Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Leviviridae: A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Inoviridae: A family of rod-shaped or filamentous bacteriophages consisting of single-stranded DNA. There are two genera: INOVIRUS and PLECTROVIRUS.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.GeeseFeces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. MS2 is a member of a family of closely related bacterial viruses that includes bacteriophage f2, bacteriophage Qβ, R17, and GA. In 1961, MS2 was isolated by Alvin John Clark and recognized as an RNA-containing phage very similar to bacteriophage f2. In 1976, the MS2 genome was the first genome to be completely sequenced. This was accomplished by Walter Fiers and his team, building upon their earlier milestone in 1972 of the first gene to be completely sequenced, the MS2 coat protein. These sequences were determined at the RNA level, whereas the next landmark achievement, the sequence of the bacteriophage ΦX174 genome in 1977, was determined using DNA. The first effort at a statistical analysis of the MS2 genome was a search for patterns in the nucleotide sequence. Several non-coding sequences were identified, however at the ...
Polivirüsün hücresel yaşam döngüsü (1) CD155 reseptörüne bağlanmasıyla başlar. Virüs endositozla alınır, ve viral RNA serbest kalır (2). Translation of the viral RNA occurs by an IRES-mediated mechanism (3). The polyprotein is cleaved, yielding mature viral proteins (4). The positive-sense RNA serves as template for complementary negative-strand synthesis, producing double-stranded replicative form (RF) RNA(5). Many positive strand RNA copies are produced from the single negative strand (6). The newly synthesized positive-sense RNA molecules can serve as templates for translation of more viral proteins (7) or can be enclosed in a capsid (8), which ultimately generates progeny virions. Lysis of the infected cell results in release of infectious progeny virions (9).[2] ...
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid. This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell. Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery. The cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses or bursts, or it may release the new viruses one at a time in a reverse endocytotic process. The period from infection to lysis is termed the latent period. A virus following a lytic ...
Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage study is captured, in part, in the books published on the topic. This is a list of over 100 monographs on or related to phages. Rakonjac, J., Das, B. Derda, R. 2017. Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology. ISBN 9782889450954 Allen, H. K., Abedon, S. T. 2015. Viral Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms. ISBN 978-2-88919-448-3 Google Books Wei, H. 2015. Phages and Therapy as published as a special issue in Virologica Sinica consisting of four reviews, three research articles, six letters, and one insight article. Weitz, J.S., 2015. Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ISBN 978-1-40087-396-8. Google Books Borysowski, J., Międzybrodzki, R., Górski, A., eds. 2014. Phage Therapy: Current Research ...
Guanfacin (Teneks, Intuniv) je simpatolitik. On je selektivni agonist α2A receptora. Ti receptori su koncentrisani u prefrontalnom korteksu, te guanfacin potencijalno može da poboljša sposobnost pažnje putem modulisanja postsinaptičkih α2A receptora.[1] Guanfacin snižava sistolni i dijastolni krvni pritisak putem aktivacije α-2a norepinefrinskih autoreceptora centralnog nervnog sistema, što dovodi do redukcije perifernog simpatetičkog odliva i stoga do redukcije perifernog simpatetičkog tona.[2] Njegove nuspojave su zavisne od doze. Pri dozama do 2 mg efekat suvih usta se praktično ne javlja.[3] ...
The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive is a 1991 European Union directive concerning urban waste water "collection, treatment and discharge of urban waste water and the treatment and discharge of waste water from certain industrial sectors". It aims "to protect the environment from adverse effects of waste water discharges from cities and "certain industrial sectors". It prescribes the waste water collection and treatment in urban agglomerations with a population equivalent of over 2000, and more advanced treatment in places with a population equivalent greater than 10,000 in "sensitive areas". The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (full title Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste-water treatment) is a European Union directive regarding urban waste water collection, waste water treatment and its discharge, as well as the treatment and discharge of "waste water from certain industrial sectors". It was adopted on 21 May 1991. It aims "to protect the ...
Sustainable energy management in the wastewater sector applies the concept of sustainable management to the energy involved in the treatment of wastewater. The energy used by the wastewater sector is usually the largest portion of energy consumed by the urban water and wastewater utilities.. The rising costs of electricity, the contribution to greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector and the growing need to mitigate global warming, are driving wastewater utilities to rethink their energy management, adopting more energy efficient technologies and processes and investing in on-site renewable energy generation. Among the water and wastewater services of a city, wastewater treatment is usually the most energy intense process. Wastewater treatment plants are designed with the purpose of treating the influent sewage to a set quality before discharging it back into a water body, without real concern for the energy consumption of the treating units of a plant. These facilities play the important ...
... describes the processes used to manage and dispose of sewage sludge produced during sewage treatment. Sludge is mostly water with lesser amounts of solid material removed from liquid sewage. Primary sludge includes settleable solids removed during primary treatment in primary clarifiers. Secondary sludge separated in secondary clarifiers includes treated sewage sludge from secondary treatment bioreactors. Sludge treatment is focused on reducing sludge weight and volume to reduce disposal costs, and on reducing potential health risks of disposal options. Water removal is the primary means of weight and volume reduction, while pathogen destruction is frequently accomplished through heating during thermophilic digestion, composting, or incineration. The choice of a sludge treatment method depends on the volume of sludge generated, and comparison of treatment costs required for available disposal options. Air-drying and composting may be attractive to rural communities, while ...
... (BOD, also called biological oxygen demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water. BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. It is listed as a conventional pollutant in the U.S. Clean Water Act. BOD is similar in function to chemical oxygen demand (COD), in that both measure the amount of organic compounds in water. However, COD is less specific, since it measures everything that can be chemically oxidized, rather than just levels of biodegradable organic matter. Most natural waters contain small quantities of organic compounds. Aquatic microorganisms have evolved ...
The primary disposal of alkyl sulfate from used commercial products is wastewater. The concentration of alkylsulfates in effluent from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) has been measured at 10 micrograms per litre (5.8×10−9 oz/cu in) and lower. Alkyl sulfates biodegrade easily, even starting likely before reaching the WWTP. Once at the treatment plant, they are rapidly removed by biodegradation. Invertebrates were found to be the most-sensitive trophic group to alkyl sulfates. Sodium laurylsulfate tested on Uronema parduczi, a protozoan, was found to have the lowest effect value with the 20 h-EC5 being 0.75 milligrams per litre (4.3×10−7 oz/cu in). Chronic exposure tests with C12 to C18 with the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia found the highest toxicity is with C14 (NOEC was 0.045 mg/l). In terms of thermal stability, alkyl sulfates degrade well before reaching their boiling point due to low vapor pressure (for C8-18 from 10-11 to 10-15 hPa). Soil sorption is proportional to carbon chain ...
The primary disposal of alkyl sulfate from used commercial products is wastewater. The concentration of alkylsulfates in effluent from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) has been measured at 10 micrograms per litre (5.8×10−9 oz/cu in) and lower. Alkyl sulfates biodegrade easily, even starting likely before reaching the WWTP. Once at the treatment plant, they are rapidly removed by biodegradation. Invertebrates were found to be the most-sensitive trophic group to alkyl sulfates. Sodium laurylsulfate tested on Uronema parduczi, a protozoan, was found to have the lowest effect value with the 20 h-EC5 being 0.75 milligrams per litre (4.3×10−7 oz/cu in). Chronic exposure tests with C12 to C18 with the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia found the highest toxicity is with C14 (NOEC was 0.045 mg/l). In terms of thermal stability, alkyl sulfates degrade well before reaching their boiling point due to low vapor pressure (for C8-18 from 10-11 to 10-15 hPa). Soil sorption is proportional to carbon chain ...
In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that over one million pounds of BPA are released into the environment annually.[42] BPA can be released into the environment by both pre-consumer and post-consumer leaching. Common routes of introduction from the pre-consumer perspective into the environment are directly from chemical plastics, coat and staining manufacturers, foundries who use BPA in casting sand, or transport of BPA and BPA-containing products .[43][44] Post-consumer BPA waste comes from effluent discharge from municipal wastewater treatment plants, irrigation pipes used in agriculture, ocean-borne plastic trash, indirect leaching from plastic, paper, and metal waste in landfills, and paper or material recycling companies.[43][44][45] Despite a rapid soil and water half-life of 4.5 days, and an air half-life of less than one day, BPA's ubiquity makes it an important pollutant. BPA has a low rate of evaporation from water and soil, which presents issues, despite its ...
... are a pollution control technology used to aerate wastewater for sewage treatment. Fine bubble diffusers produce a plethora of very small air bubbles which rise slowly from the floor of a wastewater treatment plant or sewage treatment plant aeration tank and provide substantial and efficient mass transfer of oxygen to the water. The oxygen, combined with the food source, sewage, allows the bacteria to produce enzymes which help break down the waste so that it can settle in the secondary clarifiers or be filtered by membranes. A fine bubble diffuser is commonly manufactured in various forms: tube, disc, plate, and dome. The subject of bubble size is important because the aeration system in a wastewater or sewage treatment plant consumes an average of 50 to 70 percent of the energy of the entire plant. Increasing the oxygen transfer efficiency decreases the power the plant requires to provide the same quality of effluent water. Furthermore, fine bubble diffusers evenly spread ...
... faecal Streptococci and somatic Coliphages. Total Coliforms and somatic Coliphages were incubated at 37º C for 24h. Faecal ... The application of EM-A containing pig manure also had a marked effect on some faecal organism counts in the manure and in the ... faecal Streptococci group D and somatic Coliphages.. Conventional plaque assays for somatic Coliphages were usually done on ... As was the case for the somatic Coliphages in the manure of the EM-A treated pigs, the effect of this treatment clearly ...
... multiple regression analysis was performed to rank various parameters based on their effect on counts of somatic coliphages. ... There was a highly significant correlation between counts of somatic coliphages, total coliforms and faecal coliforms but not ... reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus showed highly significant direct correlation with somatic coliphages counts for all ... Significant reduction in counts was shown in pipe outfall water samples; this is hypothesized to be due to dilution. Coliphages ...
Counts3 h + 1.97); and the other, values ,26 PFU, had a fit of (1.18 × Counts3 h + 2.95). If the number of plaques detected was ... Use of non-linear mixed-effects modelling and regression analysis to predict the number of somatic coliphages by plaque ... Use of non-linear mixed-effects modelling and regression analysis to predict the number of somatic coliphages by plaque ... of plaques of coliphages titrated according to ISO 10705-2 at different times were analysed using non-linear mixed-effects ...
The fraction of the disintegrated sludge affected the mesophilic fermentation and a slight reduction of somatic coliphages and ... Approach was based on micro-colony analysis with specific FISH probes, which result in a distinct specific cell count per ... The proportion between somatic coliphages and enteroviruses was confirmed to be in the range of 4-5 log units in agreement with ... Somatic coliphages (SOMCPH) can be used more efficaciously than enteric viruses whose enumeration in sludge sample is very ...
System Enables Rapid Coliphage MS2 Quantification in Environmental Waters ... restriction effect plaque assay counts resource-limited settings laboratory devices LAMP reagents 1 plaque-forming unit ... Two groups of coliphages (F-specific and somatic) are being explored as indicators of viral fecal pollution in ambient water. ... Two R 2 gLAMP results System Enables Rapid Coliphage MS 2 Quantification ambient water RNA sample virus concentrations ...
In the laboratory 300 mg lopid free shipping, coliphage analysis is done using 1 L for somatic and 1 L for F-specific coliphage ... In general, at least 10 min is required for the production of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture, with the maximal effect ... Proper and consistent procedures for counting and identifying target colonies will be followed, as described in Myers and ... A prolonged therapeutic effect of acupuncture is thought to be caused by the increased release of endogenous opioid in the ...
The number of F-specific bacteriophages was related to the total number of somatic coliphages, but phage counts were unrelated ... klion d inserts side effects. Clinical testing of the treatment effect of interferon-beta Ia and Ib in multiple sclerosis A ... In SP stressed mice the anxiolytic effect of diazepam was not seen and the sedative effect as evidenced by a decrease in the ... side effects of klion d inserts. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B complexes with the insulin receptor in vivo and is tyrosine- ...
Batch, L.F., Schulz, C.R. et Linden, K.G. (2004). Evaluating water quality effects on UV disinfection of MS2 coliphage. J. Am. ... Payment, P. et Franco, E. (1993). Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking ... Goshko, M.S., Minnigh, H.A., Pipes, W.O. et Christian, R.R. (1983). Relationships between standard plate counts and other ... Atherholt, T.B., Lechevallier, M.W., Norton, W.D. et Rosen, J.S. (1998). Effect of rainfall on Giardia and crypto. J. Am. Water ...
Somatic coliphages and a Bacteroidales human-specific fecal marker were detected at 43% and 13% of the beaches, respectively. ... Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota ... with both sodium metaphosphate buffer and blending producing reduced counts.The simplest extraction method that produced the ... Photoinactivation rates of enterococci and E. coli, enterococci measured by QPCR, and somatic coliphage were estimated at 7, 6 ...
Use of non-linear mixed-effects modelling and regression analysis to predict the number of somatic coliphages by plaque ... How You Count Really Counts (Part I) If you are attempting to ship your Bacillus powder products internationally to certain ... In vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver S9: Effect of dosing techniques In vitro biotransformation assays are currently ... The effect of varied incubation temperatures on the performance of two enzyme substrate tests for the ... ...
Effect of oral phage on fecal E. coli count in mice.Next we wanted to determine the threshold for an in vivo lytic effect of ... Distribution of coliphages in the general environment: general considerations, p.87 -124. In S. M. Goyal, C. P. Gerba, and G. ... This set of strains covered 10 different somatic O antigens and 10 different capsular K antigens (Table 1). In addition, the ... Effect of oral phage on the inoculated E. coli strain in axenic mice. (A) Fecal E. coli counts (solid line in log CFU per ...
Somatic coliphages were detected in all samples from the canals, the Amstel, and the IJmeer, except one from the last site ( ... High fecal indicator counts and rainfall were less obviously related in the recreational lakes in Amsterdam. Only extreme ... Exposure to these waters may have negative health effects. During two successive 1-year study periods, the water quality in two ... Samples from the canals and the Amstel and the IJmeer were also examined for F-specific bacteriophages, somatic coliphages, ...
Escherichia coli ATCC 15597 strain was used as the host for general coliphages (both somatic and F+ coliphage), while E. coli ... Storm effects on regional beach water quality along the southern California shoreline. J. Water Health1:23-31. ... All three fecal indicator bacterium counts were highest in concentration in November during a period of heavy rainstorm (Fig. ... Detection of coliphages.Densities of coliphages and F-specific coliphages were determined by using both TFF-concentrated and ...
Somatic and F+ coliphage methods are under consideration as potential routine surface water quality monitoring tools to ... aerobic total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( ... The effects of carbon source and growth phase on the chemical compositions of SMPs were identified at both the compound and ... In this study, paired measurements of cultivated coliphage (somatic and F+) and bacterial (E. coli and enterococci) general ...
Male-specific (F+) and somatic coliphage counts were conducted using a double agar layer method,6 adapted according to method ... The effect of point source contamination from irregular settlements and leakage from the overwhelmed public sewage system could ... Coliphage counts were 3050/100 ml at Acu4. The sample for coliphage counts at EZ3 was lost. ... Nevertheless, variable coliphage counts were encountered and Giardia cyst counts were consistently high in all effluents except ...
Coliphages in guidelines and regulations. Phages infecting Bacteroides as markers of the source of fecal pollution ... The sum of somatic and F-specific coliphages constitutes the group total coliphages. Host strains (for example CB390) counting ... The specificity is affected by the way of entering the cell. As we explained when defining bacteriophages, we differentiate ... However, nowadays there are many arguments to believe that the replication of somatic coliphages or F-specific coliphages ...
Somatic coliphages have been shown to attach to dead bacteria [62]. Male-specific coliphages infect their host through the ... the Salmonella typhimurium WG49 host gave consistently higher counts of F-RNA coliphages than the E. coli HS(pFamp)R strain. ... Non-Genomic Effects of Xenoestrogen Mixtures. Next Article in Special Issue. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art ... Momba et al. [61] studied the concentrations of free residual chlorine, somatic and F-RNA coliphages in the final effluent from ...
... that the numbers of phages counted using CB390 are equivalent to the sum of the somatic and F-specific coliphages counted ... The data obtained could be used in predictive models to assess the effects of climate change on surface water quality. Pathogen ... mostly those where F-specific phages have been reported to outnumber somatic coliphages, are analyzed for somatic coliphages, F ... Simultaneous detection of somatic and F-specific coliphages in different settings by Escherichia coli strain CB390. ...
MOMBA MNB and SIBEWU M (2009) Survival of somatic and F-RNA coliphages in treated wastewater effluents and their impact on ... Compared to the counts of Giardia cysts, lower counts for Cryptosporidium oocysts were observed in both the influent and ... CASSON LW, SORBER CA, SYKORA JL, GAVAGHAN PD, SHA-PIRO MA and JAKUBOWSKI W (1990) Giardia in wastewater - effect of treatment. ... In some cases, their absence or lower counts in the influents were coupled with higher counts in the effluents (Tables 3 and 4 ...
2016a) reported negligible to 0.9 log10 unit reduction of FRNA and somatic coliphages during biological treatment, with an ... 2015a). The efficiency with which pathogens are retained at the membrane is affected by the following factors: The ratio of the ... George, I, Crop, P and Servais, P (2002). Fecal coliform removal in wastewater treatment plants studied by plate counts and ... Wu, J, Li, H and Huang, X (2010). Indigenous somatic coliphage removal from a real municipal wastewater by a submerged membrane ...
Using this representation comparisons of miR read counts profiles was limited by great variations of miRNA total read counts as ... To quantitate As3+ effects on [3H]NEM binding to tubulin -SH groups tubulin proteins free of MAPs prepared from the bovine ... We have previously reported the isolation and characterization of two filamentous bacteriophages of and coliphage Ff of at the ... of the miR302/367 cluster was shown to be adequate to drive efficient reprogramming of murine A 922500 and human being somatic ...
C.-X. Sun, M. Kitajima and K. Y.-H. Gin, Sunlight inactivation of somatic coliphage in the presence of natural organic matter, ... Effects of bacterial physiology. The susceptibility of bacteria to sunlight has been shown to be affected by the prior growth ... cell counts were higher when plated in the presence of ROS scavengers (pyruvate or catalase).167,172E. coli grown in a low-iron ... and MS2 coliphage: Effects of additives and alternative container materials, Water Res., 2012, 46, 1745-1754 CrossRef PubMed. ...
Method 1602: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Single Agar Layer (SAL) Procedure. EPA 821-R-01-029. ... Total counts of each microbe for each sample were calculated by multiplying the calculated concentration by the total sample ... Suite 4 and 5 experiments were conducted to see if there was a measurable effect in adding NaPP to the water samples on the EPA ... TOC concentrations in tap water at both facilities were also similar (average 3.1 and 2.7 mg/L). Heterotrophic plate count (HPC ...
Plates were incubated at 37°C for 18 h and the coliphage plaques counted. ... Survival of infectious Poliovirus-1 in river water compared to the persistence of somatic coliphages, thermotolerant coliforms ... This can affect groundwater quality because the sewage system is insufficient for the growing population of these areas, and ... Detection of Coliphages. Coliphages were detected from concentrated water samples using Escherichia coli K12 Hfr (ATCC) as the ...
In vivo effects of phage - cell interactions may be assessed by examining the possible biological effects of β3 blockade (e.g ... At least some phages (e.g., T4 coliphage) express Lys-Arg-Gly (KGD) sequence which binds β3 integrins (primarily αIIbβ3). ... somatic coliphages can be detected in 68% and B.fragilis in 11% of the stools of healthy volunteers [6], whilst Enterococcus ... or by counting PFU formed by unbound phages present in cell-free supernatants. Furthermore, purified phages can be immobilized ...
  • According to Bathing Water Directive 2006/7/EC, based on Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococcus counts, water quality in the canals was poor but was classified as excellent in the recreational lakes. (asm.org)
  • We evaluated how season and temperature changes affect bloodstream infection (BSI) incidences of major pathogens to understand BSI trends with an emphasis on acquisition sites.METHODS: Incidence rates of BSIs by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • A total of 114 river samples from five different locations were collected over a 1-year period and analyzed for human adenoviruses, along with fecal indicator bacteria and coliphages. (asm.org)
  • However, no significant correlations were found between human adenoviruses quantified by real-time PCR and culturable coliphages or fecal indicator bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Kruskal-Wallis chi-square analysis showed significant seasonal variability of all fecal indicator bacteria and coliphages, while no significant variability was observed for adenoviruses or enteroviruses. (asm.org)
  • This study presents the first quantitative measurement of human adenovirus genomes in urban rivers and their statistical relationship to fecal indicator bacteria and coliphages. (asm.org)
  • A total of 11 tap water samples from a range of locations and distribution networks and 10 brands of bottled natural mineral water were analysed using two approaches: a) heterotrophic plate counts by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the culturable heterotrophic communities, and b) Illumina amplicon sequencing for total bacteria including non-culturable bacteria. (bvsalud.org)
  • For this system, we report that (i) particle crystallization does not directly impact microbe longevity, (ii) bacteria act as crystallization nuclei during droplet drying and equilibration, and (iii) the kinetics of size and compositional change appear to have a larger effect on microbe longevity than the equilibrium solute concentration.IMPORTANCE A transformative approach to identify the physicochemical processes that impact the biological decay rates of bacteria in aerosol droplets is described. (bvsalud.org)
  • To address these problems, we introduce a confinement effect-inspired Cas13a assay for single-molecule RNA diagnostics, eliminating the need for NAA and RT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Different hydrochemical parameters of the water samples were measured which showed variable correlation with coliphage counts. (iwaponline.com)
  • Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to rank various parameters based on their effect on counts of somatic coliphages. (iwaponline.com)
  • Emerging outbreaks of airborne pathogenic infections worldwide, such as the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, have raised the need to understand parameters affecting the airborne survival of microbes in order to develop measures for effective infection control. (bvsalud.org)
  • Level of risk such that the benefits derived by an organism, a population or an ecological system are perceived to outweigh the adverse effects that might affect them as a result of being administers or exposed to a particular agent. (waterpathogens.org)
  • However, some additives, such as chemicals used for water treatment, can interfere with and/or affect the sensitivity of the method. (bsigroup.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The weather has well-documented effects on infectious disease and reports suggest that summer peaks in the incidences of gram-negative bacterial infections among hospitalized patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • A significant lower count of Giardia cysts (average 45/100 l) and no Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in irrigation canals, which suggests a natural clearance of these pathogens. (scielosp.org)
  • Although this model is adequate, to simplify its applicability two linear models were developed to predict the numbers of coliphages reliably, using the PFU counts as determined by the ISO after only 3 hours of incubation. (iwaponline.com)
  • Effect of rainfall on Giardia and crypto. (canada.ca)
  • En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l) y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium , lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. (scielosp.org)
  • Biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium, total nitrogen, reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus showed highly significant direct correlation with somatic coliphages counts for all water source points in all seasons tested. (iwaponline.com)
  • Spatial differentiation of the socioeconomic composition of the population When tested in kindling animals, DN-1417 showed a significant but non-dose-dependent prophylactic effect on both primary and secondary amygdaloid sites. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • It affects eventually a God\'s Wider Presence in itself, but a Source in which the Tissue combines acromegalic to collect an 89(1 intervention of volume to post the clinic variables of the incidence's sources and Therapeutics. (sonicboomsound.com)
  • The efficiency of pathogen reduction in MBR systems will also undoubtedly be influenced by local conditions, including socioeconomic and geographical factors that affect a community's ability to provide proper maintenance to these systems. (waterpathogens.org)
  • Our research utilizes experiments with well-defined looping proteins in E. coli and mathematical modelling to find simple rules that govern looping efficiency and how this is affected by the positive or negative interactions between different DNA loops. (edu.au)
  • 7, 1995, which affects a Reintegrating Iran of efficiency Ser. (seabaygame.com)
  • 1979) investigated the physiological affects of Aeromonas and Streptococcus infection on rainbow trout, suggest that Aeromonas infection may be of secondary nature following the occurrence of Streptococcus infection. (teraganix.com)
  • To assess the effect with the palindrome on enhancer perform in trans, and additional recognize how ie one participates inside the enhancer function in trans, reporter plasmids were co transfected together with the hr deri vates, by virus infection or cotransfected using the hr derivates and pGEM T ie1. (gp120-inhibitors.com)
  • The effects of a gene, which are beneficial early in life (i.e., increasing fitness) but deleterious later in life (no change in fitness after the reproductive age). (tripod.com)
  • Effect of pathogen load on pathogen removal by conventional treatment. (canada.ca)
  • In contrast, the normal E. coli gut flora of conventional mice was only minimally affected by oral phage application despite the fact that in vitro the majority of the murine intestinal E. coli colonies were susceptible to the given phage cocktail. (asm.org)
  • We study how the phage 186 and lambda regulatory proteins are wired to create bistable circuits and how this affects the choice between lytic and lysogenic development. (edu.au)
  • visceral Linkage: effect of a failure diagnosed a lipid or study to be the blood of lanreotide between the sources and the video. (seabaygame.com)
  • Model coliphages (e.g. (figshare.com)
  • Clinical testing of the treatment effect of interferon-beta Ia and Ib in multiple sclerosis A computer simulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of mass screening for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. (statescale.tk)
  • To comprehend mechanisms for arsenic toxicity in the lung we examined effects of sodium (0-40 μM) in cultured rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6 0 μM for 24 h) and in the rat animal model (intratracheal instillation of 2. (arcillaresearch.com)
  • An undesired harmful effect resulting from an action or other intervention in a system (environment, livin being, ecosystem, etc). (waterpathogens.org)
  • The application of manure from both treated and untreated pigs had a positive effect on fish yields, improving the feed conversion ratio of the fish to below 2. (teraganix.com)
  • Although the use of oral rehydration solutions has substantially reduced mortality from dehydration, it has little or no effect on the diarrhea itself and no effect on the transmission of the disease ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • 2017. Layer-by-layer edible coatings based on mucilages, pullulan and chitosan and its effect on quality and preservation of fresh-cut pineapple ( Ananas comosus ) Postharvest Biology and Technology. (microbiosymas.com)