The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The closeness of a determined value of a physical dimension to the actual value.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The position or attitude of the body.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Devices for continuously measuring and displaying the arterial blood pressure.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.

Mildly dyskaryotic smear results: does it matter what women know? (1/2809)

BACKGROUND: As of 1992, all women in the UK who have a first mildly dyskaryotic cervical smear are placed under surveillance for 6 months rather than being referred for immediate colposcopy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the relationship between anxiety and understanding about mild dyskaryotic, and to propose and discuss a method of analysing free text comments written by participants in studies based on structured questionnaires. METHODS: The freely scripted text of 236 women who had completed a questionnaire as part of a randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of an educational package was analysed. Randomization group status was concealed. Texts expressing similar views were grouped together and categorized. A matrix was drawn up to encompass the categories, and the comments were reallocated accordingly. RESULTS: Examination of the free text revealed two dimensions, concern and knowledge. There were no differences with respect to the apparent level of concern between the two randomization groups. However, comments from the intervention group were significantly more likely to have been classified as expressing good or vague knowledge than those from women in the control group. CONCLUSION: Although the educational intervention improved women's knowledge about the meaning of an abnormal smear result, this better knowledge was not correlated with less anxiety about the result. The free text analysis was a useful supplement to the main trial questionnaires. It demonstrated the existence of a range of understanding about cervical dyskaryosis, of anxieties relating to the receipt of such a result and the degree of interest women showed in acquiring further information.  (+info)

Awareness of and attitude of elderly subjects regarding health care and welfare in rapidly ageing population in Japan. (2/2809)

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to obtain information on the degree of knowledge and understanding about the current systems of health care and welfare held by the elderly, in order to achieve comprehensiveness in family practice. METHOD: We conducted a study on the awareness of healthy elderly persons by direct interview. The study was carried out in Kuni Village in a remote mountainous region in Japan, where the elderly population accounts for 24.8% of the total population. The subjects were self-dependent in their daily living activities and were aged 65 years and older. RESULTS: The subjects' knowledge of health care and welfare systems was generally good, and the degree of their utilization of these systems was also good. But 83.3% of those who did not want to utilize the welfare system indicated their preference to depend on their family for support. CONCLUSION: Family physicians must endeavour to offer comprehensive care to their patients by including these systems for rapidly ageing communities.  (+info)

The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study. (3/2809)

To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field.  (+info)

Evaluation of patients' knowledge about anticoagulant treatment. (4/2809)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate patients' knowledge of anticoagulation. DESIGN: Anonymous self completed questionnaire study based on hospital anticoagulant guidelines. SETTING: Anticoagulant clinic in a 580 bed district general hospital in London. SUBJECTS: 70 consecutive patients newly referred to the anticoagulant clinic over six months. MAIN MEASURES: Information received by patients on six items of anticoagulation counselling (mode of action of warfarin, adverse effects of over or under anticoagulation, drugs to avoid, action if bleeding or bruising occurs, and alcohol consumption), the source of such information, and patients' knowledge about anticoagulation. RESULTS: Of the recruits, 36 (51%) were male; 38(54%) were aged below 46 years, 22(31%) 46-60, and 10(14%) over 75. 50 (71%) questionnaires were returned. In all, 40 respondents spoke English at home and six another language. Most patients reported being clearly advised on five of the six items, but knowledge about anticoagulation was poor. Few patients could correctly identify adverse conditions associated with poor control of anticoagulation: bleeding was identified by only 30(60%), bruising by 23(56%), and thrombosis by 18(36%). Only 26(52%) patients could identify an excessive level of alcohol consumption, and only seven (14%) could identify three or more self prescribed agents which may interfere with warfarin. CONCLUSION: The questionnaire provided a simple method of determining patients' knowledge of anticoagulation, and its results indicated that this requires improvement. IMPLICATIONS: Patients' responses suggested that advice was not always given by medical staff, and use of counselling checklists is recommended. Reinforcement of advice by non-medical counsellors and with educational guides such as posters or leaflets should be considered. Such initiatives are currently being evaluated in a repeat survey.  (+info)

Is peer tutoring beneficial in the context of school resuscitation training? (5/2809)

First year pupils at a Cardiff comprehensive school were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 106 by the teacher only and 137 by the teacher assisted by older pupils (peer tutoring). Scores in a multiple choice theory test and in practical skill assessment showed no significant difference between instruction methods, but boys taught by the teacher assisted by older pupils expressed less willingness to resuscitate in an emergency than girls instructed by either method (P < 0.01). Girls had higher scores in the multiple choice paper (P < 0.025) and in the skills assessment (P < 0.01). Those pupils who reported some prior knowledge of resuscitation techniques performed better during skill assessment than novice trainees (P < 0.025).  (+info)

Correlating fibreoptic nasotracheal endoscopy performance and psychomotor aptitude. (6/2809)

We have investigated the correlation between the scores attained on computerized psychometric tests, measuring psychomotor and information processing aptitudes, and learning fibreoptic endoscopy with the videoendoscope. Sixteen anaesthetic trainees performed two adaptive tracking tasks (ADTRACK 2 and ADTRACK 3) and one information management task (MAZE) from the MICROPAT testing system. They then embarked on a standardized fibreoptic training programme during which they performed 15 supervised fibreoptic nasotracheal intubations on anaesthetized oral surgery patients. There was a significant correlation between the means of the 15 endoscopy times and both ADTRACK 2 (r = -0.599, P = 0.014) and ADTRACK 3 (r = -0.589, P = 0.016) scores. The correlation between the means of the 15 endoscopy times and MAZE scores was not significant. The ratios of the mean endoscopy time for the last seven endoscopies to the mean endoscopy time for the first seven endoscopies were not significantly correlated with ADTRACK 2, ADTRACK 3 or MAZE scores. Psychomotor abilities appeared to be determinants of trainees' initial proficiency in endoscopy, but did not appear to be determinants of trainees' rates of progress during early fibreoptic training.  (+info)

The UMDS MSc in general practice: attainment of intended outcomes. (7/2809)

BACKGROUND: The United Medical and Dental School's (UMDS's) MSc in general practice is one of the longest running courses of its kind. Although descriptive accounts of such courses have been published, little is known about their outcomes. AIM: To measure the extent to which graduates feel they have personally achieved 16 intended outcomes derived from the course objectives, and to record current academic activities, particularly teaching and research. METHOD: A postal questionnaire to graduates of the UMDS MSc in General Practice. RESULTS: The response rate was 93%. Of the 71 responders, 23 have gone on to register for or complete other degrees or diplomas. Over two-thirds of responders had an academic commitment following the MSc. Two-thirds were currently engaged in research and over half reported having had work accepted for publication. The majority of graduates confirmed the attainment of all 16 outcomes, although outcomes related to personal achievements were endorsed more strongly than those related to service delivery. CONCLUSION: UMDS graduates are making a significant contribution to their discipline and are unanimous in describing the course as an important event in their personal development. As a result of this study, the course organizers are seeking to increase the links between academic study and everyday practice.  (+info)

Medical education in the USA--adult-friendly? (8/2809)

In the United States of America, the Area Health Education Center (AHEC) system of training residents has allowed high-quality postgraduate education to flourish. This paper describes the evolution of the AHECs in the context of medical education over the past 50 years. The arrangements for programme administration and design, resident assessment and appraisal, training of trainers in educational methods, and the accreditation of training programmes are discussed. The fast-evolving UK postgraduate education scene can learn some useful lessons from the US system.  (+info)

In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.

Hemoglobins are a group of proteins found in red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group that binds to oxygen. The oxygen binds to the iron atom in the heme group, allowing the hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also plays a role in regulating the pH of the blood and in the immune response. Abnormalities in hemoglobin can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.

... refers to the use of educational assessments and the analysis of data such as scores obtained from ... In practice, educational measurement is largely concerned with the analysis of data from educational assessments or tests. ... One of the aims of applying theory and techniques in educational measurement is to try to place the results of different tests ... Educational measurement is the assigning of numerals to traits such as achievement, interest, attitudes, aptitudes, ...
The journal publishes original educational measurement research, provides reviews of measurement publications, and reports on ... The Journal of Educational Measurement is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the National Council on ... "Front Matter". Journal of Educational Measurement. 41 (4). 2004. ISSN 0022-0655. JSTOR 20461763. Retrieved 2021-03-13. " ... Other journals published by NCME include Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice and the Chinese/English Journal of ...
... is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of educational ... "Journals Ranked by Impact: Psychology, Educational". 2017 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson ... Educational", and 37th out of 103 journals in "Mathematics, Interdisciplinary Applications". "Journals Ranked by Impact: ... Educational psychology journals, Bimonthly journals, Psychometrics journals, Academic journals established in 1941, All stub ...
... and the Chinese/English Journal of Educational Measurement and Evaluation (CEJEME). Educational Measurement: Issues and ... The journal covers educational measurement in the sense of both inferences made and actions taken on the basis of test scores ... Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on ... Other journals published by NCME include the Journal of Educational Measurement (JEM) ...
Centre for Educational Measurement - Centre for Educational Measurement". Homepage (Articles with short description, Short ... Centre for Educational Measurement at the University of Oslo (CEMO) is a part of the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the ... of basic research in the field of educational measurement with applications of advanced measurement techniques to educational ... Secondly, CEMO's mission is to cover the full cycle of educational measurement including research on a theory-driven definition ...
For example, applications of measurement models in educational contexts often indicate that total scores have a fairly linear ... Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Educational Research. Rozeboom, W. W. (1966). "Scaling theory and the nature of measurement". ... Cyclical ratio measurements include angles and times. Counts appear to be ratio measurements, but the scale is not arbitrary ... Log-interval measurements are commonly displayed in stock market graphics. All these types of measurements are commonly used ...
"Sources of validity evidence for educational and psychological tests". Educational and Psychological Measurement. 68 (3): 397- ... The Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) is a reference book series containing information and critical appraisals of English- ... "Mental Measurements Yearbook". Ovid Technologies. 1 February 2020. Official website (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, ... Carlson, J.F., Geisinger, K.F., & Jonson, J.L. (Eds.) (2021). The Twenty-First Mental Measurements Yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros ...
NCME's Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice journal is accessible for all NCME members. Psychometrics "NCME Mission". ... "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice". Retrieved 2019-07-10. Official website (Articles needing additional ... educational and psychological measurement. Members come from universities, test development organizations, and industry. A goal ... and other aspects of educational measurement. NCME was launched in 1938 and previously operated under the name National Council ...
cite book}}: ,work= ignored (help) "Journals Ranked by Impact: Psychology, Educational". 2018 Journal Citation Reports. 2016 ... Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field ... Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development is abstracted and indexed in, among other databases: SCOPUS, and the ... Educational'. "Journals Ranked by Impact: Psychology, Applied". 2018 Journal Citation Reports. 2016. {{ ...
The journal's editor-in-chief is John R. Donoghue (Educational Testing Service). Applied Psychological Measurement was featured ... Applied Psychological Measurement is abstracted and indexed in Scopus and the Social Sciences Citation Index. According to the ... Applied Psychological Measurement is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by SAGE Publications. The journal covers ... Citation Impact of Applied Psychological Measurement". 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011 ...
... is an educational testing company based in Durham, North Carolina. The company was founded in 1980 by ... Measurement Incorporated also administers the Independent School Entrance Examination (ISEE) for the Educational Records Bureau ... Here's an update on the state's lawsuit with Measurement Inc". Chalkbeat. 2018-05-23. Retrieved 2018-07-07. "Measurement ... In June 2017, Measurement Incorporated sued the State of Tennessee Department of Education for $25.3 million. The Department of ...
Educational Measurement. 4: 17-64. Messick, S. (1989). "Validity.". In R. L. Linn (ed.). Educational Measurement (3rd ed.). New ... Kelley, Truman Lee (1927). Interpretation of educational measurements. New York: World Book. Brown, J. D. (1996). Testing in ... Messick, S. (1995). "Standards of validity and the validity of standards in performance assessment". Educational Measurement: ... While Messick's views are popularized in educational measurement and originated in a career around explaining validity in the ...
... as well as educational institutions, church and medical affairs, as well as pension and charitable institutions for the fleet ... tonnage measurement; the Maritime Pilot and Lighthouse Institution (Lots- och fyrinrättningen) with lifesaving institutions at ... Swedish coasts; educational and training establishments for the shipping industry. The matters were presented before the King ...
"Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Scale Scores Using IRT". Journal of Educational Measurement. 33 (2): 129-140. ... An important difference between CTT and IRT is the treatment of measurement error, indexed by the standard error of measurement ... Traditionally, reliability refers to the precision of measurement (i.e., the degree to which measurement is free of error). ... "Glossary of Important Assessment and Measurement Terms". National Council on Measurement in Education. Archived from the ...
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 43, 191-208. Dahlin, B & Regmi, M P (2000): Ontologies of knowledge East and West ... Some Measurement Issues. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28; 626-633. Dahlin, B (1999): Ways of coming to understand. ... British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70; 65-84. Dahlin, B. (2001): The primacy of cognition - or of perception? A ... Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 45(3); 287-300. Dahlin, B., Watkins, D., & Ekholm, M. (2001): The role of ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 67 (1): 154-168. doi:10.1177/0013164406292036. S2CID 143045918. Yousef, Darwish A. ( ... Eastern Work Ethic: Structural Validity, Measurement Invariance, and Generational Differences (Thesis). Shao, Lian; Webber, ... Measurement, and Application. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 279-300. ISBN 978-0-8058-5251-6. NCS - Interview Advice (CS1 ...
Journal of Educational Measurement. National Council on Measurement in Education. 36 (2): 93-118. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3984.1999. ... Journal of Educational Measurement. National Council on Measurement in Education. 44 (1): 23-45. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3984.2007. ... Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. National Council on Measurement in Education. 38 (1): 25-35. doi:10.1111/emip. ... Review of Educational Research. American Educational Research Association. 90 (3): 373-417. doi:10.2307/1170759. JSTOR 1170759 ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 56 (3): 487-493. doi:10.1177/0013164496056003010. S2CID 144976424. Bishop, D.; et al ... Educational and Psychological Measurement. 64 (6): 1019-1029. doi:10.1177/0013164404264843. S2CID 145721602. Trofimova, IN; ... Educational and Psychological Measurement. 55 (5): 850-857. doi:10.1177/0013164495055005020. S2CID 145539234. Trofimova, IN; ... Rusalov, VM; Trofimova, IN (2007). Structure of Temperament and Its Measurement. Toronto, Canada: Psychological Services Press ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 79 (5): 813-826. doi:10.1177/0013164418817801. ISSN 0013-1644. PMC 6713984. PMID ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 66 (6): 930-944. doi:10.1177/0013164406288165. S2CID 14762636. (Wikipedia articles ... 1988) further reduced the PSS to a four item form for quick measurements; however, scores on the 4-item PSS tend to exhibit ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. SAGE Publications. 57 (6): 995-1015. doi:10.1177/0013164497057006009. ISSN 0013-1644 ... "Goal Orientation Theory , Educational Psychology". Retrieved 2020-11-09. Shatz, I. (2015). "The ... Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169-189. Senko, Corwin; Harackiewicz, Judith M. (2002). "Performance goals: The moderating ... Although the majority of research on mindsets has focused primarily on how they affect educational achievement, mindsets have ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 63 (5): 111-129. Hollon, Steven; Kendall, Philip (December 1980). "Cognitive self- ... International Journal of Educational Psychology. (Symptoms and signs of mental disorders). ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 61 (4): 530-572. doi:10.1177/0013164401614002. S2CID 120672914. Kelley, K (2007). " ... Many types of measurements can be expressed as either absolute or relative, and these can be used together because they convey ... A standard deviation that is too large will make the measurement nearly meaningless. In meta-analysis, where the purpose is to ... Its amount of bias (overestimation of the effect size for the ANOVA) depends on the bias of its underlying measurement of ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 77 (4): 631-662. doi:10.1177/0013164416668232. ISSN 0013-1644. PMC 5991793. PMID ... Pedhazur, Elazar J.; Schmelkin, Liora P. (1991). Measurement, Design, and Analysis: An Integrated Approach (Student ed.). New ... Carver, Ronald P. (1978). "The Case Against Statistical Significance Testing". Harvard Educational Review. 48 (3): 378-399. doi ... Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics. Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. pp. 889-891. ISBN 978-1-412-91611-0. ...
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education ... 1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. ... Educational and Psychological Measurement. 59 (5): 821-846. doi:10.1177/00131649921970161. S2CID 146211674. Bretherton, I., ... Organization of Work: Measurement Tools for Research and Practice. NIOSH site devoted to Occupational Health and Safety Many ...
Journal of Educational Measurement. 8 (2): 113-123. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3984.1971.tb00914.x. JSTOR 1433966. Aiello, D. A.; ... Journal of Educational Measurement. 9 (2): 161-162. JSTOR 1433810. Mednick, S. A., & Mednick, M.T. (1959,1962). Remote ... Baird, L.L. (1972). [Test review of Remote Associates Test]. In O. K. Buros (Eds.), The seventh mental measurements yearbook. ... also suggested that this test be used to select students from lower-income families to be admitted to special educational ...
Nunnally, Jum (1960). "The place of statistics in psychology". Educational and Psychological Measurement. 20 (4): 641-650. doi: ... In the absence of a consensus measurement, no decision based on measurements will be without controversy. Publication bias: ... While the problem was addressed more than a decade ago, and calls for educational reform continue, students still graduate from ... As improvements are made to experimental design (e.g. increased precision of measurement and sample size), the test becomes ...
Cohen, J. (1960). "A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales" (PDF). Educational and Psychological Measurement. 20 (1): 37- ... Variation across raters in the measurement procedures and variability in interpretation of measurement results are two examples ... ordinal level of measurement), then that information is not fully considered in the measurements. Later extensions of the ... often do not require more than one person performing the measurement. Measurement involving ambiguity in characteristics of ...
Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 16, 8-14. doi: 10.1111 / j.1745-3992.1997.tb00603.x. Stanley, J. (1971). ... In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational Measurement. Second edition. Washington, DC: American Council on Education Wainer, H., & ... In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational Measurement. Second edition. Washington, DC: American Council on Education Eisinga, R.; ... Journal of Educational Psychology, 15, 193-204. doi: 10.1037 / h0072471. Kuder, G. F., & Richardson, M. W. (1937). The theory ...
1976). "Rotation in Canonical Analysis". Educational and Psychological Measurement. 36 (3): 725-730. doi:10.1177/ ...
... Country. United States Universities and research institutions in United States Media ... Educational and Psychological Measurement publishes referred scholarly work from all academic disciplines interested in the ... study of measurement theory, problems, and issues. Theoretical articles will address new developments and techniques, and ...
Texas celebrates Educational Diagnosticians’ Week. In recognition, NCSER highlights ... Educational Diagnostician Promotes Knowledge of IES-Supported Research on Measurement and Interventions for Learning ... In recognition, NCSER highlights the important work that one Texas-based educational diagnostician, Mahnaz (Nazzie) Pater-Rov, ... but it is important for special education teachers and educational diagnosticians to also be involved. My worry is that ...
... educational measurement and evaluation is more important than ever. In addition to e ... The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation. 4 vols. Thousand Oaks,, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc ... The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation. 4 vols. Thousand Oaks,, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc ... The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation. Vol. 4. Thousand Oaks,, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc ...
The Department of Educational Measurement and Data Science was established as an independent department of the IPN in 2015 and ... the department addresses statistical and methodological challenges in mathematics and science education as well as educational ... encompasses a team of educational researchers, psychometricians, and psychologists. In its research ...
Research, Educational Measurement, & Psychometrics *MEd. *PhD. As the demand for testing and assessment has grown in education ... Educational Leadership is ideal for students who want to transform PreK-12 education, influencing policy and practices in a ... The Children, Families, & Schools program addresses the need for educators who are able to meet the educational and ... Provide educational leadership in community-based organizations through a social-justice framework. ...
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Educational tests and measurements , United States. Educational evaluation , United States. განათლება ამერიკაში. ... Fairness in educational assessment and measurement / edited by Neil J. Dorans and Linda L. Cook.. Dorans, Neil J., editor. ( ... Commentary on the Assessment of the Fairness of Comparisons under Divergent Measurement Conditions / David Thissen -- Fairness ... Philosophical Perspectives on Fairness in Educational Assessment / Rebecca Zwick and Neil J. Dorans -- Commentary on " ...
Measurements. This study underpinned the process of preparing and administering a survey instrument. The items used to collect ... Wong, G. K. W. (2016). The behavioral intentions of Hong Kong primary teachers in adopting educational technology. Educational ... Furthermore, three experts from the field of educational sciences and six experts from the field of educational technology ... educational use of YouTube. Figure 1 illustrates the research model and the predictors of educational use of YouTube. As it is ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1960;20:37-46.. *Emmert DH. Treatment of common cutaneous herpes simplex virus ...
JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT*, 49 (4):467-468; WIN 2012 Abstract:. In an article in the Winter 2011 issue of the Journal ... JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT*, 49 (4):380-398; WIN 2012 Abstract:. The focus of this paper is assessing the impact of ... JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT*, 49 (4):339-361; WIN 2012 Abstract:. Although a few studies report sizable score gains for ... JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT*, 49 (4):419-445; WIN 2012 Abstract:. In some tests, examinees are required to choose a ...
See Measurement. Questioning. **Whos Asking?. *EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP. *September 2015. **The Grass Moment ... Measurement. See Data, emphasis on. Merit pay. **The Folly of Merit Pay (**) ...
Measurement must depend on rules called standards. Things are measured based on comparison to standards 2.The SI was made to ... Category: 01 Measurements Published: 28 July 2021 Created: 28 July 2021 Last Updated: 03 August 2021 Hits: 2423 * Measurement ... Category: 01 Measurements Published: 06 June 2019 Created: 06 June 2019 Last Updated: 06 June 2019 Hits: 5453 * Measurement ... Category: 01 Measurements Published: 02 May 2018 Created: 02 May 2018 Last Updated: 02 May 2018 Hits: 6550 * Measurement ...
... * Immaculate ... Educational & Psychological Measurement 1966, 26, 927-933. 4. The Chinese language translation of the scales is available ... One difficulty in examining this question is that educational motivation scales are primarily designed for use with ... Two major types of scale in this field are those designed to tap motivation towards educational achievement and those designed ...
Victoria June Biography, Wiki, Net Worth, Educational Qualification, Body Measurement, And More.. Last updated: 2022/09/02 at 9 ... Reading: Victoria June Biography, Wiki, Net Worth, Educational Qualification, Body Measurement, And More. ... Victoria June Biography, Wiki, Net Worth, Educational Qualification, Body Measurement, And More.. ... Victoria June Body measurement, Height, and Weight. Family Background. Not much information has been gathered about Victoria ...
Field measurements of electrical consumption in a multi-purpose educational building. In Rocha A, Reis LP, Costanzo S, Adeli H ... Field measurements of electrical consumption in a multi-purpose educational building. Fernando del Ama Gonzalo, Jose A. ... Field measurements of electrical consumption in a multi-purpose educational building. / del Ama Gonzalo, Fernando; Ferrandiz, ... Field measurements of electrical consumption in a multi-purpose educational building. Trends and Advances in Information ...
1013.04 School district educational facilities plan performance and productivity standards; development; measurement; ... for Educational Facilities C. Contracting for Educational Facilities D. Cooperative Development of Educational Facilities A. ... OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES (ss. 1013.30-1013.54) PART IV FUNDING FOR EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES (ss. 1013.60-1013.82) PART I ... OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES A. Campus Master Plans and Educational Plant Surveys B. Building Codes and Construction ...
Educational material on applying IFRSs to climate-related matters updated 04 Jul 2023 ... FRC publishes thematic review findings on fair value measurement 16 Jun 2023 ...
Educational Research, Measurement, and Assessment. Short Bio. Dr. Hannah Baggett is an Associate Professor in the College of ... Department of Educational Foundations, Leadership, and Technology. *Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation, and ... Department of Educational Foundations, Leadership, and Technology. *Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation, and ... Her work been published in journals such as the American Educational Research Journal, Teaching and Teacher Education, ...
Categories: Educational Measurement Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
The MERM Program is dedicated to advancing the science and practice of measurement, program evaluation, and research ... Students who have an applied interest in educational and psychological measurement, program evaluation, or data analysis. These ... Measurement, Evaluation and Research Methodology (MERM) focuses on the preparation of graduate students to be methodological ... These statistics show data for the Master of Education in Measurement, Evaluation and Research Methodology (MEd). Data are ...
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Educational and Psychological Measurement. Issue:63. 2003. Pages: 446-464. * How Useful are Work Samples in Validational ...
Power Measurement: To operate under the Schneider Electric name. Niagara Summit 2006: Educational Tracks ... Combining the processing power of both measurement and control functions makes the use of EBTRON Thermal Dispersion sensors at ... Speaker Round-Up Respected Speakers Explain how to Utilise IP to Grow Your Business Four educational seminars which look at the ... providing PDA-equipped technicians the ability to download detailed air velocity and temperature traverse measurements from the ...
Order of the Ministry of Health on the implementation of a healthy diet and adequate physical activity in educational ... Measurements taken: height, weight. Indicators tracked: underweight, overweight, BMI. Frequency of growth monitoring: Every ... Implementation of a healthy diet and adequate physical activity in educational institutions - Standards or rules for foods and ... Implementation of a healthy diet and adequate physical activity in educational institutions - School fruit and vegetable scheme ...
EDUCATIONAL INSIGHTS Class Quilt Pocket Chart EI-1743. A time-tested favorite, now available as a reusable pocket chart! ... CREATIVE TEACHING PRESS Measurement & Conversions Mini Magnet Book CTP6833. These pint-sized books pack a powerful punch! The ... We will keep up on our always evolving teacher supplies catalog and all of our latest free educational apps!. Enter your e-mail ...
Journal of Educational Measurement, v18 n4 p213-219, Win 1981 Document Type:. Article. Page Count:. 6. Subject/Key Words:. Test ...
In E. F. Lindquist (Ed.), Educational measurement. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1950. Pp. 621-695. ... LINDQUIST, E. F. Educational measurement. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1950. ... Most often they will be traits such as "latent hostility" or "variable in mood," or descriptions in terms of an educational ... Rep., Contract Nonr-694 (00), NR 151-13, Educational Testing Service, March 1953. ...
Centre for Educational Measurement, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway ... Messick, S. (1989). "Validity," in Educational Measurement, 3rd Edn., ed R. L. Linn (New York, NY: American Council on ... Mislevy, R. J. (2017). Socio-Cognitive Foundations of Educational Measurement. London: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781315871691 ... 2014). Standards of Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: AERA, APA, and NCME American Educational Research ...
  • Measuring Innovation in Education offers new perspectives to address this need for measurement in educational innovation through a comparison of innovation in education to innovation in other sectors, identification of specific innovations across educational systems, and construction of metrics to examine the relationship between educational innovation and changes in educational outcomes. (
  • The directorate works on improved metrics and measurements for assessing the effectiveness of directorate activities. (
  • This book is the beginning of a new journey: it calls for innovations in the field of measurement - and not just of education. (
  • He is also the recipient of the prestigious NCSL International Education and Training Award for his outstanding contribution to the field of measurement science education and training. (
  • Parker, Eugene T.. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation Vol. 4. (
  • The researchers recommend relying on this test when evaluating students of basic education colleges in the subject of educational measurement and evaluation. (
  • Too many uncertainty courses focus on complicated math and fail to teach the critical "uncertainty thinking" that is necessary to truly succeed in the evaluation and application of measurement uncertainty. (
  • This course also introduces the powerful concepts of test uncertainty (ISO 14253-5) for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in the calibration of measuring instruments. (
  • Problem-based learning: A critical review of its educational objectives and the rationale for its use. (
  • Dr. Salsbury is an award-winning author and researcher in measurement uncertainty. (
  • Educational Researcher, 40 (5), 223-234. (
  • In addition, they highlight variation in measurement error by pollutant and support the implementation of measurement error corrections when possible. (
  • Validation of the depression item bank from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in a three-month observational study. (
  • Gaining the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) perspective in chronic kidney disease: a Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium study. (
  • Construct validity of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMISýý) gastrointestinal symptom scales in systemic sclerosis. (
  • Ecological validity and clinical utility of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMISýý) instruments for detecting premenstrual symptoms of depression, anger, and fatigue. (
  • The study sought to document student experience on playing a pilot version of the game and to understand the design strengths and weaknesses as well as the ability of the game to achieve envisaged educational and competency outcomes. (
  • In this episode, we'll hear from Jessa Ellenburg, director of educational outreach at 2B Technologies. (
  • He received his B.S. in sociology from Santa Clara University in 1972, and his M.S. (1975) and Ph.D. (1978) from Purdue University in clinical psychology, with minors in statistics and measurement. (
  • She was in (she's passed away now) educational psychology. (
  • Educational Psychology Review, 24 (1), 63-88. (
  • The inheritance graphics and explanations of illustrations in educational materials for people with SCD require careful attention to ensure they are understandable by their intended audience. (
  • Most of the examples used in this course come from the dimensional metrology field, but the course contents are applicable to all types of measurements. (
  • The press release for the report is titled "Evidence shows teacher incentive pay improves student performance," which is ironic since the report ignores the long history of these schemes, and studiously avoids the details of the debate around value-added measurements in the United States (which is currently enthralled in a public revolt against test-driven education), as well as evidence illustrating damage done to schools and learning under such schemes. (
  • A resource for kids, parents, and teachers to find fun and educational materials related to health, science, and the environment we live in today. (
  • Does self-reported health bias the measurement of health inequalities in U.S. adults? (
  • Measurement of health inequalities based on self-reports may be biased if individuals use response scales in systematically different ways. (
  • Health care is the effort to maintain or restore physical, mental, and emotional well-being through medical, social, educational, and other services. (
  • The course will utilize many calibration examples, but students are encouraged to bring their own measurement examples to study together in class. (
  • Students should also be experienced in measurement. (
  • NASA is announcing two small CubeSats missions to launch on a commercial dedicated rideshare flight as part of the agency's Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) initiative, which helps advance scientific and human exploration, as well as reduce the cost of new space missions, and expand access to space. (
  • It has been one of the most controversial and the most studied subject in measurement theory. (
  • The infrastructure support will facilitate research networks through meetings, conferences, small-scale pilots, short-term educational opportunities (such as intensive workshops, summer institutes, or visiting scholar programs), and dissemination to encourage the growth and development of the specified priority areas and build resources for the advancement of aging-relevant research in the field at large. (
  • Educational Research Bulletin , 27 (2), 37-54. (
  • Knowing whether, and how much, practices are changing within classrooms and educational organisations, how teachers develop and use their pedagogical resources, and to what extent change can be linked to improvements would provide a substantial increase in the international education knowledge base. (
  • [ 2 ] The educational materials addressing SCD receive scores that exceed recommended reading levels to ensure accessibility for the average American adult who has completed high school. (
  • Many educational materials for patients with SCD were developed by nongovernment organizations and by private institutions and were not necessarily free. (
  • and multiple mailings of educational materials to all primary care clinicians. (
  • In support of this goal, this directorate structures and guides the various educational activities and associated materials for IETF newcomers, IETF leadership, and IETF participants so that they are more accessible, relevant, reusable, and broadly understandable. (
  • She was a measurement expert, a psychometrician, and there was quite a well known measurement group there. (
  • We used an Arabic translation [‎revised in our college]‎ of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure [‎DREEM]‎ inventory to assess the educational environment at the College of Medicine in King Saud University, Riyadh. (
  • A measurement agenda is essential to an innovation and improvement strategy in education. (
  • Measuring Innovation in Education offers new perspectives on addressing the need for such measurement. (
  • and educational activities. (
  • the IESG liaison to educational activities, a liaison to the tools team, IETF LLC Communications staff, IETF Secretariat staff, and other invited individuals. (
  • No other units of measurement are included in this standard. (
  • All builders and architects need serious math skills-including geometric modeling, understanding units, measurement, and visualization. (
  • This course focuses on metrology and critical thinking in measurement uncertainty. (
  • In particular, E.F. Lindquist and associates, adopted portions of the newly developed Iowa Tests of General Achievement to form the Tests of General Educational Development or G.E.D. The test was officially distributed by the United States Armed Forces Institute at the University of Wisconsin, and is the forerunner of the G.E.D. now widely used in the United States as a high school equivalency examination. (
  • The original REPTile could detect three energy channels, whereas REPTile-2 can distinguish 50 distinct channels, providing far greater measurement of elusive high energy particles with potential to damage satellites and penetrate spacesuits. (
  • The PROMIS Physical Function item bank was calibrated to a standardized metric and shown to improve measurement efficiency. (
  • Programs with better examination performance tend to provide residents an extensive, well-supervised educational experience stressing ambulatory care. (
  • CIRBE is a 3U CubeSat (1U, or unit = 10cm x 10cm x 10cm) from the University of Colorado Boulder, designed to provide state-of-the-art measurements within Earth's radiation belt in a highly inclined low-Earth orbit. (
  • Measurement uncertainty is intertwined with conformity decision rules, calibration intervals, traceability, and process development and improvement. (
  • However, no study of air pollution and lung cancer to date has incorporated adjustment for exposure measurement error, and few have examined specific histological subtypes. (
  • Our aim was to assess the association of air pollution and incident lung cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer and the impact of measurement error on these associations. (
  • Information from a previous validation study was used to correct the effect estimates for measurement error. (
  • This course will teach you how to see the application of measurement uncertainty in your organization and meet the most demanding requirements for your measuring systems. (
  • However, there is math involved in evaluating measurement uncertainty. (
  • Outcome data consisted of linked birth and educational records for 201,559 singleton, non-anomalous children born between 1994 and 1998 who attended New York City public schools. (
  • In 1999, Wisconsin initiated an educational campaign for primary care clinicians and the public to promote judicious antimicrobial drug use. (
  • In Wisconsin, a multifaceted educational campaign focusing on clinicians and the public was launched in late 1999 by the Wisconsin Antibiotic Resistance Network (WARN). (
  • The United States Armed Forces Institute Tests of General Educational Development. (