Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.SulfonesControlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Ondansetron: A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.QuinolinesPlant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.PiperazinesBeclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Cisapride: A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.ThiophenesVitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsPyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Felodipine: A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).TetrazolesCombined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.FluorobenzenesPravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Cyclobutanes
... placebo-controlled clinical trial showed that dong quai was no more effective than placebo. Potential anti-osteoporotic effects ... Hirata, Janie D (Dec 1997). "Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled ... Jia, M.; Yang, T. H.; Yao, X. J.; Meng, J.; Meng, J. R.; Mei, Q. B. (2007). 当归多聚糖硫酸盐的抗氧化作用 [Anti-oxidative effect of Angelica ... However, more high quality human evidence is needed to confirm same anti-osteoporotic effects of dong quai in humans. Dong quai
Great Expectations: The Evolutionary Psychology of Faith-Healing and the Placebo Effect" (PDF). The Mind Made Flesh: Essays ... ISBN 1-84169-199-2. Humphrey, Nicholas (2004). "The Placebo Effect". In Gregory, Richard Langton. The Oxford companion to the ... The effect of that false information is that the benefits of the self-treatment cease to outweigh its costs. As a result, it is ... Placebos are explained as the result of false information about the availability of external treatment and support that mislead ...
"The Placebo Effect". NZ Skeptics. Retrieved 10 November 2016. "Science, Pseudoscience and Junk Science". NZ Skeptics. Retrieved ...
The Placebo Effect. This is a discussion of the role of the placebo in modern medicine, including examples such as Diazepam, ... The effect was first reported by chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons in 1989, but attempts to reproduce it over the ... Brooks describes research into prescription behaviour which appears to show that use of placebos is commonplace. He describes ... and the work of others towards an understanding of the mechanism of the effect. Homeopathy. Brooks discusses the work of ...
In 2001, Stoessl published a paper in Science which found that the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease might be due to ... Harding, Anne (4 August 2010). "Brain's reward system helps drive placebo effect". Reuters. Retrieved 23 April 2015. Bootle, ... "Effects of expectation on placebo-induced dopamine release in Parkinson disease". Archives of General Psychiatry. 67 (8): 857- ... mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease". Science. 293 (5532): 1164-6. doi:10.1126/science.1060937. PMID ...
... the physiological effects of placebos. Track Technique, 46: 1470-1472, 1971. Athletes taking placebo for steroids improve. ... Anabolic steroids: The physiological effects of placebos. Medicine and Science, 4: 124-126, 1972. Anabolic steroids and muscle ... The effect of anabolic steroids on muscular force. Track & Field Quarterly Review, 73: 184-191, 1973. Prolonged effects of ... Residual effect of an anabolic steroid upon isotonic muscular force. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 1972. ...
In 2015, Miller and Ted Kaptchuk co-authored a perspective paper on placebo effects, again in the New England Journal of ... Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Miller, Franklin G. (2 July 2015). "Placebo Effects in Medicine". New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (1): 8 ... Houston, Muiris (20 July 2015). "Medical Matters: How empathy and engagement enhance the placebo effect". Irish Times. ... Kupferschmidt, K. (24 May 2011). "More placebo use promoted in Germany". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 183 (10): E633- ...
Brody is known for his extensive writing about the placebo effect and about the pharmaceutical industry. He has been critical ... Barton, Adriana (12 January 2014). "The placebo effect: A new study underscores its remarkable power". The Globe and Mail. ... Talbot, Margaret (9 January 2000). "The Placebo Prescription". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 June 2017. ...
Color meaning and effect has to do with context as well. Since color is an important factor in the visual appearance of ... The color of placebo pills is reported to be a factor in their effectiveness, with "hot-colored" pills working better as ... However, all negative effects to orange were neutralized when orange store color was paired with soft lighting. This shows that ... Research on the effects of color on product preference and marketing shows that product color could affect consumer preference ...
It is unclear what role, if any, pFPP plays in the clinical effects of niaprazine. However, from animal studies it is known ... Double-blind comparison with placebo]". La Pediatria Medica E Chirurgica : Medical and Surgical Pediatrics (in Italian). 9 (2 ... Keane PE, Strolin Benedetti M, Dow J (February 1982). "The effect of niaprazine on the turnover of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the ... Ottaviano S, Giannotti F, Cortesi F (October 1991). "The effect of niaprazine on some common sleep disorders in children. A ...
How the Placebo Effect Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03-20. Sugar: It Powers the Earth. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03 ...
Byerly, Henry C. (1976). "Explaining and Exploiting Placebo Effects". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 19 (3): 423-437. ...
He also published a study on the placebo effect in nausea in 1950 which has been called "seminal" and "one of the earliest ... Kirsch, I (July 2008). "Challenging received wisdom: antidepressants and the placebo effect". McGill journal of medicine : MJM ... Although he originally studied digestion, Wolf is known for his research into the Roseto effect, which he became interested in ... WOLF, S (January 1950). "Effects of suggestion and conditioning on the action of chemical agents in human subjects; the ...
Reid, Brian (30 April 2002). "The Nocebo Effect: Placebo's Evil Twin". Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2016. Wade, ... He has also done research on the nocebo effect, and has said that one reason the medical community has been hesitant to ...
"A Placebo Mobile App That Changes Your Life". IndieGoGO. Retrieved April 2, 2017. "Harnessing the Power of the Placebo Effect ... "Could An App Replicate The Placebo Effect". The Verge. Retrieved April 2, 2017. "This App Lets You Create Personalized Placebo ... Avanoo was originally called Placebo Effect. Its first product in 2013 was an iPhone app that sought to help people make ... "App Delivers Virtual Placebo To Improve Your Health". Mashable. Retrieved April 2, 2017. " ...
He is known for his research into the placebo and nocebo effects. Benedetti began studying placebos in the 1990s while ... Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease (Oxford University Press, 2008) The Patient's Brain: The ... Additionally, his book Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease won the British Medical ... A review of his book Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease in the New England Journal of Medicine ...
... and so it does have therapeutic effects on me. (An instance of the placebo effect.) Naturalistic fallacy: Warfare must be ... Both misuse of scientific work and suppression of scientific knowledge can have undesired or even undesirable effects. In the ... The pill I am taking should have therapeutic effects on me, ...
"Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and ... Perceived effects of alternative medicine may be caused by placebo; decreased effect of functional treatment (and therefore ... Use of placebos to achieve a placebo effect in integrative medicine has been criticized as, "...diverting research time, money ... "Family physicians believe the placebo effect is therapeutic but often use real drugs as placebos" (PDF). Family Medicine. 42 (9 ...
A placebo effect may play a role. Mental health services may be based in hospitals, clinics or the community. Often an ... "The Placebo Effect: What Is It?". WebMD. Retrieved 2017-08-08. Repper, J. & Perkins, R. (2006) Social Inclusion and Recovery: A ... Leaf, P. J., Bruce, M. L., & Tischler, G. L. (1986). The differential effect of attitudes on the use of mental health services ... Exercise appear to have the greatest effect on mental health a short period of time after exercise. Different studies have ...
This placebo effect is more pronounced in people who are prone to anxiety, and so anxiety reduction may account for some of the ... Placebos are more effective for intense pain than mild pain; and they produce progressively weaker effects with repeated ... Pain-related effects of trait anger expression: neural substrates and the role of endogenous opioid mechanisms. Neurosci ... Thus, excitement in games or war appears to block both dimensions of pain, while suggestion and placebos may modulate the ...
"The effect of extract of ginkgo biloba addition to olanzapine on therapeutic effect and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients ... Zhang, X. Y.; Zhou, D. F.; Zhang, P. Y.; Wu, G. Y.; Su, J. M.; Cao, L. Y. (2001). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ... AE - Adverse effect. Note: Global in the context of schizophrenia symptoms here refers to all four symptom clusters. N refers ... Foxe, J. J.; Morie, K. P.; Laud, P. J.; Rowson, M. J.; De Bruin, E. A.; Kelly, S. P. (2012). "Assessing the effects of caffeine ...
"Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and ... "Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials". The Lancet. 350 (9081 ... Given that homeopathy's effects in humans appear to be mainly due to the placebo effect and the counseling aspects of the ... The placebo effect - the intensive consultation process and expectations for the homeopathic preparations may cause the effect ...
Pleasant feelings or the apparent successes of crystal healing can be attributed to the placebo effect or cognitive bias-a ... Alleged successes of crystal healing can be attributed to the placebo effect. Furthermore, there is no scientific basis for the ... 1989). Crystal Power: The Ultimate Placebo Effect. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-514-0 Crystal Healing: Stone-cold Facts ... nor is there any evidence that crystal healing has any greater effect upon the body than any other placebo; for these reasons ...
"Incidence of side effects with contraceptive placebo". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 105 (7): 1144-9. PMID ... Not all, or even most, users will experience side effects from a method. The less effective the method, the greater the risk of ... There are many different methods of birth control, which vary in what is required of the user, side effects, and effectiveness ... "Efficacy and side effects of immediate postcoital levonorgestrel used repeatedly for contraception. United Nations Development ...
"Placebo Effect: A Cure in the Mind". Scientific American. February-March 2009. Rennard, B. O.; Ertl, RF; Gossman, GL; Robbins, ... Many are merely used as a result of tradition or habit or because they are effective in inducing the placebo effect. One of the ... The WHO notes, however, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" ... Researchers state that many of the alternative treatments are "statistically indistinguishable from placebo treatments". ...
... and these effects are evident even without weight loss.[93] Aerobic exercise leads to a decrease in HbA1c and improved insulin ... "Benefits and harms of lower blood pressure treatment targets: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo- ... Although a more recent review found similar effects of ACEIs and ARBs on major cardiovascular and renal outcomes.[117] There is ... Doses are then increased to effect (blood sugar levels being well controlled).[25] When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice ...
Where the frequency of adverse effects for Nicardipine and placebo is similar, causal relationship is uncertain. The only dose- ... In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234- ... The large changes between peak and trough effects were not accompanied by observed side effects at peak response times. In a ... If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. These effects are usually reversible. Welin ...
The sedative effects of temazepam may last longer in older adults.. The ETFRC is a Zero-Tolerance, Drug-Free apheresis. In mild ... Some TEMAZEPAM may call those prescription medications as speed but for me because I take temazepam or placebo first Please, ... I think TEMAZEPAM has milled to help battle the TEMAZEPAM has been shown to reduce the sedative effects of TEMAZEPAM was the ... The uk does plain prick as a side-effect. Its a lose-lose readiness. Solubility measurements 2. ...
Psychological effects of Vitiligo. Vitiligo can have a significant effect on the psychological well being of the patient.[8] ... van Geel N, Ongenae K, De Mil M, Haeghen YV, Vervaet C, Naeyaert JM (2004). "Double-blind placebo-controlled study of ... This treatment does not involve Psoralen since the effect of the lamp is strong enough. The source for the UVB Narrowband UVB ...
Placebo Effect was a German dark electro band. The band was formed in the late 1980s by Axel Machens, Christoph Kunze, and ... In 1995, Placebo Effect parted ways, but Machens has teamed up with Ecki Stieg to form the side project "Accessories" and cut ... Placebo Effect - Home Production (MC, 1989) Gargoyles - Danse Macabre (MC, 1990) Galleries of Pain - Danse Macabre (CD/LP/MC, ... Placebo Effect played live at the Wave Gotik Treffen Leipzig on 07.06.2014 - their first live WGT concert since 2003. The band ...
Placebo Effect at the Doctor Who Reference Guide The Cloister Library - Placebo Effect Placebo Effect at The TARDIS Library ... Placebo Effect title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Placebo Effect reviews at Outpost Gallifrey Placebo ... Placebo Effect is an original novel written by Gary Russell and based on the long-running British science fiction television ... Effect reviews at The Doctor Who Ratings Guide The Whoniverses review on Placebo Effect. ...
Rotten Tomatoes, home of the Tomatometer, is the most trusted measurement of quality for Movies & TV. The definitive site for Reviews, Trailers, Showtimes, and Tickets
Fibromyalgia patients whose pain levels fluctuate widely are also more likely to respond to placebo, and this should be ... "If placebo responders can be excluded from trials, it would be easier to show specific drug effects," Harris says. He also ... this effect was seen almost exclusively in those randomized to placebo as compared with those receiving milnacipran, suggesting ... High pain variability may be a predictor of a placebo response . "Difference in real-time pain variability is a relatively ...
... reason enough to begin a course of SSRIs or any therapy with multiple drug interactions and potentially serious side effects - ... "placebo effect" is not unique to mental health treatment: From responses to placebo pills for the common cold to placebo ... www.sfgate.com/magazine/article/PROBING-THE-PLACEBO-EFFECT-3221075.php ... "file drawer effect" - trials with positive results are published while others are filed away - an issue that may confuse the ...
Double-blind placebo-controlled trials are intended to control for the impact of expectancy on outcomes. Whether they always ... In this trial, a sample of alcohol-dependent patients received naltrexone, acamprosate or placebo for 12 weeks. While there ... In this trial, 169 alcohol-dependent patients received naltrexone, acamprosate or placebo for 12 weeks. In addition to being ... they were asked whether they believed they received active medication or placebo.. While there were no differences in outcomes ...
2001 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine carried two pieces questioning the effectiveness of the placebo in certain ... Certainly the placebo effect has been the subject of study before, and in the end a thorough discrediting of the placebo effect ... The Placebo Effect on Pain. Following is a description of how one goes about demonstrating this effect as well as an ... nocebo effect. medical effects of prayer. What to Expect With Acupuncture and Acupressure. Placebo. ...
... few things are more unsettling than the placebo effect. How can an inert sugar pill have therapeutic value? The answer requires ... The effects of placebos are not always beneficial. The placebo effect has a dark twin called the nocebo effect. Although ... and the placebo effect can also make drugs more effective.. Research shows that various components of the placebo effect - for ... placebo effects have grown progressively larger over the last several decades. This "placebo drift" poses significant ...
... the first single and the opening track from Placebos new album, has the feel of some half-remembered glam-rock classic, but ... 1/2 Placebo "Without You Im Nothing" / Virgin. "Pure Morning," the first single and the opening track from Placebos new album ... 1/2 Placebo Without You Im Nothing / VirginPure Morning, ... Placebos Effect: A Dynamic, Enduring Sound. November 28, 1998, ...
The placebo effect, with its central role in clinical trials, is acknowledged as a factor in sports medicine, although until ... Placebo Caffeine Experimental Trial Blood Lactate Placebo Effect These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... Placebo effect of caffeine in cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 2159-64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Placebo effect of carbohydrate feeding during a 40-km cycling time trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 1642-7PubMedGoogle ...
Theres no question that placebos have psychological effects. The question is whether those effects really trigger healing on ... scientists must give trial subjects placebos to distinguish the effect of taking active medication from the effect of taking a ... Beecher went so far as to say that this placebo effect accounted for precisely 35.2 percent of a treatments results. And so he ... For example, a recent publicized Science study of brain scans purporting to show a placebo effect in Parkinsons disease ...
Reuters Health) - - Some people may be genetically programmed to feel better after taking placebo pills, while others may only ... Evidence that the placebo effect is real was first publicized in 1978, after an experiment done on patients having molar teeth ... The study team looked at evidence that some peoples genes may make them more prone to experience the placebo effect. If true, ... and as our knowledge of personalized medicine evolves it makes sense that we also consider how the placebo effect fits into ...
The Power of the Placebo Effect *↑ A placebo is a neutral treatment (such as an inactive pill) that may nevertheless promote ... Placebo effect. From Conservapedia. This is an old revision of this page, as edited by LiamG (Talk , contribs) at 16:34, 2 ... The placebo effect is the well-known lessening of pain and other symptoms when a patient is told that he is getting normal ... Scientists generally agree that for the placebo effect to occur, the subject must believe that he is given effective treatment ...
The placebo effect may have no scientific basis, according to a study published in this weeks New England Journal of Medicine. ... "We found little evidence in general that placebos had powerful clinical effects," the authors write, suggesting that "outside ... They reviewed a broad range of different studies, excluding any that had not tested the effectiveness of both a placebo and no ... Then they examined how test subjects receiving placebos fared in comparison to groups that had received no treatment. It turned ...
... a reaction to a placebo manifested by a lessening of symptoms or the production of anticipated side effects. See more. ... placebo effect in Medicine Expand. placebo effect n. A beneficial effect in a patient following a particular treatment that ... placebo effect. noun 1. (med) a positive therapeutic effect claimed by a patient after receiving a placebo believed by him to ... Nobody conceived of a thing like the placebo effect or researcher bias -none of these notions had been worked out yet. ...
This review examines the evidence for the involvement of neurotransmitter systems in placebo and nocebo effects in both healthy ... N in placebo/nocebo group(s). Population. Pain. Primary outcome measure. Design (placebo/nocebo effects). Neurotransmitter ... There was no effect of type of pain on the placebo effect.. ‡The study was part of another study (Neuropsychopharmacology 2013 ... be involved in placebo and nocebo effects in pain as well as the growing field of oxytocin and vasopressin in placebo effects, ...
Placebos, used ethically, are powerful tools. They can cure diseases, make food taste better and dramatically increase the ... Crucial elements for the placebo effect Placebos, used ethically, are powerful tools. They can cure diseases, make food taste ... Not all placebos work, and they dont function in all fields. Here are some things that successful placebos have in common:. ... Argue all you want about whether or not you want to be buying or selling placebos, but its quite likely that the right placebo ...
Is the placebo effect real or is it in your head? ... The placebo effect happens when you decide a therapy will make ... Nocebo Effect. When a patient taking a placebo experiences negative side effects that cant have been caused by the placebo ... One theory behind the placebo effect is the subject-expectancy effect. When people already know what the result of taking a ... Placebo Effect and Health. Prometheus Books, 2005.. *Tilburt, John C., et al. Prescribing placebo treatments: results of ...
Home/Skepticism/Placebo Effect Explained. Skepticism Placebo Effect Explained. Tracy King February 9, 2010. 9 0 Less than a ... He says that it can reduce gastric ulcers where I think a placebos effect was limited to subjective symptoms like pain and ... Ben Goldacre just tweeted this great video commissioned by the NHS of him explaining the placebo effect in laymans terms. Not ... The video is brilliant, especially the point he makes about how to use the placebo effect. This is something Ive seen ...
Treating Depression: Is there a placebo effec.... ...
Its largely the placebo effect.. Irving Kirschs specialty has been the study of the placebo effect: the taking of a dummy ... But how much good is the medication itself doing? "The difference between the effect of a placebo and the effect of an ... Irving Kirsch: The difference between the effect of a placebo and the effect of an antidepressant is minimal for most people. ... Treating Depression: Is there a placebo effect?. A Harvard scientist says the drugs used to treat depression are effective, but ...
The placebo effect is not only real; its ability to deaden pain has been pinpointed to cells in the spinal cord. That raises ... Meanwhile, the fMRI scanner witnessed the placebo effect. When skin treated with the "control" cream was heated, an area of the ... Then they quickly adapted the technique to study placebo pain relief.. This meant telling 13 volunteers a white lie. They were ... "This type of mechanism has been envisioned for over 40 years for placebo analgesia," says Donald Price, a neuroscientist at the ...
  • This is done by blind or double-blind testing, in the former the patient doesn't know it's been given a placebo , in the latter the doctor giving the drug doesn't know he or she is giving a placebo (to filter out the influencing of a second person). (everything2.com)
  • Studies have shown for instance that those given a placebo described as a new painkiller saw levels of the body's own natural pain relievers, called endorphins, shoot up. (bigthink.com)
  • Stridh said the analysis also found that Viagra-like drugs don't work better than placebo for long-term recovery of erectile function after prostate cancer treatment, a common practice in some places that he added "seems to be questionable. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Although we disagree with the conclusion that antidepressants are no better than placebo, we do agree that large, well-designed, long-term studies are needed to fully elucidate when and how anti-depressants should be used. (aafp.org)
  • He adds that the fact that FM patients with greater pain variability were also more likely to be placebo responders was "an unexpected finding, but one that may be very relevant if replicated by others. (medscape.com)
  • Athletes are totally focused on their bodies, and they are therefore ideal placebo responders," he added. (minnpost.com)
  • Baliki revealed that if their experiments were a success, they would be able to predict placebo responders in a larger chronic pain community and benefit the creation of personalized medicine. (theticker.org)
  • Medications that do have active ingredients but aren't proven to work on the patient's particular condition can also be placebos. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Nonetheless, the current Avastin FDA view is that Avastin, based on a number of clinical studies, did not do enough to improve a patient's overall survivability, or to slow disease progression, while at the same time exposing the patient to a series of potential severe Avastin side effects. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Over the last ten years of writing for SBM , I haven't (quite) gone as far as Mark Crislip (who is missed here) to conclude that placebo effects are a myth , or, as he put it in his own inimitable way, the " beer goggles of medicine ", in which the patient's perception is changed but nothing else. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Professor Rief said: "We noticed a substantial effect of raising pre-operative expectations on the patient's disability and mental quality-of-life six months after surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physicians today generally agree that placebos can actually have a positive effect on the patient's body, and that mind-body medicine "works. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Knowing all this, let's ask what a physician would have to do, to maximize the chances that either a pure or an impure placebo would work for the patient's benefit. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Administering drugs covertly is another way to identify the placebo psychobiological component without the administration of any placebo, and this provides important information on the role of patient's expectations in the therapeutic outcome. (smw.ch)
  • We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed to the patient's expectation. (dovepress.com)
  • Fears of a strong placebo effect in this field were so strong that, according to lead researcher Dr. Curt Freed, the National Institutes of Health rejected a competing Yale Medical School study of fetal-cell injection because it lacked a sham-surgery group. (slate.com)
  • Likewise, in the 1950s, we used to ligate the internal mammary artery to treat angina: but when someone did a placebo-controlled trial, going to theatre, making an incision, but only pretending to ligate the internal mammary, the sham operation was as effective as the real one. (badscience.net)
  • Reviews discussing the neurotransmitter systems in placebo and nocebo effects exist but past reviews have either been qualitative [ 7 , 8 , 19 ] or limited to pharmacological studies of the endogenous opioid system. (medscape.com)
  • So, the placebo effect is tapping into the same pain control centers as opioid drugs. (mercola.com)
  • For example, a placebo can reduce pain by both opioid and non-opioid mechanisms ( Colloca and Benedetti, 2005 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the same study, if the placebo response was obtained after exposure to opioid drugs, it was naloxone reversible, whereas if it was obtained after exposure to non-opioid drugs, it was naloxone insensitive. (jneurosci.org)
  • To examine the contribution of 2 different neurotransmitters, the endogenous opioid and the dopaminergic (DA) systems, to the development of placebo and nocebo effects. (nih.gov)
  • Placebo-induced activation of opioid neurotransmission was detected in the anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and insular cortices, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and periaqueductal gray matter. (nih.gov)
  • Regional DA and opioid activity were associated with the anticipated and subjectively perceived effectiveness of the placebo and reductions in continuous pain ratings. (nih.gov)
  • Many of the following studies have focused on the placebo effect of relieving pain (1) and considerable data now indicates that this occurs through the endogenous opioid system (the same neurological circuit activated by painkillers such as morphine) (2,3). (harvard.edu)
  • 4) produce solid data supporting a role of the opioid system in the placebo effect. (harvard.edu)
  • Scientists typically use placebos as controls in research studies. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists from Northwestern Medicine and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago recently identified the area in the brain that is accountable for the "placebo effect" in pain relief. (theticker.org)
  • Routinely, scientists attempt to distinguish the placebo effect from the effect of the drug's active ingredients, to determine how well the medicine itself works. (humanmedia.org)
  • In the journal Trends in Molecular Biology, Hall and her colleagues note that past research suggests people's response to placebos may be influenced by the way certain signaling molecules in the brain and body respond to pain and reward, or the expectation of those experiences. (reuters.com)
  • The experiments involved asking the subjects to rate their expectation of the pain-killing effects of the "drug" and also the level of pain relief with or without the "drug" that they felt from a moderately painful injection of salt solution into their jaw muscle. (eurekalert.org)
  • The placebo effect is a psychobiological phenomenon that can be attributable to different mechanisms, including expectation of clinical improvement and pavlovian conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • The study of the placebo effect reflects a current neuroscientific thought that has as its central tenet the idea that "subjective" constructs such as expectation and value have identifiable physiological bases, and that these bases are powerful modulators of basic perceptual, motor, and internal homeostatic processes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In an experimental model of pain ( Amanzio and Benedetti, 1999 ), the placebo response could be blocked by naloxone if it was induced by strong expectation cues, whereas if the expectation cues were reduced, it was insensitive to naloxone. (jneurosci.org)
  • As our fearless leader Steve Novella has noted , the persistence of these misconceptions is due partly to the fact that false narratives about placebos , namely that "the" placebo effect (as opposed to placebo effects) is mainly an mind-over-matter effect based on expectation or even " harnessing the power of positive thinking ", is deeply embedded in our culture. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Additional improvement in some patients may also derive from the mere expectation that the procedure will help-the so-called placebo effect. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Over- or underestimation of intervention effect estimates can occur when placebo controls are not adequately matched to experimental interventions, leading to inadequate blinding and expectation bias. (cmaj.ca)
  • In humans, the placebo effect is generally ascribed to one or more of the following: classical conditioning, expectation and endogenous opiates (the body's own naturally produced pain-relief). (thebark.com)
  • Biomedical research will benefit from abandoning the term placebo effect and focusing instead on a deeper understanding of the expectation variable, including its causes, effects, and effect modifiers. (dovepress.com)
  • Taken together, these two phenomena are known as expectation effects. (bigthink.com)
  • They found that the greater subjects' anticipation of the pain-killing benefit of the placebo, the greater the dopamine release from the NAC. (eurekalert.org)
  • How placebos work is still not quite understood, but it involves a complex neurobiological reaction that includes everything from increases in feel-good neurotransmitters, like endorphins and dopamine, to greater activity in certain brain regions linked to moods, emotional reactions, and self-awareness. (harvard.edu)
  • The placebo effect of dopamine for Parkinsons patients is very interesting. (physicsforums.com)
  • The May 24, 2001 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine carried two pieces questioning the effectiveness of the placebo in certain circumstances. (everything2.com)
  • The difference is that you'd be interested in the effectiveness of the placebo instead of the drug. (parade.com)
  • In the current study, Ader and colleagues sought to determine if a drug's therapeutic effect could be triggered by qualities associated with the drug, like its shape, color, smell and packaging, as well as by its administration by an authority figure in a white lab coat. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Approximately 50% prescribe medications that they consider to have no specific effect on patients' conditions and are used solely as placebos (sometimes called "impure placebos. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • I agree with Harris and Raz that physicians and patients shouldn't think that just because these surveys show they are widely used, so-called "impure placebos"-like antibiotics or vitamins given to people without bacterial infections or vitamin deficiencies-are now just fine. (discovermagazine.com)
  • There are at least two reasons to be very wary of prescribing impure placebos. (discovermagazine.com)
  • There are real risks-several of the categories of impure placebos favored in some of the recent surveys, namely antibiotics, sedatives, and analgesics, can cause serious adverse reactions. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Placebo Effect - Home Production (MC, 1989) Gargoyles - Danse Macabre (MC, 1990) Galleries of Pain - Danse Macabre (CD/LP/MC, 1992) Splashed Open - Pre-release EP Ausfahrt Records (1993) Slashed Open - EP Ausfahrt Records (1993) Manipulated Mind Control - CD Ausfahrt Records (1994) MCMLXXXIX-MCMXCV Past. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the new norepinephrine serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) milnacipran (Ixel, Cypress Bioscience Inc). This analysis, which was supported by Cypress Bioscience and the US National Institutes of Health , assessed variability in pain according to the PVI (standard deviation of pain entries over time) in patients with FM. (medscape.com)
  • The fluctuations in pain intensity reported by an individual were relatively stable over time, and this enabled the investigators to examine the associations of PVI with response to drug or placebo. (medscape.com)
  • this effect was seen almost exclusively in those randomized to placebo as compared with those receiving milnacipran, suggesting that high pain variability may be a predictor of a placebo response," Harris writes. (medscape.com)
  • The effectiveness of a pain relief medicine is always contrasted with the effectiveness of a placebo. (conservapedia.com)
  • The question is not how well it relieves pain, but how much better is it than a placebo? (conservapedia.com)
  • Neurotransmitters, defined as substances that transmit nerve impulses across a synapse, have been investigated as potential mediators of placebo and nocebo effects in pain to improve our understanding of these phenomena and the underlying mechanisms. (medscape.com)
  • Several recent studies have shown exactly how the brain responds to a placebo to decrease pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Indeed, the biggest obstacle to establishing the spinal cord's role in placebo pain relief was measuring its activity with fMRI scanning, says Falk Eippert, a neuroscientist at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany, who led the study. (newscientist.com)
  • Then they quickly adapted the technique to study placebo pain relief. (newscientist.com)
  • Also, subjects who reported greater relief from the placebo when they did experience pain showed greater NAC activity when they received the placebo before the pain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. Michael Mosley devised a placebo trial for people with chronic back pain. (mercola.com)
  • In his own research, Wager says he has found that providing people with positive or negative information about others changes their perception of pain - to a greater degree than the typical measures of placebo effect. (newscientist.com)
  • The regions in the brain that process pain become less active, which demonstrates that the placebo effect is real. (psychcentral.com)
  • During the next three weeks, one group of cats was switched to a pain reliever while the other group continued with the placebo. (petmd.com)
  • During the middle part of the study when half the cats were on a placebo and the other half were on a pain reliever, all the owners reported that their cats were doing better. (petmd.com)
  • I've heard of placebo effects on minor pain. (metafilter.com)
  • Their results are groundbreaking: not only do they show a clear correlation between administration of naloxone and the decrease in placebo pain relief, but they identify some very "primitive" brain components - the amygdala, the hypothalamus and part of the brainstem - as part in the placebo effect circuitry. (harvard.edu)
  • Intravenous lidocaine was superior regarding the reduction of the intensity of pain, the allodynia, and the hyperalgesia compared to placebo. (hindawi.com)
  • Notably, patients who had taken Maxalt mislabeled as "placebo" reported roughly 50% less pain relief than those who had taken the Maxalt labeled as "Maxalt. (nature.com)
  • Recognizing the place of the pain-hitting placebo effect means being able to arrange more customized medicine for these patients. (theticker.org)
  • For this preliminary study, only immediate posttreatment effects on patients' perception of well-being and pain were assessed. (chiro.org)
  • The placebo effect is well known, but it has been investigated primarily in the context of pain syndromes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Pain responds robustly to the meaning effect. (humanmedia.org)
  • Could this help alleviate pain while avoiding addiction or side effects? (bigthink.com)
  • Brain imaging studies over the past decade have shown that placebo-treated patients undergo some of the same changes in brain activity as those treated with pharmacologically active substances. (alibris.com)
  • The patients who had been on the placebo and reported a positive effect showed a greater increase of brain activity than those who had responded well to the drug. (howstuffworks.com)
  • During the scan, the active placebo group received intravenous doses of saline with the understanding that it might activate brain systems involved in mood improvement. (nih.gov)
  • This was done to monitor the acute effects of an active placebo on brain function. (nih.gov)
  • In the BBC documentary, "The Placebo Experiment: Can My Brain Cure My Body? (mercola.com)
  • Patients who responded favorably to the placebo, the investigators found, showed increased activity in a region of the brain known as the prefrontal cortex. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study of the placebo effect, at its core, is the study of how the context of beliefs and values shape brain processes related to perception and emotion and, ultimately, mental and physical health. (jneurosci.org)
  • The current study aimed to reveal the neural mechanism of social placebo belief formation and belief representation, and also investigated how the brain pattern predict the social behavior performance under placebo manipulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Placebo effects may also be viewed as a subset of a larger group of mind-brain-body effects such as the psycho- physiological effects of religious beliefs and devotional practices, meditation, faith-based healing, hypnosis, and the effects of cultural and social economic systems on the prevalence and severity of specific diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Mind-brain-body effects, including placebo effects, are not fully appreciated in contemporary medicine. (nih.gov)
  • The placebo effect is a way for your brain to tell the body what it needs to feel better," says Kaptchuk. (harvard.edu)
  • Given these new data, one cannot help wondering: if the placebo effect is so deeply rooted in one's brain, does that mean it is somehow connected to more crucial brain functions? (harvard.edu)
  • In fact, the placebo and nocebo effects, even when seen as psychological or ritual aspects of the therapeutic act, may change the biochemistry and the neuronal circuitry of the brain. (francoangeli.it)
  • Indeed, the placebo effect represents an elegant model to understand how the brain works. (smw.ch)
  • Examples include: alterations in brain electrical and metabolic activity, activation of internal opioids, changes in neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release, immune effects, hormonal shifts, and stress modulation. (saratoga.com)
  • This is how thoughts and feelings change our brain chemistry, which in turn effects how the body confronts disease. (bigthink.com)
  • They wrote that "The placebo effect then emerges as a resiliency mechanism with broad implications that, given its activation of specific circuits and mechanisms, can be both examined and modulated for therapeutic purposes. (eurekalert.org)
  • At the same time, the book uses the challenges and questions raised by placebo phenomena to initiate a broader interdisciplinary discussion about our nature as cultural animals: animals with minds, brains, and bodies that somehow manage to integrate "biology" and "culture," "mechanism" and "meaning," into a seamless whole. (harvard.edu)
  • In animals, interestingly, a fourth mechanism is also theorized: the effect of human contact. (thebark.com)
  • In light of the uncertainties over the mechanism of action of ECT and given the risk of serious side effects that ECT may produce, I contend that the process of informed consent must include comprehensive accounts of these uncertainties. (bmj.com)
  • Evans D. Placebo: the belief effect. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Joe Dispenza delves into the depths of the mind to reveal the connection between belief, perception, energy fields and the mystery of the placebo, as he explains in this stimulating interview with Regina Meredith, originally webcast on July 17, 2013. (gaia.com)
  • Sadness or nervousness are not reason enough to begin a course of SSRIs or any therapy with multiple drug interactions and potentially serious side effects - those are normal human emotions, and in some cases, our bodies' protective warning signals to make a change in our lives. (sfgate.com)
  • In any study of a drug's effectiveness, the rate of success and side effects are statistically compared to see how much good /harm the drug is doing compared to placebo. (everything2.com)
  • We like to think that a drug does one thing, but the context in which it is given can modify its effects," he says. (newscientist.com)
  • Angell quotes from Kirsch's new book The Emperor's New Drugs (Basic Books), in which he states that 'the relatively small difference between drugs and placebos might not be a real drug effect at all. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Some of the volunteers get the drug, some get The Placebo. (digitaljournalist.org)
  • even if the drug works, variability in the outcome can mute the effect. (fool.com)
  • First, you don't want to sow false ideas: Will patients understand that this drug is indeed intended solely for its mind-body effect? (discovermagazine.com)
  • For instance, people in one group get the tested drug, while the others receive a fake drug, or placebo, that they think is the real thing. (harvard.edu)
  • One group took a migraine drug labeled with the drug's name, another took a placebo labeled "placebo," and a third group took nothing. (harvard.edu)
  • Ernst explained: "Cupping may well help them via a placebo effect, and it has the added advantage that it is drug-free and thus cannot cause problems for doping tests. (minnpost.com)
  • The placebo effect in animals on immunomodulation, cardiovascular disease, drug withdrawal, tumor growth and much more is well documented. (thebark.com)
  • Patients who are unable to formulate ideas about the future because of cortical deficits, however, feel only the effect of the drug itself. (boingboing.net)
  • Then you remove or reduce the dose of the active drug while keeping the placebo and retaining the effects. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Using a fraction of the usual drug dose to get the same effect could also make possible a dramatic and timely reduction in healthcare costs, according to the authors. (bio-medicine.org)