Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Sphygmomanometers: Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Constriction: The act of constricting.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Hypotension, Orthostatic: A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.TetrazolesCatheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Its partial pressure contribution to air pressure increases, lowering the partial pressure contribution of the other ... Antarctica shows this effect to a unique degree because it is by far the continent with the lowest rate of precipitation on ... The maximum partial pressure (saturation pressure) of water vapor in air varies with temperature of the air and water vapor ... relative humidity occurs when the partial pressure of water vapor is equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure. This condition is ...
... 's antipsychotic effect is due to antagonism at dopamine and serotonin type 2 receptors, with greater activity at ... high or low blood pressure; loss of bladder control; muscle stiffness (severe); unusual increase in sweating; unusually pale ... Rare, serious side effects include convulsions (seizures); difficult or unusually fast breathing; fast or irregular heartbeat ... This may explain the lack of extrapyramidal effects. Propiomazine does not appear to block dopamine within the tubero- ...
The combined effect reduces blood pressure. The specific efficacy of each ARB within this class depends upon a combination of ... effect of angiotensin II. However, pressor inhibition is not a measure of blood pressure-lowering (BP) efficacy per se. The ... Dang A, Zhang Y, Liu G, Chen G, Song W, Wang B (January 2006). "Effects of losartan and irbesartan on serum uric acid in ... Some of these drugs have a uricosuric effect. In one study after 10 weeks of treatment with an ARB called losartan (Cozaar), 88 ...
Other side effects. The most common side effects are stomach problems (including vomiting, diarrhea, and nausea), and effects ... Dehydration and low blood pressure. Clofarabine can cause vomiting and diarrhea which may lead to low body fluid (dehydration ... Effects on pregnancy and breastfeeding. Girls and women should not become pregnant or breastfeed during treatment which may ... Serious side effects that can happen because of bone marrow suppression include severe infection (sepsis), bleeding, and anemia ...
... implicating a possible mutagenic or teratogenic effect. No effect on development could be attributed. The U.S. CDC's NIOSH ... increased blood pressure and heart rate; proteinuria, hematuria (blood in the urine), bladder injury; in animals: teratogenic ... At clear toxic doses of parent animals reproductive effects were limited to reduced implantation sites in F1 females associated ... effects The short-term NOAEL of 9.6 - 10 mg/kg bw/day was derived from 90-day rat, 90-day dog and 1-year dog studies and the ...
Ghosh SS, Gehr TW, Sica DA, Masilamani S, Ghosh S, Wang R, McGuire E (2006). "Effect of renalase inhibition on blood pressure ... Desir GV, Li Y, Liu D (2007). "Downregulation of cardiac renalase expression in CKD, and protective effect of renalase in acute ... A genome-wide association study and meta-analysis found that approximately 42 loci affect the risk of diabetes The data ... Injection of renalase in rodents transiently decreases blood pressure, heart rate, heart muscle contractility, and blood vessel ...
As depth increases, so does the pressure and hence the severity of the narcosis. The effects may vary widely from individual to ... The lungs and brain are particularly affected by high partial pressures of oxygen, such as are encountered in diving. The body ... 2003). "9: Pressure Effects". Bennett and Elliott's physiology and medicine of diving (5th Revised ed.). United States: ... Divers have to breathe a gas which is at the same pressure as their surroundings (ambient pressure), which can be much greater ...
... hyperbaric gases and their effects under pressure; links between the physiological effects of the hyperbaric environment and ... It includes the effects on the body of pressure on gases, the diagnosis and treatment of conditions caused by marine hazards ... As depth increases, so does the pressure and hence the severity of the narcosis. The effects may vary widely from individual to ... The lungs and brain are particularly affected by high partial pressures of oxygen, such as are encountered in diving. The body ...
Side effects include headache; runny nose; pain or pressure in the face; nausea; vomiting; and dry, itchy, sticky eyes. Serious ... These patents are in effect until dates ranging between July 17, 2018 and March 31, 2032. Novartis also maintains patents on ... in each affected eye beginning one day prior to cataract surgery, continued on the day of surgery and through the first two ... "Effect of preoperative use of topical prednisolone acetate, ketorolac tromethamine, nepafenac and placebo, on the maintenance ...
Air traffic was affected. According to Perils AG, property insurers may face costs of €300 million from the storm. "2011 Low ... Pressure Area naming lists". FU-Berlin. Retrieved 27 December 2011. "La tempête Joachim des 15 et 16 décembre 2011". Meteo ...
... which lessens the effect of pressure variation due to excursions away from holding pressure, thereby reducing the amount and ... A gas booster, to boost the pressure of the reclaimed gas to the storage pressure. A storage system of pressure vessels to hold ... ISBN 1-886699-01-1. Behnke, Albert R. (1942). "Effects of High Pressures; Prevention and Treatment of Compressed-air illness". ... These bubbles remain small due to the relatively small pressure ratio between storage and excursion pressure, and are generally ...
ISBN 1-886699-01-1. Behnke, Albert R (1942). "Effects of High Pressures; Prevention and Treatment of Compressed-air illness". ... Albert R. Behnke proposed the idea of exposing humans to increased ambient pressures long enough for the blood and tissues to ... Bond, George F (September 1964). "New Developments in high pressure living". Archives of Environmental Health. 9: 310-4. doi: ... Lord, GP; Bond, GF; Schaefer, KE (November 1966). "Breathing under high ambient pressure". Journal of Applied Physiology. 21 (6 ...
It is also known as quantum confinement effect. Band gaps also depend on pressure. Band gaps can be either direct or indirect, ... H. Unlu (1992). "A Thermodynamic Model for Determining Pressure and Temperature Effects on the Bandgap Energies and other ... The interaction between the lattice phonons and the free electrons and holes will also affect the band gap to a smaller extent ... In photonics, band gaps or stop bands are ranges of photon frequencies where, if tunneling effects are neglected, no photons ...
Chemical Watch, (6.10.2011). MEPs pressure EU Commission on EDCs, cocktail effect. Retrieved November 17, 2011. Environmental ...
Effect on blood pressure: 0.5 mg/kg (rat; i.v.) produces an increase in BP of 29 mm. LD50 (mouse; i.p.) = 100 mg/kg. The ... B.E. Smart (2001). "Fluorine substituent effects (on bioactivity". Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 109: 3-11. doi:10.1016/s0022- ...
Cartz, L.; Srinivasa, S.R.; Riedner, R.J.; Jorgensen, J.D.; Worlton, T.G. (1979). "Effect of pressure on bonding in black ... there is only a range of partial pressures at which it does. Heat can be applied to drive the reaction at higher pressures. In ... Burning phosphorus is difficult to extinguish and if it splashes onto human skin it has horrific effects. Early matches used ... It is obtained by heating white phosphorus under high pressures (about 12,000 standard atmospheres or 1.2 gigapascals). It can ...
Another common effect is hypertension (increased blood pressure). No interactions are described for either formulation. In wet ... Zaltrap has adverse effects typical of anti-cancer drugs, such as reduced blood cell count (leukopenia, neutropenia, ... A 2017 review update studying the effects of anti-VEGF drugs on diabetic macular edema found that while all three studied ... Common adverse effects of the eye formulation include conjunctival hemorrhage, eye pain, cataract, vitreous detachment, ...
"Effect of synthetic cannabinoids on elevated intraocular pressure". Ophthalmology. 88 (3): 270-277. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(81) ...
Antagonizes effect of agents that lower blood pressure. Severe hypertension with MAOIs and possibly tricyclic antidepressants. ... Low blood pressure caused by phenothiazines. Hypertension. Pheochromocytoma. Patient on MAOIs. For shock due to loss of blood ... It has a positive inotropic effect on the myocardium. AV conduction and refractory period of AV node is shortened with an ... Additive vasoconstricting effects with ergot alkaloids, oxytocin. Potentially Fatal: Risk of abnormal heart rhythm in people ...
... s usually form around high-pressure systems. These do not "contradict" the Coriolis effect; it predicts such ... Anticyclonic storms, as high-pressure systems, usually accompany cold weather and are frequently a factor in large snowstorms. ... Anticyclonic tornadoes often occur; while tornadoes' vortices are low-pressure regions, this occurs because tornadoes occur on ... a weather storm where winds around the storm flow in the direction opposite to that of the flow about a region of low pressure ...
Its dose and use is limited by its main side effect-postural hypotension, where there is a substantial drop in blood pressure ... Overall, this vasodilatory effect can decrease blood pressure. Similar to local anesthetics and sodium channel blocking ... These effects are mainly seen when the person is in the upright position. Long term labetalol use also has different effects ... it decreases the peripheral vascular resistance and systemic blood pressure while having little effect on the heart rate, ...
"Effect of powdered fermented milk with Lactobacillus helveticus on subjects with high-normal blood pressure or mild ... "Lactotripeptides Show No Effect on Human Blood Pressure". Hypertension. 51 (2): 399-405. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.098988 ... Ingestion of powdered milk fermented with L. helveticus was shown to decrease blood pressure due to the presence of ... Boelsma E, Kloek J (2009). "Lactotripeptides and antihypertensive effects: a critical review". The British journal of nutrition ...
The effect of intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure". The American Review of Respiratory Disease. 131 (5): 672-7. doi: ... "Performance of maximum inspiratory pressure tests and maximum inspiratory pressure reference equations for 4 race/ethnic groups ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) [2] "Predicted normal values for maximal respiratory pressures in caucasian ... but the former is more affected because of the increased airway resistance). This generates a reduced value (. Spirometry tests ...
"MEPs pressure EU Commission on EDCs, cocktail effect". Retrieved 30/11/11. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Wallström ... the length of the SIN List in comparison to the 15 chemicals nominated by the EU as SVHCs in October 2008 was used to pressure ...
Hill, L.; Barnard, H.; Sequeira, J. H. (1897). "The Effect of Venous Pressure on the Pulse". The Journal of Physiology. 21 (2-3 ... Hill's work on blood pressure led him to believe "the arterial pressure can be taken in man as rapidly, simply, and accurately ... Hill performed research into decompression sickness, oxygen toxicity, and effects of carbon dioxide in diving. Hill advocated ...
"Effect of antihypertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels in patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review ... Blood pressure lowering. Many international guidelines recommend blood pressure treatment targets that are lower than 140/90 ... in adults without symptoms whose blood pressure is greater than 135/80 mmHg.[65] For those whose blood pressure is less, the ... Intensive blood pressure management (less than 130/80 mmHg) as opposed to standard blood pressure management (less than 140-160 ...
... the effect of pressure on λmax, and the effect of pressure on absorbance at the λmax. We conclude that visual pigments of these ... are known to be pressure sensitive at pressures encountered in the deep-sea. Indeed, effects of pressure on the transmembrane ... The effect of hydrostatic pressure (0.1-54 MPa, equivalent to pressures experienced by fish from the oceans surface to depths ... This corresponds to a calculated λmax shift at 40 MPa pressure of 1.35 nm. Interestingly, pressure also affected the λmax of ...
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), despite its name, is an abnormal condition. It occurs in older adults when cerebrospinal ... Who is affected?. NPH is believed to account for 5% of all cases of dementia. The condition primarily affects older people, and ... Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH). Overview. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), despite its name, is an abnormal condition ... What is normal pressure hydrocephalus?. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a progressive condition that occurs when there ...
Overexpression of MAP 4 was found to affect neither the quantity nor the assembly of tubulin, nor did it affect microtubule ... As shown there, in the long-term pressure overload pulmonary artery banding group, RV systolic pressure was increased more than ... 1995) Load effects on gene expression during cardiac hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol 27:485-499, pmid:7760368.. ... Microtubule Stabilization in Pressure Overload Cardiac Hypertrophy. Hiroshi Sato, Toshio Nagai, Dhandapani Kuppuswamy, Takahiro ...
... minimum pressure technique and patent hemostasis, on radial artery occlusion (RAO) after transradial catheterization. ... The wristbands compressive pressure and duration of application have a direct effect on hemostasis; indeed, duration of ... Effect of duration of hemostatic compression on radial artery occlusion after transradial access. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. ... Use of minimum pressure in hemostatic wristband, without monitoring patency, might have the same efficacy for preventing RAO. ...
This combustion pressure sensor has been used for control of the advanced lean combustion engine in TOYOTA 1992 model (Oct. ... A new combustion pressure sensor capable of measuring the combustion pressure in an engine cylinder has been developed. ... A Combustion Pressure Sensor Utilizing Silicon Piezoresistive Effect 930351. A new combustion pressure sensor capable of ... This combustion pressure sensor has been used for control of the advanced lean combustion engine in TOYOTA 1992 model (Oct. ...
... "puts both companies in good position to weather some near-term pressure." Both companies posted record highs for wireless ... Sprints unlimited plans mean it wont benefit from the same effect. ...
Mining Publication: Effect of Pressure on Leakage of Automatic Sprinklers. Keywords: Pressure Underground mining Water ... The mine environment affected the ability of 66% of the sprinklers to withstand high static pressures. New sprinklers were also ... pressures in deep underground coal mines without leaking and if exposure to the mine environment affected their leak pressures ... The average leak pressures of the new sprinklers ranged from 640 to 2,300 psig and were significantly different for sprinklers ...
A Gas Pressure-Based Drift Round Blast Design Methodology. *Modeling the Effect of Seal Leakage on Spontaneous Heating in a ... Barometric pressure changes affect air density, leading to change in the mass of the gas in the gob. When the barometric ... The effect of barometric pressure changes on the spontaneous heating was found to be dependent on the gob permeability and the ... The effect of barometric pressure changes on oxygen concentrations in the gob was also examined. ...
EDITOR, - In their paper on the effect of a reduced sodium and increased potassium and magnesium intake on blood pressure J M ... Effect of dietary mineral salt on blood pressure BMJ 1994; 309 :1157 ... Effect of dietary mineral salt on blood pressure. BMJ 1994; 309 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.309.6962.1157a (Published 29 ... This is important because it could have influenced the subjects reaction to the trial and therefore their blood pressure, as ...
... Sandra E. Black, Paul J. Devereux, Kjell G. Salvanes. NBER ... "Under Pressure? The Effect of Peers on Outcomes of Young Adults," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol ... w13292 Mechanisms and Impacts of Gender Peer Effects at School. Hoxby. w7867 Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from ... Despite this, very little is known about the effect of school peers on the long-run outcomes of teenagers. This is primarily ...
The result showed that the size of droplets under higher rail pressure was larger than th ... of temporal and spatial changes in the velocity and size of droplets of diesel fuel sprays under two injection pressures were ... Effect of Injection Pressure on Droplet Behavior Inside Diesel Fuel Sprays 2015-01-1841. ... Citation: Kawaharada, N., Sakaguchi, D., Ueki, H., and Ishida, M., "Effect of Injection Pressure on Droplet Behavior Inside ...
The effects of chronic stress on cardiovascular health may be a side effect of having an immune system that can fight infection ... ATLANTA, March 6 (UPI) -- The effects of chronic stress on cardiovascular health may be a side effect of having an immune ... Two hours of stress per day, for a week, results in a short-term rise in systolic blood pressure in normal mice, Marvar said. ... Several studies in animals have suggested medications now used to control blood pressure, such as angiotensin receptor blockers ...
... I have very healthy sexual appetite and my wife and I enjoy lovemaking at least two ... Now, its quite obvious to me that the pressure to perform has made you nervous - and it has made it difficult for you to get ... He was abused as a child and its affecting our sex life ... Thrush is affecting my sex life * Is this affecting my sex life ... My husbands skin problem is affecting our sex life * ... Viagra and blood pressure 5 ways to make a vaginal examination ...
... their own blood pressure may go up, a U.S. study... ... Reuters Men High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Stressed ... less is known about how these challenges affect both members of a couple, and how the spouses affect one another, over time. ... About one in three U.S. adults has high blood pressure, a serious and often silent condition that can damage the heart and ... In 2006, about one third of husbands had high blood pressure, as did 26 percent of the wives. By 2010, 37 percent of the men ...
Effect of Probiotics on Blood Pressure. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Saman Khalesi, ... The aim of the present systematic review was to clarify the effects of probiotics on BP using a meta-analysis of randomized, ... Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was chosen to analyze the impact of combined trials. Nine trials were included. ... Previous human clinical trials have shown that probiotic consumption may improve blood pressure (BP) control. ...
Pressure cookers are great fun. If youve never seen one they work by super heating water under pressure. The lid fits tightly ... They really are trying to take the weights off the boiling pressure cooker quietly, hoping the pressure inside wont notice ... As the steam pressure inside builds it takes more weights on top to keep it in. If you heat it up too much or get something ... What has happened is one of the weights has been taken off the pressure cooker. Sure, in some areas this makes little or no ...
THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM AND AMMONIUM SALTS ON BLOOD PRESSURE Br Med J 1905; 1 :451 ... THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM AND AMMONIUM SALTS ON BLOOD PRESSURE. Br Med J 1905; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2304.451-c ( ...
NOZZLE 345 PRESSURE RATIO Fig. 4. Typical curves plotting ef-fectiveness against pressure ratio for 100 mm. nozzle, using ... Further, the effect diminish*?,^, when the nozzle throat diameter exceeds 200 rt\jjfP- There is an optimum size of slot for ... The full range of pressures and slot sizes has not been explored, but a few specific per- formance points have been ob- tained ... The only practicable application of the Coanda Effect that has so far been made was initiated by IOO,/, ,/, 1 75 O UJLi. ui ...
PRESSURE FROM THE LEFT CAN HAVE AN EFFECT…. Sen. Blanche Lincoln (D) of Arkansas hasnt exactly been a reliable champion of ... Keep in mind, theres been some discussion of late about whether progressive pressure on some of the less-liberal Dems is ... Under the circumstances, Im very much inclined to think the left should keep the pressure on. It seems to be having the ...
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Side effects depend upon the specific high blood pressure medication. ... There are a variety of high blood pressure medication types and classes, for example, diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors ... Picture of Blood Pressure. The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. See a picture of Blood Pressure ... High Blood Pressure Drugs Side Effects, Types, Uses, and List of Names. *What are the common types of high blood pressure ( ...
Living in a high-crime area is associated with increased blood pressure; for each 20-incident increase per 1,000 residents, ... Living in a high-crime area is associated with increased blood pressure; for each 20-incident increase per 1,000 residents, ... Can Your Neighborhood Affect Your Blood Pressure?. Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola Fact Checked ... Where you live affects your physical health in myriad ways, from exposure to pollution and access to green spaces to levels of ...
phone 415-332-5461), the following are some of the effects of HPP that have been noted: • Protein Unfolding. High pressure can ... Pressure Freezing. This process can be used to produce very small ice crystals. Foods are cooled to -20ºC under pressure. Under ... Pressure Blanching. Some plant and animal enzymes are unstable enough to be inactivated to a useful low level by high pressure ... When the pressure is released, small ice crystals can form throughout the food mass to help freezing at atmospheric pressure. ...
... it affects us, it affects our fishing trips and whether we will have a successful fishing trip or not. Why does it cause ... Barometric Pressure Affect on Animals - Exotic Pets at BellaOnline ... Because of void vacuums, air pressure (barometric pressure) changes. The average or normal barometric pressure at sea level is ... Barometric Pressure Affect on Animals. Guest Author - Diana Geiger. Cold air is heavier than warm air so the warm air will rise ...
A change in temperature is known to affect the deformation properties of a clay specimen. In order to study the effect ... No comments were found for Temperature Effect on Preconsolidation Pressure. Be the first to comment! ... A change in temperature is known to affect the deformation properties of a clay specimen. In order to study the effect ... the compression modulus is little affected. Five different clays were tested, and the change in preconsolidation pressure was ...
  • We therefore sought to evaluate whether using a "minimum pressure" technique in hemostatic wristband, that is, applying the same principle of "patent hemostasis" but without controlling patency, has the same efficacy in preventing RAO. (invasivecardiology.com)
  • Monitoring the OD 600 using a BMG LABTECH microplate reader , it was revealed that hydrostatic pressure has a marked effect on the range of NaCl concentration at which P. profundum SS9 is able to grow. (bmglabtech.com)
  • When the hydrostatic pressure was increased from 0.1 MPa to 28 MPa, growth of P. profundum SS9 was largely unaffected at intermediate salt concentrations (200-400 mM NaCl), but growth was strongly inhibited at higher NaCl concentration, compared to the results at 0.1 MPa. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Microorganisms display an astonishing ability to survive and proliferate under extreme environmental conditions, including high and low temperatures, high acidity or alkalinity, high salt concentrations, and high hydrostatic pressure. (bmglabtech.com)
  • It has been observed that the physiological effects of increased hydrostatic pressure are similar to those of osmotic pressure (increased salt). (bmglabtech.com)
  • For example, P. profundum SS9 produces a similar range of intracellular osmolytes in response to both salt and hydrostatic pressure. (bmglabtech.com)
  • However, the use of a microplate reader for growth under hydrostatic pressure provides unusual challenges. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Measurements of temporal and spatial changes in the velocity and size of droplets of diesel fuel sprays under two injection pressures were conducted near the nozzle orifice by a laser 2-focus velocimeter (L2F). (sae.org)
  • The findings were revealed when researchers from the University of Chicago analyzed blood pressure measurements from 17,783 adults during a surge in violent crimes that occurred in Chicago from 2014 to 2016. (mercola.com)
  • The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the static magnetism in non-superconducting Eu(Fe 0.925 Co 0.075 ) 2 As 2 are investigated by complementary electrical resistivity, ac magnetic susceptibility and single-crystal neutron diffraction measurements. (fz-juelich.de)
  • The largest ever study of its kind, the research involved the World Health Organization and hundreds of scientists throughout the world, and incorporated blood pressure measurements from nearly 20 million people. (eurekalert.org)
  • Measurements of intracranial liquor pressure were made during i.v. molsidomine administration in pentobarbital anaesthetized beagle dogs without thoracotomy, and compared with those after nitroglycerin. (springer.com)
  • It may be that the doctor performed several pressure measurements and pachymetry measurements (to determine your corneal thickness) and in so doing, irritated the surface of cornea a bit. (aao.org)
  • In-home blood pressure readings were taken between seven and 28 days after the hospital measurements to avoid any effects of the dogs' blood donations during their hospital stays. (phys.org)
  • Measurements were possible at temperatures between 5-60 °C and pressures up to 300 MPa. (pnas.org)
  • Now I have just started to work as a training engineer and I just saw they solved this situation using pressure regulator which decreases the pressure of water for 6 bar to 4 bar. (physicsforums.com)
  • At atmospheric pressure, E. coli RecA binding decreases monotonically up to 42 °C, where a sharp transition to the unbound state indicates irreversible heat inactivation. (pnas.org)
  • The average leak pressures of the new sprinklers ranged from 640 to 2,300 psig and were significantly different for sprinklers from different manufacturers and for different types of sprinklers. (cdc.gov)
  • The average leak pressures of the sprinklers exposed to the mine environment ranged from 740 to 1,180 psig. (cdc.gov)
  • ARBs have effects similar to ACE inhibitors, but ACE inhibitors act by preventing the formation of angiotensin II rather than by blocking the binding of angiotensin II to muscles on blood vessels. (medicinenet.com)
  • ARBs and another class of blood-pressure drugs called angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors, or ACE inhibitors, are often the first drugs doctors recommend to lower a patient's blood pressure, according to Dr. Robert M. Carey, dean emeritus at the University of Virginia College of Medicine. (democratandchronicle.com)
  • To assess the potential importance of extracellular calcium to the vasodepressor effect of PIO, we measured contractile responses to NE in the absence of calcium, and then after acute restoration of calcium in the presence of NE. (jci.org)
  • Recently, left paratracheal pressure was introduced as an alternative to cricoid pressure and reported to be more effective than cricoid pressure in the prevention of gastric air insufflation during positive-pressure ventilation by facemask. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Pressure Point Therapy uses ancient acupressure trigger points to release tension and increase the circulation of blood, heightening the body's vital life energy to aid healing. (patientslikeme.com)
  • In order to evaluate the effect of rim width on stress the rim is analyzes experimentally with constant inflation pressure and variation in rim width. (bartleby.com)
  • It was found that the size of droplets deceased in the downstream direction of the spray and the decrease rate increased with the rail pressure. (sae.org)
  • In the case of a 100 mm throat nozzle, a 1.25 mm slot was found to be the optimum when used with a pressure ratio of 1:1.75 atmosphere absolute. (flightglobal.com)
  • Peer pressure has been identified as a big impact on teenagers, and contrary to popular belief, Secure Teen (2013) has found that peer pressure may encourage positive influences on our youth. (bartleby.com)
  • The research, appearing in the American Journal of Public Health, found that low support levels and tight deadlines increased blood pressure especially in men. (medindia.net)
  • Previous studies had found that stress could lead to ill health, but effects on blood pressure have so far produced mixed results. (medindia.net)
  • While the information found on our websites is believed to be sensible and accurate based on the author's best judgment, readers who fail to seek counsel from appropriate health professionals assume risk of any potential ill effects. (newsmax.com)
  • This found the best blood pressure control at the lowest salt intake they tested (1500mg/day). (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Often, HPP will kill or inactivate spoilage and pathogenic organisms without seriously affecting probiotic or desirable cultures in products such as yogurt and other "healthy" dairy-based products, valued for their live cultures. (ift.org)
  • TWO Introduction Peers become an important influence on behavior during adolescence, and peer pressure has been called a hallmark of an adolescent experience. (bartleby.com)
  • children's development through the environmental influences that may promote or affect the development of behavior and achievement through peer pressure and classroom quality (Adams, Ryan, Ketsetzis, and Keating, 2000). (bartleby.com)
  • Were it not for the nerves of steel of Mr. Putin and his close advisers , the irresponsible pressure policies outlined above could result in aggressive behavior and risk taking by Russia that would make the Cuban missile crisis look like child's play. (moonofalabama.org)
  • Meanwhile the country's main train operator, SJ, said it sold 1.5 million more tickets in 2018 than the previous year, thanks to what's been dubbed the "Greta effect. (canadianbusiness.com)