Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsIntestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.BangladeshHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESJejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Inbred BALB CRicin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
1998). "Effects of arfaptin 1 on guanine nucleotide-dependent activation of phospholipase D and cholera toxin by ADP- ...
In 1999 the drug was reported to improve the symptoms of cholera toxin induced diarrhoea in mice. SP-303 was eventually named ... Crofelemer seems to be well tolerated; the only adverse effects found in clinical studies were mild gastrointestinal effects at ... antiproliferative and mutagenic effects of dragon's blood and its components also received some attention from the scientific ...
Their function is permanently activated by the cholera toxin, which is the cause of the fatal effects of infection with Vibrio ... Most Gi protein family members can be inhibited by the pertussis toxin of Bordetella pertussis. Gq family. These proteins ...
Vitamin D metabolites, retinoids, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, forskolin, cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine, ... Certain melanocortins have been shown in laboratory testing to have effect on appetite and sexual activity in mice. ... Markert CL, Silvers WK (1956). "The effects of genotype and cell environment on melanoblast differentiation in the house mouse ...
It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. It works in much the same way as a regular vaccine. A ... TA-CD is an active vaccine developed by the Xenova Group which is used to negate the effects of cocaine, making it suitable for ... The vaccine does not affect the users "desire" for cocaine, only the physical effects of the drug. Phase III Clinical Trials ... This vaccine does not have any effect on the underlying neurobiological cause of addiction which a possible explanation for the ...
Treatment with cholera toxin. This has been shown in vitro. This particular treatment may bypass the STAT3-Ser stage and act ... The effects of a particular signal transduction pathway can be very different among distinct cell types. For example, the same ... Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Walbridge S, Park DM, Lonser RR, McKay RD (2010). "Cholera toxin regulates a signaling pathway ... If so, this would generate a new experimental approach to study the effects of increasing the number of endogenous neural stem ...
"Repeatability of ellipsometric data in cholera toxin GM1-ELISA structures". Surface Science. 601 (8): 1795. Bibcode:2007SurSc. ... Datta, T.; Woollam, John; Notohamiprodjo, W. (1989). "Optical-absorption edge and disorder effects in hydrogenated amorphous ...
In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, heat-labile ... It acts similarly to the cholera toxin by raising cAMP levels through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein ... Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The heat-labile enterotoxin is ... Mudrak B and Kuehn MJ (2010). "Heat-labile enterotoxin: Beyond GM1 binding". Toxins. 2 (6): 1445-1470. doi:10.3390/ ...
... a portion of the cholera toxin chain alleles A1, an allele in the DRD2 TaqI polymorphism that could be involved in alcoholism. ... an adrenergic receptor with the primary effect of vasoconstriction Alpha-1 blocker, a variety of drugs which block α1- ...
... treatment of cancer with cytotoxic drugs Cholera toxin, a toxin responsible for the harmful effects of cholera Ciguatoxin, a ... neurotoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates Conotoxin, a toxin found in cone snail venom Cyclophosphamide, an anticancer drug ... a toxin found in scorpion venom Chemotherapy, ...
Cholera toxin Enterotoxin Pertussis toxin 2011 German E. coli outbreak Friedman D; Court D (2001). "Bacteriophage lambda: alive ... Beutin L (2006). "Emerging enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, causes and effects of the rise of a human pathogen". Journal of ... Shiga toxin (Stx) - true Shiga toxin - is produced by Shigella dysenteriae. Shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (SLT-1 and 2 or Stx-1 and ... The toxin has two subunits-designated A (mol. wt. 32000 D) and B (mol. wt. 7700 D)-and is one of the AB5 toxins. The B subunit ...
... and thus no way to exert its toxic effect. Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... For the cholera toxin, the principal glycolipid receptor for the cholera toxin is ganglioside GM1. After endocytosis to the ...
The combined effects result in rapid fluid loss from the intestine, up to 2 liters per hour, leading to severe dehydration and ... Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... Cholera toxin was discovered in 1959 by Late Prof. Sambhu Nath De at Kolkata (India) The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex ... Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the ...
... discoverer of the cholera toxin), Debendra Mohan Bose (who pioneered the use of photographic emulsion plates in particle ... Obviously, the pioneering work of Jagadish Chandra Bose at the dawn of Bose institute on the effect of stimuli in plants, ...
For example, fluorophores conjugated to cholera-toxin B-subunit, which binds to the raft constituent ganglioside GM1 is used ... What effect does flux of membrane lipids have on raft formation? What effect do diet and drugs have on lipid rafts? What effect ... In 1974, the effects of temperature on membrane behavior had led to the proposal of "clusters of lipids" in membranes and by ... Other questions yet to be answered include: What are the effects of membrane protein levels? What is the physiological function ...
In addition, AB5 toxins such as cholera hijack the endosomal pathway while evading lysosomal degradation. Lysosomes are ... The initial effect of such disorders is accumulation of specific macromolecules or monomeric compounds inside the endosomal- ... ", "acid trapping" or "proton pump" effect . The amount of accumulation of lysosomotropic compounds may be estimated using a ...
... cholera toxin, cationic and mannan-coated liposomes, QS21, carboxymethyl cellulose and ubenimix). However, the potential ... Plasmid DNA itself appears to have an adjuvant effect on the immune system. Bacterially derived DNA can trigger innate immune ...
When adding cytochalasin B and the beta-andrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol, prostaglandin E1 or cholera toxin to wild type ... 1980). "Effect of Cytochalasin B and Colchicine on the Motility and Growth of Yoshida Sarcoma Cells In Vitro". Sci Rep Res Inst ... Insel, PA; Koachman, AM (1982). "Cytochalasin B Enhances Hormone and Cholera Toxin-Stimulated Cyclic AMP Accumulation in S49 ... Moreover, it was found that CB has an inhibitory effect on the uptake of sucrose-3H by chang-strain human liver cells and in CB ...
This allows each effector to act independently within the host cell, this increases the effects of RtxA because the ACD and RID ... RtxA is a virulence factor involved in cholera which facilitates colonization of V. cholerae the small intestine. RtxA causes ... RTX-toxin family, 1.C.11.1.1) and the MARTX toxins (CCT family, 1.C.57.3.4) (multifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxins). MARTX ... RTX toxins have been found in numerous strains of Pathogenic E. coli. The prototypical RTX toxin, α-haemolysin (HlyA; TC# 1.C. ...
... toxins, and viruses." After seven decades, the Act was amended in 1985 to address the effects of advancement, industrialization ... Virus-Serum-Toxin Act was created due to significant losses from unregulated manufacture and distribution of anti-hog cholera ... The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act or VSTA (P.L. 430 of 1913, as amended; 21 U.S.C. 151-158) was United States Federal legislation ... The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act: A Brief History and Analysis (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. Archived from the ...
... cholera-like toxins, binary toxins and C3-like exoenzymes. C3-like exoenzymes unlike other ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins do not ... leading to their toxic effects. The molecular basis of the action of these enzymes consists in binding of nicotinamide adenine ... All the toxins of this family share a highly conserved glutamate, which is the catalytic residue critical for the NAD- ... Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme is a toxin that causes the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to Rho-like proteins ...
Type III, intracellular toxins or A/B toxins interfere with internal cell function and include shiga toxin, cholera toxin, and ... The effects of the cytokines may be amplified by TLR-4 engagement on endothelial cells. In response to inflammation, a ... Toxins produced by pathogens cause an immune response; in gram-negative bacteria these are endotoxins, which are bacterial ... Recently, severe damage to liver ultrastructure has been noticed from treatment with cell-free toxins of Salmonella. Unless the ...
With the discovery that cholera toxin requires normal host CFTR proteins to function properly, it was hypothesized that ... The adverse effects of bisphosphates taken by mouth on the gastrointestinal tract are not known. Poor growth may be avoided by ... "Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science. 266 (5182): 107-9. ... Over time, this can lead to scarring and nodularity (cirrhosis). The liver fails to rid the blood of toxins and does not make ...
cholera toxin - increases cAMP levels. *forskolin - a diterpene natural product that activates adenylyl cyclase ... The Catalytic sub-units make their way in to the nucleus to influence transcription.Further effects mainly depend on cAMP- ... pertussis toxin, which increases cAMP levels by inhibiting Gi to its GDP (inactive) form. This leads to an increase in adenylyl ...
Most strains of C jejuni produce a toxin (cytolethal distending toxin) that hinders the cells from dividing and activating the ... A cholera-like enterotoxin was once thought to be also made, but this appears not to be the case. The organism produces diffuse ... Symptoms typically last 5-7 days.[25] Treatment with antibiotics has little effect and is discouraged except in high-risk ... Ternhag A, Asikainen T, Giesecke J, Ekdahl K (2007). "A meta-analysis on the effects of antibiotic treatment on duration of ...
"J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 20 (1): 44. doi:10.1186/1678-9199-20-44. PMC 4197285. PMID 25320574.. ... Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, other viral haemorrhagic fevers[1]. Prevention. Coordinated medical services, ... See also: Cultural effects of the Ebola crisis. Weaponisation. Ebolavirus is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well ... cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral ...
Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.: Activation of dendritic cells ( ... Moreover, intratumoral injection of rCTB-treated DC pulsed with tumor lysate had therapeutic effect against established Meth A ... we examined an adjuvant capacity of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), which is non-toxic subunit of cholera toxin, on ... Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.. Authors * Isomura, Iwao ...
"Fragments of the Cholera toxin A subunit and haemolysin A genes were cloned into separate plasmids. The gene fragments were ... "According to PaxVaxs application for their proposed clinical trial, There have been no credible reports of adverse effects on ... The non-active B-subunit of the cholera toxin molecule, in other words, is reportedly still synthesized in the bacteria, but it ... Oral cholera vaccine loaded with GMOs to be tested on babies worldwide * ...
The effect of pH on the conformation and stability of the structure of plant toxin-ricin. ... However, some distant homology with the 103-residue B-chain of cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins was revealed. ... Intrinsic protein fluorescence of native plant toxin and its isolated subunits were studied. The effect of pH was studied on: ... Effect of pH on the conformation and stability of the plant toxin ricin] ...
... was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was ... study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and ... "The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism." Toxins 2, no. 4: 632-648. ... The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):632-648. ...
Authentic display of a cholera toxin epitope by chimeric type 1 fimbriae: effects of insert position and host background.. ... Subsequently, the synthetic cholera-toxin-encoding DNA segment was inserted. Several of the chosen positions seemed amenable ... As a reporter-epitope, a heterologous sequence mimicking a neutralizing epitope of the cholera toxin B chain was inserted, in ... Immunization of rabbits with purified chimeric fimbriae resulted in serum which specifically recognized cholera toxin B chain, ...
Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4.. M Marinaro, H F ... Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. ... Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. ... Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. ...
The motility effects of CT (probably reflecting myenteric activity) are partially suppressed via a mechanism involving 5-HT3 ... Basal PD increased significantly with time in CT-exposed segments, an effect blocked by granisetron, by indomethacin, and by [ ... CT significantly reduced the increase in PD produced by distension, an effect reversed by granisetron, indomethacin, and ... VIP and indomethacin had no significant effect, whereas granisetron and hexamethonium markedly depressed basal PD. ...
San Diego have identified an underlying biochemical mechanism that helps make cholera toxin so deadly, often resulting in life- ... The scientists showed that many of the effects of the cholera toxin on the gut could be reversed by genetic manipulations that ... Mechanisms for cholera toxins deadly effects uncovered. from Science Daily. Wed, 11 Sep 2013, 18:00:25 UTC ... Biologists Uncover Mechanisms for Cholera Toxins Deadly Effects. from Science Blog. Wed, 11 Sep 2013, 20:00:20 UTC ...
The TcpA pilus was coordinately expressed with cholera toxin under various culture conditions, and this effect appeared to be ... Use of phoA gene fusions to identify a pilus colonization factor coordinately regulated with cholera toxin. R K Taylor, V L ... Use of phoA gene fusions to identify a pilus colonization factor coordinately regulated with cholera toxin ... Use of phoA gene fusions to identify a pilus colonization factor coordinately regulated with cholera toxin ...
Effects of double point mutations of heptad repeats on ctxAB transcription. β-Galactosidase results from ctxAB::lacZ double ... including cholera toxin (CT), which directly causes voluminous diarrhea, producing cholera. A complex regulatory network ... Identification and characterization of the functional toxboxes in the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin promoter.. Dittmer JB1, ... However, the toxboxes required for the activation of transcription from the cholera toxin promoter PctxAB have not been ...
Cholera toxin (CT) is one of the most effective and widely studied mucosal adjuvants. Although the ADP-ribosylating A subunit ... Cholera Toxin / chemistry, pharmacology*. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Signal Transduction / drug effects*, physiology. ... 10382739 - The mucosal adjuvant effects of cholera toxin and immune-stimulating complexes differ i.... 21551359 - Recruitment ... Cholera toxin (CT) is one of the most effective and widely studied mucosal adjuvants. Although the ADP-ribosylating A subunit ...
This topic contains 17 study abstracts on Cholera indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Zinc, Polyphenols, ... Apple polyphenol may reduce the adverse effects of the immunization adjuvant cholera toxin. Jul 30, 2009. ... Sweet fennel seed extract and its major components can drastically inhibit cholera toxin production in various V. cholerae ... Polymerized catechin compounds in apple polyphenol extracts inhibit the biological and enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. ...
Cholera toxin (CT), the enterotoxin derived from pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, is a potent modulator of immune ... These effects have been attributed to the influence of CT on the adenyl cyclase system. In vitro studies in this laboratory ... Spleen Cell Cholera Toxin Challenge Immunization Cell Class Plaque Form Cell These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Cholera toxin (CT), the enterotoxin derived from pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, is a potent modulator of immune ...
The binding of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) (Sigma) is frequently used to identify lipid rafts, and the capacity for binding ... N. Blank, M. Schiller, S. Krienke, G. Wabnitz, A. D. Ho, and H.-M. Lorenz, "Cholera toxin binds to lipid rafts but has a ... G.-M. Deng and G. C. Tsokos, "Cholera toxin B accelerates disease progression in lupus-prone mice by promoting lipid raft ... To investigate the effects of A771726 on LRs and F-actin on B cells, purified B cells from 10 active SLE patients were cultured ...
Effects of temperature on ADP-ribosylation factor stimulation of cholera toxin activity.Biochemistry321993561566. ... Cholera toxin and related enterotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria Handbook of natural toxins: bacterial toxins and virulence ... Fusion proteins containing the A2 domain of cholera toxin assemble with B polypeptides of cholera toxin to form immunoreactive ... The massive diarrhea characteristic of the disease cholera is in large part due to the action of cholera toxin (CT), produced ...
Antigenic switching and pathogenicity: environmental effects on virulence gene expression in Bordetella pertussis. J. Gen. ... and production of cholera toxin (CT), an ADP-ribosylating toxin, to cause the severe diarrheal disease cholera. CT and TCP are ... The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production. Anna D. Tischler, Sang Ho Lee, ... The genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), ctxAB, are coregulated with those for other Vibrio cholerae virulence factors by a ...
Cholera is a diarrheal disease the effect of a proteins toxin. Cholera is a diarrheal disease the effect of a proteins toxin ... 2006 Studies in animals have shown that rTMS effects depend on changes in NMDAR activity (Wang et al. 2010 the most-recognized ... 2010 Despite the reported beneficial effects the biochemical mechanisms of rTMS action are far from clear. Chances are that ... Transmission transduction Intro rTMS is definitely a non-invasive brain-stimulation procedure mentioned for its effects on ...
cholera toxin. BSA. bovine serum albumin. KHB. Krebs-HEPES buffer. IBMX. isobutylmethylxanthine. DMSO. dimethyl sulfoxide. PKA ... All other chemicals including pertussis toxin and cholera toxin (CTX) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Gillingham, UK). ... Cholera toxin sensitivity of GLP-1R-mediated cAMP generation by compound 2. HEK-GLP-1R cells were either pretreated with ... Pretreatment with pertussis toxin had no effect on Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, neither agonist caused accumulation of [3H] ...
We propose that CT accomplishes these effects by altering the regulatory environment within GALT. ... Cholera toxin (CT) has been found to be an extremely potent immunogen for mucosal IgA responses when administered via the ... Generalized systemic and mucosal immunity in mice after mucosal stimulation with cholera toxin.. C O Elson and W Ealding ... Generalized systemic and mucosal immunity in mice after mucosal stimulation with cholera toxin. ...
Effects of cholera toxin on macrophage production of co-stimulatory cytokines. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:64-71. ... A Multi-toxin Mutant Has Significantly Decreased Virulence.. The additive effects of these toxins to disease was demonstrated ... Identification of a Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin gene cluster that is tightly linked to the cholera toxin prophage. Proc. Natl. ... These "accessory toxins" of V. cholerae include the repeats-in-toxin (RTX) toxin, which causes cell rounding and increased ...
The effect of cholera toxin was specific for Gs; levels of Gi alpha in membranes of cholera toxin-treated cells were not ... Cholera toxin treatment produces down-regulation of the α-subunit of the stimulatory guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (Gs) G ... Insulin inhibits the cholera-toxin-catalysed ribosylation of a M r -25000 protein in rat liver plasma membranes Biochem J (June ... Cholera toxin impairment of opioid-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cells is due to a ...
Cholera Toxin / metabolism. DNA Probes / genetics. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics, ... Myometrium / drug effects, metabolism*. Pregnancy. Pregnancy, Animal / genetics, metabolism*. Progesterone / pharmacology. RNA ... Western blot analysis using the RM/1 antibody recognized the 42 and 47 kDa cholera toxin ADP-ribosylated bands but not the 55 ... In the 50,000 g myometrial plasma membrane fraction, in the presence of 32P-labelled NAD, cholera toxin ribosylated three ...
... side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it. ... Comparative effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on cholera toxin-induced secretion in rabbit ileum. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res ... For reducing fluid loss caused by cholera toxin: Niacin 2 grams daily. ... protecting against toxins and pollutants, reducing the effects of aging, lowering blood pressure, improving circulation, ...
... side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it. ... For reducing fluid loss caused by cholera toxin: Niacin 2 grams daily. ... protecting against toxins and pollutants, reducing the effects of aging, lowering blood pressure, improving circulation, ... Similar side effects can happen with large doses of niacinamide.. Some concern has been raised about stroke risk in people ...
... has strong potential as a novel antibacterial agent for treatment against cholera. ... is the causative agent of pandemic cholera. Previous studies have shown that the survival of the seventh pandemic El Tor ... is the causative agent of pandemic cholera. Previous studies have shown that the survival of the seventh pandemic El Tor ... Effect of cholera toxin on the human jejunum. Gut 33, 1174-1178. doi: 10.1136/gut.33.9.1174 ...
  • Participants will be instructed to literally consume a cocktail of mercury-resistant, GM Shigella flexneri NR1 bacteria derived from the Vibrio cholera bacterial strain, which is recognized as the causative agent of the gastroenteritis disease known as cholera. (prisonplanet.com)
  • California-based vaccine manufacturer PaxVax has reportedly submitted an application to begin international trials of a novel oral cholera vaccine that contains live, genetically modified (GM) bacteria. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Then, there is the issue of the new PaxVax oral cholera vaccine having been programmed to grow in the presence of mercury, a known neurotoxin that is still being intentionally added to injectable vaccines. (prisonplanet.com)
  • According to the filing, the GM cholera strain used in the vaccine has essentially been artificially neutralized to prevent the toxic molecules that would otherwise cause the disease from being produced. (prisonplanet.com)
  • The non-active B-subunit of the cholera toxin molecule, in other words, is reportedly still synthesized in the bacteria, but it allegedly no longer holds the capacity to induce either disease or toxicity. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Keywords: Transcranial magnetic activation plasticity NMDA receptor Transmission transduction Intro rTMS is definitely a non-invasive brain-stimulation procedure mentioned for its effects on emotional cognitive sensory and engine functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric diseases (Rossi et al. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Toxin A elicited a dose-dependent (25-200 micrograms/ml) stimulation of neutrophil migration in vitro, and this functional effect was also pertussis toxin sensitive (69% inhibition). (jci.org)
  • Cchol and NaF did not require extracellular Ca2+ to exert their effect, and neither KCl-induced membrane depolarization nor ionophore A23187 (10 microM) had any influence on basal IPs levels, or on cholinergic stimulation. (biochemj.org)
  • cAMP suppression was maintained after cholera toxin stimulation of cAMP production via stimulatory G protein ADP-ribosylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results presented herein demonstrate conclusively that the pertussis toxin-sensitive effects of LPA in Rat 1 fibroblasts and a clone of these cells expressing the alpha 2C10 adrenoceptor are produced directly by the activation of Gi. (biochemj.org)
  • A better understanding of the structure and function of CT will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of cholera and may aid in the design of safe and effective vaccines against cholera and related diarrheas. (asm.org)
  • Vaccines against O1 and O139 cholera ideally should stimulate antibody subclasses that are likely to offer protection. (asm.org)
  • We are examining the reasons why cholera toxin (CT) vaccines have failed to provide effective immunity. (springer.com)
  • Studies like these may lead to the development of rational synthetic peptide vaccines, but a vaccine composed only of CT antigen can only protect against severe life-threatening diarrhea, not all the diarrhea caused by cholera vibrios. (springer.com)
  • To maintain the synergism between the kind of immunity conferred by the vaccines and the cellular location of the included antigens, new findings are gathered about the virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, invasins (mostly enzymes), anti-apoptotic factors, anti-phagocytic factors, and many more molecules that aid in pathogenesis and invasiveness. (jyi.org)
  • An earlier study of cholera vaccinees and patients ( 17 ) has shown that cholera toxin (CT) induces responses of the four IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) and the IgA1 subclass in serum. (asm.org)
  • Treatment of cultured rodent neural stem cells with cholera toxin induces changes in the localization of the transcription factor Hes3 and increases their numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They discovered the toxin exerts some of its devastating effects by reducing the delivery of proteins to molecular junctions that normally act like Velcro to hold intestinal cells together in the outer lining of the gut. (esciencenews.com)
  • We uncovered a mechanism by which cholera toxin disrupts junctions that normally zip intestinal epithelial cells together into a tight sheet, which acts as a barrier between the body and intestinal content,' said Ethan Bier, a professor of biology at UC San Diego who headed one of the two teams. (esciencenews.com)
  • Understanding this novel mechanism of cholera action could also have important implications for other disorders of intestinal barrier function such as Crohn's disease, colitis and celiac disease. (esciencenews.com)
  • Indeed, death of cholera victims is primarily caused by secondary dehydration due to massive intestinal fluid loss, not intestinal damage or septicemia. (rupress.org)
  • and, hemolysin, which causes necrosis of intestinal epithelial cells, growth of mildly acidic vacuoles, and hemolysis depending upon the cell type and toxin concentration ( 21 - 27 ). (rupress.org)
  • It is a big jump, however, from the assertion that colonizing microflora have a profound effect on normal human health to the probiotic hypothesis that the addition of certain exogenous microorganisms to the intestinal ecosystem will have a positive effect. (ift.org)
  • Importantly, the use of pharmacological chaperones partially rescues these CT-mediated effects on NHE3 activity and intestinal fluid absorption. (biologists.org)
  • Biopsies taken from cholera patients indicate that the intestinal epithelium remains intact during the infectious stage, although abnormal distention of the apical intracellular junctions has been observed. (asmscience.org)
  • The GM1 gangliosides are exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells and are believed to bind to the B pentamer (magenta) with the toxin facing the membrane surface. (davidson.edu)
  • In fact, researchers have pursued several leads involving the gut lumen (i.e., the area lying behind the surface of the intestinal lining of epithelial cells), antimicrobial activity, altered enzymatic activity and anti-inflammatory effects. (wholefoodsmagazine.com)
  • The mechanism of cholera toxin (CT) internalization has been investigated using Caco-2 cells transfected with caveolin to induce formation of caveolae, HeLa cells with inducible synthesis of mutant dynamin (K44A) and BHK cells in which antisense mRNA to clathrin heavy chain can be induced. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the mechanisms used by pathogens and toxins to adhere and invade human cells could lead to the development of new strategies for preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases . (omicsonline.org)
  • The Government of Canada's Canadian Biosafety Handbook (CBH), 2nd Edition, 2016, is a national guidance document for the safe handling and storing of human and terrestrial animal pathogens and toxins in Canada. (canada.ca)
  • It is a companion document to the Canadian Biosafety Standard (CBS), 2nd Edition, 2015 in which the physical containment, operational practice, and performance and verification testing requirements are set out to ensure the safe handling and storing of human and terrestrial animal pathogens and toxins. (canada.ca)
  • Activities in Canada involving human and animal pathogens and toxins are regulated by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in accordance with the Human Pathogens and Toxins Act, Human Pathogens and Toxins Regulations, Health of Animals Act, and Health of Animals Regulations. (canada.ca)
  • The cystic fibrosis gene may have survived through hundreds of human generations because it gives protection against cholera. (nytimes.com)
  • For continuous protection against cholera a single booster dose is recommended within 2 years for adults and children from 6 years of age, and within 6 months for children aged 2 to 6 years. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The UC San Diego researchers found that cholera toxin acts by two entirely distinct, but cooperating mechanisms to produce diarrhea. (esciencenews.com)
  • 2010 Despite the reported beneficial effects the biochemical mechanisms of rTMS action are far from clear. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to consider that probiotic effects may, in fact, be mediated by associations and mechanisms less intimate and more transient than those of native microflora. (ift.org)
  • We aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of Bifidobacterium lactis on food allergy by investigating the percentage of Treg and Th17 cells in Chinese children and related molecular mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • The A1 polypeptide of CT also has limited regions of homology with other ADP-ribosylating toxins ( 7 ), including pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxin (DT), and exotoxin A (ET-A). The three-dimensional structures of these toxins have been determined ( 1 , 3 , 40-42 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Early expectations that, as with diphtheria and tetanus, a toxoid vaccine would solve the cholera problem have not been fulfilled. (springer.com)
  • clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium , including those causing botulism ( botulinus toxin ), gas gangrene ( gas gangrene toxin ), and tetanus ( tetanus toxin ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani , consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin) . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore this might also include treating side effects and typical use gives very high serum tsh surveillance strategy is antituberculous treatment with diet, metformin, and other adnexal structures not associated with illnesses such as pulmonary brosis patients diagnosed with prostate and converge at either side of the effect of prevalence, such as. (nationalautismcenter.org)
  • The successful glycomimetics and glycoconjugates represent strategies for interruption of adhesion by single molecules and in multivalent systems against uropathogenic E. coli, several toxins (Shiga-like, cholera, botulinum) and well-known or emerging viruses (influenza, HIV, Ebola, and Zika). (omicsonline.org)
  • botulinal toxin ( botulinum toxin ) ( botulinus toxin ) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum, neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): colonize small intestine, attach to target cells and kill them, Shiga-like toxins, isolated from calves and rabbits with enteric disease. (vetstream.com)
  • The molecular mechanism by which this massive flux of sodium and water into the gut occurs as a result of the cholera toxin remained a mystery until Annabel Guichard -- a research scientist working in Bier's laboratory and the lead author of the paper -- began conducting experiments that spearheaded the two groups' collaboration. (esciencenews.com)
  • Dr. Gabriel said the CF gene protected carriers against cholera because it blocked the same molecular pathway used by the disease toxin to cause diarrhea. (nytimes.com)
  • Molecular engineering of cholera toxin. (usc.edu)