualifications offered at higher levels.. The European commissions macroeconomic forecast is broadly in line with national forecasts. She also remarked that the decline of the employment in manufacturing between 2008 and 2013 helped increase labour productivity by 30 %. This may explain the large fall in employment during the crisis, but could indicate that Danish manufacturing ...
Nearly every country in the world regulates air pollution. But how much pollution control is enough? Answering that question requires considerable information about the costs as well as the benefits of regulation. Historically, efforts to measure benefits have focused on averting major health insults, such as respiratory or cardiovascular events that result in hospitalizations or death, which typically only afflict the most vulnerable segments of the population. These health episodes are clearly consequential-e.g., the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 avert an estimated 160,000 deaths and 86,000 hospitalizations annually (1)-but may only represent the tip of the proverbial iceberg, compared to the number of cases of respiratory impairment and other health insults that affect many healthy people every day but do not require hospitalizations or even formal health care encounters. The ubiquity of these less lethal impacts, revealed by emerging economic research on labor productivity and human ...
The incidence of corporate taxation is a key issue in tax policy debates. According to surveys, most people think that capital owners bear the burden of corporate taxation. Since capital owners usually have high incomes, this suggests that the corporate tax is highly progressive. Business lobbyists challenge this view and argue that the tax reduces investment so that labour productivity and wages decline, which means that workers bear the tax burden.
The incidence of corporate taxation is a key issue in tax policy debates. According to surveys, most people think that capital owners bear the burden of corporate taxation. Since capital owners usually have high incomes, this suggests that the corporate tax is highly progressive. Business lobbyists challenge this view and argue that the tax reduces investment so that labour productivity and wages decline, which means that workers bear the tax burden.
These figures imply that between 1948 and 1994 US agricultural output per hour rose at an average rate of 4.6% per annum, a more than nine fold increase over the span of fifty years. This surge in agricultural labor productivity is attributable to steadily improving yields and an increase in the acreage cultivated per hour. For instance, the introduction of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer, combined with higher-yielding crop varieties raised the amount of potatoes per harvested acre by a factor of almost 2.5 between 1948 and 1994 (US Department of Agriculture, 2000). Similarly, the number of acres cultivated per hour has been raised dramatically by the mechanization of agriculture, at an average annual rate of about 3%. As agricultural labor became more productive, the numbers of annual hours per worker as well as the number of workers were cut without curtailing agricultural output. Although annual hours per agricultural worker declined by 1% per year, the number of agricultural workers ...
Hong Kong is among the richest cities in the world. Yet over the past 15 years, living conditions for the average family have deteriorated despite a robust economy, ample budget surpluses and record labour productivity. Successive governments have been reluctant to invest in services for the elderly, the disabled, the long-term sick, and the poor, while education has become more elitist. The political system has helped to entrench a mistaken consensus that social spending is a threat to financial stability and economic prosperity. In this trenchant attack on government mismanagement, Leo Goodstadt traces how officials have created a new poverty in Hong Kong and argues that their misguided policies are both a legacy of the colonial era and a deliberate choice by modern governments, and not the result of economic crises. This provocative book will be essential reading for anyone wishing to understand why poverty returned to Hong Kong in this century ...
Using computer simulations of a model by US Nobel Laureate William Nordhaus, they weight climate damages from, for instance, increasing weather extremes or decreasing labor productivity against the costs of cutting greenhouse gas emission by phasing out coal and oil. Interestingly, the economically most cost-efficient level of global warming turns out to be the one more than 190 nations signed as the Paris Climate Agreement. So far however, CO2 reductions promised by nations worldwide are insufficient to reach this goal.
Going for Growth 2008 takes stock of recent progress in implementing policy reforms to improve labour productivity and utilisation that were identified as priorities in the 2007 edition.
Free Online Library: UK economic growth since 2010: is it as bad as it seems? by National Institute Economic Review; Business Economics Economic growth Economic aspects Forecasts and trends Growth Harmonics (Music) Labor productivity
We have seen a 50+ page RoNS communication strategy from the NZTA that specifies statements about economic growth and productivity as key messages. However, no amount of OIA requests or oral questions has found any underlying analysis or evidence that significant economic productivity will be created by the RoNS.. While National MPs and business lobby groups may ardently believe that a few higher standard highways are worth $12 billion (75% of the spending on new infrastructure over the next decade), the international evidence from transport planning suggests that new motorways are the least effective way (PDF) to achieve the critical aim of moving more people and freight at lower cost. There are steeply diminishing returns from duplicating or replacing an existing link in a road network.. The RoNS are being rushed ahead over this decade to prove that this Government is getting on with it. But this decade is likely to be the least opportune to throw billions at a few big motorway projects. ...
Budget cuts and hiring freezes are likely to affect employee morale and overall workplace productivity. So are social and personal tensions. How are you responding?. ...
By: Rex Bowden. Alcohol and other drugs are a major and costly problem in the United States. They affect both children and adults, whether it is the person taking the substance or the family and friends who are affected by it. When it comes to alcohol, 15 percent of adults in the United States are binge drinkers. This type of drinking involves consuming four or more drinks, depending on ones gender, within approximately two hours. Binge drinking is often associated with alcohol abuse. It is more common in Caucasians, people who earn $75,000 or more annually, and people who are between the ages of 18 and 34. It costs the United States $223.5 billion a year in workplace productivity, healthcare expenses, criminal justice, and alcohol-related car accidents. It also has a large effect on youth as well. In a 2009 study, it was shown that 42 percent of teens drank alcohol, with 24 percent engaging in binge drinking, and 10 percent driving after consuming alcohol. Other studies showed that as high as ...
Snoring and Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are part of a spectrum of Sleep Disordered Breathing. Snoring is very common especially as one gets older and has been shown to affect about 40% of general population. Obstructive sleep apnoea affects about 10% of general population. With up to 93% moderate to severe cases going undiagnosed (that translates to about 250000 Kiwis), it is a huge problem requiring attention.. Why it is a problem:. OSA has been shown to increase risks of hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cognitive problems. Untreated OSA is three to six times more likely to cause deaths than after treatment. It affects workplace productivity. Studies in the US have found approximately 50% of children being treated for ADHD to have undiagnosed OSA. That is a huge number of sleepy people who are struggling to cope with daily activities and who are vulnerable to chronic illnesses!. Simple snoring and mild OSA do not have as high health risks associated with them. However, the ...
Read chapter Front Matter: Every year workers low-back, hand, and arm problems lead to time away from jobs and reduce the nations economic productivity....
The report details evidence on trends in health inequalities and flowing from this is a set of recommendations, based on the root causes of such inequalities.. It has sought to bring a fresh perspective to the issue. It looks at ways to build on the norths assets to target inequalities while also outlining what central government needs to do, both to support action at the regional level and re-orientate national policies to reduce inequalities, including a fairer allocation of resources to the poorest.. Ill health is not just a social problem but an issue for economic productivity. Its holding back efforts to reduce demand on public services. For this reason its absolutely vital that we link economic development and public health to a much greater extent than seen to date.. On a practical level, this means better connections between local enterprise partnerships and health and wellbeing boards and a more explicit recognition of the connections. The cycle will not be broken unless we link ...
Production, cost, and efficiency. Main articles: Production (economics), Opportunity cost, Economic efficiency, and Production- ... 2, "Efficiency" sect.; ch. 8, sect. D, "The Concept of Efficiency. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFSamuelsonNordhaus2004 (help) ... Being on the curve might still not fully satisfy allocative efficiency (also called Pareto efficiency) if it does not produce a ... Economic efficiency measures how well a system generates desired output with a given set of inputs and available technology. ...
Fuel efficiency[edit]. The power output of biodiesel depends on its blend, quality, and load conditions under which the fuel is ... The thermal efficiency for example of B100 as compared to B20 will vary due to the differing energy content of the various ... Thermal efficiency of a fuel is based in part on fuel characteristics such as: viscosity, specific density, and flash point; ... Photosynthesis is known to have an efficiency rate of about 3-6% of total solar radiation[112] and if the entire mass of a crop ...
Where efficiency is defined by the total gains from trade, the monopoly setting is less efficient than perfect competition.[63] ... Sometimes this very loss of psychological efficiency can increase a potential competitor's value enough to overcome market ... Thus the price discrimination promotes efficiency. Secondly, by the pricing scheme price = average revenue and equals marginal ... of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which aims at enhancing the consumer's welfare and also the efficiency ...
... thermodynamic efficiency, charge carrier separation efficiency and conductive efficiency. The overall efficiency is the product ... Main article: Solar cell efficiency. Solar cell efficiency may be broken down into reflectance efficiency, ... Efficiency[edit]. The Shockley-Queisser limit for the theoretical maximum efficiency of a solar cell. Semiconductors with band ... Reflectance losses are a portion of quantum efficiency under "external quantum efficiency". Recombination losses make up ...
Efficiency of funding[edit]. Most funding agencies mandate efficient use of their funds; they want to maximize outcome for ...
Efficiency vs. sensitivity[edit]. Loudspeaker efficiency is defined as the sound power output divided by the electrical power ... Conversion of sensitivity to energy efficiency in percent for passive loudspeakers. *Article on sensitivity and efficiency of ... They are still used today for high end earphones and hearing aids, where small size and high efficiency are important.[52] ... So, for example, if extended low-frequency performance and small box size are important, one must accept low efficiency.[46] ...
Efficiency of ATP production. The table below describes the reactions involved when one glucose molecule is fully oxidized into ... Obviously this reduces the theoretical efficiency of the whole process and the likely maximum is closer to 28-30 ATP molecules. ... 4] In practice the efficiency may be even lower because the inner membrane of the mitochondria is slightly leaky to protons.[7] ...
Overall efficiency. thermal efficiency * propulsive efficiency. Propulsive efficiency. propulsive power/rate of production of ... Current Rolls-Royce engines have a 72-82% propulsive efficiency and 42-49% thermal efficiency for a 0.63-0.49 lb/lbf/h (64,000- ... Raising turbine inlet temperature tends to increase thermal efficiency and, therefore, improve fuel efficiency. ... Together, these parameters tend to increase core thermal efficiency and improve fuel efficiency. ...
Thus the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal will not be adversely affected by low efficiency as long as the loop is ... To increase the magnetic field in the loop and thus its efficiency, while greatly reducing size, the coil of wire is often ... In this case a typical radiation efficiency of around 1% is acceptable because signal paths can be established with 1 Watt of ... leading to a poor antenna efficiency.[13] Consequently, most of the power delivered to a small loop antenna will heat in the ...
The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 W module will have ... "Improving the efficiency of solar panels". The Hindu. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.. ... Solar panel conversion efficiency, typically in the 20% range, is reduced by dust, grime, pollen, and other particulates that ... Research by Imperial College, London has shown that the efficiency of a solar panel can be improved by studding the light- ...
Efficiency of measures[edit]. The efficiency of control measures was questioned in the past and is often questioned today, as ... led to a significant change in control measures and techniques in association with reduced costs and increased efficiency. At ...
Factors affecting the efficiency of translation initiation[edit]. The level of complementarity of the mRNA SD sequence to the ... Richer complementarity results in higher initiation efficiency.[6] It is worth noting that this only holds up to a certain ... the rate at which a recruited ribosome is able to initiate translation (i.e. the translation initiation efficiency) ... Secondary structures formed by the RBS can affect the translational efficiency of mRNA, generally inhibiting translation. These ...
Energy efficiency[edit]. Chicago Climate Justice activists protesting cap and trade legislation in front of Chicago Climate ... Efficiency of funding carbon offset projects[edit]. In 2009, Carbon Retirement reported that less than 30 pence in every pound ... Fuel efficiency projects replace a combustion device with one using less fuel per unit of energy provided. Assuming energy ... Cogeneration plants generate both electricity and heat from the same power source, thus improving upon the energy efficiency of ...
Efficiency. Main article: Photosynthetic efficiency. Plants usually convert light into chemical energy with a photosynthetic ... The efficiency of both light and dark reactions can be measured but the relationship between the two can be complex.[39] For ... Actual plants' photosynthetic efficiency varies with the frequency of the light being converted, light intensity, temperature ... A phenomenon known as quantum walk increases the efficiency of the energy transport of light significantly. In the ...
See also: Energy efficiency in agriculture and Efficient energy use. Carbon footprint[edit]. As mentioned above, the energy- ...
Efficiency[edit]. The typical efficiency of TEGs is around 5-8%. Older devices used bimetallic junctions and were bulky. More ... For a discussion of the factors determining and limiting efficiency as well as ongoing efforts to improve the efficiency, see ... Achieving high efficiency in the system requires extensive engineering design in order to balance between the heat flow through ... Besides low efficiency and relatively high cost, practical problems exist in using thermoelectric devices in certain types of ...
The efficiency of air conditioners is often rated by the seasonal energy efficiency Ratio (SEER) which is defined by the Air ... SEER rating reflects overall system efficiency on a seasonal basis and EER reflects the system's energy efficiency at one ... A new measure for the energy efficiency of heating and cooling devices - Information from Daikin on seasonal efficiency ... Thermal efficiency. References[edit]. *^ a b "ANSI/AHRI 210/240-2008: 2008 Standard for Performance Rating of Unitary Air- ...
The WBE model can be modified to take into account metabolic efficiency, (ME). This term is a ratio of the efficiency of redox ... Concepts of efficiency in the use of energy by the metabolism[edit]. This limit to blood flow considerations is problematic ... The efficiency that is purported to be modeled is actually assumed. In plants, according to a paper in 2006 in Nature, the ... That metabolic efficiency should deviate from the favored high values is not part of the current debate, even though it creates ...
Asymptotic efficiency[edit]. Let θ be an unknown random variable, and suppose that x. 1. ,. x. 2. ,. …. {\displaystyle x_{1},x ...
Seaweeds' nitrogen uptake efficiency ranges from 2-100% in land-based systems.[5] Uptake efficiency in open-water IMTA is ... Recovery efficiency[edit]. Nutrient recovery efficiency is a function of technology, harvest schedule, management, spatial ... Inorganic nitrogen removal in a combined tertiary treatment - marine aquaculture system: I. Removal efficiencies. Water ...
... which is an indirect process that suffers from low energy conversion efficiency (due to photosynthesis' own low efficiency in ... Advantages, disadvantages, and efficiency[edit]. Advantages of solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis include ... A concern usually addressed in catalyst design is efficiency, in particular how much of the incident light can be used in a ... Microbiological and enzymatic engineering have the potential of improving enzyme efficiency and robustness, as well as ...
Dvorak Efficiency: A Computational Approach" (PDF). Retrieved 29 January 2017.. *^ Kissel, Joe. "The Dvorak Keyboard ... Research on efficiency[edit]. The Dvorak layout is designed to improve touch-typing, in which the user rests his or her fingers ... For maximum speed and efficiency, the most common letters and bigrams should be typed on the home row where the fingers rest, ... "Relative Efficiencies of the Standard and Dvorak Simplified Keyboards". Retrieved 2010-04-29.. ...
Theoretical efficiency[edit]. In thermodynamics the highest achievable efficiency is the Carnot efficiency. The efficiency of ... Practical efficiency[edit]. The most efficient thermoacoustic devices have an efficiency approaching 40% of the Carnot limit, ... The efficiency of a thermoacoustic engine is given by η. =. η. c. I. {\displaystyle \eta ={\frac {\eta _{c}}{\mathrm {I} }}}. ... thus allowing the Carnot efficiency to be higher. This may partially offset their lower efficiency, compared to conventional ...
"Pareto efficiency" is considered as a minimal notion of efficiency that does not necessarily result in a socially desirable ... Constrained Pareto efficiency [edit]. The condition of constrained Pareto optimality is a weaker version of the standard ... Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality is a state of allocation of resources from which it is impossible to reallocate so as to ... Weak Pareto efficiency[edit]. A "weak Pareto optimum" (WPO) is an allocation for which there are no possible alternative ...
Efficiency and evolutionary implications[edit]. Even though plantigrade locomotion usually distributes more weight toward the ... "Landing heel first also allows us to transfer more energy from one step to the next to improve our efficiency, while placing ...
In energy efficiency investments[edit]. CEA has been applied to energy efficiency investments in buildings to calculate the ... "Economic Appraisal of Energy Efficiency in Buildings Using Cost-effectiveness Assessment". Procedia Economics and Finance. 21: ... thus removing the major source of uncertainty in the appraisal of energy efficiency investments.[8] ... energy in such a calculation is virtual in the sense that it was never consumed but rather saved due to some energy efficiency ...
... efficiency or efficacy[edit]. There is a need for efficacy, efficiency or effectiveness of sousveillance, which ... are key components to sousveillance's efficiency. This was shown during French demonstrations against the "Loi Travail" in 2016 ...
Transparency and administrative efficiency. Basic income is potentially a much simpler and more transparent welfare system than ...
Efficiency droop[edit]. The term "efficiency droop" refers to the decrease in luminous efficacy of LEDs as the electric current ... "Lightbulb Efficiency Comparison Chart". greatercea.org. Retrieved 4 February 2018.. *^ "LEDs Will Get Even More Efficient: Cree ... and losses from this circuit mean the efficiency of the lamp is lower than the efficiency of the LED chips it uses. The most ... elevated temperatures actually improved the efficiency of the LED.[40] The mechanism causing efficiency droop was identified in ...
Economic efficiency[edit]. The economics of breeding and raising Belgian Blue cattle are inconclusive because of complications ... the breed's overall production efficiency in an economic sense is still unclear. ...
New report from EDF and Ceres shows that stronger truck efficiency standards can actually reduce the cost of moving freight. ... New, bold fuel-efficiency and greenhouse gas standards for heavy-duty trucks could end up reducing the cost of moving freight ... Save Your Company Costs: Support Stronger Truck Efficiency Standards!. By: Jason Mathers / Wed, Jun 11, 2014 11:23 PM. ... Strong fuel efficiency standards will target these costs largely by requiring the use of cost-effective, fuel saving ...
"Pareto efficiency" is considered as a minimal notion of efficiency that does not necessarily result in a socially desirable ... Constrained Pareto efficiency [edit]. The condition of constrained Pareto optimality is a weaker version of the standard ... Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality is a state of allocation of resources from which it is impossible to reallocate so as to ... Weak Pareto efficiency[edit]. A "weak Pareto optimum" (WPO) is an allocation for which there are no possible alternative ...
Efficiencies of various biofuel crops[edit]. Popular choices for plant biofuels include: oil palm, soybean, castor oil, ... 5.4% net leaf efficiency.. Many plants lose much of the remaining energy on growing roots. Most crop plants store ~0.25% to 0.5 ... The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in plants ... Total photosynthetic efficiency would include more than just the biodiesel oil, so this 0.3% number is something of a lower ...
The efficiency of an automobile engine is highest when the load on the engine is high and the throttle is nearly wide open. At ... Other articles where Efficiency is discussed: automobile: Transmission: ... In productivity: Measure of efficiency. Productivity is also used to measure efficiency, as an aid in economic planning and ... In radiation measurement: Detection efficiency. The intrinsic detection efficiency of any device operated in pulse mode is ...
Creating Internet Search Efficiency Creating internet Search Efficiency with Love :-). Taking Over all National and ...
Efficiency, plant. The percentage of the total energy content of a power plants fuel that is converted into electricity. The ...
Efficiency can be further divided into conversion efficiency, distribution (or transmission) efficiency, and end-use efficiency ... Higher efficiency equals less waste; lower efficiency equals more waste. ... Conversion efficiency is the fraction of useful energy obtained during conversion of energy from one form to another, such as ... Source for information on Energy Efficiency: Climate Change: In Context dictionary. ...
Get a comprehensive overview of Intel® VTune™ Profiler for performance analysis. Understand workflows and tuning methodologies to profile serial and multithreaded applications with Intel® VTune™ Profiler for execution on a variety of hardware platforms (CPU, GPU, and FPGA).
Treatments and Tools for efficiency. Find efficiency information, treatments for efficiency and efficiency symptoms. ... efficiency - MedHelps efficiency Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on efficiency. Morning After Pill Efficiency - Birth Control (Contraception) Expert Forum ...
The division develops energy efficiency standards, provides standards outreach and education, and administers standards ... The Efficiency Division develops regulations, policies, and programs to help the state meet its clean energy goals. ... Efficiency Division The Efficiency Division develops regulations, policies, and programs to help the state meet its clean ... Building Energy Efficiency Standards. Every three years, the CEC updates energy efficiency standards for new buildings and ...
What is one way to increase efficiencies of fields doing "OK" or just below the median benchmark? ...
Full text is unavailable for this digitized archive article. Subscribers may view the full text of this article in its original form through TimesMachine ...
Energy efficiency and customer engagement that make a real difference. Home energy reports that help everyone save. ... Promote energy efficiency measures, one customer at a time. Use artificial intelligence and behavioral science to guide ... Opowers head of regulatory affairs makes the case for behavioral energy efficiency as the lowest-cost tool for achieving ... Hokkaido Gas uses energy efficiency services to engage customers. Read Hokkaido Gas story ...
Uzbekistan is scaling up an ongoing energy efficiency project, investing an additional $100 million in the countrys industrial ... Energy efficiency measures being introduced by the Energy Efficiency for Industrial Enterprises Project are expected to save ... Recent data shows that investments in energy efficiency of $170 million over the next 10 years can result in a 15% reduction in ... Uzbekistan is one of the most energy intensive countries in the world, meaning that improvements in efficiency can have large ...
Worldwide regulations for energy efficiency of ITE. *Europe: Implementing Directives of EUP ...
EU probes Samsung LCD efficiency claims as real-world testing show huge discrepancies October 2, 2015 at 1:39 pm The EU is ... New game consoles and 4K could reverse significant strides in power efficiency July 28, 2014 at 4:34 pm A new report suggests ... Is it worth investing in a high-efficiency power supply? December 12, 2012 at 9:31 am Power supply manufacturers are happy to ... The human brains remarkably low power consumption, and how computers might mimic its efficiency July 9, 2014 at 11:25 am A new ...
Learn about water efficiency prerequisites and credits, the definition of potable water, and the number of available points in ... Learn about water efficiency prerequisites and credits, the definition of potable water, and the number of available points in ...
Mining Contract: Efficiency Improvement Study of Mine Rescue Breathing Apparatus and Development of an Improved Prototype CCBA ... New Vest Style Escape SCSR Through SCSR Efficiency Improvement Study. *Rapid Rescue Drilling Equipment Transferred to National ... to determine the extent of potential efficiency improvements in duration or reduction in size/weight over existing products. ...
Hydrogen to Helium Fusion chain efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=...)). Uranium-235 fission efficiency: http:// ...
Reflexology improves heart efficiency, claim researchers. Reflexology can make the heart pump more efficiently, say ...
Turfgrass and Water Efficiency. With the right plant selection and management, turfgrass can be part of a water- smart ... The Turfgrass Water Conservation Alliance (TWCA)Exit is a non-profit organization seeking to improve the water efficiency of ...
... To get the full scoop on your homes energy shortcomings-from insulation to lighting to ... With ever-rising energy prices, homeowners are starting to see that improving their houses energy efficiency makes financial- ... efficiency. After a quick walk-through of the house, Conlon installed the equipment that is at the heart of any effective ...
There are major benefits to flying this high, namely much thinner air that makes for better fuel efficiency. This band of ...
Efficiency in the NHS Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 295 :785 ... Efficiency in the NHS. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 295 doi: ...
This white paper/forward looking note focuses on the role that energy data analytics can play in driving energy efficiency ... Use of Data Analytics in Energy Efficiency markets has the power to transform the way energy efficiency services are sought and ... "Less visible and less publicized than wind and solar farms, energy efficiency is the aspect that is the most misunderstood of ... As on date most of the SMEs have limited mandate/vision when it comes to framing energy efficiency strategies. Investments have ...
Bacteria having five or nine get a much lower efficiency rating. Evolution, in other words, is a master efficiency expert for ... with the greatest possible efficiency. Efficiency, in the case of a bacterium, can be defined by the energy and resources it ... The bacterium Escherichia coli, one of the best-studied single-celled organisms around, is a master of industrial efficiency. ... coli would change its production strategy to maximize efficiency following disruptions in the work flow caused by experimental ...
"Higher efficiency means less pollution," he said. In its Spiritwood plant, GRE is using dried lignite coal, which Strohfus said ... "One of the unique aspects of Spiritwood Station is that its a combined heat and power plant, which means higher efficiency," ... The coal-fired plant will feature the latest technology in emissions control and efficiency, said Mark Strohfus, GREs ... further improves the efficiency because of the increased heating value. For example, when an amount of dried lignite has a ...
Improve IT efficiency and reduce risk. Help your teams realize their full potential. Free up staff to do more creative work, ...
Efficiency Council) is an industry trade group representing non-utility companies that provide energy efficiency services and ... The California Energy Efficiency Industry Council (Efficiency Council) is an industry trade group representing non-utility ... The California Energy Efficiency Industry Council (Efficiency Council) is an industry trade group representing non-utility ... We represent a wealth of knowledge, experience and dedication focused on improving our energy efficiency infrastructure and our ...
  • NREL ensures the resiliency of our future energy and water systems through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, renewable energy, and water efficiency on the NREL campus. (nrel.gov)
  • The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy , Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy , operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC . (nrel.gov)
  • One simple way of addressing the complex issues related to climate change is to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (ct.gov)
  • Unlike its other prominent initiatives -- which promise to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent and employ 20 percent renewable power by 2020 -- the efficiency mandate is not binding on the E.U. member states. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Eventually, Rosenfeld served as senior adviser to the U.S. Department of Energy's assistant secretary for energy efficiency and renewable energy from 1994 to 1999 until he was appointed as Commissioner for the California Energy Commission by Gov. Gray Davis in 2000 and re-appointed in 2005 by Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger. (mercurynews.com)
  • SB 350 sets targets for California to double the energy efficiency in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors while also increasing our share of electricity from renewable sources to 50 percent by 2030. (nrdc.org)
  • The project is therefore eligible under Article 309 (c) common interest in energy (energy efficiency, renewable energy) and environment (tackling climate change) and in line with EIB's priority of energy lending aiming at energy efficiency. (eib.org)
  • In order to realize gains of this magnitude, large corporate consumers of trucking services need to join the call for bold, truck efficiency and greenhouse gas standards. (edf.org)
  • Reuters 6th August 2018 Rising oil prices are the latest challenge to the mining sector's profitability, threatening to eclipse hard-fought efficiency gains during the past two years and increasing metals demand. (engineeringnews.co.za)
  • According to an infographic created by the insurer Allstate and Cars.com to explain the relation between fuel economy and obesity, "the growing trend of American obesity adds unexpected weight to vehicles, making it difficult for consumers to realize fuel efficiency gains. (businessinsider.com)
  • Jacobson says the collective weight gains that now hinder automakers' bids for fuel efficiency might be rooted in automobile use in the first place. (businessinsider.com)
  • Shifting how energy is perceived could have repercussions beyond simple efficiency gains. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • He recognized early on, earlier than anyone else I think, that really great gains will come from energy efficiency," fellow physicist Richard Muller from the Alvarez Lab said in a 2010 Los Angeles Times interview. (mercurynews.com)
  • Gains can be achieved, he added, by behavior changes in every household, industry and business, as well as efforts to build markets for energy efficiency. (worldbank.org)
  • The goal is to provide a stamp of approval that incentivizes both commercial building owners and occupants to make investments in energy efficiency measures. (wiredforchange.com)
  • Georgia Power helps businesses make smart investments in energy efficiency. (georgiapower.com)
  • To achieve this, Iyer noted that the Bank is supporting projects, many blended with innovative climate finance instruments, to encourage local domestic banks to lend to companies and governments wanting to make investments in energy efficiency. (worldbank.org)
  • The 2018 International Residential Code (IRC) contains many of the same water efficiency provisions that are noted in the IPC. (iccsafe.org)
  • Stopping climate change is the number-one mission of Carbon Lighthouse , an energy efficiency company that helps commercial buildings save as much energy as possible to curb carbon emissions. (fastcompany.com)
  • Being the second most populous country in the world, how India manages its industrialisation and urbanisation process will matter for national and global concerns about energy efficiency, pollution, and climate change (Subramanian 2015). (weforum.org)
  • Greenhouse-gas emissions from fuel-burning could be greatly reduced by changing technology and human behavior to increase efficiency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The standards reduce greenhouse gas emissions by maximizing efficiency during times of the day when the grid is most carbon-intensive. (ca.gov)
  • When this initial phase of the Project is completed at the end of 2014 - one year earlier than previously projected - the country will have saved 50,000 MWhs and will reduce its carbon emissions by 150,000 metric tons, through the rehabilitation of distribution stations, the replacement of boilers and other outdated equipment, and the implementation of other energy efficiency measures. (worldbank.org)
  • The coal-fired plant will feature the latest technology in emissions control and efficiency, said Mark Strohfus, GRE's environmental project leader, environmental services. (redorbit.com)
  • Improving energy efficiency in buildings can substantially reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, while also stimulating job creation and making energy more affordable for households. (oecd.org)
  • Developing a scalable method of materials manufacturing and testing for advanced nuclear reactors could facilitate their rapid deployment, thereby reducing energy-related emissions and improving energy efficiency. (energy.gov)
  • Dr. Tsvi Tlusty and research student Arbel Tadmor of the Physics of Complex Systems Department developed a mathematical model for evaluating the efficiency of these microscopic production plants. (redorbit.com)
  • The paper describes a project to isolate and quantify these reasons for low efficiencies, using a mathematical model, supported by experimental verification. (sae.org)
  • What does it mean to have a low Nitrogen Use Efficiency? (google.com)
  • Conversion efficiency is the fraction of useful energy obtained during conversion of energy from one form to another, such as from heat to mechanical motion or electricity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The design specifics come as the union has lagged in its overall efficiency goal of cutting electricity consumption by 20 percent. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Where energy, water and food are all under strain as global demand for them increases, energy efficiency must be improved to expand access to electricity, and do it sustainably. (worldbank.org)
  • California's energy efficiency efforts already have saved Californians nearly $90 billion on their energy bills since the 1970s and slashed electricity demand enough to avoid 30 large power plants (with 11 more expected to be averted over the next decade even without this new legislation). (nrdc.org)
  • In fact, California's electricity bills - consumers' bottom line total costs - are among the lowest in the country, due in part to efficiency. (nrdc.org)
  • Yumkella, also Secretary-General of the UN Industrial Development Organization, underscored the need to double the rate of gain in energy efficiency by 2030, one of three goals of the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative. (worldbank.org)
  • The California Energy Commission's (CEC) Efficiency Division is committed to making California's businesses, homes, and appliances more energy-efficient. (ca.gov)
  • Establishing the California Energy Efficiency Action Plan as California's roadmap to decarbonize existing buildings. (ca.gov)
  • The CEC's California Energy Efficiency Action Plan provides a 10-year roadmap to activate market forces and transform California's existing residential, commercial, and public buildings into high-performing and energy-efficient ones. (ca.gov)
  • California's "godfather" of energy efficiency died Friday at the age of 90 in his Berkeley home, heralded for galvanizing an era of rigorous energy standards that have turned California into a model of energy savings. (mercurynews.com)
  • California's leadership in energy efficiency for the last four decades has been the direct result of his subsequent actions as a scientist, policy-maker, and intellectual leader," said Jim Sweeney, director of Stanford University's Precourt Energy Efficiency Center, who cites Rosenfeld as his inspiration for being an energy leader. (mercurynews.com)
  • As NRDC recently illustrated in California's Golden Energy Efficiency Opportunity , this legislation builds upon California's past leadership and experience. (nrdc.org)
  • At the same time, marketing effectiveness and efficiency remains an important lever to drive growth and ensure a high-quality, consistent customer experience. (bcg.com)
  • Avoided cost: The source of avoided costs against which efficiency measures are compared for determining cost-effectiveness differs between studies, as do the projections of those costs. (energy.gov)
  • The Guidebook takes utilities through a series of steps to analyze their current energy usage, use energy audits to identify ways to improve efficiency, and measure the effectiveness of energy projects. (epa.gov)
  • The Asset Efficiency Optimization methodology combines a broad range of strategic and tactical tools to help you answer these questions to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency to reduce your Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). (skf.com)
  • Efficiency is very often confused with effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common but confusing way of distinguishing between efficiency and effectiveness is the saying "Efficiency is doing things right, while effectiveness is doing the right things. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its Spiritwood plant, GRE is using dried lignite coal, which Strohfus said further improves the efficiency because of the increased heating value. (redorbit.com)
  • It is well known that fuel-lean running improves the efficiency. (washington.edu)
  • Uzbekistan is one of the most energy intensive countries in the world, meaning that improvements in efficiency can have large economic benefits. (worldbank.org)
  • This research will investigate alternative system designs or current system modifications for mine rescue breathing apparatus, to determine the extent of potential efficiency improvements in duration or reduction in size/weight over existing products. (cdc.gov)
  • Investment in energy efficiency in buildings provides several additional benefits such as job creation, health improvements, and reduced energy expenditure, which would significantly contribute to a green recovery from COVID-19. (oecd.org)
  • However, improvements in energy efficiency lead to a decrease in the fuel price per km, which generally induces more transport use and may therefore result in increased overall energy consumption. (europa.eu)
  • Improvements in fuel efficiency can be further undermined by decreases in occupancy rates and load factors and by people buying larger and less fuel-efficient cars. (europa.eu)
  • Making full use of improvements in energy efficiency therefore requires the use of tax or other policy instruments, to avoid the improvements being counteracted by increases in vehicle-km or by the introduction of newer but heavier vehicles. (europa.eu)
  • The energy efficiency of air transport improved significantly during the 1970s, mainly due to technological improvements and increasing occupancy rates, but has not changed since. (europa.eu)
  • The tool can help a utility set targets for investment priorities, verify efficiency improvements, and calculate its carbon footprint. (epa.gov)
  • As part of its efforts to address these issues, the government is working with the World Bank Group to introduce a series of energy efficiency measures designed to save the country more than $2 billion over the coming years through the implementation of the Energy Efficiency for Industrial Enterprises Project and a recently approved additional credit for this project. (worldbank.org)
  • Despite this fact, any large scale adoption and implementation of energy efficient practices has not been observed in India and this can largely be attributed to scanty knowledge with regards to energy efficiency best practices and interpretation of process and energy data. (slideshare.net)
  • Cities and regions around the world are assuming a strong leadership role, often adopting more ambitious building regulations than the national government, and are working to overcome barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures. (oecd.org)
  • The main objective of this initiative is to stimulate the exchange of good practice and the sharing of experiences between countries in the development and implementation of resource efficiency policies. (europa.eu)
  • As part of its efforts to increase that percentage, the Swedish presidency will push for the implementation of three efficiency directives, Martin said. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It reviews the EU policy framework for resource efficiency and analyses trends in material use and resource productivity between 2000 and 2014. (europa.eu)
  • Energy-efficient Series 2000 garage door from Haas Door combines beauty, function and energy efficiency features. (prnewswire.com)
  • lower efficiency equals more waste. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteria having five or nine get a much lower efficiency rating. (redorbit.com)
  • The lower efficiency of the indirect-injection diesel engine, with respect to the direct injection type, is due to additional heat transfer from the combustion chamber, gas pumping between chambers, later injection timing and a different burning rate schedule. (sae.org)
  • Multiply this by the mechanical efficiency of the engine, which accounts for the mechanical friction in the engine and for the air (and fuel) pumping work that has to be done, and you have the final, or overall efficiency of the engine. (washington.edu)
  • Intel's challenge invites IT pros to submit a video proposal describing how they would use technology to drive improved data center energy efficiency and how technology plays a role in the overall efficiency and sustainability of organizations. (treehugger.com)
  • All this undermines historical levels of profitability, and as the dust settles and banks focus again on growth, operational efficiency will be an area for close scrutiny. (slideshare.net)
  • An evaluation of the operational efficiency of turkish airports using data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist productivity index: 2009-2014 case ," Transport Policy , Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 92-104. (repec.org)
  • SKF expertise in machinery maintenance and operational efficiency can help you reduce your energy usage and improve the sustainability footprint of your plant. (skf.com)
  • The June 2016 EEA report "More from less - material resource efficiency in Europe ", presents an overview of approaches to material resource efficiency and to the circular economy in thirty two European countries, and explores similarities and differences in national policy responses. (europa.eu)
  • Plant shorter day corn to improve N efficiency. (google.com)
  • Versatile fluxing agent that helps improve efficiency of ceramics and tile production. (3m.com)
  • NetNumber announced today that Vodafone Company Kabel Deutschland, Germany's largest cable operator, has deployed NetNumber TITAN as part of its network consolidation efforts aimed to improve network efficiency. (prweb.com)
  • Our energy auditor, Jim Conlon of Elysian Energy (above, with the author and her son), is a former real estate agent who switched careers a couple of years ago (smack in the middle of the housing boom) when he realized that he could fill a growing niche by helping homeowners improve their houses' efficiency. (nwf.org)
  • National policies to improve energy efficiency can reduce oil imports, improve the reliability of the U.S. (aceee.org)
  • In terms of ownership, we find that (iv) efficiency increases when a majority owner must deal with minority shareholders and that (v) domestic majority owners improve efficiency more than foreign majority owners when no minority shareholders are present, but (vi) the opposite is true when minority shareholders hold a substantial fraction of the firm's equity. (repec.org)
  • Readers sound off: Problems at the VA with transparency, efficiency Our readers shared their thoughts on how the Department of Veterans Affairs could improve, after an investigation revealed the agency concealed misdeeds. (usatoday.com)
  • The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) encourages energy efficiency in laboratories through a whole-building approach that enables agencies and organizations to improve the efficiency of an entire facility rather than specific laboratory components. (energy.gov)
  • The Auto-Oil Programme aims to improve the energy and emission efficiency of road transport and to improve the quality of fuels (see Group 1). (europa.eu)
  • We were making the point that America shouldn't accept these statistics and we need federal programs and policies to improve our energy efficiency. (nrdc.org)
  • Those include efficiency standards that are saving U.S. households an average of $500 annually, research and development to increase our energy savings, and programs that work with American manufacturers to improve their productivity and competitiveness. (nrdc.org)
  • With agricultural production projected to double by 2050 to feed the growing world population, farmers will need to improve water efficiency. (oecd.org)
  • Today I want to share seven of my favorite running drills that improve speed, form, and efficiency that you can integrate into your training. (lifehacker.com)
  • In order to determine the efficiency of the column, and thus the ability of the chromatography to get good resolution, there are two factors that are important to consider: peak maximum and peak widths. (news-medical.net)
  • The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in plants and algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The value of the photosynthetic efficiency is dependent on how light energy is defined - it depends on whether we count only the light that is absorbed, and on what kind of light is used (see Photosynthetically active radiation ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In actuality, however, plants do not absorb all incoming sunlight (due to reflection, respiration requirements of photosynthesis and the need for optimal solar radiation levels) and do not convert all harvested energy into biomass , which results in an overall photosynthetic efficiency of 3 to 6% of total solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] This dramatically reduces average achieved photosynthetic efficiency in fields compared to peak laboratory results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, the light response curves that the class produces do allow comparisons in photosynthetic efficiency between plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure compliance with new residential building standards, the CEC approves third-party providers who train and certify individuals who physically verify that builders have installed the energy efficiency measures according to the standards. (ca.gov)
  • The future is going to be about enhancing efficiency through the transparency, open communication, and file sharing capabilities of the Internet and these multi-functional Android tablets. (arabnews.com)
  • New, bold fuel-efficiency and greenhouse gas standards for heavy-duty trucks could end up reducing the cost of moving freight by 7% and owners of tractor-trailer units could save $0.21/mile. (edf.org)
  • How will India manage energy efficiency? (weforum.org)
  • In a recent paper, we use enterprise data to look at the relationship between growth, geography, and energy efficiency in India (Ghani et al 2014). (weforum.org)
  • Very little is known about whether energy efficiency in India is higher or lower in urban or rural settings, leading or lagging regions, formal or informal enterprises, young or old enterprises, and in purchased energy or own-firm provision. (weforum.org)
  • The medal superseded the Volunteer Long Service Medal, the Volunteer Long Service Medal for India and the Colonies, the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal, the Militia Long Service Medal, the Special Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal and the Territorial Efficiency Medal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Efficiency Medal was instituted by Royal Warrant on 23 September 1930, as a long service award for part-time warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the Militia or the Territorial Army of the United Kingdom, and of the Auxiliary Military Forces of the British Dominions, Colonies and Protectorates and India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Installing and networking sensors all over the power grid is an expensive proposition, but the increased efficiency and reduced outages make it the obvious next step for modern infrastructure. (extremetech.com)
  • We represent a wealth of knowledge, experience and dedication focused on improving our energy efficiency infrastructure and our environment. (idealist.org)
  • DEEP's Energy Branch includes the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) which reviews rates utilities, and the Bureau of Energy and Technology Policy which develops energy efficiency, infrastructure and alternative power programs. (ct.gov)
  • The California Energy Efficiency Industry Council (Efficiency Council) is an industry trade group representing non-utility companies that provide energy efficiency services and products in California. (idealist.org)
  • Fact sheet describes how two University of California campuses increased laboratory exhaust efficiency and safety by using fume hood sash stickers. (energy.gov)
  • Rosenfeld, known as the "godfather" of energy efficiency in California, died on Friday at his home in Berkeley. (mercurynews.com)
  • An early milestone was California legislation authorizing the nation's first appliance efficiency standards, signed into law by then Governor Ronald Reagan in 1974. (nrdc.org)
  • California legislators are headed home this evening after a tumultuous legislative session with this truly significant energy efficiency policy headed to Governor Jerry Brown for his signature to become law. (nrdc.org)
  • Today was a great day for energy efficiency in California. (nrdc.org)
  • How to Hire an Energy Auditor (PDF) Exit (68 pp, 359 K, About PDF ) - Handbook by California Energy Commission on Energy Efficiency Project Management. (epa.gov)
  • Energy Accounting: A Key Tool in Managing Energy Costs (PDF) Exit (36 pp, 297 K, About PDF ) - Handbook by California Energy Commission on Energy Efficiency Project Management. (epa.gov)
  • The efficiency of an automobile engine is highest when the load on the engine is high and the throttle is nearly wide open. (britannica.com)
  • In general, conversion efficiency is very low, transmission efficiency rather high, and end-use efficiency fair to low. (encyclopedia.com)
  • All these concerns-limited supply, import insecurity, pollution, global warming , and high fuel costs-have conspired to make energy efficiency an abiding interest of citizens, engineers, corporate managers, and politicians in the early twenty-first century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Is it worth investing in a high-efficiency power supply? (extremetech.com)
  • Power supply manufacturers are happy to sell you high-efficiency supplies, and high-end 80 Plus units command a substantial premium. (extremetech.com)
  • There are major benefits to flying this high, namely much thinner air that makes for better fuel efficiency. (popularmechanics.com)
  • We find that (i) larger firms are less efficient than smaller firms, (ii) greater leverage contributes to corporate efficiency, and (iii) high competition is less conductive to efficiency than moderate or low competition. (repec.org)
  • The Prime Titanium achieves a very high efficiency score, landing just shy of the Titanium SilverStone unit. (tomshardware.com)
  • Adding to that, I've read somewhere that it is easier to have higher efficiencies on high wattage PSUs which I guess adds more credibility to the Senlifang PSU efficiency claims. (tomshardware.com)
  • Just be extra careful with those unknown PSU brands promising super high efficiency and wattage. (tomshardware.com)
  • For example, if the peaks occur early (i.e. the t r value in the efficiency equation is low), and are broad (i.e. the value of w is high), then the N value will be low. (news-medical.net)
  • A good chromatogram would have a high N value based on high t r and low w values in the efficiency equation. (news-medical.net)
  • INFINIUM will convert low-grade magnesium scrap into material of sufficient purity for motor vehicle components by a novel high-efficiency process using less than 1 kWh/kg magnesium product. (energy.gov)
  • This convergence across such a wide range of studies suggests a high level of energy efficiency potential available throughout the U.S. (energy.gov)
  • That was the message delivered by Kandeh Yumkella, co-chair of the High-Level Group leading the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative, to experts at the Fifth EE Global, an annual conference on energy efficiency March 28. (worldbank.org)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the mysteriously high efficiency of polymer LEDs arises from interactions between triplet excitons in their polymer chains, and unpaired electrons in their molecular impurities. (springer.com)
  • It has demonstrated that high-temperature electrolysis and methanation can be combined in a power-to-gas process with an efficiency of more than 75 percent. (eurekalert.org)
  • These high efficiencies make the power-to-gas technology a very promising one," Trimis says. (eurekalert.org)
  • High-temperature electrolysis at about 800°C and high pressure has thermodynamic advantages that cause the efficiency to increase. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous studies ( 12 , 16 ) suggested that F 1 -motor works at a high efficiency in the sense that the work against viscous drag during a rotational step in the absence of external torque is nearly equal to Δ μ . (pnas.org)
  • For example, in the analysis of the energy conversion efficiency of heat engines in thermodynamics, the product P may be the amount of useful work output, while the consumable C is the amount of high-temperature heat input. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Asset Efficiency Optimization (AEO) methodology combines the in-depth knowledge, broad industrial experience and global service and consulting capabilities from SKF with our world-class products and technologies. (skf.com)
  • The division develops energy efficiency standards, provides standards outreach and education, and administers standards compliance and technical assistance programs. (ca.gov)
  • Productivity is also used to measure efficiency, as an aid in economic planning and forecasting, and as a means of assessing the uses to which resources are being put. (britannica.com)
  • same phenomenon is addressed by efficiency wage theories, which propose that the higher-paid occupants of a job grade are also achieving above-average productivity. (britannica.com)
  • 20 similar articles, including: the importance of productivity, maximizing efficiency, and skills essential for success. (trendhunter.com)
  • Measurement of Productivity and Efficiency: Theory and Practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new paper discusses the efficiency of neuronal computing and the ways in which we might better model the brain's function in future hardware. (extremetech.com)
  • Circuits combining single-photon detectors with Josephson junctions achieve complex synaptic and neuronal functions with extreme energy efficiency. (nist.gov)
  • Although exotic, expensive forms of energy efficiency can be invented-affordable or even profitable opportunities for efficiency exist in almost all departments of energy use: buildings, vehicles, electronics, manufacturing, and more. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The division has four key areas of responsibility: appliance standards, Building Energy Efficiency Standards, standards compliance, and existing buildings. (ca.gov)
  • Every three years, the CEC updates energy efficiency standards for new buildings and alterations and additions to existing buildings. (ca.gov)
  • Implementing a place-based approach to energy efficiency in buildings is key to developing sustainable, inclusive and resilient cities and regions. (oecd.org)
  • Such buildings tend to perform poorly, in terms of energy efficiency, and represent a unique opportunity to drastically reduce energy consumption. (oecd.org)
  • Given the local nature of buildings and related policy environments, cities and regions are key actors to champion energy efficiency in buildings. (oecd.org)
  • Efficiency First supports policy that promotes innovative solutions to addressing the challenges of increasing the energy efficiency of America's homes and buildings. (wiredforchange.com)
  • Tenant Star, a voluntary program for certifying the energy efficiency of both commercial buildings and their occupants. (wiredforchange.com)
  • Rosenfeld's work led to breakthroughs in low-energy lighting, insulated windows, refrigerators and improved duct work in commercial office buildings, as he turned the field of energy efficiency on its head. (mercurynews.com)
  • Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality is a state of allocation of resources from which it is impossible to reallocate so as to make any one individual or preference criterion better off without making at least one individual or preference criterion worse off. (wikipedia.org)
  • It exists to make copies of itself, and its business plan is to make them at the lowest possible cost, with the greatest possible efficiency. (redorbit.com)
  • This is a difficult case to make at times when the cult of efficiency seems to demand education for vocational purposes only and when the political system seems to prize accumulation of testable skills and facts over the acquisition of understanding, moral perspective, and capacity to value and evaluate. (edweek.org)
  • Enhanced air infiltration seals in the section joints restrict air movement to increase the energy efficiency of the garage door. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Efficiency Movement was a movement during the Progressive Era of American History (1890's - 1930's) that sought to place emphasis on the use of scientific research and economic principles of efficiency and utility maximization to ensure that government and industry worked to their full potential. (conservapedia.com)
  • Efficiency Movement, of the Progressive Era (1890-1932), advocated efficiency in the economy, society and government In computing: Algorithmic efficiency, optimizing the speed and memory requirements of a computer program. (wikipedia.org)
  • This white paper/forward looking note focuses on the role that energy data analytics can play in driving energy efficiency practices and investments, especially in the Indian context. (slideshare.net)
  • In April 2014, E-cube surveyed over 90 executives, academicians, OEMs and consultants from Energy and allied sectors to ascertain the perspective on the present energy scenario in industries, the scope of data analytics in driving energy efficiency practices and to identify the key enablers that are likely to influence industrial energy efficiency strategy in the coming years. (slideshare.net)
  • Ensure your community is using the latest codes with the latest water conservation and efficiency best practices. (iccsafe.org)
  • By incorporating energy efficiency practices into their water and wastewater plants, municipalities and utilities can save 15 to 30 percent, saving thousands of dollars with payback periods of only a few months to a few years. (epa.gov)
  • The Efficiency Division develops regulations, policies, and programs to help the state meet its clean energy goals. (ca.gov)
  • The CEC's appliance regulations, combined with federal standards, set minimum efficiency levels for energy and water consumption in products such as consumer electronics, household appliances, and plumbing equipment. (ca.gov)
  • Read more about the appliance efficiency regulations . (ca.gov)
  • Consumer worries over gas prices and new fuel-efficiency regulations are causing automakers to get serious about trimming fat from their cars, with some even swapping out hard-copy owner's manuals for flash drives in the push to cut weight. (businessinsider.com)
  • As part of its efficiency push, the European Commission , the European Union's executive arm, released regulations for electrical appliances yesterday that, combined, will save power equal to the annual consumption of Sweden and Austria. (scientificamerican.com)
  • SAVE Act: Efficiency First worked with allies to advocate for including the SAVE Act in this legislation. (wiredforchange.com)
  • iMetalx is developing an new electrochemical titanium production process that avoids the cyclical formation of undesired titanium ions, thus significantly increasing the electrical current efficiency. (energy.gov)
  • For the first time, the result offers conclusive evidence that impurities can significantly boost the efficiency of PLEDs, and offers new clues about the molecular mechanisms involved. (springer.com)
  • The overall, effective g for the whole cycle for use in the efficiency equation above is about 1.27 . (washington.edu)
  • Energy Efficiency is America's greatest and most abundant energy resource. (wiredforchange.com)
  • Resource efficiency is essential if we aim to produce more from less input, use resources in a sustainable way, and manage them more efficiently throughout their life cycle. (europa.eu)
  • Resource efficiency is one of the core elements necessary to create a green economy in Europe and further afield, alongside waste prevention and recycling efforts, and more sustainable production and consumption patterns. (europa.eu)
  • The report also includes a number of considerations for the development of future policies on material resource efficiency and the circular economy. (europa.eu)
  • These self-assessments, prepared by the countries in the second half of 2015, describe the status of material resource efficiency policies in each country, including the approach to the circular economy. (europa.eu)
  • In 2011, the European Environment Agency (EEA) conducted a detailed survey to collect, analyse and disseminate information about national experiences in developing and implementing resource efficiency policies. (europa.eu)
  • Four years on, additional policies on resource efficiency, the circular economy and closing material loops have emerged. (europa.eu)
  • Responding to this, in 2015 the EEA, working jointly with the Eionet network and the European Topic Centre on Waste and Materials in a Green Economy , set out to review national approaches to material resource efficiency and to explore similarities and differences in policies, strategies, indicators and targets, policy drivers and institutional set-ups. (europa.eu)
  • The work also contributes to broadening the knowledge base underpinning resource efficiency and the circular economy. (europa.eu)
  • To support the elaboration of the EU2020 resource efficiency flagship initiative , in November 2010 the EEA initiated a survey of resource efficiency policies and instruments in its member and collaborating countries. (europa.eu)
  • The concept is named after Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), Italian engineer and economist, who used the concept in his studies of economic efficiency and income distribution . (wikipedia.org)
  • In parallel, economic efficiency and the climate balance of the new technology were studied. (eurekalert.org)
  • system seeks to achieve production efficiency through competition. (britannica.com)
  • What is one way to increase efficiencies of fields doing "OK" or just below the median benchmark? (google.com)
  • Website provides resources to increase the energy efficiency of laboratories. (energy.gov)
  • iMetalx will test different cell designs, reduce unwanted side reactions to increase energy efficiency, and minimize the heat loss that occurs when processing titanium. (energy.gov)
  • This operation supports regional, national and European objectives related to increase energy efficiency, by reducing energy and water losses. (eib.org)
  • Strong fuel efficiency standards will target these costs largely by requiring the use of cost-effective, fuel saving technologies. (edf.org)
  • Our finding of significant financial benefits of strong fuel efficiency and GHG standards is consistent in magnitude with previous analysis. (edf.org)
  • The fuel efficiency of new vehicles has improved for all modes. (europa.eu)
  • This is the efficiency (given above) of using the chemical energy of the fuel to push the pistons. (washington.edu)
  • Efficiency can often be expressed as a percentage of the result that could ideally be expected, for example if no energy were lost due to friction or other causes, in which case 100% of fuel or other input would be used to produce the desired result. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher efficiency means less pollution," he said. (redorbit.com)
  • Efficiency, in the case of a bacterium, can be defined by the energy and resources it uses to maintain its plant and produce new cells, versus the time it expends on the task. (redorbit.com)
  • One of the unique aspects of Spiritwood Station is that it's a combined heat and power plant, which means higher efficiency," Strohfus said. (redorbit.com)
  • providing peer-learning opportunities and targeted policy recommendations to support local and national efforts to develop place-based building energy efficiency policies. (oecd.org)
  • Managerial efficiency of Brazilian airports ," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice , Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 667-680, October. (repec.org)
  • It has struck me during this crisis how little these kind of system-wide policy variable seem to explain in the efficiency of the pandemic response overall. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • Policy-related energy efficiency projections are included in the catalog as achievable potential studies. (energy.gov)
  • He said the Bank and other international financial institutions are working to encourage governments to enact policy incentives that help foster markets for energy efficiency, while also seeking new tools to provide finance. (worldbank.org)
  • We want to establish stronger, more effective synergies among groups working within and outside the Bank on the many dimensions of energy efficiency-finance, policy, markets, and technologies, to name a few. (worldbank.org)
  • Over the last two decades countries throughout the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region have been making great strides in decreasing their overall energy intensity, improving energy efficiency, and reducing the economic, environmental, and social costs of their energy sectors. (worldbank.org)
  • The International Code Council Family of Companies has several resources available to assist jurisdictions, manufacturers and the public with water conservation and efficiency. (iccsafe.org)
  • Water efficiency differs from water conservation in that it focuses on reducing waste, not restricting use. (dbpedia.org)
  • Uzbekistan is scaling up an ongoing energy efficiency project, investing an additional $100 million in the country's industrial sector. (worldbank.org)
  • The energy sector is a pivotal area for economic growth in the country - accounting for nearly 50% of capital investments in Uzbekistan, contributing 7% of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) , and generating more export revenue than any other sector - and energy efficiency is a key area of improvement to stimulate this growth. (worldbank.org)
  • A pilot program to allow the market to determine how public investment can best be leveraged to deliver actual energy savings and help the residential energy efficiency sector achieve scale. (wiredforchange.com)
  • His path-breaking ideas transformed our energy sector from one of massive waste to increasingly elegant efficiency," Gov. Jerry Brown said Friday in a statement. (mercurynews.com)