Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Roxithromycin: Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Rifabutin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Mycobacterium kansasii: A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Aza CompoundsFluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Mycobacterium xenopi: A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Mycobacterium marinum: A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.EthylenediaminesCiprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Mycolic AcidsCapreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Josamycin: A macrolide antibiotic from Streptomyces narbonensis. The drug has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of pathogens.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Aminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Rabeprazole: A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.QuinolinesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Furazolidone: A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mycobacterium chelonae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.BulgariaMycobacterium fortuitum: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Gastric Mucins: Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection
Every regimen should contain either azithromycin or clarithromycin; many experts prefer ethambutol as a second drug. Many ... can also be helpful in interpreting the efficacy of a therapeutic regimen.Most patients who ultimately respond show substantial ... ethambutol, streptomycin, clarithromycin or azithromycin. NTM infections are usually treated with a three-drug regimen of ... either clarithromycin or azithromycin, plus rifampicin and ethambutol. Treatment typically lasts at least 12 months. Although ...
These drugs are listed here either because they are not very effective (e.g., clarithromycin) or because their efficacy has not ... Ethambutol & Strepto-mycin followed by 10 months of Isoniazid and Ethambutol • No hepatotoxic drugs - 18-24 months of ... but have doubtful or unproven efficacy: rifabutin macrolides: e.g., clarithromycin (CLR); linezolid (LZD); thioacetazone (T); ... Ethambutol need not be used. All first-line anti-tuberculous drug names have a standard three-letter and a single-letter ...
There is evidence that previous therapy with a drug for more than a month is associated with diminished efficacy of that drug ... clarithromycin linezolid high-dose INH (if low-level resistance) interferon-γ thioridazine Ampicillin Note: Drugs placed nearer ... pyrazinamide ethambutol a fluoroquinolone (e.g., moxifloxacin (ciprofloxacin) should no longer be used); rifabutin cycloserine ... Their efficacy and safety are unknown: pretomanid (manufactured by Novartis, developed in partnership with TB Alliance) ...
A Cochrane review found no difference in efficacy between a three to four month regimen of rifampicin and a six-month regimen ... and ethambutol. For the treatment of tuberculosis, it is administered daily for at least 6 months. Combination therapy is ... clarithromycin, caspofungin, voriconazole, and lorazepam. Rifampicin is antagonistic to the microbiologic effects of the ... Rifampicin can reduce the efficacy of birth control pills or other hormonal contraception by its induction of the cytochrome ...
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
Ethambutol Ethambutol/isoniazid (ethambutol + isoniazid) Ethambutol/isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampicin (ethambutol + isoniazid ... Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the availability of more evidence of efficacy ... Ceftazidimeα Meropenemα Aztreonamα Imipenem/cilastatinα Amikacin Azithromycin Chloramphenicol Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin ... pyrazinamide + rifampicin) Ethambutol/isoniazid/rifampicin (ethambutol + isoniazid + rifampicin) Isoniazid Isoniazid/ ...
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
Ethambutol/isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampicin (ethambutol + isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin). *Ethambutol/isoniazid/ ... Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the availability of more evidence of efficacy ... Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the availability of more evidence of efficacy ... Clarithromycin[note 20]. *Piperacillin/tazobactam. *Vancomycin. *Ceftazidimeα. *Meropenemα[note 21] ...
A Phase II Safety and Efficacy Study of Clarithromycin in the Treatment of Disseminated M. Avium Complex (MAC) Infections in...
Ethambutol.. *Immunomodulators (except alpha interferon).. *Investigational drugs (except ddI, ddC, and erythropoietin). ... This study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin given orally at 1 of 3 doses to treat disseminated ... A Phase II Safety and Efficacy Study of Clarithromycin in the Treatment of Disseminated M. Avium Complex (MAC) Infections in ... A Phase II Safety and Efficacy Study of Clarithromycin in the Treatment of Disseminated M. Avium Complex (MAC) Infections in ...
HIV and AIDS Complication and Treatment Information from Drugs.com
MAC is preferentially treated with clarithromycin plus ethambutol; studies have shown clarithromycin to have better efficacy ... Azithromycin or clarithromycin are options for prophylaxis; azithromycin can be dosed weekly and may be a preferred regimen. ... Azithromycin and clarithromycin are alternatives for patients who cannot use doxycycline or erythromycin. ... Active tuberculosis is usually treated with a combination of four drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. ...
Mycobacterium marinum Infection Medication: Antimycobacterials, Antimicrobials
Clarithromycin and ethambutol combination treatment is likely to provide optimal efficacy and tolerability. Rifampin should be ... Other combinations that have also been used include ethambutol/rifampin, clarithromycin/rifampin, cyclines/clarithromycin, and ... Azithromycin can be an alternative to clarithromycin in other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, but its efficacy is ... Isolates are sensitive to rifampin, rifabutin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, and sulfonamides, including trimethoprim- ...
Frontiers | The Consensus from the Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Conference 2017 | Public Health
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RifabutinAmikacinIsoniazidMacrolideRifampicin and EthambutolClofazimineIsolatesTherapeuticAzithromycin 600 mg dailyResistancePlus ethambutolEthionamideReceive clarithromycinRegimensActivity of clarithromycinLinezolidInfectionRifamycinDrugsMyambutolDoseAviumMedicationClinicalInfectionsConcomitantAmoxicillinZithromaxPatientsTolerabilityOmeprazoleIntermittentResistantTreatment efficacyBiaxinSafetyTabletsAdverseTherapyDrugTuberculosisToxicity
- To compare the efficacy of clarithromycin/ethambutol with placebo or with rifabutin at two different doses in reducing colony-forming units (CFUs) by 2 or more logarithms in patients with Mycobacterium avium Complex bacteremia and maintaining this response until 16 weeks post-randomization. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients are randomized to receive clarithromycin and ethambutol plus either placebo or rifabutin at one of two doses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 15-17 ) The preferred treatment regimen should include 1 of these agents along with ethambutol and/or rifabutin. (ucsf.edu)
- A prospective, randomized trial examining the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin in combination with ethambutol, rifabutin, or both for the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- The treatment of choice is surgical excision of the affected lymph nodes, with antibiotic treatment (usually clarithromycin and rifabutin for 18 to 24 months) reserved for those patients who cannot have surgery. (wikipedia.org)
- Depending on the criteria used, synergistic activity against MAC isolates was reported for combinations of rifabutin with ethambutol, clarithromycin, amikacin and ethambu-tol/sparfloxacin. (springer.com)
- The bactericidal effect of rifabutin against MAC isolates within murine macrophages was increased when rifabutin was administered in combination with ethambutol. (springer.com)
- In vivo , rifabutin alone was, at best, moderately effective in decreasing the lung and spleen bacterial count in animal models with established M. avium, M. intracellulare or MAC infection, and of comparable efficacy to clarithromycin and azithromycin in preventing MAC disease. (springer.com)
- However, efficacy against established infection was improved when rifabutin was combined with ethambutol, azithromycin, clarithromycin, amikacin or kanamycin. (springer.com)
- When used prophylactically in Beige mice infected with MAC, rifabutin was of similar efficacy to clarithromycin in limiting bacterial invasion of the lungs, although it was less effective in controlling spleen infection. (springer.com)
- The objectives of the studywere to evaluate the in vitro effects on MAP of (i) 6-mercaptopurine when combined with each of eight conventional antibacterial agents with in vitro anti-MAP activity and (ii) antibacterial combinations con-sisting of two drugs (clarithromycin combined with amikacin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin or ethambutol)and three drugs (clarithromycin, rifabutin and clofazimine). (medicpdf.com)
- Results: Synergism (FICI 0.5) was observed between 6-mercaptopurine and azithromycin (sevenisolates), clarithromycin, rifampicin, rifabutin (four isolates each) and ethambutol (two isolates). (medicpdf.com)
- In this project, the effectiveness of Lipoquin and Linhaliq will be evaluated in combination with other compounds, including clarithromycin, amikacin, and ethambutol for M. avium complex infection, and with linezolid and imipenem for M. abscessus infection. (bronchiectasisnewstoday.com)
- At week 5, DST showed resistance to fluoroquinolones and the injectable agents streptomycin, amikacin, capreomycin and kanamycin, confirming XDR-TB [ 2 ], plus additional resistance to all injectables and ethambutol, which is associated with poorer outcomes [ 5 , 6 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Preferred agents not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that are used to treat MDR-TB include fluoroquinolones (eg, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (amikacin, capreomycin, and kanamycin).Additional agents used (although not recommended as initial MDR-TB treatment) are linezolid, amoxicillin/clavulanate, clarithromycin, and imipenem. (uad.ac.id)
- Unpublished data).On the basis of this meta-analysis, aminoglycosides are the preferred parenteral agents, with no superior efficacy demonstrated among amikacin, capreomycin, and kanamycin. (uad.ac.id)
- So, 2HREZ/4HR3 means isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide daily for two months, followed by four months of isoniazid and rifampicin given three times a week. (wikipedia.org)
- Standard quadruple therapy (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) was commenced in May 2011 (week 1) ( fig. 1 ), while drug susceptibility testing (DST) was in progress and the appropriate contact tracing procedure was initiated. (ersjournals.com)
- After 3 weeks of quadruple therapy, first-line DST showed resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol. (ersjournals.com)
- The initial phase should consist of 2 months of the drugs Isoniazid (H), Rifampicin (R), Pyrazinamide (Z) and Ethambutol (E). The continuation phase should consist of the three drugs Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol given for at least four months. (mtatva.com)
- The standard "short" course treatment for tuberculosis (TB), if it is active, is isoniazid , rifampicin , pyrazinamide , and ethambutol for two months, then isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further four months. (bionity.com)
- Clarithromycin, a new macrolide antimicrobial agent, has demonstrated activity against MAC both in the laboratory and in animals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The most efficacious drugs for treatment are the newer macrolide antibiotics, clarithromycin and azithromycin. (ucsf.edu)
- Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic. (rootsdentclinic.com)
- Treatment consists of a macrolide,rifamycin, and ethambutol given three times weekly for noncavitary disease and daily withor without an aminoglycoside for cavitary disease. (medicpdf.com)
- Internationally, three-drug combination intermittent treatment (three times a week administration) with macrolide, ethambutol and rifampicin is recommended, but a daily treatment regimen is recommended in Japan. (bmj.com)
Rifampicin and Ethambutol4
- BACKGROUND: Although combination therapy using clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol is recommended for patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, some patients do not tolerate it because of adverse effects or underlying diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- 2,10 The M. avium complex is treated with combination therapy consisting of Clarithromycin, Rifampicin and Ethambutol and should be continued for one year. (who.int)
- 11 While the regimen includes Rifampicin and Ethambutol, two of the standard first-line anti-TB drugs, the length of the TB regimen is not sufficient to address M. avium complex infections. (who.int)
- Methods and analysis A total of 140 patients diagnosed with NB MAC-LD in Japan will be randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to intermittent treatment group or daily treatment group, and three-drug combination therapy with clarithromycin, rifampicin and ethambutol will be continued for 1 year. (bmj.com)
- PRIMARY: To assess the tolerability of the combination regimen of clarithromycin plus ethambutol with or without clofazimine in patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium Complex (dMAC). (nih.gov)
- History of allergy or hypersensitivity to macrolides, ethambutol, or clofazimine. (nih.gov)
- Cholo MC , Mothiba MT , Fourie B , Anderson R . Mechanisms of action and therapeutic efficacies of the lipophilic antimycobacterial agents clofazimine and bedaquiline. (cdc.gov)
- Clarithromycin and ethambutol with or without clofazimine for the treatment of bacteremic Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients with HIV infection. (maclungdisease.org)
- Twenty two of the NTM isolates and the isolate Rhodococcus was resistant to clarithromycin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Egelif-containing regimens should not be used in patients with known or suspected Egelif resistant isolates because the efficacy of treatment is reduced in this setting. (rootsdentclinic.com)
- Among thecombinations of two and three antibacterials tested, the clarithromycin/rifampicin combination wassynergistic against four isolates, while all other combinations showed no interaction. (medicpdf.com)
Azithromycin 600 mg daily2
- During treatment and post-treatment follow-up for up.7 years (median: 9 months) in Study 189, a total of 6/68 (9) and 6/57 (11) of the patients randomized to azithromycin 600 mg daily and clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day respectively. (judobund.de)
- Efficacy results for the azithromycin 600 mg daily and clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day treatment regimens are described in the following table: response TO therapy OF patients taking ethambutol AND zithromax either azithromycin 600 MG daily OR clarithromycin 500 MG twicay. (joeposnanski.com)
- In the middle, 55 percent of MDR TB patients had ethambutol resistance, and 32 percent had resistance to kanamycin or ofloxacin. (nap.edu)
- Regimens with this drug as the only antimicrobial agent are more likely to be associated with clarithromycin resistance in patients who fail therapy. (drugs.com)
- if resistance to this drug is established, a non-clarithromycin-containing regimen is recommended. (drugs.com)
- Impact of clarithromycin resistance and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on treatment efficacy of Helicobacter pylori infection with lansoprazole- or rabeprazole-based triple therapy in Japan. (giveitalligot.com)
- Secondary endpoints are adverse events, sputum culture conversion, time to sputum culture conversion, improvement of chest CT findings, change in health-related quality of life score and development of clarithromycin resistance. (bmj.com)
- These findings indicate that the combination of Ekomed's phytopreparations with ATT enhances the efficacy of TB therapy and is safe and beneficial even to patients with poor prognosis due to drug resistance and/or co-infection with HIV. (ekomed.com.ua)
- Treatment is randomly assigned so that twice as many patients receive clarithromycin at the lower dose as at an intermediate dose for 12 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Once data becomes available to support dosing patients with clarithromycin at the highest dose, then treatment will be randomly assigned so that twice as many patients receive clarithromycin at the highest dose as at the intermediate dose. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The efficacy and safety of fluoroquinolone-containing combination regimens as an alternative remain uncertain. (bvsalud.org)
- This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of fluoroquinolone-containing regimens with those of the standard regimens for treating pulmonary MAC disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Although clinical trials have shown greater efficacy for co-trimoxazole compared to other regimens, there is a high rate of discontinuation due to side effects. (bmj.com)
- Desensitisation regimens are used with the aim of reducing the rate of intolerance but there is uncertainty about their efficacy and which regimen is best. (bmj.com)
- A prospective randomized trial of four three-drug regimens in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS patients: excess mortality associated with high-dose clarithromycin. (maclungdisease.org)
Activity of clarithromycin2
- These drugs are listed here either because they are not very effective (e.g., clarithromycin) or because their efficacy has not been proven (e.g., linezolid, R207910). (wikipedia.org)
- The isolate was susceptible to pyrazinamide, prothionamide, linezolid and the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin. (ersjournals.com)
- Azithromycin can be an alternative to clarithromycin in other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, but its efficacy is unknown in M marinum infection. (medscape.com)
- Identification of (+)-erythro-mefloquine as an active enantiomer with greater efficacy than mefloquine against Mycobacterium avium infection in mice. (nih.gov)
- ZITHROMAX, taken in combination with ethambutol, is indicated for the treatment of disseminated MAC infections in persons with advanced HIV infection [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
- Clarithromycin is used to treat certain bacterial infections, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), bronchitis (infection of the tubes leading to the lungs), and infectio. (ndclist.com)
- Sponsor(s): Pfizer Purpose - Excerpt: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of two different doses of azithromycin in combination with ethambutol for the treatment of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, and to determine whether an azithromycin-containing regimen is at least as safe and effective as the same regimen containing clarithromycin. (giveitalligot.com)
- When Clarithromycin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. (illo.info)
- Significant differences in susceptibility to seven of the eight drugs, with the exception being ethambutol, were noted among the three clusters. (asm.org)
- Although other drugs, such as azithromycin and clarithromycin, have laboratory and clinical activity against MAC, none has been shown in a prospective, controlled trial to be effective and safe for prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
- The manufacturer product information for the other drugs indicated in combination with clarithromycin should be consulted. (drugs.com)
- Clarithromycin Tablets, USP is given in combination with other drugs in adults as described below to eradicate H. pylori. (illo.info)
- Concomitant use of clarithromycin (CAM) and rifampicin (RFP) for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease affects the systemic concentrations of both drugs due to CYP3A4-related interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because MAC is not susceptible to antituberculous drugs, clarithromycin (CAM) is the key drug for treatment of pulmonary MAC disease, and multidrug therapy with rifampicin (RFP) and ethambutol (EB) is recommended to prevent the development of resistant bacteria [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ethambutol buy myambutol no prescription low cost abnormalities should operate taken during pregnancy, thus if the paciente justifies the bacteriological resection to the fetus. (macka.sk)
- Ethambutol buying myambutol online responses have instructed the puede of the entiende of mammalian consciousness to corresponding when both variations have expected used concurrently. (macka.sk)
- Degenerative erythrocytes in the infectious nervous system, specifically not dose-related, have almost led noted in changes adding ethambutol myambutol in suspension over a seen period. (macka.sk)
- Clear myambutol demonstrates the paciente of clarithromycin, and it (or azithromycin) should inhibit included in any regimen. (macka.sk)
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- This study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin given orally at 1 of 3 doses to treat disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infections (MAC) in patients with AIDS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Tigecycline potentiates clarithromycin activity against Mycobacterium avium in vitro. (cdc.gov)
- Clarithromycin therapy for bacteremic Mycobacterium avium complex disease. (maclungdisease.org)
- These studies showed that both formulations had a significant efficacy against M. avium complex and M. abscessus infections. (bronchiectasisnewstoday.com)
- Goldberger M, Masur H. Clarithromycin therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients with AIDS: potential and problems. (illo.info)
- Why is clarithromycin medication prescribed? (ndclist.com)
- Clarithromycin is available as a generic medication. (buygenericmds.com)
- The efficacy of second-line agents, medication access, medication-related adverse effects, and concern about medication adherence during prolonged therapy are all important factors to consider. (uad.ac.id)
- Clinical experience treating AIDS patients with clarithromycin for disseminated MAC is limited. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Objectives: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intermittent therapy compared with daily therapy for nodular bronchiectatic MAC lung disease. (jove.com)
- Strong evidence for efficacy and substantial clinical benefit support recommendation for use. (aafp.org)
- Moderate evidence for efficacy-or strong evidence for efficacy but only limited clinical benefit-supports recommendation for use. (aafp.org)
- The T100 radiometric broth method was employed to zithromax determine azithromycin and clarithromycin MIC usa values. (judobund.de)
- Azithromycin (Zithromax) is recognized for its broad efficacy, dosing advantages, favorable side-effect profile, and good-tasting liquid formulation for children. (antiinfectivemeds.com)
- Although initial intermittent TB therapy is known to be effective in non-HIV-infected patients, its efficacy had not been proven in patients with HIV-related TB. (nih.gov)
- We aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of inhaled AMK therapy in patients with difficult-to-treat NTM lung diseases in a retrospective chart review. (biomedcentral.com)
- Evidence for efficacy is insufficient to support a recommendation for or against use, or evidence for efficacy might not outweigh adverse consequences (e.g., drug toxicity, drug interactions) or cost of the chemoprophylaxis or alternative approaches. (aafp.org)
- Moderate evidence for lack of efficacy or for adverse outcome supports a recommendation against use. (aafp.org)
- Clarithromycin with NDC 64380-906 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Strides Pharma Science Limited. (ndclist.com)
- Clarithromycin with NDC 61919-643 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Directrx. (ndclist.com)
- macrophage aggregate structures suitable for drug efficacy testing. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Thus, both tissue penetration capacity and efficacy against latent Mtb are two critical parameters that define TB drug potency. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- many experts prefer ethambutol as a second drug. (worldheritage.org)