A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
Diseases of plants.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
A congenital disorder of CHONDROGENESIS and OSTEOGENESIS characterized by hypoplasia of endochondral bones. In most cases there is a curvature of the long bones especially the TIBIA with dimpling of the skin over the bowed areas, malformation of the pelvis and spine, 11 pairs of ribs, hypoplastic scapulae, club feet, micrognathia, CLEFT PALATE, tracheobronchomalacia, and in some patients male-to-female sex reversal (SEX REVERSAL, GONADAL). Most patients die in the neonatal period of respiratory distress. Campomelic dysplasia is associated with haploinsufficiency of the SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of ubiquitously expressed MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in intracellular signal transduction. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It also has GDP exchange activity towards other MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
A tumor necrosis family receptor with specificity for OX40 LIGAND. It is found on the surface of activated T-LYMPHOCYTES where it plays a role in enhancing cytokine production and proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
... and that at least 15 APG genes are involved in autophagy in yeast.[69] A gene known as ATG7 has been implicated in nutrient- ... In fungal cells on the other hand microplipophagy constitutes the main pathway and is especially well studied in yeast ... T. Proikas-Cezanne, Z. Takacs, P. Donnes, and O. Kohlbacher, 'Wipi Proteins: Essential Ptdins3p Effectors at the Nascent ... Autophagy is executed by autophagy-related (Atg) genes. The first autophagy genes were identified by genetic screens conducted ...
They control gene expression including virulence genes in pathogens and are viewed as new targets in the fight against drug- ... For more details on this topic, see Fungal prions.. Prions are infectious forms of proteins. In general, proteins fold into ... involving effectors such as GluR2 (87,88), Cdk5 (93) and NFkB (100). Moreover, many of these molecular changes identified are ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ...
Gene knockdownEdit. The RNA interference pathway is often exploited in experimental biology to study the function of genes in ... gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin production in maize kernels". Planta. 247 (6): 1465-1473. doi: ... Exogenous dsRNA is detected and bound by an effector protein, known as RDE-4 in C. elegans and R2D2 in Drosophila, that ... Gene expression in prokaryotes is influenced by an RNA-based system similar in some respects to RNAi. Here, RNA-encoding genes ...
doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.09.010. PMID 16289629.. *^ Liu X, Wang L, Zhao K, Thompson PR, Hwang Y, Marmorstein R, Cole PA ( ... Tropp, Burton E. (2008). Molecular biology : genes to proteins (3rd ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN ... and the same effector may actually lead to different outcomes under different conditions.[3] Although it is clear that the ... Rtt109 is a fungal-specific HAT that requires association with histone chaperone proteins for activity.[6] The HAT activities ...
The fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous economic damage to the ... The first plant genome sequenced was that of Arabidopsis thaliana which encodes about 25,500 genes.[75] In terms of sheer DNA ... Plants have some of the largest genomes among all organisms.[73] The largest plant genome (in terms of gene number) is that of ... Plants also carry immune receptors that recognize highly variable pathogen effectors. These include the NBS-LRR class of ...
The Btk gene is located on the X chromosome (Xq21.3-q22).[5] At least 400 mutations of the BTK gene have been identified. ... cellular response to molecule of fungal origin. • positive regulation of type I hypersensitivity. • B cell affinity maturation ... "Identification of the binding site for Gqalpha on its effector Bruton's tyrosine kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (21 ... Genes on human chromosome X. *Peripheral membrane proteins. *Tyrosine kinases. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced ...
GPCR regulation is additionally mediated by gene transcription factors. These factors can increase or decrease gene ... Most often the effector is a member of the MAPK family. ExamplesEdit. In the late 1990s, evidence began accumulating to suggest ... The largest class by far is class A, which accounts for nearly 85% of the GPCR genes. Of class A GPCRs, over half of these are ... Class D (or 4) (Fungal mating pheromone receptors). *Class E (or 5) (Cyclic AMP receptors) ...
Presently, only one effector gene, AvrVg, eliciting a resistance response in Apple has been identified in V. inaequalis [3] ... A fungal mycelium forms between the cuticle and underlying epidermal tissue, developing asexually the conidia, that germinate ... to obligate parasites while still being able to be cultured in media has led to its repeated use in the study of the genes ... Effectors[edit]. Effectors are proteins encoded by pathogens, which act to effect a response from a host cell - often ...
... by plant resistance genes (R-genes), often described as a gene-for-gene relationship. This recognition may occur directly or ... which is responsible for recognition of the effector avrRpt2.[72] The bacterial effector avrRpt2 is delivered into A. thaliana ... Many model systems have been developed to better understand interactions between plants and bacterial, fungal, oomycete, viral ... class B genes (which affect petals and stamens), and class C genes (which affect stamens and carpels). These genes code for ...
Effector memory T cells (TEM cells and TEMRA cells) express CD45RO but lack expression of CCR7 and L-selectin. They also have ... At the DN2 stage (CD44+CD25+), cells upregulate the recombination genes RAG1 and RAG2 and re-arrange the TCRβ locus, combining ... Human γδ T cells which use the Vγ9 and Vδ2 gene fragments constitute the major γδ T cell population in peripheral blood, and ... fungal infections are also more common and severe in T cell deficiencies.[47] ...
They act by inhibiting genes that code for the cytokines Interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF- ... It is a cyclic fungal peptide, composed of 11 amino acids. Ciclosporin is thought to bind to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin ... By the use of recombinant gene technology, the mouse anti-Tac antibodies have been modified, leading to the presentation of two ... The drug also inhibits lymphokine production and interleukin release, leading to a reduced function of effector T-cells. ...
Gene therapy is the genetic engineering of humans, generally by replacing defective genes with effective ones. Clinical ... Fungal and virus resistant crops have also been developed or are in development.[125][126] This makes the insect and weed ... transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs),[72][73] and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR).[74][75] ... The next step is to isolate the candidate gene. The cell containing the gene is opened and the DNA is purified.[52] The gene is ...
They control gene expression including virulence genes in pathogens and are viewed as new targets in the fight against drug- ... Further information: Fungal prions. Prions are infectious forms of proteins. In general, proteins fold into discrete units that ... involving effectors such as GluR2 (87,88), Cdk5 (93) and NFkB (100). Moreover, many of these molecular changes identified are ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ...
... by plant resistance genes (R-genes), often described as a gene-for-gene relationship. This recognition may occur directly or ... which is responsible for recognition of the effector avrRpt2.[79] The bacterial effector avrRpt2 is delivered into A. thaliana ... c) Fungal or oomycete hyphae surrounding the root surface. d) Primary root densely covered by spores and protists. e, f) ... class B genes (which affect petals and stamens), and class C genes (which affect stamens and carpels). These genes code for ...
"Entrez Gene: INFG".. *^ Schoenborn JR, Wilson CB (2007). Regulation of interferon-gamma during innate and adaptive immune ... IFNγ has antiviral, immunoregulatory, and anti-tumor properties.[19] It alters transcription in up to 30 genes producing a ... effector T cells once antigen-specific immunity develops.[11][12] IFNγ is also produced by non-cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells ... fungal (yeasts), plant, insect and mammalian cells. Human interferon gamma is commonly expressed in Escherichia coli, marketed ...
doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.02.023.. *^ Liu YJ, Hodson MC, Hall BD. Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage ... The genome and genes of Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genetics and Biology. June 1997, 21 (3): 258-66. PMID 9290240. doi:10.1006/ ... Koeck, M.; Hardham, A.R.; Dodds; P.N. The role of effectors of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi in infection. Cellular ... 許多生物學上的重大發現都得益於將真菌用作模式生物的研究,例如一基因一酵素假說(英语:One gene-one
Secondary metabolites in fungal development[edit]. The transcription factor LaeA regulates the expression of several genes ... Targeted mutation of the ftrA gene did not induce a decrease in virulence in the murine model of A. fumigatus invasion. In ... where they interact with epithelial and innate effector cells.[11][13] Alveolar macrophages phagocytize and destroy conidia ... Targeted mutation of the afareA gene showed a decrease in onset of mortality in a mouse model of invasion.[28] The Ras ...
... a plant R gene has specificity for a pathogen avirulence gene (Avr gene). Avirulence genes are now known to encode effectors. ... Fungal, oomycete and nematode plant pathogens apparently express a few hundred effectors. So-called "core" effectors are ... DNA sequencing allows researchers to functionally "mine" NLR genes from multiple species/strains. The avrBs2 effector gene from ... Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) is activated by the presence of pathogen effectors. The ETI response is reliant on R genes, ...
Necrotrophic fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells. Significant fungal ... "Genes. 9 (7): 339. doi:10.3390/genes9070339. PMC 6071103. PMID 29973557.. *^ Aisnworth GC (1981). Introduction to the History ... Effector proteins: These can be secreted into the extracellular environment or directly into the host cell, often via the Type ... Fungal diseases may be controlled through the use of fungicides and other agriculture practices. However, new races of fungi ...
Gene knockdownEdit. The RNA interference pathway is often exploited in experimental biology to study the function of genes in ... gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin production in maize kernels". Planta. 247 (6): 1465-1473. doi: ... Exogenous dsRNA is detected and bound by an effector protein, known as RDE-4 in C. elegans and R2D2 in Drosophila, that ... Upregulation of genesEdit. RNA sequences (siRNA and miRNA) that are complementary to parts of a promoter can increase gene ...
"G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics. 1 (1): 11-25. doi:10.1534/g3.111.000273. PMC 3276118. PMID 22384314.. ... "Fungal Genet. Biol. (Submitted manuscript). 49 (3): 217-26. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2012.01.007. PMID 22326418.. ... "Genome sequence and gene compaction of the eukaryote parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi". Nature. 414 (6862): 450-3. Bibcode: ... "Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by Repeat-Induced Point mutations" ...
Effector[edit]. Effector cells are the superset of all the various T cell types that actively respond immediately to a stimulus ... NFAT is a transcription factor that activates the transcription of a pleiotropic set of genes, most notable, IL-2, a cytokine ... Mutations of the FOXP3 gene can prevent regulatory T cell development, causing the fatal autoimmune disease IPEX. ... fungal infections are also more common and severe in T cell deficiencies.[53] ...
Plasmids encode additional genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes.. *On the outside, flagella and pili project from the ... Newly synthesized proteins (black) are often further modified, such as by binding to an effector molecule (orange), to become ... The vacuoles of plant cells and fungal cells are usually larger than those of animal cells. ... Within the nucleus of the cell (light blue), genes (DNA, dark blue) are transcribed into RNA. This RNA is then subject to post- ...
Th1-type cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is required for clearance of a fungal infection. Candida albicans is a kind of diploid ... Fan W, Kraus PR, Boily MJ, Heitman J (2005). "Cryptococcus neoformans gene expression during murine macrophage infection". ... neoformans is to upregulate genes employed in responses to oxidative stress. The haploid nuclei of C. neoformans can undergo ... "Inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans replication by nitrogen oxides supports the role of these molecules as effectors of ...
The EFS gene is one of more than 100 of the genes located in a centromeric 10.21 Mb "minimal critical region" on Chromosome 14 ... mild coagulation defects and propensity to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, caused by incomplete phagocytosis due to ... CAS-family member function is transmission of integrin-initiated signals from the extracellular matrix to downstream effectors ... The official Gene IDs assigned to EFS are 16898 (HGNC), 10278 (Entrez Gene) and ENSG00000100842 (Ensembl). In humans, at least ...
TAL effectors are found in bacterial plant pathogens of the genus Xanthomonas and are involved in regulating the genes of the ... It regulates gene expression. Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the winged helix (WH) domain has four helices and a two- ... Related proteins are found in bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, the fungal endosymbiont Burkholderia rhizoxinica ... TAL effector repeat arrays have been shown to contract upon DNA binding and a two-state search mechanism has been proposed ...
Using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALEN), and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Dan has achieved targeted gene ... 2014) Wheat rescued from fungal disease. Nat Biotechnol. 32(9):886-7. Baltes N.J., Gil-Humanes J., Cermak T., Atkins P.A. and ... enabling detailed functional analysis of genes and genetic pathways. Dan's work has enabled efficient methods for targeted ... This type of targeted genome modification has applications ranging from understanding plant gene function to developing crop ...
... "gene-for-gene" relationship and understanding the breakdown of resistance when using a single gene. This led to the use of ... Those that can defend against the pathogen go on to reproduce and pass on the genes responsible for their immunity. Flax ... "The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology". Molecular Plant Pathology. 13 (4): 414-430. doi:10.1111/j.1364- ... "The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini". Frontiers in Plant Science. 5: 98. doi: ...
SAR is associated with the induction of a wide range of genes (so called PR or "pathogenesis-related" genes), and the ... Plants also carry immune receptors that recognize highly variable pathogen effectors, these include the NBS-LRR class of ... especially fungal pathogens which may not be very susceptible to SAR. Plant disease resistance Hypersensitive response ... The pathogen-induced SA signal activates a molecular signal transduction pathway that is identified by a gene called NIM1, NPR1 ...
A secreted protein effector from the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae has bactericidal properties. It allows the pathogen ... Here, we show that the previously identified virulence effector VdAve1, secreted by the fungal plant pathogen Verticillium ... In conclusion, we demonstrate that a fungal plant pathogen uses effector proteins to modulate microbiome compositions inside ... Moreover, we show that VdAve1, and also the newly identified antimicrobial effector VdAMP2, are exploited for microbiome ...
Finally, we identified 11 unambiguous cases of effector genes with hybrid-specific, non parent-of-origin gene expression, and ... Finally, we identified 11 unambiguous cases of effector genes with hybrid-specific, non parent-of-origin gene expression, and ... We also found that gene expression in the B.g. triticale hybrid is mostly conserved with the parent-of-origin, but some genes ... We also found that gene expression in the B.g. triticale hybrid is mostly conserved with the parent-of-origin, but some genes ...
Some abiotic factors (temperature, pH) could have a limited effect on SSP gene expression. In contrast, two types of cellular ... maculans effectors were identified to regulate positively or negatively the expression of bacterial effectors. This suggests ... in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene ... In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic ...
... fungal blast (BL) and the insect Asian rice gall midge (GM) that cause significant yield... ... Genes Involved in Rice BB Interaction. Two of the genes reported to be involved in rice-BB interaction, PR10a gene and ... effector proteins coded by Avr genes of the pathogen (Wang et al. 2014). Despite the above studies, there appears to be no ... Defense Gene Expression Under Combined Pest Challenge. Genes Involved in GM/BB Interaction. All the four genes noted earlier to ...
During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the ... During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the ... In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe ... In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe ...
They are a feature of a small but well-studied group of fungal plant pathog … ... only in the host species and only in genotypes of that host expressing a specific and often dominant susceptibility gene. ... are defined as pathogen effectors that induce toxicity and promote disease ... Hallmarks of lateral gene transfer are present for all the studied HST genes although definitive proof is lacking. We therefore ...
Silencing TaISP by virus-induced gene silencing in a susceptible wheat cultivar reduces fungal growth and uredinium development ... It suppresses plant basal immunity by reducing callose deposition and the expression of defense-related genes. Pst_12806 is ... upregulated during infection, and its knockdown (by host-induced gene silencing) reduces Pst growth and development, likely due ... Pst_12806 is a highly expressed gene that encodes small, secreted proteins with characteristics of fungal effectors. In ...
TECHNICAL SESSION: Mechanisms of fungal and oomycete pathogenicity Identification of putative effector genes in the causal ... These same isolates were characterized genotypically with effector gene profiles predicted from whole genome sequences based on ... is associated with unique combinations of effector genes, but it is unclear which genes control pathogenicity to spinach in Fos ... Characterization of the predicted effector genes and other genomic regions of Fos will aid in understanding mechanisms of ...
Each are adjacent to an RPS4-like gene, but these WRKY-lacking RRS1-like genes do not cause autoactivation of defense. Thus, we ... 2009) RRS1 and RPS4 provide a dual resistance-gene system against fungal and bacterial pathogens. Plant J 60:218-226. ... 1999) The Arabidopsis RPS4 bacterial-resistance gene is a member of the TIR-NBS-LRR family of disease-resistance genes. Plant J ... 2015) Two linked pairs of Arabidopsis TNL resistance genes independently confer recognition of bacterial effector AvrRps4. Nat ...
2010 Circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa: downstream effectors. Fungal Genet. Biol. 47: 159-168. ... 2003 The frequency gene is required for temperature-dependent regulation of many clock-controlled genes in Neurospora crassa. ... 2007 Cyclosporin A-resistance based gene placement system for Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44: 307-314. ... 1992 The Neurospora circadian clock-controlled gene, ccg-2, is allelic to eas and encodes a fungal hydrophobin required for ...
2007) Elicitors, effectors, and R genes: the new paradigm and a lifetime supply of questions. Annu Rev Phytopathol 45: 399-436 ... 2006) Direct protein interaction underlies gene-for-gene specificity and coevolution of the flax resistance genes and flax rust ... Changes in soybean gene expression demonstrate a biphasic response to P. pachyrhizi infection. To put genes in a biological ... Fungal growth was assessed by quantifying the constitutively expressed P. pachyrhizi α-tubulin gene by TaqMan qRT-PCR as ...
1998 Successful search for a resistance gene in tomato targeted against a virulence factor of a fungal pathogen. Proc. Natl. ... but the interaction between an effector and an R gene is quite specific. If either the R gene or its matching effector gene is ... The effector genes were mutated sequentially, so that each genotype containing an additional mutant effector gene was derived ... First, interactions among effector genes in bacterial pathogens can be very complex. Assemblages of effector genes that ...
Candidate effector gene identification in the ascomycete fungal phytopathogenVenturia inaequalisby expressed sequence tag ... Evolution of the Genes Encoding Effector Candidates Within Multiple Pathotypes of Magnaporthe oryzae ... Fungal effector proteins: past, present and future. PIERRE J. G. M. DE WIT, RAHIM MEHRABI, HARROLD A. VAN DEN BURG, IOANNIS ... Gene Duplication and Mutation in the Emergence of a Novel Aggressive Allele of the AVR-Pik Effector in the Rice Blast Fungus ...
Paul, Minnesota studied the identity of the leaf rust resistance genes in Toropi, identifying a major gene for adult plant leaf ... Sub-objective 2.A. Identify effectors of P. graminis f. sp. tritici involved in fungal pathogenicity and host resistance. Sub- ... The data will be used for phylogenetic analysis and mapping effector genes. The genome sequence assembly and annotation of P. ... Genetic and genomic approaches will be used to identify and characterize effector genes from P. graminis and P. coronata. ...
The Functional Characterization of Podosphaera xanthii Candidate Effector Genes Reveals Novel Target Functions for Fungal ... Gene. *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Database *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Datasets. *Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profiles ... Fungal Biol. 2015 Sep;119(9):791-801. doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2015.05.003. Epub 2015 May 19. ... Transcriptome of the Cucurbit Powdery Mildew Fungus Podosphaera xanthii and Identification of Candidate Secreted Effector ...
Cloning of Genes Encoding Reporter Proteins and a Fungal Necrotrophic Effector Protein into the FoMV Isolate PV139-Derived ... Heterologous genes or gene fragments are usually inserted into RNAγ for expression (Yuan et al., 2011). The tripartite genome ... The functional analysis of genes encoding small secreted effector proteins predicted in the genomes of wheat-infecting fungal ... FoMV-mediated expression of the necrotrophic fungal effector ToxA from P. nodorum. A, PV101-GFP- or PV101-ToxA-inoculated ...
2016 Differential effector gene expression underpins epistasis in a plant fungal disease. Plant J. 87: 343-354. ... 2011 Two putatively homoeologous wheat genes mediate the recognition of SnTox3 to confer effector-triggered susceptibility to ... 2009 SnTox3 acts in effector-triggered susceptibility to induce disease on wheat carrying the Snn3 gene. PLoS Pathog. 5(9): ... The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. The NE ToxA is ...
RNAse-like effectors of cereal powdery mildews. Pietro Spanu. Thursday, March 19 3:00 PM-6:00 PM. Chapel Gene regulatory ... Epigenetic hotspots are genomic islands for putative effector-encoding genes in Zymoseptoria tritici. Jessica L. Soyer. 5:20. ... a broadly conserved fungal effector with a role in virulence in Colletotrichum graminicola. Serenella A. Sukno. 5:00. Effectors ... Epigenetic control of effector gene expression in the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. Isabelle Fudal. 3:40. Get ...
3 gene and increased sensitivity to bacterial spot is due to linkage drag (not pleiotropy) and may be remedied by reducing the ... Houterman PM, Cornelissen BJC, Martijn R (2008) Suppression of plant resistance gene-based immunity by a fungal effector. PLoS ... 7 expands the repertoire of genes for resistance to Fusarium wilt in tomato to three resistance gene classes. Mol Plant Pathol ... Catanzariti AM, Lim GT, Jones DA (2015) The tomato I-3 gene: a novel gene for resistance to Fusarium wilt disease. New Phytol ...
Proof of concept for host-induced gene silencing was obtained by silencing the effector gene Avra10, which resulted in reduced ... Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently ... fungal development in the absence, but not in the presence, of the matching resistance gene Mla10. The fungus could be rescued ... of double-stranded or antisense RNA targeting fungal transcripts affects the development of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria ...
Use of robust-long serial analysis of gene expression to identify novel fungal and plant genes Involved in host-pathogen ... oryzae / Sang-Won Lee and Pamela C. Ronald -- Whole-genome analysis to identify type III-secreted effectors / Boris A. Vinatzer ... Use of robust-long serial analysis of gene expression to identify novel fungal and plant genes Involved in host-pathogen ... Gene Silencing. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Gene Silencing"@en ;. schema:name "Gene silencing"@en ;. .. ...
Impact of biotic and abiotic factors on the expression of fungal effector-encoding genes in axenic growth conditions. ... Gene Family A, Family CBFG, Dehydrin Gene F, Family NLRG, Family PPRG, Prolamin Gene F, Family WAKG, Stem Solidness SQTLT, ... Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and ... De novo clustering of long reads by gene from transcriptomics data. Marchet C, Lecompte L, Silva CD, Cruaud C, Aury J-M, ...
Comparative analyses have also revealed fungal virulence genes, providing fungal targets for disease control in host-produced ... Functional assays, such as leaf infiltration using Agrobacterium for delivery of cloned fungal effectors, are being developed. ... The sequencing of gene transcripts and the analysis of proteins from haustoria has yielded candidate virulence factors among ... Plant breeders typically select for disease resistance genes to combat infection. Unfortunately, disease resistance genes ...
Presently, only one effector gene, AvrVg, eliciting a resistance response in Apple has been identified in V. inaequalis [3] ... A fungal mycelium forms between the cuticle and underlying epidermal tissue, developing asexually the conidia, that germinate ... to obligate parasites while still being able to be cultured in media has led to its repeated use in the study of the genes ... Effectors[edit]. Effectors are proteins encoded by pathogens, which act to effect a response from a host cell - often ...
The objective of this project is to identify and functionally characterize novel effectors and candidate effector genes/ ... the role of several biological components and processes in fungal pathogenicity including (i) secreted effectors and enzymes/ ... enzyme inhibitors, (ii) transposons and their activities, (iii) transcription factors (iv) secondary metabolite gene clusters, ... Identification of Avr1, Avr3, Avr5 and Avr11 avirulence genes from Cladosporium fulvum. Effectors secreted during infection by ...
Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA ... the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants ... and its 3D structure is similar to those of human integrin α4-subunit and a fungal integrin-like protein. When S. sclerotiorum ... Studies designed to identify fungal genes down-regulated by the infection of SsDRV uncovered a gene encoding a protein similar ...
2009 SnTox3 acts in effector triggered susceptibility to induce disease on wheat carrying the Snn3 gene. PLoS Pathog. 5: ... 2015 Fungal effectors and plant susceptibility. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 66: 513-545. ... This interaction has been classified as inverse gene-for-gene (Friesen et al. 2006), in contrast to the classical gene-for-gene ... including 9415 genes supported by RNAseq reads throughout the entire length of the gene (Table 2). Gene annotation using gene ...
Additionally, the fungal transcriptome was analyzed at 48 hours after inoculation in planta. A total of 10,674 genes were found ... It contains 11,000 predicted genes of which 94.5% were annotated. Approximately 10% of total gene number is expected to be ... and a known fungal effector. This work will facilitate future research on C. miyabeanus pathogen-associated molecular patterns ... fungal genomics; protein domains; fungal genetics; transcriptome analysis; pathogenesis; genomic databases; plant genomics; ...
... virulence and effector genes from bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens which infect animal, plant and fungal hosts. PHI- ... To facilitate data interoperability, genes are annotated using controlled vocabularies (Gene Ontology terms, EC Numbers, etc ... PhytoPath provides access to complete genome assemblies and gene models of priority crop and model-fungal and oomycete ... gene disruption experiments) as well as literature references in which the experiments are described. Each gene in PHI-base is ...
  • During colonization of their hosts, pathogens secrete effector proteins to promote disease development through various mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that a fungal plant pathogen uses effector proteins to modulate microbiome compositions inside and outside the host, and propose that pathogen effector catalogues represent an untapped resource for new antibiotics. (nature.com)
  • Stergiopoulos, I. & de Wit, P. J. Fungal effector proteins. (nature.com)
  • This invasive feeding structure allows the fungus to take up nutrients and deliver effector proteins into the plant cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. (frontiersin.org)
  • R genes usually encode intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins to detect and recognize pathogen-secreted proteins (effectors), leading to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) 5 . (nature.com)
  • The strong recognition between effectors and R proteins usually results in the hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs at infection sites to prevent further expansion of pathogens. (nature.com)
  • These pathogen-delivered "effector" proteins presumably alter plant cell function to create a more favorable environment for the pathogen. (genetics.org)
  • R genes monitor the plant cell for the presence of pathogen-secreted effector proteins and, upon detection, activate rapid and robust plant defense responses. (genetics.org)
  • The type of defense response exhibited by the host plant is influenced by the timing of effector delivery and effector interactions with cognate R proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Rust fungi produce a large arsenal of effector proteins in order to infect and colonize the plant host. (usda.gov)
  • Moreover, we demonstrated that PV101 can be used for in planta expression and functional analysis of apoplastic pathogen effector proteins such as the host-specific toxin ToxA of Parastagonospora nodorum . (plantphysiol.org)
  • These genes require functional characterization, and there has been an increasing demand for transient in planta expression systems that allow the rapid and cost-effective expression of recombinant proteins or RNA interference (RNAi)/silencing of endogenous plant genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plant-Pathogen Interactions: Methods and Protocols reviews methods for engineering resistance to plant viruses, the utility of viral induced gene silencing and RNAi silencing, as well as advances in genomics and proteomics that have lead to new methods to identify genes and proteins. (worldcat.org)
  • Although study of rust fungi is difficult because they cannot be cultured on laboratory media, great advances are now occurring in understanding the genomes of rust pathogens and their arsenal of effector proteins that they use to attack plants. (usda.gov)
  • The sequencing of gene transcripts and the analysis of proteins from haustoria has yielded candidate virulence factors among which could be defense-triggering avirulence genes. (usda.gov)
  • Effectors are proteins encoded by pathogens, which act to effect a response from a host cell - often modulating the host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cf resistance proteins contain a transmembrane domain and a expected to recognize the cognate effectors peptide at the plasma membrane (PM). Interactors that could make a functional complex with Cf-9 likely belong to the family of RLKs. (wur.nl)
  • The objective of this project is to identify and functionally characterize novel effectors and candidate effector genes/proteins. (wur.nl)
  • Effectors secreted during infection by C. fulvum can be recognized by Cf proteins. (wur.nl)
  • In this project, we want to identify the effectors that are recognized by the matching proteins Cf-1, Cf-3, Cf-5 or Cf-11, respectively. (wur.nl)
  • Putative effectors will be cloned in the PVX vector which will subsequently be screened tomato plants carrying the different proteins. (wur.nl)
  • Among these effectors, proteases are thought to play a critical role by degrading plant defense proteins. (wur.nl)
  • P. nodorum produces small, secreted proteins known as necrotrophic effectors (NEs) to infect its host by triggering programmed cell death (PCD), resulting in NE-triggered susceptibility. (g3journal.org)
  • In conditions where candidate effectors are recognized by the host disease resistance ( R ) proteins, hallmark resistance occurs via programmed cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes encoding plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins confer dominant resistance to diverse pathogens. (wur.nl)
  • Effector proteins that are secreted during infection to manipulate the host and to promote disease are a key element in fungal virulence. (prolekare.cz)
  • Phytopathogenic fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. (prolekare.cz)
  • The molecular functions of this most important class of fungal effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous numbers of apparently unrelated proteins are largely unknown. (prolekare.cz)
  • In fungal pathogens, the main class of effectors are small secreted proteins of less than 200 amino acids expressed specifically during infection and often rich in cysteins [ 4 - 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Pubmed ID: 20673282 *In the Ustilago maydis genome, several novel secreted effector proteins are encoded by gene families. (jove.com)
  • Effectors, fungal secreted proteins known to play a role in pathogenesis, have been extensively studied in the context of plant-fungal pathogenic interactions. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 5-7 Certain pathogenicity genes also encode proteins that are involved in the suppression or disruption of host defence mechanisms. (scielo.org.za)
  • To date, almost all the pathogen effectors studied or discovered have been proteins," said lead author Hailing Jin , a professor of plant pathology and microbiology . (healthcanal.com)
  • Overall, our results indicate that one of the critical roles for MoRgs proteins is to regulate AA metabolism, and that MoLys20 may be directly or indirectly regulated by MoRgs and participated in lys biosynthesis, thereby affecting fungal development and pathogenicity. (jove.com)
  • Genome-wide transcript profilings have also led to the identification of master genes with crucial roles in symbiosis formation, such as those coding for Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Proteins (MiSSPs) controling plant immunity and development. (inra.fr)
  • Fungi have genes that produce proteins, called effectors, which cause disease in plants. (healthcanal.com)
  • For example, he has identified more than ten effector proteins in the Cladosporium fulvum fungus, and ten immune genes in the wild tomato plant that recognise these effectors. (healthcanal.com)
  • In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. (plos.org)
  • Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. (plos.org)
  • We also describe a complex set of genes encoding enzymes that can break down proteins and other molecules, perhaps reflecting the range of organisms with which B. xylophilus interacts during its life cycle. (plos.org)
  • The cellular and molecular changes elicitated by chitosan can be summarized in: membrane depolarization, oxidative burst, influx and exit of ions such as Ca2+, activation of MAP-kinases, chromatin and DNA alteration, increase in PR gene mRNA, PR proteins synthesis, phytoalexins accumulation, lignification and callose deposition. (intechopen.com)
  • We here focus on identifying metabolic targets that are critical for fungal growth and have minimal similarity to targets among human proteins. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Adaptation of D. coniospora to its almost completely obligate endoparasitic lifestyle led to the simplification of many orthologous gene families involved in the saprophytic trophic mode, while maintaining orthologs of most known fungal pathogen-host interaction proteins, stress response circuits and putative effectors of the small secreted protein type. (uva.nl)
  • Oomycete pathogens secrete hundreds of effectors, including avirulence proteins that trigger host genotype-specific resistance response, to manipulate host immunity and facilitate infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A form of plant innate immunity mediated by plant NLR proteins (see below) of diverse recognition specificities, encoded by Resistance ( R ) genes organized in recombinogenic, but somatically stable, gene clusters. (elifesciences.org)
  • In phytopathogenic fungi, the expression of hundreds of small secreted protein (SSP)-encoding genes is induced upon primary infection of plants while no or a low level of expression is observed during vegetative growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. (osti.gov)
  • Based on these findings we propose that effectors play an important role in host adaptation that is mechanistically based on Avr-Resistance gene-Svr interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several resistance (R) genes against aforesaid stresses has led to marker assisted multigene introgression into elite cultivars for multiple and durable resistance. (springer.com)
  • Though expression of some genes was noted to be inhibited under combined pest challenge, such effects did not result in compromise in resistance against any of the target pests. (springer.com)
  • While R genes generally tended to respond to specific pest challenge, several of the downstream defense genes responded to multiple pest challenge either single, sequential or simultaneous, without any distinct antagonism in expression of resistance to the target pests in two of the pyramided lines RPNF05 and RPNF08. (springer.com)
  • While breeding for host plant resistance against the biotic stresses as the most desirable approach of their management is well recognized, recent progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several of the resistance (R) genes against these pests has made this goal a lot more precise and easy. (springer.com)
  • 2016 ). Resistance against BL is reported to be conferred by over 100 genes including three recessive and 22 cloned genes (Sharma et al. (springer.com)
  • Silencing TaISP by virus-induced gene silencing in a susceptible wheat cultivar reduces fungal growth and uredinium development, suggesting an increase in resistance against Pst infection. (nature.com)
  • In addition, plants have a group of specific disease resistance genes (R genes) in this defense response layer. (nature.com)
  • Characterization of the predicted effector genes and other genomic regions of Fos will aid in understanding mechanisms of pathogenicity, developing molecular tools for rapid detection of this pathogen, and breeding cultivars with increased resistance to Fusarium wilt. (apsnet.org)
  • Establishing durable disease resistance in agricultural crops, where much of the plant defense is provided through effector- R gene interactions, is complicated by the ability of pathogens to overcome R gene resistance by losing the corresponding effector gene. (genetics.org)
  • Many proposed methods to maintain disease resistance in the field depend on the idea that effector gene loss results in a fitness cost to the pathogen. (genetics.org)
  • PLANTS have evolved a complex surveillance system, mediated by plant resistance ( R ) genes, that is capable of recognizing and responding to the presence of many different plant pathogens. (genetics.org)
  • To correlate soybean responses with P. pachyrhizi growth and development, we inoculated the soybean cultivar Ankur (accession PI462312 ), which carries the Rpp3 resistance gene, with avirulent and virulent isolates of P. pachyrhizi . (plantphysiol.org)
  • Sub-objective 1.A. Monitor, collect, and characterize cereal rust pathogen populations in the U.S. for virulence to rust resistance genes in current cultivars. (usda.gov)
  • tritici involved in fungal pathogenicity and host resistance. (usda.gov)
  • Rust resistant cereal germplasm will be selected by testing wheat, oat, and barley lines from breeding programs throughout the U.S. and other sources for resistance to these pathogens using the prevalent races, and races that have high virulence to rust resistance genes common in released cultivars and breeding lines. (usda.gov)
  • Testing with selected isolates of the cereal rust pathogens and host genetics studies will identify the rust resistance genes in breeding lines and germplasm. (usda.gov)
  • Advanced germplasm lines with combinations of rust resistance genes will be selected and released for further use in cultivar development. (usda.gov)
  • There are three races of the pathogen (races 1, 2 and 3), and the deployment of three single, dominant resistance genes corresponding to each of these has been the primary means of controlling the disease. (springer.com)
  • The I - 3 gene was introgressed from S. pennellii and confers resistance to race 3. (springer.com)
  • Barillas AC, Mejia L, Sanchez-Perez A, Maxwell DP (2008) CAPS and SCAR markers for detection of I - 3 gene introgression for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. (springer.com)
  • Host-Induced Gene Silencing of the MAPKK Gene PsFUZ7 Confers Stable Resistance to Wheat Stripe Rust. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Addressing methods to identify and characterize plant resistance genes as well as pathogen-associated molecules that trigger the plant defense response, this volume creates a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their hosts, which will help to develop better methods for disease control in plants and animals. (worldcat.org)
  • Plant breeders typically select for disease resistance genes to combat infection. (usda.gov)
  • Unfortunately, disease resistance genes frequently succumb to new races of the cereal rust fungi. (usda.gov)
  • Targeted breeding for resistance, based on information from fungal surveys and population structure analyses of virulence, has been effective. (usda.gov)
  • Nevertheless, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to determine the range of available resistance genes. (usda.gov)
  • This will allow the screening of wheat germplasm for novel resistance genes for breeding. (usda.gov)
  • Where a host variety is able to recognise and mount a resistance response to the presence of an effector, the effector is referred to as an Avirulence protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA/ET) signal pathway mediated resistance at the early stage of infection. (plos.org)
  • Pan, Qinghua 2018-05-31 00:00:00 Background: Pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes can evolve rapidly when challenged by the widespread deployment of host genes for resistance. (deepdyve.com)
  • Keywords: Magnaporthe oryzae, SSR physical map, Avirulence gene, AvrPi12, Genetic and physical mapping Background Positional cloning has proven to be an effective The pathogen responsible for the highly damaging dis- means of isolating both host resistance and pathogen ease of rice known as blast is the filamentous asco- Avr genes [10-14]. (deepdyve.com)
  • host genes conferring resistance is widely recognized as The effort to develop such a linkage map for Mo, the most environmentally benign and cost-effective begun in the 1990s, and by 2007 had delivered one means of its control [3-5]. (deepdyve.com)
  • strategy for resistance gene deployment. (deepdyve.com)
  • Correspondence: [email protected] Pi12, a gene which conditions blast resistance, was ini- Tonghui Li, Jianqiang Wen and Yaling Zhang contributed equally to this tially identified in the African cultivar Moroberekan [19, work. (deepdyve.com)
  • We conclude from this work that artificial evolution of NB-LRR disease resistance genes in crops can be enhanced by modification of both activation and recognition phases, to both accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative aspects of disease resistance. (wur.nl)
  • Changes in the pathogen effectors due to host selection pressure are responsible for the rapid development of new rust races and make durable resistance hard to obtain. (sivb.org)
  • Host susceptibility genes could be altered to provide durable resistance. (sivb.org)
  • The P. s ojae s usceptible ( pss ) 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of nonhost resistance against both a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, P. sojae and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, F. virguliforme that cause diseases in soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification and further characterization of the PSS1 gene would provide further insights into a new form of nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, which could be utilized in improving resistance of soybean to two serious pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three NHR genes, PEN1, PEN2 and PEN3 , required for penetration resistance of Arabidopsis against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the potato-Phytophthora system, the host-pathogen response has evolved in a highly specific way: resistance (R) genes from wild species, which are introduced into cultivated potato by breeding, are matched by avirulence (Avr) genes in Phytophthora. (cshlpress.com)
  • The host-pathogen interactions of Xanthomonas vasicola (Xv) need to be well understood to properly map the target genes in the host and pathogen so as to understand the mechanism of resistance. (academicjournals.org)
  • To give an example, the resistance of a plant with just one immune gene is broken through 10 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 times faster than that of a plant with five immune genes', explains Professor de Wit. (healthcanal.com)
  • Mapping Heat Resistance in Yeasts In a proof-of-concept study, researchers demonstrated that a new genetic mapping strategy called RH-Seq can identify genes that promote heat resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing this species to grow better than its closest relative S. paradoxus at high temperatures. (doe.gov)
  • The aim of the proposed project is to gain insight into the level of cellular host reprogramming that takes place during aphid-host interactions, the cellular processes involved in aphid nonhost resistance, and the role of aphid effectors in determining host range. (europa.eu)
  • Aphid-induced sRNA expression in resistance genotypes delivers a new paradigm in understanding the regulation of R gene-mediated resistance in host plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, HIGS utilises ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) molecules produced by the plant, which then target key genes in pests/pathogens, ideally leading to improved resistance of the plant and a reduction in damage. (els.net)
  • Sequence and expression variations of avirulence genes in pathogens are well known to be responsible for loss of host genotype-specific disease resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2003 ). One possible reason is the suppressed expression of avirulence genes, thus leading to loss of race-specific resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P. sojae avirulence gene Avr1b can trigger HR in soybean plants carrying resistance gene Rps1b (Shan et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In crop protection, much attention is usually given to identifying genes and markers in the genome of crops to assist in the breeding of cultivars with improved disease resistance. (grdc.com.au)
  • If these genes are deleted or inactivated the fungus has the ability to break down canola's resistance to blackleg. (grdc.com.au)
  • Genetics of tan spot resistance in wheat is complex, involving insensitivity to fungal-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs), major resistance genes, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring race-nonspecific and race-specific resistance. (unl.edu)
  • We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effector molecules may be the products of either secondary metabolite or protein synthesis, however the majority of effectors identified in fungi and oomycetes are the latter. (frontiersin.org)
  • Students with an interest in biology and bioinformatics of fungi can study, by bioinformatics approaches, the role of several biological components and processes in fungal pathogenicity including (i) secreted effectors and enzymes/ enzyme inhibitors, (ii) transposons and their activities, (iii) transcription factors (iv) secondary metabolite gene clusters, and (v) pseudogenization and repeat-induced point mutations. (wur.nl)
  • Historically, the two types of symbioses have been investigated separately because arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plant species are considered to host discrete sets of fungal symbionts (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi, respectively). (scoop.it)
  • By analyzing an Illumina sequencing dataset of root-associated fungi in a temperate forest in Japan, we statistically examined whether co-occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and ectomycorrhizal (Pinus densiflora) plant species could share non-mycorrhizal fungal communities. (scoop.it)
  • They underwent strong lineage-specific expansion in fungi of the Pyriculariae family that contains M. oryzae where they seem particularly important during biotrophic plant colonization and account for 50% of the cloned Avr effectors and 5-10% of the effector repertoire. (prolekare.cz)
  • While it is difficult to defend the concept of fungal apoptosis, the more interesting issue is whether fungi will eventually be found to encode programmed or extemporaneous self-destructive processes, as suggested by intriguing new findings. (asm.org)
  • Uhse S and Djamei A (2018) Effectors of plant-colonizing fungi and beyond. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • Insights into Functional Diversity in Neurospora This proposal investigates the genetic bases of fungal thermophily, biomass-degradation, and fungal-bacterial interactions in Sordariales, an order of biomass-degrading fungi frequently encountered in compost and encompassing one of the few groups of thermophilic fungi. (doe.gov)
  • The goal of 1KFG is to facilitate the sequencing of fungal genomes across the Kingdom Fungi with the objective to significantly advance genome-enabled mycology. (inra.fr)
  • As of today, genomic sequences and gene repertoires are publicly available for 28 mycorrhizal fungi, including 24 ectomycorrhizal species, 3 ericoid species, 2 orchid mycorrhizal species and 1 arbuscular mycorrhizal species (see Table below & see the JGI MycoCosm Mycorrhizal Fungi p ortal. (inra.fr)
  • Host‐induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an approach that shows promise for the control of a variety of problematic crop‐damaging organisms, ranging from nematodes and insects, to fungi and parasitic plants. (els.net)
  • Disease-related genes in these three fungi are being sought as well as the identification of genes that can be exploited as targets for novel fungicides. (grdc.com.au)
  • Like bacteria, many filamentous fungi are significant plant or human pathogens, and analysis of fungal HKs may result in key information about the biology of these pathogens. (asm.org)
  • However, no detailed study has been made on possible interactions among these genes when expressed simultaneously under combined stresses. (springer.com)
  • This revealed domains within RRS1 required to keep the RRS1-RPS4 complex inactive prior to effector detection, and specific domain-domain interactions whose disruption or modification contributes to defense activation. (pnas.org)
  • Observable fitness effects of the three plasmid-borne effector genes were dependent upon the loss of functional avrBs2 , indicating that complex functional interactions exist among effector genes with Xav . (genetics.org)
  • The first burst in gene expression correlated with appressorium formation and penetration of epidermal cells, while the second burst of gene expression changes followed the onset of haustoria formation in both compatible and incompatible interactions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The temporal relationships between P. pachyrhizi growth and host responses provide an important context in which to view interacting gene networks that mediate the outcomes of their interactions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Parastagonospora nodorum , the causal agent of Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat, has emerged as a model necrotrophic fungal organism for the study of host-microbe interactions. (g3journal.org)
  • which plays a key role in cell signaling, intracellular trafficking and migration of invasive weaponries (i.e. candidate effectors) in pathogenic interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene Atlases of Grass-Microbe Interactions This proposal seeks to build comprehensive gene atlas maps for diverse bioenergy grass-microbe interactions, including pathogenic and beneficial interactions in two grass models, Brachypodium and Setaria. (doe.gov)
  • The Pathogen-Host Interaction database (PHI-base) is a biological database that contains curated information on genes experimentally proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • PHI-base is the first on-line resource devoted to the identification and presentation of information on fungal and oomycete pathogenicity genes and their host interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Version 4.8 (Sept 16th, 2019) of PHI-base provides information on 6780 genes from 268 pathogens and 210 hosts and their impact on 13801 interactions as well on efficacy information on ~20 drugs and the target sequences in the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genomes have provided unprecedented knowledge about the structure and functioning of the mycorrhizal fungal species and their interactions with their host plants. (inra.fr)
  • Herein we will specifically looks for aphids-species specific effectors and those that are expressed in specific host interactions. (europa.eu)
  • To gain insight into molecular mechanisms of effector activities we will identify host targets and investigate the contribution of effector-target interactions to host range. (europa.eu)
  • Recent research indicates significant roles for sRNA-mediated gene silencing during plant-hemipteran interactions that involve all three of these biological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • During HIGS (host‐induced gene silencing), the outcome of the molecular interactions shows results in the reduced expression of targeted genes in the pest/pathogen, such as though methylation (Me) of genomic DNA. (els.net)
  • This work indicates that both Ptr ToxA- Tsn1 and Ptr ToxC- Tsc1 interactions are important for tan spot development in winter wheat, and Wesley is highly resistant largely due to the absence of the two tan spot sensitivity genes. (unl.edu)
  • The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. (frontiersin.org)
  • These newly sequenced genomes, consisting of telomere-to-telomere assemblies of nearly all 23 P. nodorum chromosomes, provide a robust foundation for the further examination of effector biology and genome evolution. (g3journal.org)
  • This is the first report of gene amplification in a non-bacterial organism that is associated with pathogenicity, and it provides insight into how plant pathogens tailor their genomes to adapt to their environments. (cshlpress.com)
  • Using the Ensembl Genomes browser, PhytoPath provides access to complete genome assemblies and gene models of priority crop and model-fungal and oomycete phytopathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • James McInerney (Maynooth) presented on the origins of differing networks of interacting genes in eukaryotic genomes. (smbe.org)
  • Sequencing is carried out at JGI and Genoscope in the framework of the JGI Community Science Program , the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project and the TuberEvol project. (inra.fr)
  • Comparison of these genomes should facilitate the characterization of the genetic mechanisms that underpin the formation and evolution of ecologically-relevant mycorrhizal symbioses and characterization of genes selectively associated with particular symbiotic patterns. (inra.fr)
  • Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. (osti.gov)
  • The University of Melbourne team is taking the complementary approach by examining the genomes of the pathogen to identify the genes involved in disease progression. (grdc.com.au)
  • It suppresses plant basal immunity by reducing callose deposition and the expression of defense-related genes. (nature.com)
  • This effector-triggered immunity (ETI) frequently results in a hypersensitive response that curtails pathogen invasion. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Abstract Chitin is a major component of fungal cell walls and acts as an elicitor in plant innate immunity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Many bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens deliver protein effectors - molecules the pathogens secrete - into the cells of hosts to manipulate and, eventually, compromise host immunity. (healthcanal.com)
  • The new study represents the first example of a fungal pathogen delivering RNA effectors, specifically small RNA effector molecules, into host cells to suppress host immunity and achieve infection of the host plant. (healthcanal.com)
  • The process is similar to how protein effectors weaken host immunity in the case of most pathogens. (healthcanal.com)
  • To transfer this immunity, de Wit's research group cross-fertilised wild species containing these immune genes with crops such as tomato plants. (healthcanal.com)
  • We sought to determine if ISG15 plays a role in corneal innate immunity against Candida albicans ( C. albicans ) using a C57BL/6 (B6) mouse model of human fungal keratitis. (arvojournals.org)
  • When challenged with B. cinerea , however , all of the plant lines became more susceptible to infection , suggesting that Bc sRNAs play an active role in pathogenesis by targeting plant genes involved in immunity. (asmblog.org)
  • Jin's research team discovered an aggressive "virulence mechanism" that can silence, or hamper, a host plant's immunity genes. (producer.com)
  • The second tier, primarily governed by R gene products, is often termed effector-triggered immunity (ETI). (wikipedia.org)
  • A quantitatively different expression of SSP-encoding genes compared to plant infection was also detected. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen's advantage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pst_12806 is upregulated during infection, and its knockdown (by host-induced gene silencing) reduces Pst growth and development, likely due to increased ROS accumulation. (nature.com)
  • If either the R gene or its matching effector gene is not present, then no R gene-mediated defense response occurs during an infection, and disease progresses. (genetics.org)
  • During infection, C. fulvum secretes many peptide effectors in the apoplast of tomato that play a role in virulence and avirulence. (wur.nl)
  • Effectors secreted during infection by C. fulvum enable the fungus to effectively colonize the tomato. (wur.nl)
  • RNAseq analysis of isolate Sn4, consisting of eight time points covering various developmental and infection stages, mediated the annotation of 13,379 genes. (g3journal.org)
  • By contrast, in the absence of Cf-2, Rcr3 depletion does not affect fungal and bacterial infection levels but causes increased susceptibility only to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. (wur.nl)
  • During fungal infection the host plant recognizes pathogen effectors, which trigger a host defense response. (sivb.org)
  • The objectives of this study are to identify and characterize wheat genes that are utilized by races differently throughout infection and to understand functions of these genes using gene silencing. (sivb.org)
  • RNAi was used to silence seven wheat genes to further understand their roles in leaf rust infection. (sivb.org)
  • Seitner D, Uhse S, ..., Djamei A (2018) The Core Effector Cce1 is Required for Early Infection of Maize by Ustilago maydis. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • Fungal pathogenicity genes are responsible for events such as spore attachment and germination, infection and colonisation of the host, and are divided into categories such as formation of infection structures, cell wall degradation, toxin biosynthesis and signalling. (scielo.org.za)
  • Certain potato plants do not recognize strains of the pathogen with only the single gene copy, making them susceptible to infection. (cshlpress.com)
  • Each gene in PHI-base is presented with its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence as well as a detailed structured description of the predicted protein's function during the host infection process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P.?sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. (jove.com)
  • In vivo, C. albicans infection induced the expression of ISG15, ISGylation-associated genes (UBE1L, UBCH8, and HERC5), and ISGylation in mouse CECs, all of which were enhanced by flagellin-pretreatment. (arvojournals.org)
  • 5 - 8 To understand the underlying mechanisms for this robust innate immune protection, we recently performed a genome-wide cDNA array and found that flagellin-pretreatment followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection resulted in the upregulation of 890 genes and downregulation of 37 genes. (arvojournals.org)
  • The chitosan/tea tree oil treatment reduced significantly the fungal infection on seeds (right) compared with the inoculated and not treated seeds (left). (intechopen.com)
  • By comparison, the expression levels of two plant defense genes that lacked Bc-sRNA target sites ( PDF1.2 and BIK) were greatly increased after infection, indicating that suppression was not due to cell death and that some, but not all, plant defense genes are targeted by sRNAs. (asmblog.org)
  • Our model allowed to discern the changes of the gene expression profile of A. fumigatus at various stages of the infection. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In some species such as Leptosphaeria maculans, this coordinated in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene expression in-planta are unknown. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Host-specific toxins (HSTs) are defined as pathogen effectors that induce toxicity and promote disease only in the host species and only in genotypes of that host expressing a specific and often dominant susceptibility gene. (nih.gov)
  • Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. (plantcell.org)
  • Rapid and cost-effective virus-derived transient expression systems for plants are invaluable in elucidating gene function and are particularly useful in plant species for which transformation-based methods are unavailable or are too time and labor demanding, such as wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and maize ( Zea mays ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • de Bary is an economically significant and destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogen with the capability of infecting more than 450 species and subspecies of plants worldwide [1] , [2] . (plos.org)
  • Yet, the nature of mycorrhizal fungal diversity-ecosystem function (MEF) relationships for both genotypes and species is currently poorly defined. (scoop.it)
  • New experiments should reflect the richness of genotypes and species in nature, but we still lack information about the extent to which fungal populations in particular are structured. (scoop.it)
  • Sampling designs should quantify the diversity of mycorrhizal fungal genotypes and species at three key broad spatial scales (root fragment, root system and interacting root systems) in order to inform manipulation experiments and to test how mycorrhizal fungal diversity both responds, and confers resilience to, environmental drivers. (scoop.it)
  • Among the 919 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected, OTUs in various taxonomic lineages were statistically designated as "generalists," which associated commonly with both coniferous species. (scoop.it)
  • Genome sequencing and expression analysis identified hundreds of such effector candidates in individual plant pathogenic fungal species. (prolekare.cz)
  • Taking the reverse perspective, knowledge about fungal cell death might help guide the preservation of diverse fungal species as world food resources, medicines, and the critical terrestrial ecosystems that we depend on ( 5 - 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Evolutionary Analysis of GH3 Genes in Six Oryza Species/Subspecies and Their Expression under Salinity Stress in Oryza sativa ssp. (mdpi.com)
  • Understanding evolutionary transitions between fungal endophytes - species which live asymptomatically in plant tissues - and fungal plant pathogens is of major significance in economic and ecological issues relating to plant health. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This study confirmed the predicted presence or absence of virulence factors especially effectors across bacterial strains and within strains of the same species and other clusters conserved in gram negative bacteria. (academicjournals.org)
  • To investigate whether positive selection drives this evolutionary acceleration, we identified orthologs of each imprinted gene across 34 plant species and elucidated their evolutionary trajectories. (smbe.org)
  • This allowed tracing of the genetic ancestry within the Italian sparrow and identified some ongoing, but limited, gene flow between the parental species and the Italian sparrows. (sciencemag.org)
  • Growth of C. albicans , in the white cell form, is remarkably resistant to growth inhibition by high concentrations of farnesol compared to other fungal species ( 14 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • As of writing, this initiative targets a set of 35 fungal species that are able to form various types of mycorrhizal symbioses, i.e. (inra.fr)
  • The fungal species sequenced have been selected based on: (1) their phylogenetic position, (2) their ecological relevance, and (3) their ability to establish different types of mycorrhizal symbiosis. (inra.fr)
  • First Monoploid Reference Sequence of Sugarcane For the highly polyploid sugarcane, an international team of researchers has successfully assembled a first monoploid reference sequence using a targeted approach that focused on the gene rich part of the genome by harnessing information from a sequenced related species - sorghum. (doe.gov)
  • RNAi-induced gene silencing following uptake of exogenous dsRNA was successfully demonstrated in several hemipterans and the presence of sid-1 like genes support the concept of a systemic response in some species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Objective 2: Further develop genomic resources of cereal rust pathogens and identify fungal genes involved in pathogenicity and development. (usda.gov)
  • Genetic and genomic approaches will be used to identify and characterize effector genes from P. graminis and P. coronata. (usda.gov)
  • Epigenetic hotspots are genomic islands for putative effector-encoding genes in Zymoseptoria tritici . (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Discovery of fungal secondary metabolic pathways from large-scale genomic and transcriptome information. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon where autosomal genes display uniparental expression depending on whether they are maternally or paternally inherited. (smbe.org)
  • Our analysis of 140 genes regulated by genomic imprinting in the A. thaliana seed endosperm demonstrates they are evolving more rapidly than expected. (smbe.org)
  • Identification and Characterization of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Genes in Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L. (mdpi.com)
  • Characterization of fungal two-component signaling is relatively limited. (asm.org)
  • 2 In F. oxysporum, host specificity has been attributed to mutations in avirulence genes and lateral chromosome transfer that overcome defence responses in the host plant. (scielo.org.za)
  • We analyzed gene expression in three B.g. tritici isolates, two B.g. secalis isolates and two B.g. triticale isolates and identified a core set of putative effector genes that are highly expressed in all formae speciales . (frontiersin.org)
  • We also found that the genes differentially expressed between isolates of the same form as well as between different formae speciales were enriched in putative effectors. (frontiersin.org)
  • These same isolates were characterized genotypically with effector gene profiles predicted from whole genome sequences based on Illumina ( n = 13) and PacBio ( n = 1 Fos isolate) platforms. (apsnet.org)
  • Fos isolates separated into two groups, both of which were distinct phenotypically and genotypically from NPS isolates, based on disease severity on two inbred spinach lines and predicted effector gene profiles, respectively. (apsnet.org)
  • Genome-wide computational analyses, including genetic mapping and transcript analyses by RNA sequencing of many fungal isolates, will predict many more candidates. (usda.gov)
  • The avirulence gene AvrPi12 was mapped in a population of 219 progeny derived from a cross between the two Mo isolates CHL42 and CHL357. (deepdyve.com)
  • A bulked segregant analysis indicated that the gene was located on chromosome 6, a conclusion borne out by an analysis of the pattern of segregation shown by individual isolates. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, pathogenicity-related genes from other formae speciales of F. oxysporum, such as the sucrose non-fermenting, cytochrome P450 and F-box protein required for pathogenicity genes, were significantly up-regulated in Foc STR4 and TR4 but not in F. oxysporum isolates non-pathogenic to banana. (scielo.org.za)
  • We completed assemblies of all wtf genes for two S. pombe isolates, as well as a subset of wtf genes from over 50 isolates. (smbe.org)
  • We find that wtf copy number can vary greatly between isolates and that amino acid substitutions, expansions and contractions of DNA sequence repeats, and nonallelic gene conversion between family members all contribute to dynamic wtf gene evolution. (smbe.org)
  • The Tsn1 locus was a major susceptibility QTL for the race 1 and race 2 isolates, but not for the race 2 isolate with the ToxA gene deleted. (unl.edu)
  • The repertoire of these molecules includes both positive and negative effectors - those that enhance gene expression, as well as those that suppress it. (asmblog.org)
  • High on the list of RNA regulatory activities is RNA interference (RNAi), a mechanism by which certain double-stranded small RNA (sRNA) molecules suppress the expression of specific genes. (asmblog.org)
  • Silencing of key pest and pathogen genes is a possible strategy for reducing crop damage and can be accomplished by RNA molecules expressed by the host plant. (els.net)
  • An alternate method for silencing genes consists of the direct application of purified RNA molecules to the plant itself. (els.net)
  • These proteinaceous virulence factors named effectors act either extra-cellularly or inside host cells and can possess, depending on the microorganism, very different molecular features. (prolekare.cz)
  • Uhse S, Pflug F, ..., Djamei A (2018) In vivo insertion pool sequencing identifies virulence factors in a complex fungal-host interaction. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • HIGS: host-induced gene silencing in the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Use of FLP-mediated Recombination for the Functional Analysis of an Effector Gene Family in the Biotrophic Smut Fungus Ustilago Maydis The New Phytologist. (jove.com)
  • We showed that expression of all 11 genes is up-regulated during the biotrophic phase. (jove.com)
  • Although PTI is prevalent in plants, preventing pathogenic invasion, these pathogens also possess the ability to secrete effectors to suppress the basal immune response 1 . (nature.com)
  • Often, necrotrophic pathogens secrete toxins (including non-host-selective toxins and host-selective toxins), plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and proteinases to facilitate host cell death.The interaction between necrotrophic fungal pathogens and hosts is clearly more complex than originally thought. (plos.org)
  • Identification of cell death genes in worms by the use of genetics (Nobel Prize, 2002), combined with the disease relevance revealed by mammalian models, was soon solidified by in vitro reconstitutions and crystal structures ( 24 - 26 ). (asm.org)
  • We also found that gene expression in the B.g. triticale hybrid is mostly conserved with the parent-of-origin, but some genes inherited from B.g. tritici showed a B.g. secalis -like expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we identified 11 unambiguous cases of putative effector genes with hybrid-specific, non-parent of origin gene expression, and we propose that they are possible determinants of host specialization in triticale mildew. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data suggest that altered expression of multiple effector genes, in particular Avr and Svr related factors, might play a role in mildew host adaptation based on hybridization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Impact of biotic and abiotic factors on the expression of fungal effector-encoding genes in axenic growth conditions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic growth of L. maculans were investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some abiotic factors (temperature, pH) could have a limited effect on SSP gene expression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interestingly, the same physico-chemical parameters as those identified here for L. maculans effectors were identified to regulate positively or negatively the expression of bacterial effectors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our studies monitored expression profiles of 14 defense related genes in 11 rice breeding lines derived from an elite cultivar with different combination of R genes against BB, BL and GM under single and multiple challenge. (springer.com)
  • The FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein is a central component of the Neurospora core clock, a transcription/translation negative feedback loop that controls genome-wide rhythmic gene expression. (genetics.org)
  • Inoculation of soybean ( Glycine max ) plants with Phakopsora pachyrhizi , the causal organism of Asian soybean rust, elicits a biphasic response characterized by a burst of differential gene expression in the first 12 h. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A quiescent period occurs from 24 to 48 h after inoculation, in which P. pachyrhizi continues to develop but does not elicit strong host responses, followed by a second phase of intense gene expression. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Inoculated leaves were collected over a 288-h time course for microarray analysis of soybean gene expression and microscopic analysis of P. pachyrhizi growth and development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Heterochromatic marks play an important role in regulating the symbiotic interaction between Epichloë festucae and Lolium perenne and symbiosis-specific secondary metabolite gene expression. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • The studen t will (i) clone candidate genes in a binary vector for transiest expression, (ii) transiently co-express Cf-9-YFP and putative interactors in N. benthamiana , and (iii) check whether Cf-9-YFP remains in the ER or is relocalized to the PM by fluoresence microscopy. (wur.nl)
  • The studen will (i) clone candidate genes in a binary vector for transiest expression, (ii) functionally analyse the protein, (iii) knock-out the candidate genes in C. fulvum and (iv) study virulence of the mutants on tomato by fluorescence microscopy. (wur.nl)
  • We investigated the TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of sugarcane following over-expression and, or RNAi suppression of several candidate genes. (sivb.org)
  • Single or multiple gene expression/suppression cassettes were co-delivered with the selectable nptII expression cassette by biolistic gene transfer into sugarcane callus. (sivb.org)
  • RNA was sequenced and 63 wheat genes were identified that showed varying expression in response to the six races. (sivb.org)
  • Majority of the candidate genes showed three main expression patterns. (sivb.org)
  • However, race specific expression was found in three wheat genes that are affected by race shifts on Lr2A, Lr2C, and Lr17A. (sivb.org)
  • 2009) VIP1 response elements mediate mitogen-activated protein kinase 3-induced stress gene expression. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • The fungus is almost always found among and within poplar trees, and in an effort to understand its influence on the plant, a team of scientists studied what happens to the tree's physical traits and gene expression when the fungus is present. (doe.gov)
  • Conversely, Fo5176-SIX4 gene knock-out mutants (Δsix4) had significantly reduced virulence on Arabidopsis, and this was associated with reduced fungal biomass and host jasmonate-mediated gene expression, the latter known to be essential for host symptom development. (nih.gov)
  • But in our case, the gene appears to produce a large regulatory protein that exerts its effect by regulating the expression of other genes, possibly effector genes. (cshlpress.com)
  • In the case of Botrytis cinerea , small RNAs silence the expression of host defense genes, resulting in the host plant cells being less able to resist the fungal attack. (healthcanal.com)
  • Transcription factors that directly respond to farnesol as a nuclear receptor/effector to regulate gene expression, however, have not been identified. (asm.org)
  • The expression of ISG15 and other genes involved in ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) was determined by real-time PCR. (arvojournals.org)
  • avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. (mdpi.com)
  • The RISC silencing mechanism can be induced by endogenously expressed sRNAs, as a means of regulating expression of genes involved in various cellular processes, or by the invasion of pathogens, as a means of defense. (asmblog.org)
  • These sRNAs then interact with RISC to suppress expression of viral genes that carry the target sequences. (asmblog.org)
  • We compare and combine here: (I) direct metabolic network modeling using elementary mode analysis and flux estimates approximations using expression data, (II) targeting metabolic genes by transcriptome analysis of condition-specific highly expressed enzymes, and (III) analysis of enzyme structure, enzyme interconnectedness ("hubs"), and identification of pathogen-specific enzymes using orthology relations. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Small RNAs (sRNAs) are essential regulators of eukaryotic gene expression and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • common to both plants and animals, control endogenous gene expression in response to external stimuli and protect the host from invasive viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Altered expression of sRNA and their gene targets, in response to abiotic and biotic stress have firmly established the importance of these regulatory elements. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report in this study that the endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are involved in the variation of expression of avirulence gene Avr1b in P. sojae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results indicate that the expression of RXLR effector genes are programmed by significantly enriched variations in their regulatory regions that lead to the variations in bidirectional transcription, which likely further affect production of endogenous sRNAs and silencing of homologous RXLR effector genes of Phytophthora pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic cross of strain P6497 and strain P7064 defined that the expression of P. sojae Avr1b is regulated by a trans-acting factor, and these two genes determine the Avr1b phenotype (Shan et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of a reliable expression system is essential for the genome mining of natural products because of the lack of a tractable host for heterologous expression of basidiomycete genes. (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that the previously identified virulence effector VdAve1, secreted by the fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae , displays antimicrobial activity and facilitates colonization of tomato and cotton through the manipulation of their microbiomes by suppressing antagonistic bacteria. (nature.com)
  • We created directed knockouts of up to four effector genes from the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. (genetics.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate which genes are potentially involved in fungal pathogenicity by comparing transcript-derived cDNA fragments (TDFs) from Foc STR4 and TR4 to those from non-pathogenic F. oxysporum using cDNA-AFLP analysis. (scielo.org.za)
  • Comparative analyses have also revealed fungal virulence genes, providing fungal targets for disease control in host-produced RNAi approaches. (usda.gov)
  • Identification of putative effector genes in the causal agent of spinach Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. (apsnet.org)
  • A rapid increase in the use of next-generation genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies has facilitated the identification of long lists of candidate genes underlying traits of specific interest in plants and plant-associated organisms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Identification of conserved and novel features of the alkaline response pathway in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans . (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Necrotrophic effector identification was greatly aided by the development of a draft genome of Australian isolate SN15 via Sanger sequencing, yet it remained largely fragmented. (g3journal.org)
  • This work will facilitate future research on C. miyabeanus pathogen-associated molecular patterns and effectors, and in the identification of their corresponding wildrice defense mechanisms. (osti.gov)
  • This comparison resulted in the identification of 229 unique gene fragments which include the putative pathogenicity-related TDFs encoding chitinase class V (chsV), GTPase activating protein, Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) multidrug transporter and serine/threonine protein kinase (ste12) genes. (scielo.org.za)
  • The outcome of their efforts was the identification of single gene, called pi3.4, that was present as a single, full-length copy in both the virulent and avirulent strains. (cshlpress.com)
  • For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. (frontiersin.org)
  • Small RNAs guide gene silencing in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms . (healthcanal.com)
  • Most eukaryotic and all fungal HKs are hybrids. (asm.org)
  • Signalling genes expressed during pathogenesis have also been identified in Fol (e.g. (scielo.org.za)
  • Authoritative and practical, Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in the further study in current techniques that cover a wide-range of methods to study molecular aspects of pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • The current volume is a unique collection of 41 chapters from a diverse group of scientists, researchers, and academics working on different aspects of the molecular basis of fungal pathogens and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Over the time course A. fumigatus differentially regulated 210 genes, FunCat analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes involved in fermentation, drug transport, pathogenesis and response to oxidative stress. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In the Arabidopsis RPS4 and RRS1 pair, RRS1 carries a WRKY transcription factor domain targeted by bacterial effectors AvrRps4 and PopP2. (pnas.org)
  • The Arabidopsis RRS1-R-RPS4 NLR pair recognizes the bacterial effectors AvrRps4 and PopP2 via an integrated WRKY transcription factor domain in RRS1-R that mimics the effector's authentic targets. (pnas.org)
  • on the other hand, inoculation of SSITL silenced transformant A10 initiated strong and rapid defense response in Arabidopsis, the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants were inoculated with the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum . (plos.org)
  • A highly conserved effector in Fusarium oxysporum is required for full virulence on Arabidopsis. (nih.gov)
  • Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first gene known to confer Arabidopsis NHR against a non adapted bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include methods and techniques for model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana as well as crop plants, aspects of fungal biology, genome annotation, next-generation sequencing, and fungal transformation and molecular tools for disease and/or pathogen quantification that are critical for revealing the role for a fungal gene of interest in disease development. (springer.com)
  • Weiberg and coworkers now report that small RNAs (sRNAs) from a fungal pathogen of plants act as effectors to block the immune systems of Arabidopsis and tomato. (asmblog.org)
  • Plants carry many different R genes, and pathogens harbor a diverse array of effector genes, but the interaction between an effector and an R gene is quite specific. (genetics.org)
  • The student will (i) clone candidate genes into PVX vectors, (ii) screen each construct in tomato that contains Cf-1, Cf-3, Cf-5 and Cf-11 and (iii) functionally characterize the candidate genes. (wur.nl)
  • C. lunata and B. maydis have a similar proportion of protein-encoding genes highly homologous to experimentally proven pathogenic genes from pathogen-host interaction database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Pathogen-Host Interaction database was developed to utilise effectively the growing number of verified genes that mediate an organism's ability to cause disease and / or to trigger host responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was an up-regulation of genes in the subtelomeric regions of the genome as the interaction progressed. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • This study shows that A. fumigatus adapts to phagocytosis by iDCs by utilising genes that allow it to survive the interaction rather than just up-regulation of specific virulence genes. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The beta and gamma subunits are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Strong evidence of the recent lateral gene transfer of the ToxA gene from S. nodorum to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis has been obtained. (nih.gov)
  • The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. (g3journal.org)
  • By investigating the 3-dimensional structures of effectors from the rice blast fungus M. oryzae, we discovered an effector family comprising structurally conserved but sequence-unrelated effectors from M. oryzae and the phylogenetically distant wheat pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis that we named MAX-effectors (M. oryzae Avrs and ToxB). (prolekare.cz)
  • The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pathogenicity associated genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. (scielo.org.za)
  • 8,9 In F. oxysporum, genes that encode cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs), such as endo-polygalacturonase (pg1), exo-polygalacturonase (pgx4), pectate lyase (pl1), xylanase and a plant defence detoxifying enzyme like tomatinase, have been identified in F. oxysporum f. sp. (scielo.org.za)
  • The STE4 and STE18 genes of yeast encode potential beta and gamma subunits of the mating factor receptor-coupled G protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, we show that VdAve1, and also the newly identified antimicrobial effector VdAMP2, are exploited for microbiome manipulation in the soil environment, where the fungus resides in absence of a host. (nature.com)
  • Proteinaceous effectors are synthesized intracellularly and must be externalized to interact with host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteinaceous effectors are initially synthesized intracellularly and require relocation to the extracellular space (apoplastic effectors) or subsequent import into the host cell cytoplasm or specific organelles (cytoplasmic effectors). (frontiersin.org)
  • As a typical example, the bacterial effector AvrPto physically interacts with plant FLS2, a receptor kinase recognized by Flg22, inhibiting the kinase activity of PRRs and suppressing host PTI 4 . (nature.com)
  • Historically, any pathogen effector protein that was recognized by an R gene was termed an "avirulence" ( avr ) gene, since the presence of the effector gene in the pathogen prevents it from successfully infecting a host plant with the matching R gene. (genetics.org)
  • When a specific NE is recognized by the corresponding host gene, a host "defense response" ensues, which leads to programmed cell death allowing these necrotrophs to penetrate, feed, and sporulate. (g3journal.org)
  • and the dominant alleles of the host NE recognition genes are considered susceptibility genes. (g3journal.org)
  • Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated tools for investigating gene function in cereal plants and their pathogens: virus-induced gene silencing, host-mediated gene silencing, and virus-mediated overexpression of heterologous protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Host‐induced gene silencing of an important pathogenicity factor PsCPK1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A fungal mycelium forms between the cuticle and underlying epidermal tissue, developing asexually the conidia , that germinate on fresh areas of the host tree, which in turn produce another generation of conidial spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The related Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum both grow in intercellular spaces in close vicinity of mesophyll cells, but have different lifestyles and infect different host plants. (wur.nl)
  • As fungal secondary metabolites are biologically active compounds, including host-specific toxins and mycotoxins. (wur.nl)
  • EffePlant pathogens use a wide arsenal of effectors to colonize their host. (wur.nl)
  • Tanaka S, Djamei A, Presti LL (2015) Experimental approaches to investigate effector translocation into host cells in the Ustilago maydis/maize pathosystem. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • These genes play a role in escaping host defence responses and in cell wall degradation. (scielo.org.za)
  • What we have discovered is a naturally-occurring cross-kingdom RNAi phenomenon between a fungal pathogen and a plant host that serves as an advanced virulence mechanism," Jin said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Collectively, our results provide insights into shared and specific functions associated with each of these TFs and link the regulatory roles to the fungal growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, host penetration and pathogenicity. (jove.com)
  • Using stringent target prediction criteria, they identified a total of 73 B. cinerea (Bc) sRNAs anticipated to target host genes in both plants. (asmblog.org)
  • We will apply a comparative transcriptomics approach and functional assays to identify aphid effectors as potential determinants of host range. (europa.eu)
  • Different forms of sRNAs, with specific modes of action, regulate changes in the host transcriptome primarily through post-transcriptional gene silencing and occasionally through translational repression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic constructs designed to silence pest and pathogen genes can be stably inserted into the host plant genome through a variety of methods, such as particle bombardment or Agrobacterium ‐mediated transformation. (els.net)
  • Each R protein detects a pathogen-derived effector molecule or its action on a host target protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • Three of the genes highlighted earlier in plants challenged by both BB and BL were also found induced in stem under GM challenge. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that Pip1-depleted tomato plants are hyper-susceptible to fungal, bacterial, and oomycete plant pathogens, demonstrating that Pip1 is an important broad-range immune protease. (wur.nl)
  • Plants expressing single or multiple constructs or displaying suppression of target genes were analyzed for TAG content by GC-MS. These results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering sugarcane for accumulation of lipids in vegetative biomass and will open new prospects for biofuel applications. (sivb.org)
  • T 0 and T 1 plants have been obtained and confirmed for the gene of interest. (sivb.org)
  • Fungal plant pathogens are of outstanding economic and ecological importance and cause destructive diseases on many cultivated and wild plants. (prolekare.cz)
  • The Ascomycota form the largest phylum in the fungal kingdom and show a wide diversity of lifestyles, some involving beneficial or harmful associations with plants. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Avr genes are thought to undergo rapid changes to evade detection by plants that possess R genes, which means that many strains of Phytophthora and potato are likely to be evolving at the present time. (cshlpress.com)
  • Surprisingly, the pi3.4 gene does not code for an effector - a small protein that elicits a defense response in plants," adds Govers. (cshlpress.com)
  • Monitoring field populations of plant pathogens at the genome level will be instrumental for predicting the durability of R genes in crop plants. (cshlpress.com)
  • The entry of molecular biology into breeding programs in the 1980s enabled knowledge of genetic determinants of phenotypes and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in which DNA-based molecular markers are used to screen germplasm for individual plants that have desired forms of genes, known as alleles. (nap.edu)
  • It is this that often makes it difficult to grow plants that remain immune to a fungal pathogen over many years. (healthcanal.com)
  • Although it is possible, scientists need to work hard to achieve it, and growers need to grow plants with enough immune genes to prevent new outbreaks of disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • Luckily, some plants also have immune genes that produce receptors to recognise the effectors and so defend themselves against the fungus. (healthcanal.com)
  • As they evolve, wild plants also spontaneously develop new immune genes through mutation and recombination, in a manner somewhat comparable to that of our own immune genes, which produce antibodies. (healthcanal.com)
  • Plants with new immune genes can therefore continue to defend themselves against the pathogen, so that the fungus has no chance. (healthcanal.com)
  • They search for immune genes in wild plants which they transfer to the cultivated plants, either through cross-fertilisation or genetic modification. (healthcanal.com)
  • B. xylophilus has acquired the ability to parasitise plants independently from other economically important nematodes and has a complex life cycle that includes fungal feeding and a stage associated with an insect, as well as plant parasitism. (plos.org)
  • Many pathogens of plants and animals deliver effectors into their hosts in order to suppress immune responses. (asmblog.org)
  • Two P. sojae strains, P6594 and P6497, carry the identical Avr1b gene, but displayed distinct phenotypes on Rps1b soybean plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Manipulation of macrophage biology by the intracellular fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum . (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Two post-doctoral positions are available in the field of RNA biology in fungal pathogens in the laboratory of Ioannis Sterigiopoulos in the Department of Plant Pathology at UC Davis. (fungalgenomes.org)
  • The EuPathDB outreach team is therefore looking to grow, with particular interest in fungal biology expertise . (fungalgenomes.org)
  • Sixteen potential susceptibility genes were also identified. (sivb.org)
  • The NE ToxA is produced by both pathogens and has been associated with the development of both tan spot and SNB when recognized by the wheat Tsn1 gene. (g3journal.org)
  • Researchers also have access to the genome sequences of two other fungal pathogens of canola: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes stem rot, and Leptosphaeria bigobosa 'canadensis', discovered in Australia in 2008. (grdc.com.au)
  • C. heterostrophus (yellow, Ch), G. moniliformis (blue, Gm), and B. fuckeliana (green, Bf) sequences were obtained by homology and splice consensus-based manual predictions from TMRI fungal genome sequences. (asm.org)
  • Small RNAs - the secret agents for fungal attacks. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Researchers created a set of guide RNAs that were effective against 94 percent of the genes in a lipid-prolific yeast. (doe.gov)
  • RNA interference or RNAi is a conserved gene regulatory mechanism that is guided by small RNAs for silencing (or suppressing) genes. (healthcanal.com)
  • 2014) A secreted Ustilago maydis effector promotes virulence by targeting anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • Genes related to cytotoxicity were differentially regulated but the gliotoxin biosynthesis genes were down regulated over the time course, while Aspf1 was up-regulated at 9 h and 12 h. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Additional greenhouse tests revealed costs of effector gene loss on in planta growth and further showed that the effects on lesion development were separable from the effects on growth. (genetics.org)
  • Additionally, the fungal transcriptome was analyzed at 48 hours after inoculation in planta . (osti.gov)
  • Czedik-Eysenberg A, Rabe F, ... Djamei A (2017) Overrepresentation Analyses of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Smut Fungus Ustilago bromivora during Saprophytic and in planta Growth. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • While many such gene matches are predicted, only a few have been confirmed by molecular and functional studies. (cshlpress.com)
  • RIVERSIDE, Calif. - A research team led by a molecular plant pathologist at the University of California, Riverside has discovered the mechanism by which an aggressive fungal pathogen infects almost all fruits and vegetables. (healthcanal.com)
  • 29073135 ). Required for pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced suppression of necrotrophic fungal (e.g. (uniprot.org)
  • Pierre de Wit showed how this gene-for-gene system works at the molecular level, and was therefore one of the pioneers of molecular phytopathology. (healthcanal.com)
  • After all, making a plant immune to one form of fungus is not too hard but, just like flu viruses, fungal plant pathogens continue to develop new variants as they adapt to and elude the plant's immune system. (healthcanal.com)
  • Because there are so many, there is always the chance of a spontaneous mutation, resulting in the fungus suddenly producing a slightly different effector protein. (healthcanal.com)
  • And, perversely, the fungus uses the plant's own RISCs to silence the plant's defense genes. (asmblog.org)
  • A high-throughput gene-silencing system for the functional assessment of defense-related genes in barley epidermal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • vesicatoria ( Xav ) and examined the effect of the loss of a functional gene product on several important fitness parameters in the field. (genetics.org)
  • Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional assays, such as leaf infiltration using Agrobacterium for delivery of cloned fungal effectors, are being developed. (usda.gov)
  • The role of effector genes in the context of fungal endophytes could shed light on the level of functional equivalence between plant pathogens and endophytes. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 2019) A kiwellin disarms the metabolic activity of a secreted fungal virulence factor. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. (frontiersin.org)
  • The web-accessible database catalogues experimentally verified pathogenicity, virulence and effector genes from bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens which infect animal, plant and fungal hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other R genes allow growth for a short time until pathogen recognition occurs, at which time a macroscopic hypersensitive response develops. (plantphysiol.org)