CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C57BLCytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.ral GTP-Binding Proteins: A family of ubiquitously expressed MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in intracellular signal transduction. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesGTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Xanthomonas: A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.ral Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It also has GDP exchange activity towards other MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Cell SeparationOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Receptors, OX40: A tumor necrosis family receptor with specificity for OX40 LIGAND. It is found on the surface of activated T-LYMPHOCYTES where it plays a role in enhancing cytokine production and proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.ras GTPase-Activating Proteins: PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptors, Interleukin-7: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Ralstonia solanacearum: A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.Xanthomonas campestris: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.Allosteric Site: A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-7 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-7.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Effector[edit]. The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain, is the main regulatory organ for the human ...
Their key effector cytokine is IL-10. Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 ... They are triggered by IL-12 and their effector cytokines are IFN-γ and IL-2. The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are ... Determination of the effector T cell response[edit]. Helper T cells are capable of influencing a variety of immune cells, and ... The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. The key Th2 ...
Effectors[edit]. Effectors are proteins encoded by pathogens, which act to effect a response from a host cell - often ... Where a host variety is able to recognise and mount a resistance response to the presence of an effector, the effector is ... Presently, only one effector gene, AvrVg, eliciting a resistance response in Apple has been identified in V. inaequalis [3] ...
Effector[edit]. Effector cells are the superset of all the various T cell types that actively respond immediately to a stimulus ... Effector memory T cells (TEM cells and TEMRA cells) express CD45RO but lack expression of CCR7 and L-selectin. They also have ... MAIT cells display innate, effector-like qualities.[16][17] In humans, MAIT cells are found in the blood, liver, lungs, and ... Williams MA, Bevan MJ (2007-01-01). "Effector and memory CTL differentiation". Annual Review of Immunology. 25 (1): 171-92. doi ...
Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors,[55] while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator.[56] ... General purpose effectors[edit]. Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands, like the Shadow Hand, MANUS,[ ... One of the most common effectors is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation, it consists of just two fingers which can open ... Inverse kinematics refers to the opposite case in which required joint values are calculated for given end effector values, as ...
Fax/Email Gateways Provided in Canada". EFFector. Electronic Frontier Foundation. 29 October 1993. Retrieved 2007-11-20. [Vol 6 ...
Some refer to these organisms as "cold-blooded". effector . effector cell Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes ... plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the ...
Another well characterized class of T3SS effectors are Transcription Activator-like effectors (TAL effectors) from Xanthomonas ... Effector mechanisms. Although much was revealed since the beginning of the 21st century about the ways in which T3SS effectors ... after they participate in pore formation they enter the cell and act as bona fide effectors. T3SS effectors manipulate host ... binding to the genes encoding their effectors and inducing their transcription and thereby the production of more effectors. ...
Effectors. *Nutrient status. *Genetics. *Host specificity. *Interactions between factors. Symmetric and asymmetric cleavage[ ...
Activation of effector cells[edit]. To combat pathogens that replicate outside cells, antibodies bind to pathogens to link them ... whilst Fc mediated effects are directed at effector cells or effector molecules (see below). ... The engagement of a particular antibody with the Fc receptor on a particular cell triggers an effector function of that cell; ... Each isotype is adapted for a distinct function; therefore, after activation, an antibody with an IgG, IgA, or IgE effector ...
The following is the Effector Kielce roster in the 2015-16 PlusLiga. The following is the Indykpol AZS Olsztyn roster in the ... "Team Roster - Effector Kielce". Retrieved 31 August 2016. "Team Roster - Indykpol AZS Olsztyn". Retrieved 31 August 2016. "Team ...
Characterization of effector cells". Int. J. Cancer. 16 (2): 230-9. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910160205. PMID 1080480. CS1 maint: ... Later that same year, Ronald Herberman published similar data with respect to the unique nature of the mouse effector cell. The ... NK cells differ from natural killer T cells (NKTs) phenotypically, by origin and by respective effector functions; often, NKT ... In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered ...
Khawaja AM, Rogers DF (Jul 1996). "Tachykinins: receptor to effector". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology ...
"Team Roster - Effector Kielce". Retrieved 5 February 2015. "Team Roster - Indykpol AZS Olsztyn". Retrieved 5 February 2015. " ... Head coach: Gheorghe Cretu The following is the Effector Kielce roster in the 2014-15 PlusLiga. Head coach: Dariusz Daszkiewicz ...
The following is the Effector Kielce roster in the 2016-17 Młoda Liga. The following is the Indykpol AZS Olsztyn roster in the ... "Team Roster - Effector Kielce". Retrieved 14 October 2017. "Team Roster - Indykpol AZS Olsztyn". Retrieved 14 October 2017. " ...
The following is the Effector Kielce roster in the 2016-17 PlusLiga. The following is the Espadon Szczecin roster in the 2016- ... "Team Roster - Effector Kielce". Retrieved 12 October 2017. "Team Roster - Espadon Szczecin". Retrieved 12 October 2017. "Team ...
EstEcho (images). Ace Tone Twin Ace (FW-1). effector.hamazo.tv (images). Ace Tone Wah Master (WM-1). effector.hamazo.tv (images ...
Characterization of effector cells". International Journal of Cancer. 2. 16 (2): 203-239. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910160205. PMID ... After that, much of Herberman's research focused on characterizing these natural effector cells and on their role in resisting ...
EffectorsEdit. RAPLEdit. The identification of Rap1 effector proteins has provided important insights into mechanisms by which ... An additional Rap1 effector provides a link between Rap1 and the actin cytoskeleton. RIAM (Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter ... The PKD-Rap1 interaction may thus be central to the subsequent activation of Rap1 and triggering of downstream effectors such ... has recently been identified as a RAPL effector.[7] TCR-mediated activation of Mst1 is dependent on RAPL, and TCR-mediated ...
TALENs can be designed to cleave a sequence specified by the sequence of the transcription activator-like effector portion of ... The DNA binding domain is a sequence-specific transcription activator-like effector sequence while the DNA cleaving domain ... Sun N, Zhao H (July 2013). "Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs): a highly efficient and versatile tool for ... Another technology made possible by prokaryotic genome manipulation is the use of transcription activator-like effector ...
Their effector proteins are unknown. By combination of different α, β and γ subunits, a great variety (>1000) G proteins can be ... Both Gα-GTP and Gβγ can now activate separate and/or the same effector molecules, thus sending the signal further down the ... The i stands for inhibition of the adenylate cyclase; another effector molecule for this protein family is phospholipase C. ... These proteins usually have phospholipase C as effector protein. G12 family. These G proteins can be activated by thromboxan ...
The category of effector T cell is a broad one that includes various T cell types that actively respond to a stimulus, such as ... Note- CD44 expression is usually used to distinguish murine naive from memory T cells). Effector memory T cells (TEM cells and ... Historically, memory T cells were thought to belong to either the effector or central memory subtypes, each with their own ... Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ...
... is an antiviral effector. In Old world monkeys APOBEC3H has efficient antiviral activity against primate lentiviruses ...
Drp1, which is a member of the dynamin superfamily of proteins, consists of a GTPase and GTPase effector domain that are ... Lackner LL, Horner JS, Nunnari J (Aug 2009). "Mechanistic analysis of a dynamin effector". Science. 325 (5942): 874-7. doi: ...
Abo A, Qu J, Cammarano MS, Dan C, Fritsch A, Baud V, Belisle B, Minden A (November 1998). "PAK4, a novel effector for Cdc42Hs, ... Hirsch DS, Pirone DM, Burbelo PD (January 2001). "A new family of Cdc42 effector proteins, CEPs, function in fibroblast and ... Zhang B, Chernoff J, Zheng Y (April 1998). "Interaction of Rac1 with GTPase-activating proteins and putative effectors. A ... Bishop AL, Hall A (June 2000). "Rho GTPases and their effector proteins". The Biochemical Journal. 348: 241-255. doi:10.1042/ ...
L. pneumophilamutants lacking the five effectors still activated TLRs and NF-κB, but because the mutants permitted normal IκB ... For virulence, L. pneumophila requires a Dot/Icm type IV secretion system that translocates bacterial effectors to the host ... Here we demonstrate that this Dot/Icm-dependent response, which we term the effector-triggered response (ETR), requires five ... Upon infection of macrophages with virulent L. pneumophila, these five effectors caused a global decrease in host translation, ...
... ... Molecular mechanism for the subversion of the retromer coat by the Legionella effector RidL ...
However, virulence targets and modes of action of their effectors are unknown. Effector AVR3a from potato blight pathogen ... Phytophthora infestans effector AVR3a is essential for virulence and manipulates plant immunity by stabilizing host E3 ligase ... 2010) Phytophthora infestans effector AVR3a is essential for virulence and manipulates plant immunity by stabilizing host E3 ... Remarkably, given the potential for hundreds of effector genes in the P. infestans genome, silencing Avr3a compromises P. ...
I found that effectors Lpg0160 and AnkX bind PIPs via regions close to their C-termini. The C-terminal region of Lpg0160 binds ... These effector proteins hijack endoplasmic reticulum derived vesicles and allow for the formation of a replication permissive ... In this study, I analyzed four novel Legionella pneumophila effector proteins that bind to PIPs and identified the PIP binding ... IDENTIFYING PHOSPHOINOSITIDE BINDING REGIONS OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA EFFECTOR PROTEINS FOR USE AS NEW LIPID BIOSENSORS. ...
Sreelatha, A., Nolan, C., Park, B. C., Pawłowski, K., Tomchick, D. R., & Tagliabracci, V. S. (2020). A Legionella effector ... A Legionella effector kinase is activated by host inositol hexakisphosphate. Anju Sreelatha, Christine Nolan, Brenden C. Park, ... A Legionella effector kinase is activated by host inositol hexakisphosphate. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2020 May 1;295(18 ... A Legionella effector kinase is activated by host inositol hexakisphosphate. / Sreelatha, Anju; Nolan, Christine; Park, Brenden ...
Effector may refer to: Effector (biology), a molecule that binds to a protein and thereby alters the activity of that protein ... Effector (album), a music album by the Experimental Techno group Download EFFector, a publication of the Electronic Frontier ... proteins secreted by bacterial pathogens into the cells of their host Effector cell Affect (disambiguation). ... Foundation Effexor, a brand name for the antidepressant venlafaxine Bacterial effector protein, ...
The term effector is used in other fields of biology. For instance, the effector end of a neuron is the terminus where an axon ... Plant pathogenic fungi use two distinct effector secretion systems and each secretory pathway is specific to an effector family ... Allosteric effectors can bind to regulatory proteins involved in RNA transcription in order to change its activity. In this way ... In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its ...
Tachykinins: receptor to effector.. Khawaja AM1, Rogers DF.. Author information. 1. National Heart and Lung Institute (Imperial ...
... Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara,1 Ana Paula Lepique,1 and Alexandre S. Basso2 ... Both types of lymphocytes need more than the antigen to mount an efficient effector response. For example, B cells may respond ... B in the T cell activation and effector functions. R. V. Luckheeram et al. discuss stimuli that promote CD4 T cell ... Lymphocytes are essential in combating infections; they display powerful effector mechanisms and their activity must be ...
This late response involves the recruitment of other effector cells, notably TH2 lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, which ... Effector mechanisms in allergic reactions - Immunobiology. Effector mechanisms in allergic reactions - Immunobiology. ... Effector mechanisms in allergic reactions. Allergic reactions are triggered when allergens cross-link preformed IgE bound to ... The eosinophil is now primed to carry out its effector activity, for example degranulation in response to antigen that cross- ...
Hippo pathway effector Yap promotes cardiac regeneration. Mei Xin, Yuri Kim, Lillian B. Sutherland, Masao Murakami, Xiaoxia Qi ... a downstream effector of IGF-1 signaling (Fig. 6B). In addition, smooth muscle α-actin, which is expressed in the fetal heart ... we observed gene dosage-dependent effects of these terminal effectors in the Hippo pathway on cardiac growth and function. ... The Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily ancient cascade of kinases and effector proteins that control cell ...
14] HIP-1 contains a pseudo death effector domain (pDED), thats why the overexpression of HIP-1 induces apoptosis in several ... The death-effector domain (DED) is a protein interaction domain found only in eukaryotes that regulates a variety of cellular ... PED is a small, non-catalytic, protein consisting of an N-terminal death-effector domain (DED) and a C-terminal tail with ... Death Effector Domain (DED) and a Caspase Recruitment Domain (CARD) that are englobed in a structure called pro-domain, which ...
... these Fc effector bioassays can strengthen your biologic discovery and development pipeline and provide the accurate, precise, ... Fc Effector Activity Bioassays. Our ADCC and ADCP Reporter Bioassays are biologically relevant, MOA-based assays that can be ... Introduction to Fc Effector Activity. Fc receptors are proteins expressed on the surface of immune cells that contribute to the ... Shop all Fc Effector Activity Bioassays. Sort by:. Newest. Alphabetical A-Z. Alphabetical Z-A. ...
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effector definition: 1. a muscle, gland, cell, etc. capable of responding to a stimulus, esp. to a nerve impulse 2. that part ... effector. ef·fec·tor. * a muscle, gland, cell, etc. capable of responding to a stimulus, esp. to a nerve impulse ... How would you define effector? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.. ...
... resulted in the T cells producing less of the effector cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) than was produced by activated T cells ... aerobic glycolysis is used by activated T cells to ensure optimal IFN-γ production and effector function by alleviating ... Posttranscriptional control of T cell effector function by aerobic glycolysis. Cell 153, 1239-1251 (2013). [PubMed] ...
The term effector is used in other fields of biology. For instance, the effector end of a neuron is the terminus where an axon ... Plant pathogenic fungi use two distinct effector secretion systems[4] and each secretory pathway is specific to an effector ... For use of the term in immunology, see Effector cell.. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help ... Allosteric effectors can bind to regulatory proteins involved in RNA transcription in order to change its activity.[1] In this ...
S3). We find that PAK4N45 extends from the substrate binding site of PAK4 to the effector binding site of CDC42 (Fig. 3 C and D ... For protein kinase effectors, the interaction with GTP-loaded GTPase is often associated with increased catalytic activity and ... 1998) PAK4, a novel effector for Cdc42Hs, is implicated in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and in the formation of ... CDC42 binds PAK4 via an extended GTPase-effector interface. Byung Hak Ha and Titus J. Boggon ...
In some embodiments these tools include a proximally-located actuator for the operation of a distal end effector, as well as ... A force limiter mechanism protects the end effector and manipulated objects from the harm of potentially excessive force ... Control mechanisms and methods refine operator control of end effector actuation and of these articulational and rotational ... A multi-state ratchet for end effector actuation provides enablement-disablement options with tactile feedback. An articulation ...
... altered affinity for an effector ligand such as Fc receptor (FcR) on a cell or the C1 component of complement is produced by ... Antibodies have several effector functions mediated by binding of effector molecules. For example, binding of the C1 component ... It is further envisaged that an effector function may also be altered by modifying a site not directly involved in effector ... An effector function of an antibody may be altered by altering, ie enhancing or reducing, the affinity of the antibody for an ...
Effector Mechanisms, Volume 345 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121822460, 9780080496931 ... G Protein Pathways, Part C: Effector Mechanisms, Volume 345 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... Identification of Putative Direct Effectors for Ga0 Using Yeast Two-Hybrid Method. Identification of Transmembrane Adenylyl ...
The end effector has at least a portion that is movable in response to opening and closing motions applied thereto by a closure ... The locking system interfaces with the closure member and is activated upon application of a closure motion to the end effector ... An articulation control system is provided to articulate the end effector relative to the shaft. An articulation locking system ... Hand-held surgical instruments that have and end effector attached to an elongate shaft are disclosed. ...
... called effectors, as well as external machine components in the extracellular medium or directly into target cells. Comparison ... Bacterial secretion systems allow the transport of proteins, called effectors, as well as external machine components in the ... Flaugnatti N., Journet L. (2017) Identification of Effectors: Precipitation of Supernatant Material. In: Journet L., Cascales E ... A widespread bacterial type VI secretion effector superfamily identified using a heuristic approach. Cell Host Microbe 11:538- ...
Current is passed through the metal end effector and through an insulated conduit to the distal tip of the ceramic end effector ... A connection at the distal tip of the ceramic end effector allows the current to return along exposed conductive strip which is ... spaced apart from the metal end effector in cutting action by a gap of approximately 0.020 inches when the ceramic and metal ... electrosurgical instrument is provided with one metal and one ceramic end effector. ...
Moscou, M. J., and A. J. Bogdanove, 2009 A simple cipher governs DNA recognition by TAL effectors. Science 326: 1501. ... Bogdanove, A. J., S. Schornack and T. Lahaye, 2010 TAL effectors: finding plant genes for disease and defense. Curr. Opin. ... Targeting DNA Double-Strand Breaks with TAL Effector Nucleases Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Targeting DNA Double-Strand Breaks with TAL Effector Nucleases. Michelle Christian, Tomas Cermak, Erin L. Doyle, Clarice ...
  • Upon infection of macrophages with virulent L. pneumophila , these five effectors caused a global decrease in host translation, thereby preventing synthesis of IκB, an inhibitor of the NF-κB transcription factor. (purdue.edu)
  • L. pneumophila mutants lacking the five effectors still activated TLRs and NF-κB, but because the mutants permitted normal IκB synthesis, NF-κB activation was more transient and was not sufficient to fully induce the ETR. (purdue.edu)
  • they display powerful effector mechanisms and their activity must be regulated at all times to avoid self-tissue or cells destruction. (hindawi.com)
  • Control mechanisms and methods refine operator control of end effector actuation and of these articulational and rotational movements. (google.ca)
  • Just a few advancements already being researched in immune effector cellular therapy are additional markers for recognizing tumors, mechanisms to "turn off" immune effector cells when adverse events become too toxic, and allogeneic off-the-shelf products to reduce the time required to give patients the therapy. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • Despite the apparently broad roles played by CD11a in T effector immunity, however, the major mechanisms by which it controls inflammatory responses remain uncertain. (jimmunol.org)
  • The engagement of immune effector mechanisms including Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by therapeutic Abs is dependent on the interaction of the IgG Fc domain with FcγRs on effector cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The data presented here have implications for acquisition and control of early HIV-1 infection by NKs, MCs, and PMNs prior to activation of an adaptive immune response, at later stages in the presence of HIV-1-specific Abs, and are relevant to vaccine-induced anti- HIV-1 Ab-based effector mechanisms. (bl.uk)
  • Overcoming their currently limited efficacy requires a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling NK cell development and dampening their effector functions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Herein, we discuss the latest findings on moonlighting tandem repeat protein effectors and their secretion mechanisms, and novel molecular interkingdom interactions that provide insight into the intracellular pathobiology of ehrlichiae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After encounter with antigen, CD8 T cells differentiate into effector cells, which form a crucial arm of the adaptive immune response against intracellular pathogens through the action of cytokines and cell-mediated cytotoxicity ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC) providing cellular immunotherapy treatments developed a standardized discharge process to ensure optimal continuity of care following immune effector cell (IEC) therapy. (medworm.com)
  • Description: This training workshop is designed to educate participants on two key perspectives: building quality into their immune effector cell programs and performing peer-based inspections. (factwebsite.org)
  • Physicians wishing to train to become an inspector for the FACT Immune Effector Cell Accreditation Program must meet prerequisite education and experience requirements, submit a satisfactory inspector application, attend an in-person training workshop, view online videos, and complete a test on the requirements. (factwebsite.org)
  • Century was founded by Versant in 2018 and later that year formed a strategic partnership with FCDI, a subsidiary of Fujifilm Corporation, to develop iPSC-derived immune effector cells for cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • such "bridging" between the Fc[gamma]R on immune cells and TweakR on the tumor target cells, as suggested in the PBMC-tumor cell co-culture studies, is probably required for triggering effector cell activation in vivo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plants use highly specific NB-LRR immune receptors to recognize effectors in these stylet secretions. (wur.nl)
  • The SPRYSEC effector RBP-1 from G. pallida is recognized by the CC-NB-LRR immune receptor Gpa2 from potato and evasion of recognition depends on a single amino acid substitution. (wur.nl)
  • By contrast, agroinflitration assays showed that the co-expression of SPRYSEC19 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana suppresses effector- triggered programmed cell death mediated by several, but not all, CC-NB-LRR immune receptors. (wur.nl)
  • Immune effector cells are cells from the human body that have differentiated into a form capable of modulating or effecting an immune response. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • The Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) has developed new standards for immune effector cell therapy. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • For decades, laboratory scientists and physician investigators have been studying the potential of immune effector cells to help the human body either fight diseases and infections (such as cancer) or to stop attacking itself (in the presence of autoimmune disorders). (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • The Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) published the FACT Standards for Immune Effector Cells 7 in 2017 after several stakeholders expressed the need for increased training, process control, and adverse event management systems for collecting, processing, and administering these therapies. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • 8 The FACT Standards are applicable to immune effector cell therapies wherever they are administered, and have already contributed to the safety and quality of clinical trials, regulatory approval, and reimbursement, thereby increasing patient access to these lifesaving cells. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • We expect significant growth in many aspects of immune effector cellular therapy, similar to the growth and maturation of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) since FACT was formed over 20 years ago. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • David Maloney, MD, Medical Director of Cellular Immunotherapy at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Medical Director of the Bezos Family Immunotherapy Clinic at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, and a member of FACT's Immune Effector Cell Task Force, says, "The current CAR T-cell therapies need to become more effective, more affordable and safer. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • Effector proteins are the bad guys that help bacterial pathogens do their job of infecting the host by crippling the bodys immune system. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Crucial functional characterization information includes how strongly an antibody drug candidate binds its target(s) and to what extent will engage a patient's immune system to bring about cell-mediated and/or complement-mediated cytotoxic effects (effector functions). (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Once an antibody is bound to its target, Fc regions may bind to Fcγ receptors on immune cells or the C1q complement protein, which in turn can bring about additional effector functions. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • The Prologue of Part VI addressed the various facets of innate immune effector responses which characterize the first line of our defense system. (springer.com)
  • c , complete construct that contains genes encoding the nuclease engineered to recognize the target sequence and the effector. (genetics.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the potencies of several effector genes - when expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) - to abolish odor-guided behavior in three different bioassays. (biologists.org)
  • Interestingly, the impact of the effector genes differed between chemotactic assays (i.e. the fly has to follow an odor gradient to localize the odor source) and anemotactic assays (i.e. the fly has to walk upwind after detecting an attractive odorant). (biologists.org)
  • Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) made by Context-Dependent Assembly (CoDA) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) provide robust and user-friendly technologies for efficiently inactivating genes in zebrafish. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we report a new class of sequence-specific nucleases created by fusing transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to the catalytic domain of the Fok I endonuclease. (genetics.org)
  • Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have rapidly developed into a powerful tool for genome editing. (springer.com)
  • Uso do silenciamento gênico mediado por RNA de interferência e de TAL effector nucleases. (usp.br)
  • Algumas ferramentas como as TAL Effector Nucleases (TALENs) e o RNA interferência (RNAi) podem ser utilizadas para aumentar a taxa de integração específica e assim melhorar a eficiência e o direcionamento da edição gênica. (usp.br)
  • TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) and RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to increase the rate of specific integration and thus improving the efficiency of gene editing. (usp.br)
  • We show that HR1b binds to the C-terminal end of the effector loop and switch 2 of Rac1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Part of the process of establishing this niche is the export of effector proteins to co-opt host cell functions in favor of the. (asm.org)
  • In contrast with Notch, we show that the transcription factor CSL (also known as RBP-Jκ), a key effector of canonical Notch signaling endowed with intrinsic transcription-repressive functions, plays a tumor-promoting function in SCC development. (jci.org)
  • Follow-up analyses revealed that anti-Env IgG3 breadth correlated with reduced HIV-1 risk, anti-Env IgA negatively modified infection risk by Fc effector functions, and that vaccine recipients with a specific FcγRIIa single-nucleotide polymorphism locus had a stronger correlation with decreased HIV-1 risk when ADCP, Env-FcγRIIa, and IgG3 binding were high. (jci.org)
  • These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. (frontiersin.org)
  • The main CD8 effector functions are believed to be the production of IFN-γ and cytotoxic activity (CTL), which are induced after extensive division. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although normal naïve T cell functions were retained in pep -deficient mice, effector/memory T cells demonstrated enhanced activation of Lck. (sciencemag.org)
  • The 30th New Phytologist Symposium clearly illustrated this theme, as an international panel of c . 150 scientists was brought together to discuss current efforts to decipher effector functions within a wide range of biological systems. (inra.fr)
  • Therefore, the aim of our study was to clarify these interactions with regard to the effector functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). (asm.org)
  • AMB led to activation of almost all effector functions besides impaired phagocytosis, whereas LAMB did not alter any effector functions. (asm.org)
  • Independent from class, antifungal agents show variable influence on neutrophil effector functions in vitro . (asm.org)
  • In recent years, immense progress has been made toward understanding the functions of effectors from a range of plant pathogens, such as oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. (apsnet.org)
  • Here we report genetic studies in a Drosophila model to define S100A4 effector functions that mediate metastatic dissemination of mutant Ras-induced tumors in the developing nervous system. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Even if effector functions are not considered to contribute to mechanism of action (MoA), regulatory authorities require an understanding of all possible biological activities because effector functions also can have implications for drug safety. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • During tomato leaf colonization, the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum secretes several effector proteins into the apoplast. (wiley.com)
  • The p21-activated kinase (PAK) group of serine/threonine kinases are downstream effectors of RHO GTPases and play important roles in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell growth, survival, polarity, and development. (pnas.org)
  • The RAS effector RAS- and RAB-interacting protein 1 (RIN1) activates its own downstream effectors, the small GTPase RAB5 and the tyrosine kinase Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase (ABL), to modulate endocytosis and cytoskeleton remodeling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • cytoplasmic effectors : proteins which enter the host cytoplasm, they are accumulated into a complex plant-derived structure named the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and they are later translocated across the EIHM inside the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily ancient cascade of kinases and effector proteins that control cell proliferation and organ size ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • An antibody with an altered function, e.g. altered affinity for an effector ligand such as Fc receptor (FcR) on a cell or the C1 component of complement is produced by replacing at least one amino acid residue in the constant portion of the antibody with a different residue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Zinc as a paracrine effector in pancreatic islet cell death. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In wild-type cells, Jak1 degradation lessens CD4+ cell sensitivity to cytokines during TCR stimulation, while in Ndfip-deficient cells cytokine responsiveness persists, promoting increased expansion and survival of pathogenic effector T cells. (nature.com)
  • Some of the effectors interfere with small GTPases, phosphoinositide metabolism or the ubiquitination machinery, and modulate host cell signalling and vesicle trafficking. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Several distinct properties of the IgE repertoire determine effector cell degranulation in response to allergen challenge. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is not clear which transmembrane domain is optimal for CAR based therapies and testing distinct versions of this domain in the context of a specific target antigen and various effector cell population may be necessary. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As few as 56 CD8 + inflammatory effector cells in a lymph node can mobilize 10 7 cells in 24 h, including lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and several accessory cell types involved in inflammatory reactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In turn, this resulted in increased expansion and function of the effector/memory T cell pool, which was also associated with spontaneous development of germinal centers and elevated serum antibody levels. (sciencemag.org)
  • 9 ), for example, showed that an Ab of the hIgG4 isotype, which is inert with human effector cells, does induce ADCC of colorectal carcinoma cell lines by mouse macrophages and is equally potent to hIgG1 in a mouse in vivo model. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, in mature NK cells, IP 4 limits NKR induced IFNγ secretion, granule exocytosis and target-cell killing, in part by inhibiting the PIP 3 effector-kinase Akt. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Upon infection, an activated CD4 + T cell produces terminally differentiated effector cells and renews itself for continued defense. (rupress.org)
  • Modulation of host cell function by Legionella pneumophila type IV effectors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • T cell differentiation and optimal effector function is key to understanding T cell pathologies and discovering new molecular targets and strategies for therapies. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In this work, variants of qacR, a tetR family repressor, were generated by compu- tational protein design and screened in a cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) system for responsiveness to a new targeted effector. (caltech.edu)
  • Natural killer cell (NK cell)-based immunotherapy of cancer is hampered by the transient effector function of NK cells. (rupress.org)
  • IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells accumulated in the tumor tissue and persisted at high cell numbers with potent effector function that required the presence of CD4 + T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the activation of NK cells with certain cytokines resulted in an NK cell population with enhanced effector function upon restimulation, indicating that NK cells are able to retain memory of prior activation. (rupress.org)
  • Most antibodies are found in body fluids and engage effector cells, through receptors specific for the Fc constant regions, only after binding specific antigen through the antibody variable regions. (nih.gov)
  • To address these questions, we compared antigen-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues after viral or bacterial infections. (sciencemag.org)
  • While testing their CTL activity (by co-injecting them with antigen-loaded and non-loaded targets directly into the spleen), these effectors did not kill loaded targets, but rather induced the local retention of both antigen-loaded and non-loaded targets ( 2 ), mimicking the events described in non-specific phase of lymphocyte trapping ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • a conductor beginning toward the proximal end of said non-conductive blank and proceeding toward the distal effector end and then connecting to an exposed electrode on the interfacing side which proceeds toward the proximal end of said non-conductive blank, said conductor adapted to be connected to a second pole of a bipolar electrical source. (google.co.uk)
  • 8. The bipolar instrument of claim 7 further comprising a cam socket having a proximal end and a distal end, said distal end having a first side portion with a groove defined therein to receive the post protruding from the first end effector, and having a second side portion with a groove defined therein to receive the post protruding from the second end effector. (google.co.uk)
  • For example, knowledge regarding likely effector functionality can be critical to tumor-targeting MAb therapies for which ADCC and/or CDC can be important contributors to overall efficacy. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • The Salmonella effectors SseK1 and SseK3 are arginine glycosyltransferases that modify mammalian death domain containing proteins with N -acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) when overexpressed ectopically or as recombinant protein fusions. (rcsb.org)
  • Therefore, the type I PAKs are considered classical RHO GTPase effector kinases because they display increased catalytic activity upon RHO binding, but the type II PAKs represent a more complicated example of GTPase control of kinase signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Together our data suggest that salmonellae carrying sseK1 and sseK3 employ the glycosyltransferase effectors to antagonise different components of death receptor signaling. (rcsb.org)
  • HRAS-Tyr(137) phosphorylation enhanced HRAS signaling capacity in cells, however, as reflected by a 4-fold increase in the association of phosphorylated HRAS(G12V) with its effector protein RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RAF1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By population genome sequencing of race 1 and race 2 strains, the effector that is recognized by Ve1 was recently identified as Ave1 (Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). (wur.nl)
  • For instance, the effector end of a neuron is the terminus where an axon makes contact with the muscle or organ that it stimulates or suppresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strikingly, CD8 memory T cells isolated from nonlymphoid tissues exhibited effector levels of lytic activity directly ex vivo, in contrast to their splenic counterparts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Increased Jak1 signalling led to increased survival and proliferation of these cells in vitro , while in vivo this drives an expanded population of pathogenic effector T cells. (nature.com)
  • Recently, mouse IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells were shown to persist with sustained effector function in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • These results point to the existence of a population of extralymphoid effector memory T cells poised for immediate response to infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • this effector population contracts after resolution of the infection, leading to a stable memory population of intermediate frequency ( 3-9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • How Plague-Causing Bacteria Disarm Host Defense ( Effector proteins are the bad guys that. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Currently, the field is moving rapidly from effector identification towards effector characterization, which provides a better understanding of how these effectors promote the establishment of a successful relationship with host plants. (inra.fr)
  • Current is passed through the metal end effector and through an insulated conduit to the distal tip of the ceramic end effector. (google.co.uk)
  • A connection at the distal tip of the ceramic end effector allows the. (google.co.uk)