Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Migration: The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Tooth Eruption, Ectopic: An abnormality in the direction of a TOOTH ERUPTION.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary conditions characterized by malformed DENTAL ENAMEL, usually involving DENTAL ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA and/or TOOTH HYPOMINERALIZATION.Acneiform Eruptions: Visible efflorescent lesions of the skin caused by acne or resembling acne. (Dorland, 28th ed, p18, 575)Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.OdontoblastsTooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Lichenoid Eruptions: Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesBone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Oral Fistula: An abnormal passage within the mouth communicating between two or more anatomical structures.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).IndiaDentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
... recession in the mandibular anterior region Ectopic eruption of teeth Mesial migration of buccal segment Abnormal eruption ... The mandibular anterior teeth must be stabilized to prevent excessive lingual tipping. A fixed mandibular arch from the left ... However based on the usual eruption sequence of teeth, deciduous canines are extracted at the age of 8-9 years to create space ... and sequence Mandibular anterior flaring Ankylosis of one or more teeth Cases with insufficient growth to overcome the tooth ...
Mandibular protrusion in mm. *Open bite in mm. *Ectopic eruption. *Anterior crowding ... mandibular anterior, mandibular right posterior and mandibular left posterior. The tool is superimposed over the teeth for the ... Delayed eruption - Delayed eruption results in adjacent teeth drifting and/ or tilting resulting in a loss of arch space. A ... 5.i Impeded eruption of teeth (apart from 3rd molars) due to crowding, displacement, the presence of supernumerary teeth, ...
Teeth may also be displaced. Cementum formation may be deficient. Failure of eruption of permanent teeth. Bossing (bulging) of ... link) Nebgen, Denise; Wood, Robert S.; Shapiro, Robert D. "Management of a mandibular fracture in a patient with cleidocranial ... Saraswathivilasam S. Suresh, A Family With Cleidocranial Dysplasia And Crossed Ectopic Kidney In One Child, Acta Orthop. Belg. ... The permanent teeth include supernumerary teeth. Unless these supernumeraries are removed they will crowd the adult teeth in ...
The mandibular teeth are the mandibular central incisor, mandibular lateral incisor, mandibular canine, mandibular first ... Alteration of eruption[edit]. Tooth eruption may be altered by some environmental factors. When eruption is prematurely stopped ... Ectopic enamel is enamel found in an unusual location, such as the root of a tooth. ... Bottom teeth of a seven-year-old, showing primary teeth (left), a lost primary tooth (middle), and a permanent tooth (right) ...
... fail to erupt as ectopic positioning of the wisdom teeth can prevent their eruption. Radiographs can be avoided if the majority ... One trial in adolescents who had orthodontic treatment comparing the removal of impacted mandibular wisdom teeth with retention ... tooth loss rates that start at 10 teeth lost per 1000 teeth per year at 5mm to a rate of 70 teeth lost per year per 1000 teeth ... albeit unpredictable role in dictating jaw and tooth size and tooth eruption potential of the teeth. Some also believe that ...
Ectopic canines. *Cleft lip and palate. *Diastema. *Delayed eruption. [6] Cause[edit]. The cause of isolated missing teeth ... Kjær I, Kocsis G, Nodal M, Christensen LR (1994). "Aetiological aspects of mandibular tooth agenesis-focusing on the role of ... aplasia of teeth, congenitally missing teeth, absence of teeth, agenesis of teeth and lack of teeth.[2] ... Anodontia refers to the condition where no teeth are present.[1] Supernumerary teeth refers to conditions where there are more ...
... deviations Overjet greater than 9mm Overjet in mm Overbite in mm Mandibular protrusion in mm Open bite in mm Ectopic eruption ... with maxillary teeth lingual to mandibular teeth Congenitally missing maxillary incisors Tooth displacement Potential tooth ... mandibular anterior, mandibular right posterior and mandibular left posterior. The tool is superimposed over the teeth for the ... ending with eruption of first deciduous tooth. Dental age 1 begins when stage 0 ended, ending with all deciduous teeth are in ...
Class II intermaxillary elastics are used to retract the maxillary teeth against the mandibular teeth, with reciprocal ... proclination of mandibular incisors and mesial eruption of mandibular molars. The majority of overjet reduction and buccal ... Presence of ectopic or supernumerary. *Presence of dental disease. *Relationship of the teeth to the skeletal dental bases and ... mesialization and proclination of the mandibular teeth. Late intervention[edit]. Cochrane review showed that, at the end of all ...
The term lichenoid reaction (lichenoid eruption or lichenoid lesion ) refers to a lesion of similar or identical ... Periodontium (gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolus) - Gums and tooth-supporting structures. *Cementicle ... Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues - Bones of jaws. *Agnathia. *Alveolar osteitis ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ...
The condition is most commonly associated with the maxillary and mandibular canine and bicuspid teeth on the facial (buccal) ... Remineralization of teeth. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Karim, B. F. A; Gillam, D. G (2013). "The Efficacy of ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ... If teeth sensitivity is experienced after using a teeth whitening product, taking a break may help.[12] ...
Failure of eruption of teeth. *Dens evaginatus *Talon cusp. *Dentin dysplasia. *Dentin hypersensitivity ... Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues - Bones of jaws. *Agnathia. *Alveolar osteitis ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ...
Common causes of oral ulceration include rubbing on sharp edges of teeth, fillings, crowns, false teeth (dentures), or braces ( ... Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues - Bones of jaws. *Agnathia. *Alveolar osteitis ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ... Failure of eruption of teeth. *Dens evaginatus *Talon cusp. *Dentin dysplasia. *Dentin hypersensitivity ...
Each tooth is divided into four gingival units (mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual) and given a score from 0-3 based on the ... Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues - Bones of jaws. *Agnathia. *Alveolar osteitis ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ... Failure of eruption of teeth. *Dens evaginatus *Talon cusp. *Dentin dysplasia. *Dentin hypersensitivity ...
If teeth come together in a non-ideal bite the researchers state that this would create further stress in areas on the teeth.[ ... Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues - Bones of jaws. *Agnathia. *Alveolar osteitis ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ... Abfraction is a theoretical concept explaining a loss of tooth structure not caused by tooth decay (non-carious cervical ...
Failure of eruption of teeth. *Dens evaginatus *Talon cusp. *Dentin dysplasia. *Dentin hypersensitivity ... Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues - Bones of jaws. *Agnathia. *Alveolar osteitis ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ... Chronic low-grade trauma due to parafunctional habits (e.g. rubbing the tongue against the teeth or pressing it against the ...
They can be designed to fit onto the upper teeth or the lower teeth. They may cover all the teeth in one arch (full coverage ... Limitation of mandibular movement[edit]. The jaw deviates to the affected side during opening,[19] and restricted mouth opening ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ... of the enamel of the occlusal surfaces of teeth, with the aim of allowing the upper teeth to fit with the lower teeth in a more ...
Root resorption and tooth movement are rare. Differential Diagnosis[edit]. Condensing osteitis, sclerosing osteomyelitis, ... found anywhere in the jaw, most commonly in the mandibular premolar-molar region. The shape ranges from round to linear streaks ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ... It appears as a radiopaque (light area) around a tooth, usually a premolar or molar. There is no sign of inflammation of the ...
... frictional trauma from a sharp surface in the mouth such as broken tooth, or from tooth brushing.[8] ... The word is derived from the Greek word aphtha meaning "eruption" or "ulcer".[8] The lesions of several other oral conditions ... Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues - Bones of jaws. *Agnathia. *Alveolar osteitis ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ...
... sometimes the gums of the upper teeth) or the lower jaw (tongue or gums of the lower teeth) respectively.[26] Oral involvement ... Shingles may occur in the mouth if the maxillary or mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve is affected,[25] in which the ... Post-vaccination follicular eruption. *Lipschütz ulcer. *Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis. *Viral-associated trichodysplasia. * ... Ectopic salivary gland tissue. *Frey's syndrome. *HIV salivary gland disease. *Necrotizing sialometaplasia ...
PTHrP is related in function to the "normal" parathyroid hormone. When a tumor secretes PTHrP, this can lead to hypercalcemia.[7] As this is sometimes the first sign of the malignancy, hypercalcemia caused by PTHrP is considered a paraneoplastic phenomenon. PTHR1 is responsible for most cases of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. PTHrP shares the same N-terminal end as parathyroid hormone and therefore it can bind to the same receptor, the Type I PTH receptor (PTHR1). PTHrP can simulate most of the actions of PTH including increases in bone resorption and distal tubular calcium reabsorption, and inhibition of proximal tubular phosphate transport. However, PTHrP is less likely than PTH to stimulate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Therefore, PTHrP does not increase intestinal calcium absorption. ...
An eruption cyst, or eruption hematoma, is a bluish swelling that occurs on the soft tissue over an erupting tooth. It is usually found in children. The fluid in the cyst is sometimes clear creating a pale-coloured cyst although often they are blue. An eruption cyst (eruption hematoma) is a developmental soft-tissue cyst of odontogenic origin that forms over an erupting tooth. common in children while rare in other ages.and found in both dentition forms superficially in the gingiva overlying the involved erupting tooth as soft, rounded and bluish swelling. The epithelial lining of eruption cyst is similar to that of the dentigerous cyst (non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium), so the eruption cyst is considered a superficial dentigerous cyst. The fibrous capsule shows inflammatory cells possibly as a result of trauma. The epithelial lining of the ...
Children with a full set of deciduous teeth (primary teeth) also have eight incisors, named the same way as in permanent teeth. Young children may have from zero to eight incisors depending on the stage of their tooth eruption and tooth development. Typically, the mandibular central incisors erupt first, followed by the maxillary central incisors, the mandibular lateral incisors and finally the maxillary laterals. The rest of the primary dentition erupts after the incisors.[2] Apart from the first molars, the incisors are also the first permanent teeth to erupt, following the same order as the primary teeth, among themselves. ...
... (from the Greek peri, "around", Latin corona "crown" and -itis, "inflammation") also known as operculitis, is inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth, including the gingiva (gums) and the dental follicle. The soft tissue covering a partially erupted tooth is known as an operculum, an area which can be difficult to access with normal oral hygiene methods. The synonym operculitis technically refers to inflammation of the operculum alone. Pericoronitis is caused by an accumulation of bacteria and debris beneath the operculum, or by mechanical trauma (e.g. biting the operculum with the opposing tooth). Pericoronitis is often associated with partially erupted and impacted mandibular third molars (lower wisdom teeth), often occurring at the age of wisdom tooth eruption (15-24). Other common causes of similar pain from the third molar region are food impaction ...
... often wear in specific patterns, based on the way the horse eats its food, and these patterns are often used to conjecture on the age of the horse after it has developed a full mouth. As with aging through observing tooth eruption, this can be imprecise, and may be affected by diet, natural abnormalities, and vices such as cribbing. The importance of dentition in assessing the age of horses led to veterinary dentistry techniques being used as a method of fraud, with owners and traders altering the teeth of horses to mimic the tooth shapes and characteristics of horses younger than the actual age of the equine.[3]. Equine teeth are designed to wear against the tooth above or below as the horse chews, thus preventing excess growth. The upper jaw is wider than the lower one. In some cases, sharp edges can occur on the outside of the upper molars and the inside of the lower molars, as they are unopposed by an opposite grinding surface. ...
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is an extremely rare developmental autosomal dominant condition, characterized by premature and accelerated aging (~7 times the normal rate)[65] beginning at childhood. It affects 1 in ~4 million newborns; over 130 cases have been reported in the literature since the first described case in 1886.[66] The mean age of diagnosis is ~3 years and the mean age of death is ~13 years. The cause of death is usually myocardial infarction, caused by the severe hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis).[67] There is currently no treatment available.[68]. Individuals with HGPS typically appear normal at birth, but their growth is severely retarded, resulting in short stature, a very low body weight and delayed tooth eruption. Their facial/cranial proportions and facial features are abnormal, characterized by larger-than-normal eyes, a thin, beaked nose, thin lips, small chin and jaw (micrognathia), protruding ears, scalp hair, eyebrows, and lashes, ...
The column will stop rising once it attains an altitude where it is more dense than the surrounding air. Several factors control the height that an eruption column can reach.. Intrinsic factors include the diameter of the erupting vent, the gas content of the magma, and the velocity at which it is ejected. Extrinsic factors can be important, with winds sometimes limiting the height of the column, and the local thermal temperature gradient also playing a role. The atmospheric temperature in the troposphere normally decreases by about 6-7 K/km, but small changes in this gradient can have a large effect on the final column height. Theoretically, the maximum achievable column height is thought to be about 55 km (34 mi). In practice, column heights ranging from about 2-45 km (1.2-28.0 mi) are seen.. Eruption columns over 10-15 km (6.2-9.3 mi) high break through the tropopause and inject ash and aerosols into the stratosphere. Ash and aerosols in the troposphere are quickly ...
This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI-equivalent, as orientation[clarification needed] of the erupted tephra volume. ...
Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province include Basin and Range eruptions in California, Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, Wyoming and Oregon, as well as those of the Long Valley Caldera geological province and the Yellowstone hotspot. Some of the volcanic fields of the Basin and Range Province are within: Northwestern Nevada, the Modoc Plateau, Central Nevada, the Great Basin, Southwestern Nevada, the Mojave Desert, and the Long Valley Caldera region. Named ones include: Coso Volcanic Field, Mono Lake Volcanic Field, Marysvale Volcanic Field, San Juan volcanic field, Indian Peak, Central Colorado volcanic field, Jemez volcanic lineament, Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, Santa Rosa-Calico, and Boot Heel volcanic field. Many geological features in Western United States have a Northeastern orientation, the North American craton motion has the same orientation as well. For example: the Trans-Challis fault zone, Idaho; the Snake River in ...
A geological event such as massive flood basalt, volcanism, or the eruption of a supervolcano[130] could lead to a so-called volcanic winter, similar to a nuclear winter. One such event, the Toba eruption,[131] occurred in Indonesia about 71,500 years ago. According to the Toba catastrophe theory,[132] the event may have reduced human populations to only a few tens of thousands of individuals. Yellowstone Caldera is another such supervolcano, having undergone 142 or more caldera-forming eruptions in the past 17 million years.[133] A massive volcano eruption would eject extraordinary volumes of volcanic dust, toxic and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere with serious effects on global climate (towards extreme global cooling: volcanic winter if short-term, and ice age if long-term) or global warming (if greenhouse gases were to prevail). When the supervolcano at Yellowstone last erupted 640,000 years ago, the thinnest layers of the ash ...
A geological event such as massive flood basalt, volcanism, or the eruption of a supervolcano[127] could lead to a so-called volcanic winter, similar to a nuclear winter. One such event, the Toba eruption,[128] occurred in Indonesia about 71,500 years ago. According to the Toba catastrophe theory,[129] the event may have reduced human populations to only a few tens of thousands of individuals. Yellowstone Caldera is another such supervolcano, having undergone 142 or more caldera-forming eruptions in the past 17 million years.[130] A massive volcano eruption would eject extraordinary volumes of volcanic dust, toxic and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere with serious effects on global climate (towards extreme global cooling: volcanic winter if short-term, and ice age if long-term) or global warming (if greenhouse gases were to prevail). When the supervolcano at Yellowstone last erupted 640,000 years ago, the thinnest layers of the ash ...
... last erupted in 1909 from the El Chinyero vent,[17] on the Santiago Ridge. Historical volcanic activity on the island is associated with vents on the Santiago or northwest rift (Boca Cangrejo in 1492, Montañas Negras in 1706,[17] Narices del Teide or Chahorra in 1798 and El Chinyero in 1909) and the Cordillera Dorsal or northeast rift (Fasnia in 1704, Siete Fuentes and Arafo in 1705). The 1706 Montañas Negras eruption destroyed the town and principal port of Garachico, as well as several smaller villages. Historical activity associated with the Teide and Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes [17] occurred in 1798 from the Narices del Teide on the western flank of Pico Viejo. Eruptive material from Pico Viejo, Montaña Teide and Montaña Blanca partially fills the Las Cañadas caldera.[16] The last explosive eruption involving the central volcanic centre was from Montaña Blanca around 2000 years ago. The last eruption within the Las Cañadas caldera occurred in 1798 ...
Pyroclastic flows continued over the next few days following the June 3rd eruption, however they were reportedly smaller and less frequent. Even so, rescue efforts and movements to recover the bodies of the victims, were disrupted and stalled due to the ever-present danger.[22] Authorities eventually managed to recover 27 bodies and brought them to the Anyoyi Shrine.[23] 4 of the victims' bodies were never recovered, and were reported as missing at the time, but presumed dead. Many of the recovered bodies were carbonized due to the extreme heat of the surge, and were identified by either dental records, or personal belongings they carried with them (e.g. wristwatches or cameras). 17 victims on the outer edges of the effected zone lived for a while, before succumbing later to their injuries (burns to their skin and lungs, or inhaled ash in their windpipe and lungs).[24] The final victim reportedly died on August 8.[25] The collapse of the lava dome itself left a notable scar on the eastern ...
Ectopic eruption is a developmental disturbance in which the tooth fails to follow its normal eruption pathway. Ectopic ... Impaction is one of the conditions which mimics ectopic eruption of the teeth. Impaction is the lack of eruption of a tooth ... One such malocclusion is ectopic eruption.. Ectopic eruption occurs due to the deviation in normal path of eruption path ... Ectopic eruption is more in maxillary first permanent molars and canines, followed by the mandibular canine, mandibular second ...
The eruption of an ectopic tooth in the nasal cavity is rare and occurs in approximately 0.1% of the population. The teeth may ... be found in several regions, including the maxillary sinus, mandibular condyl, choroides, orbit and palate, among others. At ... The axial and coronal slices of tomography showed an ectopic tooth in the nostril floor which had impacted in the lower nasal ... 1 and 2). Endoscopic surgery was performed with extraction of the tooth with no further incidents and complete improvement of ...
Ectopic eruption i. the eruption of the first molar resorption of distal root of the primary second molar ii. transposed teeth ... 6 7 8 Overbite in mm Mandibular protrusion in mm x 5 Open bite in mm - No occlusal contact in anterior x 4 9 Ectopic eruption ... in the ascending ramus of the mandible v. when teeth develop in locations other than in the dental arches. vi. Ectopic teeth ... buck tooth which is an extreme social handicap. It also included ectopic eruption suggested by Draker. Hence the HLD (CalMod) ...
These include failure of a tooth to erupt, delayed eruption, ectopic eruption, diastema, rotation of adjacent teeth, ... and STs in the mandible to facilitate eruption of mandibular premolars. ... Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth: report of a case with 13 supplemental teeth. *Afroz Alam Ansari1, ... This case describes a 14-year-old male patient who presented with the complaint of pain in the left mandibular posterior region ...
... recession in the mandibular anterior region Ectopic eruption of teeth Mesial migration of buccal segment Abnormal eruption ... The mandibular anterior teeth must be stabilized to prevent excessive lingual tipping. A fixed mandibular arch from the left ... However based on the usual eruption sequence of teeth, deciduous canines are extracted at the age of 8-9 years to create space ... and sequence Mandibular anterior flaring Ankylosis of one or more teeth Cases with insufficient growth to overcome the tooth ...
Transposition is a unique and extreme form of ectopic eruption in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the position ... Transposition of mandibular lateral incisor-canine (mn.i2.C) associated with hypodontia: a review and ... ... Impaction or cessation of eruption is a relatively common dental finding. The third molars are the teeth usually associated ... Tooth transpositions are rare and they can be complete or incomplete. The aetiology of transposition is still obscure. Various ...
... crossbite of individual anterior teeth, ectopic eruption of anterior teeth, and posterior unilateral crossbite. Dr. William S. ... 9 Mandibular protrusion (reverse overjet =, 3.5 mm) (mm) * 5 10 Open bite (mm) * 4 Ectopic eruption: (count) * 3 11 Count each ... Impacted teeth (score 5) must be unerupted and either ectopic or have less than 4 mm of space between adjacent permanent teeth ... Retained deciduous teeth (without permanent successor), erupted supernumerary teeth or lost teeth due to trauma are counted as ...
... gingival recession on the labial surface of the prominent mandibular incisor; or ectopic eruption of the permanent maxillary ... crowded mandibular incisor teeth with at least 5 mm space deficiency in each quadrant; maxillary mandibular alveolar dental ... bilateral primary mandibular canine exfoliation; splaying of the permanent maxillary or mandibular incisor teeth; ... During the serial extraction, guidance of the eruption of permanent teeth leads to proper formation of periodontal fibres. As a ...
Ectopic eruption of teeth has been reported in mandibular condyle, coronoid process, orbit, maxillary antrum, palate, nasal ... anomalous anterior teeth, enamel hypoplasia, supernumerary teeth and missing teeth. Presented is a case of an erupted ... But an erupted supernumerary nasal tooth is rare. Although asymptomatic in some, a nasal tooth has the potential to cause ... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a nasal tooth in a child with oro-facial-digital syndrome. ...
Ectopic tooth eruption into an area other than the oral cavity is rare. Nasal septum, mandibular condyle, coronoid process and ... infratemporal fossa space have been reported as frequent locations for ectopic tooth eruption. Ectopic teeth located within the ... Humans , Female , Young Adult , Molar, Third/pathology , Maxillary Sinus , Tooth Eruption, Ectopic ... Índice da Cortical Mandibular, o Índice Panorâmico Mandibular e a Técnica proposta por Wical e Swoope. Todas essas técnicas ...
Antonyms for primary tooth. 3 synonyms for primary tooth: baby tooth, deciduous tooth, milk tooth. What are synonyms for ... Intrusion injury of deciduous tooth sequeling ectopic eruption of a permanent successor ... Multiple abnormal unerupted mandibular permanent molar teeth: a case report/ Molares mandibulares anormales no-erupcionados ... primary tooth,type:0,children:[{name:baby tooth,type:2},{name:deciduous tooth,type:2},{name:milk tooth, ...
... is ascribed to the disturbance of tooth eruption and the subsequent abnormal occlusal relationships. Transpositions mostly ... Tooth transposition is a form of ectopic eruption, which can affect the maxillary or mandibular arch. This dental anomaly ... According to Goswami et al, microdontia, supernumerary teeth, tooth agenesis, discolored teeth, abnormal tooth shape, rotation ... Sandham A, Harvie H. Ectopic eruption of the maxillary canine resulting in transposition with adjacent teeth. Tandlaegebladet ...
Surgical Extraction of the Impacted Mandibular Third Molar - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File ... Obstruction for eruption Ankylosis Retained deciduous teeth Non absorbing alveolar bone Bony lesion Ectopic position of tooth ... Unerupted tooth-A tooth which has not perforated the oral mucosa.. WHEN IS A TOOTH CONSIDERED IMPACTED?. A tooth is considered ... obstruction by another tooth or an abnormal eruption path. Malposed tooth.-A tooth, unerupted or erupted, which is in an ...
Ectopic tooth eruption into an area other than the oral cavity is rare. Nasal septum, mandibular condyle, coronoid process and ... Ectopic eruption of a tooth into an area other than the oral cavity is rare. The development of ectopic teeth has been reported ... frequent locations for ectopic tooth eruption. Ectopic teeth located within the maxillary sinus may be asymptomatic, found only ... Ectopic eruption of a maxillary third molar tooth in the maxillary sinus: A case report. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005;6(3):104-10 ...
Ectopic tooth eruption into an area other than the oral cavity is rare. Nasal septum, mandibular condyle, coronoid process and ... infratemporal fossa space have been reported as frequent locations for ectopic tooth eruption. Ectopic teeth located within the ... The aim of this paper was to describe the case of a 24-year old female patient with an ectopic right upper third molar in the ...
Ectopic eruption Abnormal eruption of a permanent tooth out of normal alignment. ... Extreme vertical overlap of maxillary teeth may not be able to see mandibular teeth. ... One or more maxillary teeth are lingual to the occluding mandibular tooth. ... Severe protrusion of the maxillary anterior teeth causing a horizontal space between the mandibular facial and lingual of ...
... eruptions explanation free. What is eruptions? Meaning of eruptions medical term. What does eruptions mean? ... Looking for online definition of eruptions in the Medical Dictionary? ... eruption, ectopic. (ektop´ik), n the abnormal direction of tooth eruption, most common to mandibular first and third molars, ... eruption, lingual,. n the eruption of permanent teeth on the lingual side of primary teeth that have not yet been exfoliated. ...
Ectopic toothMandibular third molarImpacted third molarPanoramic radiography. Background. Ectopic tooth is usually diagnosed ... Several ideas have been proposed to explain ectopic displacement of mandibular third molar such as aberrant eruption, trauma, ... Most ectopic teeth were found in one side of mandible, and extremely rare in both sides [30]. Interestingly, most ectopic teeth ... Clinical features and associated pathologies of ectopic mandibular third molar. The ectopic mandibular third molar is usually ...
Ectopic eruption of teeth is a rare phenomenon although there have been reports of teeth in the nasal septum, mandibular ... treatment of choice in asymptomatic ectopic tooth cases is continued observation. Ectopic teeth tend to form a cyst or tumor if ... The higher prevalence of ectopic teeth is the 3rd molars. Ten of these teeth are associated with a dentigerous cyst, 1 by an ... We have analyzed and compared clinical cases of ectopic teeth in the maxillary sinus with a search on PubMed utilizing keywords ...
... nowadays there are not valid criteria to evaluate the future eruption of the impacted tooth; c) a direct correlation between ... Therefore germectomy should be performed: a) if morphostructural alterations or ectopic impactions are present; b) in case ... in one instance only of mandibular nerve paresthesia in group C symptoms were still present 25 months after the operation. ... Early removal of these teeth to prevent the overmentioned problems is widely acknowledged, as many studies demonstrated a ...
... impaction is a infraosseous position of the tooth after the expected time of eruption, whereas displacement is a anomalous ... Nevertheless, a small but significant number of patients have a canine that is buccally ectopic, but there is no crowding to ... of dental anomalies in 3043 orthodontic patients and reported that 48 patients had peg-shaped maxillary and mandibular lateral ... The normal eruption path of the permanent canine is slightly buccal to the line of dental arch, and its eruption is preceded by ...
Dental caries and periodontal diseases can lead to premature loss of deciduous as well as permanent teeth leading to ... Crowding : Lack of space leads to crowding and ectopic eruption the teeth ... 2. Inter-arch: When there is discrepancy in the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth. ... Tooth loss: If a tooth is lost either due to trauma, caries or periodontal disease, the rest of the teeth may shift. Premature ...
... mandibular condyle. The etiology of the heterotopic/ectopic eruption is unknown, although there are several theories such as ... Impacted teeth are characterized by eruption failure within chronological time. The term inverted tooth refers to the ... The heterotopic/ectopic teeth are common in the jaw and in the female gender and can occur in both dentitions. Some heterotopic ... Management of Teeth in the Line of Mandibular Angle Fractures Treated with Open Reduction and Internal Fixation: A Systematic ...
Interceptive Study of Ectopic Eruption of Permanent Maxillary Canine Teeth. *Tooth Eruption,Ectopic ... Perioperative Acupuncture for Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Extractions. *Extraction of Third Molar Teeth ... Pain and discomfort after tooth extraction reported by questionnaire. 70. All. 9 Years to 13 Years (Child). NCT02675036. 2012/ ... Secondary hyperalgesia/allodynia area at mandibular skin sites directly overlying surgical and contralateral side ...
Impaction and ectopic eruption. A canine is considered impacted if it does not come into the mouth and remains in the alveolar ... Mandibular impacted canine. It may take up to 12 months to bring the canine into the dental arch and once it is there, it may ... and my premolar teeth get position of canine teeth.. Is it okay if I live without canine teeth? If I live without canine teeth ... and the granuloma becomes an obstacle in front of the permanent tooth. The tooth path of eruption is deflected. Therefore, a ...
  • Case report: This report describes a case of Canalis sinuosus accessory canal, lingually to the root of the tooth 21, that was observed on panoramic radiograph as a radiolucent area superimposed over the middle and apical thirds, indicating root resorption. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment plans based on incomplete or inadequate diagnostic data can result in permanent damage to teeth including an increased risk for decalcification, caries, and root resorption (Motokawa et al . (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Some of them are a migration of neighbouring teeth and loss of arch length, Internal resorption or external root resorption of an impacted or neighbouring tooth, Dentigerous cyst formation, Infection particularly with a partial eruption, Referred pain. (facesurgeon.in)
  • It can cause root resorption and/or inclination of the axial axis of the adjacent teeth (Celikoglu et al. (conicyt.cl)
  • They often hinder eruption and development of the permanent tooth related to them hence causing crowding, displacement, diastema, retention or delayed/ectopic eruption, root resorption, dental caries, periodontal lesions due to compression of adjacent roots and pulp necrosis and, in some cases, dentigerous cyst formation [ 5 , 6 ]. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • Despite local tooth loss, a relatively favorable outcome was obtained without excessive root resorption. (kapd.org)
  • Ultimately, orthodontic therapy is possible for patients with generalized SRA, but precautions should be taken to avoid complications, such as tooth loss or root resorption. (kapd.org)
  • A 13-year-old male reported to the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry with a chief complaint of dental pain in right mandibular posterior region. (hindawi.com)
  • Revised, expanded, and strengthened since publication of the first edition in 2003, this second edition text covers dental disease in all its variety, from eruption of the first primary tooth to diseases in older patients. (freethesaurus.com)
  • 8 Several risk factors have been identified for this dental anomaly, including the positional interchange of tooth buds, 7 - 9 deviation from the normal eruption path, 10 existing primary teeth, 11 and trauma. (ac.ir)
  • The upper and lower dental midlines did not coincide, and there were spaces between the lower anterior teeth. (ac.ir)
  • Dental caries and periodontal diseases can lead to premature loss of deciduous as well as permanent teeth leading to malocclusions. (bodhihealthedu.org)
  • Frequently, children acquire certain habits that may either temporarily or permanently be harmful to dental occlusion and to tooth supporting structures. (bodhihealthedu.org)
  • RATIONALE: Tooth extraction is a common dental surgical procedure. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dental transposition is a positional anomaly of the teeth which is described as the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth, or the development or eruption of a tooth in a position normally occupied by a non-adjacent tooth [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Later, De Jonge (1955) proposed the terms 'Schizodontia' to describe teeth, which originate by partial division of Dental anlage and 'Synodontia' for those formed by the inability of adjacent tooth germs to retain their individuality. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Their diagnosis is usually coincidental on routine radiographic examinations or in studies of late dental eruption. (conicyt.cl)
  • A pediatric dental resident was rotating in the clinic and he diagnosed the patient with a single tooth that was most likely a fused tooth. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • A number of theories have been postulated to try to explain their presence, including atavism (evolutionary throwback), tooth germ dichotomy, genetic and environmental factors, and hyperactivity of the dental lamina. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • Dental anatomy is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of tooth structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development, appearance, and classification of teeth fall within its field of study, though dental occlusion , or contact between teeth, does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental anatomy is also a taxonomic science as it is concerned with the naming of teeth and their structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental radiographs reveal that most if not all of the teeth lack an enamel layer and have extensive pulp calcifications. (prolekare.cz)
  • The cause of isolated missing teeth remains unclear, but the condition is believed to be associated with genetic or environmental factors during dental development . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of the American Dental Association published preliminary data suggesting a statistical association between hypodontia of the permanent teeth and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, dental asymmetry was more commonly observed in the midline of the mandibular teeth than the maxillary teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • A 13 yr old patient reported to our hospital ( Richardson's dental and craniofacial hospital ) with a complaint of retained deciduous teeth. (facesurgeon.in)
  • PMID30584670}} 'Dental follicle cells (DFCs) activate and recruit osteoclasts for tooth development and tooth eruption, whereas DFCs themselves differentiate into osteoblasts to form alveolar bone surrounding tooth roots through the interaction with Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). (edu.au)
  • Our aim was to discuss, by presenting a case, the possibilities connected to the use of a CBCT exam in the dental evaluation of patients with Cleidocranial Dysplasia (CCD), an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia with delayed exfoliation of deciduous and eruption of permanent teeth and multiple supernumeraries, often impacted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The previous approach to the dental problems of these patients consisted in no treatment or in the extraction of the impacted or malformed teeth and their prosthetic replacement [ 8 , 9 ], with a consequent important bone loss. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The early decisions that orthodontists make for the congenitally missing teeth often have an impact on dental health for the rest of their patient's life. (orthopracticeus.com)
  • Recent molecular animal model studies have shown that epithelial Wnt /β-catenin signaling is sufficient to initiate tooth development through activating Shh , Bmps , Fgfs and Wnts in the dental epithelium. (edu.au)
  • Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (1-34) promotes tooth eruption and inhibits osteogenesis of dental follicle cells during tooth development "Dental follicle cells (DFCs) activate and recruit osteoclasts for tooth development and tooth eruption, whereas DFCs themselves differentiate into osteoblasts to form alveolar bone surrounding tooth roots through the interaction with Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). (edu.au)
  • The dental follicle (DF) surrounding the developing tooth harbors mesenchymal progenitor cells for various differentiated cells constituting the tooth root-bone interface and coordinates tooth eruption in a manner dependent on signaling by parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR). (edu.au)
  • Epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling is sufficient to initiate tooth development by activating Shh, Bmps, Fgfs and Wnts in dental epithelium, which in turn, triggered the expression of odontogenic genes in the underlying mesenchyme. (edu.au)
  • Označeníhypodon- Introduction Agenesis of one or more teeth is the most frequent dental anomaly in a human which originates due to thefunction of dental lamina . (docplayer.cz)
  • Enamel-renal syndrome (ERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe enamel hypoplasia, failed tooth eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, enlarged gingiva, and nephrocalcinosis. (prolekare.cz)
  • This article describes a modified surgical technique for management of ectopic frena. (agd.org)
  • Vertical and horizontal percussion tests were performed, verifying tooth mobility and periodontal pocket. (bvsalud.org)
  • The second part recorded specific eruption of permanent teeth leads to proper information such as occlusion categories, formation of periodontal fibres. (who.int)
  • On clinical examination the tooth is mobile, and radiographically there is a widened periodontal ligament space. (hello-kids.ru)
  • Here, we show that the PTHrP-PPR autocrine signal maintains physiological cell fates of DF mesenchymal progenitor cells to establish the functional periodontal attachment apparatus and orchestrates tooth eruption. (edu.au)
  • PPR deficiency induced a cell fate shift of PTHrP+ DF mesenchymal progenitor cells to nonphysiological cementoblast-like cells precociously forming the cellular cementum on the root surface associated with up-regulation of Mef2c and matrix proteins, resulting in loss of the proper periodontal attachment apparatus and primary failure of tooth eruption, closely resembling human genetic conditions caused by PPR mutations. (edu.au)
  • the method used depends on several factors, such as the expected size of the lesion at the time of tooth eruption, the rate of progression, the degree of cooperation of the patient, and the risk of caries. (kapd.org)
  • Example of the restoration of a proximal and cervical lesion on a primary tooth with a RMGIC: Fuji II A LC (GC). (freethesaurus.com)
  • drug eruption an eruption or a solitary lesion caused by a drug taken internally. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption (PEIR) is a rare radiolucent lesion often located within the dentin and adjacent to the dentin-enamel junction, underneath the occlusal aspect of the crowns of unerupted teeth. (kapd.org)
  • Detection of the lesion has been known to be difficult at the pre-eruptive stage of PEIR because an unerupted tooth is rarely infected with cariogenic microorganisms and, thus, such lesions are asymptomatic. (kapd.org)
  • A fistula tract developed on the right anterior mandibular border, but the lesion was relatively asymptomatic. (kaomp.org)
  • In recent years the focus for studies on tooth development has been the mouse, with a wealth of genetic information accrued and the availability of cutting edge techniques. (wiley.com)
  • Studies on twins clearly proved the genetic influence on the tooth size and shape. (docplayer.cz)
  • At this size, the envelope is a follicular cyst and as with all cysts, it will tend to get bigger and wider, causing damages to the surrounding teeth (resorption of the root, movement of teeth or pathological evolution of the cyst). (sylvainchamberland.com)
  • May have cupping due to resorption from adjacent tooth pressure on crown and root. (drgstoothpix.com)
  • Fixed appliances are generally used when orthodontic treatment involves moving teeth through 3 axis planes in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is often in the patient's long-term interest to incorporate the loss of severely hypo plastic, carious or heavily restored teeth into the overall orthodontic treatment plan even if no active appliance therapy is indicated. (theorthodonticcentre.com)
  • Angle classification system (Angle, 1899) Incisal categories of Ballard and Wayman (Ballard & Wayman, 1964) Five-point system of Ackerman and Proffit (Ackerman & Proffit, 1969) Index of Tooth Position (Massler & Frankel, 1951) Mal-alignment Index (Van Kirk & Pennel, 1959) Occlusal Feature Index (Poulton & Aaronson, 1961) The Bjork method (Bjork et al. (scribd.com)
  • Movement of the tooth toward the occlusal plane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The eruption of a tooth into an adjacent tooth preventing it from completely erupting onto the occlusal plane. (drgstoothpix.com)
  • Extractions are not accomplished in one time: there must be a staged approach in order to maintain the vertical occlusal dimension while the different groups of unerupted teeth are exposed and pulled in their ideal position. (biomedcentral.com)