Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Erythrocyte Inclusions: Pathologic inclusions occurring in erythrocytes.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Mediterranean SeaGreenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.FiresPacific OceanFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Atlantic OceanSoil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Cinanserin: A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Cathexis: Attachment, conscious or unconscious, of emotional feeling and significance to an idea, object or most commonly a person.PanamaArthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.South AmericaCandidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous: A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Hygiene Hypothesis: The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.BrazilNew Caledonia: A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Costa RicaBays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Kelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Fire Extinguishing Systems: Automatic or hand operated equipment used to control and extinguish fires.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Wilderness: Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.ParaguayArecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Eichhornia: A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.Nature: The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.MuseumsPlant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.North AmericaRNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Avicennia: A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).EuropeInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
Climate change in Australia
4.1.3 Biodiversity and ecosystems. *4.2 Projected effects by Industry *4.2.1 Agriculture forestry and livestock ... Australia has some of the world's most diverse ecosystems and natural habitats, and it may be this variety that makes them the ... In: R.A. Bradstock, J.E. Williams and A.M. Gill (eds), Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of A Continent, ... Sustained climate change could have drastic effects on the ecosystems of Australia. For example, rising ocean temperatures and ...
Climate change in Australia
13 Biodiversity and ecosystems. *14 Industry *14.1 Agriculture forestry and livestock *14.1.1 Water resources ... coral reef ecosystems is possibly the most significant potential large-scale singularity to Australia. Coral reef ecosystems ... Ecosystem changes in other parts of the world could also have serious consequences for climate change for the Australian ... Australia has some of the world's most diverse ecosystems and natural habitats, and it may be this variety that makes them the ...
Environment of New Zealand
Rare natural ecosystems. Currently there are 72 recognised rare terrestrial ecosystems in New Zealand. They are ... New Zealand's biodiversity exhibits high levels of endemism, both in its flora and fauna. Until recently the islands had no ... "Naturally Uncommon Ecosystems". Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research. Retrieved 16 December 2018.. *^ Williams, Peter A. (2007). ... in terms of ecosystem effects on water quality New Zealand scored 40.3 points out of 100 for ecosystem vitality for freshwater ...
Effects of climate change on human health
10.2 Biodiversity. *10.3 Mountain pine beetle, forest ecosystems and forest fires. *10.4 Smoke from wildfires ... Biodiversity. Deforestation is directly linked with a decrease in plant biodiversity. This decrease in biodiversity ... Ecosystem Workforce Program. 41: 1-16.. *^ "Environment a Growing Driver in Displacement of People". Worldwatch Institute. ... Land ecosystems and health. Further information: Planetary health. Effects of deforestation in the African Highlands[edit ...
In Huber, B. A.; Sinclair, B. J.; Lampe, K.-H. (eds.). African Biodiversity: Molecules, Organisms, Ecosystems. Proceedings of ... 2000). Biodiversity Explorer: Genetta tigrina. *^ Skinner, J. D., Smithers, R. H. N. (1990). The Mammals of the Southern ... Biodiversity Explorer, Iziko Museums of Cape Town: Genetta tigrina (Large-spotted genet) ...
As a result, island ecosystems comprise 30% of the world's biodiversity hotspots, 50% of marine tropical diversity, and some of ... Conservation of Island Ecosystems. ICBP Technical Publication Number 3: 255-271. *^ Goldman, R.L., L.P. Goldstein, and G.C. ... Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 477-493. *^ Cinner, J.E., M.J. Marnane, and T.R. McClanahan. 2005. Conservation and community ... Biodiversity and Conservation 17(7): 1765-1781. *^ Towns, D.R. and W.J. Ballantine. 1993. Conservation and Restoration of New ...
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, ... Global human impact on biodiversity. Further information: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. At a fundamental level, energy ... It concludes that human activity is having a significant and escalating impact on the biodiversity of world ecosystems, ... Further information: Ecosystem services. The economic importance of nature is indicated by the use of the expression ecosystem ...
Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies
"Ecosystems Studies and Modeling". Retrieved December 10, 2013. "Biodiversity and Conservation Science". Retrieved December 10, ... The HRI Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Services Valuation Database (GecoServ) is a searchable database that gathers ecosystem ... Ecosystems Studies and Modeling; Biodiversity and Conservation Science; Fisheries and Ocean Health; Marine Policy and Law; and ... Because the Gulf of Mexico is a large marine ecosystem where there are no political boundaries to waters and biota, HRI ...
... biodiversity: how many Phytophthora species are there? In: Goheen EM, Frankel SJ, eds. Phytophthoras in Forests ... as well as environmental damage in natural ecosystems. The cell wall of Phytophthora is made up of cellulose. The genus was ... and Natural Ecosystems. Albany, CA, USA: USDA Forest Service: General Technical Report PSW-GTR-221, 101-15. ...
Códigos de classificação JEL - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Keystone species". In Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Mooney, Harold A. (eds.). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer. p. 237. ... Biodiversity maintained by apex predation. Further information: Keystone species. Predators may increase the biodiversity ... Role in ecosystems. Trophic level. Further information: Trophic level and Apex predator ... Gurr, Geoff M.; Wratten, Stephen D.; Snyder, William E. (2012). Biodiversity and Insect Pests: Key Issues for Sustainable ...
Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Mooney, Harold A. (6 December 2012). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer Science & Business ... These transformations form a crucial link within ecosystems as they are responsible for liberating the energy stored in organic ... In most open ocean ecosystems only a small fraction of organic matter reaches the seafloor. Biological activity in the photic ... While crucial to all ecosystems, the process receives special consideration in aquatic settings, where it forms a significant ...
Naeem, S.; Li, S. (1997). "Biodiversity enhances ecosystem reliability". Nature. 390 (6659): 507-509. Bibcode:1997Natur.390.. ... McGrady-Steed, J.; Harris, P.; Morin, P. (1997). "Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability". Nature. 390 (6656): 162-165 ... Tilman, D.; Wedin, D.; Knops, J. (1996). "Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems". ... "Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems". Nature. 443 (7114): 989-992. Bibcode:2006Natur. ...
Valuation of ecosystem Services" (PDF). Retrieved May 29, 2015.. *^ a b "Coral reefs around the world". Guardian.co.uk. ... "A biodiversity strategy for the Great Barrier Reef". Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Australian Government. Retrieved ... Ecosystems of the World v. 25-Coral Reefs. New York, NY: Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-444-87392-7.. ... Hoes Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Coral ...
"Biodiversity in Belize - Ecosystems Map". Biological-diversity.info. August 23, 2005. Archived from the original on 22 ... The Belize Barrier Reef is home to a large diversity of plants and animals, and is one of the most diverse ecosystems of the ... Important mangrove ecosystems are also represented across Belize's landscape. As a part of the globally significant ... "Ecosystem Mapping.zip". Retrieved 3 July 2012. "CARICOM - Member Country Profile - BELIZE". www.caricom.org. CARICOM. Archived ...
Crested servaline genet
Joseph Heller (zoologist)
The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems. p. 46. Developments in Hydrobiology. Aquatic Biodiversity. ISBN 1-4020-3745-7 Coustenis, A ... It is one of Europe's deepest and oldest lakes, preserving a unique aquatic ecosystem that is of worldwide importance, with ... Albrecht, Christian and Wilke, Thomas: Ancient Lake Ohrid: biodiversity and evolution; in Patterns and Processes of Speciation ... Talevski, Milosevic; Maric, Petrovic; Talevska; Talevska (2009). "Biodiversity of Ichtyofauna from Lake Prespa, Lake Ohrid and ...
Aquatic Biodiversity. ISBN 1-4020-3745-7 Slugina, Z.V. (2006). Endemic Bivalvia in ancient lakes. Hydrobiologia 568(S): 213-217 ... Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems. p. 46. Developments in Hydrobiology. ... According to the Global Nature Fund (GNF), Titicaca's biodiversity is threatened by water pollution and the introduction of new ... but in associated ecosystems). The many Orestias species in Lake Titicaca differ significantly in both habitat preference and ...
African Biodiversity: Molecules, Organisms, Ecosystems. Springer. p. 294. ISBN 0387243151. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ( ... Megafauna play a significant role in the lateral transport of mineral nutrients in an ecosystem, tending to translocate them ... Wolf, A.; Doughty, C. E.; Malhi, Y. (2013). "Lateral Diffusion of Nutrients by Mammalian Herbivores in Terrestrial Ecosystems ... Marshall, M. (2013-08-11). "Ecosystems still feel the pain of ancient extinctions". New Scientist. Retrieved 2013-08-12. ...
Aquatic Biodiversity. ISBN 1-4020-3745-7 Francesco Menotti, Aidan O'Sullivan, The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology. OUP ... This long uninterrupted age has allowed for a notably diverse ecosystem to evolve in the lake. Naturalists have documented more ... ISBN 978-94-007-1783-1 Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems. p. 46. Developments in ... Recently the biodiversity of the lake has suffered greatly due to the invasion of foreign fish, the black bass and the bluegill ...
East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation. New York: Oxford University Press. Lake Tanganyika and Its Life. Oxford Press. ... Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project. Mortiff, C: Lake Tanganyika and its Diverse Cichlids. Cichlid-Forum. Retrieved 1 March ... Aquatic Biodiversity. ISBN 1-4020-3745-7 Brown, D. (1994). Freshwater Snails Of Africa And Their Medical Importance. 2nd ... Aquatic Biodiversity. ISBN 1-4020-3745-7 Salonen; Högmander; Langenberg; Mölsä; Sarvala; Tarvainen; and Tiirola (2012). ...
2004). "Impacts of multiple stressors on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: the role of species co-tolerance". OIKOS. 104 ... While they can be a human safety hazard, it is productive for these ecosystems to burn out every once in a while so that new ... Biodiversity is determined by many things, and one of them is abiotic stress. If an environment is highly stressful, ... biodiversity tends to be low. If abiotic stress does not have a strong presence in an area, the biodiversity will be much ...
Effects of global warming on marine mammals
Bahía Portete - Kaurrele National Natural Park
The biodiversity of the park is rich in various other species. The coastal Bahía Portete Park is richer in flora than the ... Natural Park was designated number 59 of the National Natural Parks of Colombia to protect the marine and littoral ecosystems ... At the declaration of the park, president of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos said "Biodiversity is to Colombia, what oil is for the ...
World Conservation Monitoring Centre
Business and Biodiversity; Climate Change; Ecosystem Assessment; Food Security, Biomass and Biodiversity; Marine Decision and ... UNEP-WCMC has a mandate to facilitate the delivery of the global indicators under the CBD's 2010 Biodiversity Target on the ... A series of world atlases on biodiversity topics have been published by UNEP-WCMC through University of California Press. UNEP- ... UNEP-WCMC has been part of UNEP since 2000, and has responsibility for biodiversity assessment and support to policy ...
Jigme Singye Wangchuck
"The Biodiversity Act of Bhutan" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-20. United Nations Environment Programme, First-Ever UNEP 'Champions ... adverse impacts of both increased economic activity and increased population on the fragility of the mountain ecosystem. He ... Wangchuck also enhanced the protection of natural resources such as forests and biodiversity. Wangchuck foresaw the potentially ... 2000 Bio-diversity Act of Bhutan, 2003 Wangchuck and the people of Bhutan received the "Champions of the Earth" Award from UNEP ...
2003). Ecology: From ecosystem to biosphere. Science Publishers. p. 490. ISBN 978-1-57808-294-0. Proctor, J. D.; Larson, B. M. ... doi:10.1126/science.328.5976.307-c. Ehrlich, P. R.; Pringle, R. M. "Colloquium Paper: Where does biodiversity go from here? A ... There is usually a maximum of four or five links in a food chain, although food chains in aquatic ecosystems are more often ... The food web is a simplified illustration of the various methods of feeding that links an ecosystem into a unified system of ...
Environment of Albania
"Biodiversity Albania". climatechangepost.com. Some of the 30% of the European plant species, and 42% of the European mammals ... It also consists of different ecoregions, which represent the natural geographical ecosystem, water systems, weather, renewable ... Geography of Albania Climate of Albania Biodiversity of Albania "Albania country profile". bbc.com. Europe. 19 June 2017. ... Albania is one of the richest in Europe in terms of biodiversity. Almost 30% of the entire flora and 42% fauna in the entire ...
International Analog Forestry Network
FGP standards are being adapted to certify minerals that have been "responsibly mined," as well as ecosystem services and ... that seeks to conserve and restore biodiversity worldwide through the application of analog forestry. The IAFN links a variety ... the requirements of most organic certification but with additional restrictions to further the protection of biodiversity. ...
Karimunjawa National Park
Many researchers have been attracted to the marine biodiversity and pristine forest as well as the uniqueness of the ... Karimunjawa has five types of ecosystems: coral reef, seagrass and seaweed, mangrove forest, coastal forest and low land ... ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation: Karimunjawa Marine National Park Profile Ministry of Forestry: Karimunjawa ... and was among the first areas recognised as being important for conservation and marine biodiversity protection. It was ...
Ocean Biogeographic Information System
Managed by Tony Rees Canada Hosted by Centre of Marine Biodiversity and Bedford Institute of Oceanography. Managed by Bob ... to generate new hypotheses about the global marine ecosystem; and to guide future field expeditions." The initial OBIS Portal ... In: Miloslavich P. and Klein E. (eds), Caribbean marine biodiversity: the known and the unknown. DEStech Publications Inc., ... Antarctic OBIS Hosted by Belgian Biodiversity Platform, Brussels and by Flanders Marine Institute, Oostende. Managed by Bruno ...
While the number of marine mammals is small compared to those found on land, their roles in various ecosystems are large, ... and a pool could never replace the size and biodiversity of the ocean. They also oppose using sea lions for entertainment, ... Sea otters are a classic example of a keystone species; their presence affects the ecosystem more profoundly than their size ... Loss of the habitat and nutrients provided by kelp forests leads to profound cascade effects on the marine ecosystem. North ...
Payment for ecosystem services
"Sustainable Biodiversity Fund (FBS)". www.fonafifo.go.cr. Retrieved 2016-11-09. Buckingham, Kathleen; Hanson, Craig. "The ... Ecosystem Marketplace breaking news and features on payments for ecosystem services Plan Vivo is a standard used to certify PES ... Twenty-four specific ecosystem services were identified and assessed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a 2005 UN- ... sponsored report designed to assess the state of the world's ecosystems. The report defined the broad categories of ecosystem ...
List of protected areas of Ontario
Nature Reserve Class Parks: Parks to protect notable and provincially significant natural habitats, landforms and ecosystems ... for intrinsic value, scientific research and biodiversity purposes. Recreation Class Parks: Parks to provide a variety of ... Parks to protect provincially significant recreational landscapes and representative ecosystems, as well as to provide ... Parks to protect recreational water routes and provincially significant terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to provide ...
Biodiversity is being lost at a fast rate. The more species there are in an ecosystem, the more resilient it is to evolution. ... Ecosystems will change or evolve to cope with the increase in temperature. Consequently, many species are being driven out of ... The loss of new species in an ecosystem will eventually affect all living creatures. In the U.S. and Canada, there was a ... Climate change is starting to have major impacts on ecosystems. With global temperature rising, there is a decrease in snow- ...
Liman irrigation system
Aquaculture of coral
Lesser, MP (2011) "Coral Bleaching: Causes and Mechanisms" Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, part 5, pp. 405-419. Graham ... Coral aquaculture and transplantation have the ability to improve coral cover, biodiversity, and structural heterogeneity of a ... it is analogous to horticulture and has been compared to silviculture as a management practice that mimics natural ecosystems. ...
"Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network: Home". TERN. Retrieved 2016-04-21. "KU Biodiversity Institute & Natural History Museum ... Users include scientists, ecosystem managers, policy makers, students, educators, librarians, and the public. DataONE links ... ecosystem managers, students, private companies and the public. DataONE has a users group that meets yearly to provide feedback ... Biodiversity Institute USA National Phenology Network USGS Science Data Catalog (SDC) The Tool Kit provides tools for ...
So, because the keystone predators, the wolves, had been removed from the Yellowstone-Idaho ecosystem, the ecosystem changed. ... has had important impacts on biodiversity within Yellowstone National Park. Through predation of elk populations, wolf ... Over the succeeding decades, elk populations grew so large that they unbalanced the local ecosystem. The number of elk and ... "BBC NEWS - Science/Nature - Wild wolves 'good for ecosystems'". Heritage, MHMG - Scottish Natural. "Reintroducing native ...
Earth System Governance Project
Deep-Sea Biodiversity and Life History Processes. 92 (Supplement C): 172-182. Bibcode:2013DSRII..92..172T. doi:10.1016/j. ... Her main work as a collaborator is discovering ways to conserve the Canadian marine ecosystems. Much of Tunnicliffe's personal ... her work mainly focuses on the use of submersibles and deep sea observatories to research and discover deep sea ecosystems and ...
Wildlife of Zanzibar
The Misali Island area represents a reef ecosystem with high biodiversity and socio-economic value. The island's fringing reef ... The reserve is an important biodiversity spot in the coral rag zone. The forest reserve is rich both in faunal and floral ... The objective of this sanctuary is to preserve and develop the rich biodiversity of the coral reef. Set up after a ... Coral rag forest, a sensitive ecosystem, is under threat due to timber extraction, since the 1970s. Conservation measures have ...
Wet Tropics of Queensland
Stork, Nigel E. (2005). "The Theory and Practice of Planning for Long-term Conservation of Biodiversity in the Wet Tropics ... The expansion of the sugarcane industry in lowland plains poses a significant threat to some endangered ecosystems. Some are ... World heritage forests: the world heritage convention as a mechanism for conserving tropical forest biodiversity. CIFOR. 1999. ... the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved ...
Late Devonian extinction
The family is a great unit, and to lose so many signifies a deep loss of ecosystem diversity. On a smaller scale, 57% of genera ... Sole, R. V., and Newman, M. Patterns of extinction and biodiversity in the fossil record Bambach, R.K.; Knoll, A.H.; Wang, S.C ... "Extinctions and Biodiversity in the Fossil Record - Volume Two, The earth system: biological and ecological dimensions of ... The Kellwasser event was preceded by a longer period of prolonged biodiversity loss. The fossil record of the following first ...
As the largest and most intricate wetland ecosystem in the United States, the Sandhills contain a large array of plant and ... the resulting extensive and continuous habitat for plant and animal species has largely preserved the biodiversity of the area ... These plants have helped to stabilize the sand dunes, creating an ecosystem beneficial for other plants and animals. Better ... a sensitive ecosystem, and extensive areas of very shallow groundwater) and provided additional context and information about ...
Pindus National Park
Biodiversity, Community and Ecosystems
Get the table of contents of every new volume published in Biodiversity, Community and Ecosystems. ... causes and consequences of biodiversity, and the delivery of ecosystem services. This series aims to publish novel syntheses ... Relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem processes; Ecology of global environmental change; Biological invasions; ... All ecosystem types (including terrestrial and aquatic) and groups of organisms are of interest, as are syntheses on both ...
Biodiversity and Ecosystems
We as a chemical company depend on ecosystem services and have an impact on them. ... Biodiversity is the foundation for numerous ecosystem services, for example air quality, climate, pollination, water ... How we address biodiversity. BASF supports the preservation of ecosystems and promotes the sustainable use of natural resources ... global/en/who-we-are/sustainability/we-produce-safely-and-efficiently/resources-and-ecosystems/biodiversity-and-ecosystems ...
Divergent biodiversity change within ecosystems | PNAS
Divergent biodiversity change within ecosystems. Anne E. Magurran, Amy E. Deacon, Faye Moyes, Hideyasu Shimadzu, Maria Dornelas ... Divergent biodiversity change within ecosystems. Anne E. Magurran, Amy E. Deacon, Faye Moyes, Hideyasu Shimadzu, Maria Dornelas ... Divergent biodiversity change within ecosystems. Anne E. Magurran, Amy E. Deacon, Faye Moyes, Hideyasu Shimadzu, Maria Dornelas ... The Earths ecosystems are under unprecedented pressure, yet the nature of contemporary biodiversity change is not well ...
Ecosystems and biodiversity - CSIRO
Our research is helping to underpin a national effort to halt biodiversity decline and to manage Australias unique and diverse ... We look at the role of fire in the ecosystems of northern Australia and how best to manage its impact on biodiversity and ... Invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function in northern Australia. Land managers are increasingly looking for reliable ... Managing water ecosystems. We investigate how water ecosystems respond to different water resource management and allocation ...
Biodiversity: Ecosystem approach
Ecosystem approach The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that ... Ecosystem approaches are applied to specific elements in FAOs work, and most notably, through its work:. *in achieving ... The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes ... An ecosystem approach to agriculture and natural resource management explicitly identifies opportunities and trade-offs. It can ...
Corporate Reporting on Biodiversity and Ecosystems | IUCN
Guidelines Guide to Corporate Ecosystem Valuation Ecosystem valuation is a complex topic with extensive jargon and rapidly ... Corporate Reporting on Biodiversity and Ecosystems. Knowledge products and tools to help businesses assess their impact on ... A Framework for Corporate Action on Biodiversity and Ecosystems. The objective of this framework is to contribute to the ... Guide to Corporate Ecosystem Valuation. Ecosystem valuation is a complex topic with extensive jargon and rapidly evolving ...
Ecosystems and Biodiversity | UNEP - UN Environment Programme
... biodiversity loss is accelerating in all regions of the world. We protect and restore ecosystems and the goods and services ... Despite numerous government pledges, biodiversity loss is accelerating in all regions of the world. ... We protect and restore ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. ...
Biodiversity - Ecosystems - European Environment Agency
Biodiversity is also crucial to ecosystem services - the services that nature supplies - such as pollination, climate ... Biodiversity is the name given to the variety of ecosystems (natural capital), species and genes in the world or in a ... Biodiversity Biodiversity - protected areas Forests Growing pressures on ecosystems (GMT 8) Natural capital and ecosystem ... Topics: Biodiversity - Ecosystems , Biodiversity is the name given to the variety of ecosystems (natural capital), species and ...
Biodiversity - Ecosystems - European Environment Agency
Biodiversity is also crucial to ecosystem services - the services that nature supplies - such as pollination, climate ... Biodiversity is the name given to the variety of ecosystems (natural capital), species and genes in the world or in a ... Biodiversity Information System for Europe: access key biodiversity information in one click!. ... Destruction and loss of biodiversity is as catastrophic as climate change. Biodiversity collectively describes millions of ...
Forestry Commission - Ecosystems and Biodiversity
... biodiversity, genetic conservation and forest reproductive materials - commissioned reports ... Title: Understanding the implications of climate change for woodland biodiversity and community functioning - synthesis of key ... Habitat management, protected species, biodiversity, genetic conservation and forest reproductive materials - commissioned ... which reviewed the known effects of climate change on woodland biodiversity and functioning. ...
Eco-systems and biodiversity | AkzoNobel
Eco-systems and biodiversity AkzoNobel recognizes the dependence on eco-systems for resources, such as fresh water, for ... According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the main drivers for biodiversity impact are habitat change (land use change ... as well as the impact we have on these eco-systems. ...
Biodiversity promotes multitasking in ecosystems | EurekAlert! Science News
... and their environment bolsters the idea that greater biodiversity helps maintain more stable and productive ecosystems. ... Biodiversity promotes multitasking in ecosystems. Virginia Institute of Marine Science. Journal. Nature Communications. Funder ... "We found that biodiversity generally enhances multiple functions in experimental ecosystems," says Lefcheck. "In other words, ... "Many recent studies support the idea that greater biodiversity helps maintain more stable and productive ecosystems," says ...
Ecosystems & Biodiversity - EIA International
Biodiversity and ecosystems for sustainable towns and cities | IUCN
Biodiversity and ecosystems for sustainable towns and cities. Tue, 23 Apr 2013 ... IUCN facilitated the side event Management of biodiversity and ecosystems, a new way of looking at sustainable cities where ... The natural environment is the foundation of sustainable urban development and integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services ... He said that it is essential to map ecosystem services in cities and their monetary and non-monetary values, and exchange ...
Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Ag and Food
... * 1. Towards a Global Study on The Economics of Ecosystems and ... Ist has been estimated that biodiversity and ecosystem services account for between 40 to 90 per cent of the GDP of the Poor. ... 6. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Agriculture and Food (TEEBAgFood) First Results from Studies on Palm Oil and ... incorporating ecosystem and biodiversity benefits into decision-making through incentives and price signals ...
Biodiversity promotes multitasking in ecosystems | William & Mary
... between organisms and their environment shows that biodiversity is even more important to the healthy functioning of ecosystems ... "We found that biodiversity generally enhances multiple functions in experimental ecosystems," says Lefcheck. "In other words, ... "Many recent studies support the idea that greater biodiversity helps maintain more stable and productive ecosystems," says ... "is the first systematic look at how biodiversity affects the suite of interconnected processes that keep ecosystems healthy and ...
Biodiversity and ecosystems management | UNDP
Biodiversity and ecosystems management. As the UN development agency, UNDP is proactively addressing biodiversity loss and ... UNDP Biodiversity and Ecosystems Global Framework from 2012-2020 to support countries in implementing the Aichi Biodiversity ... UNDP believes that biodiversity and healthy ecosystems are essential for improving and sustaining human wellbeing. They provide ... Valuing biodiversity and achieving national…. Biodiversity is much more than a list of species of microbes, fauna and flora, it ...
Plant Biodiversity Shields Natural Ecosystems From Man-Made Perils - Redorbit
Kevin McCann studies food webs and ecosystem stability. He says many ecosystems, including grasslands that may easily become ... A new study led by integrative biologists at the University of Guelph warns of the perils inherent in an ecosystem breakdown. ... "We need to protect biodiversity.". Previous studies have relied on short-term, artificial study plots. The Guelph team, along ... "Theyre a really productive ecosystem that produces year in and year out and seems stable and then suddenly a major ...
Why is biodiversity important in ecosystems? | Reference.com
Biodiversity is important in ecosystems because it prevents extinction of species, allows organisms to adapt to changes in the ... Biodiversity keeps the ecosystem at an equilibrium, which defines the manner in which living organisms interact. Biodiversity ... Biodiversity is important in ecosystems because it prevents extinction of species, allows organisms to adapt to changes in the ... How is an ecosystem maintained in nature?. A: The adaptability and interconnected nature of the organisms living in ecosystems ...
Biodiversity of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Tropical to Temperate Australia
... as well new findings relating to biodiversity, conservation, and paleoecology. International Journal of Ecology encourages the ... Raymond L. Specht, "Biodiversity of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Tropical to Temperate Australia," International Journal of ... Biodiversity of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Tropical to Temperate Australia. Raymond L. Specht ...
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity - TEEB
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a global initiative focused on recognizing, demonstrating and capturing ... The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a global initiative focused on "making natures values visible". Its ... The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (2018). Measuring what matters in agriculture and food systems: a synthesis ... biodiversity and ecosystem services and externalities including human health impacts from agriculture on a global scale. It ...
China - The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
Biodiversity and Ecosystems NEtwork (BENE) WWW Server
... Leland Ellis leland at straylight.tamu.edu Tue Nov 15 14:25:32 EST 1994 ... Hello, we are pleased to announce the opening of the Biodiversity and Ecosystems NEtwork (BENE) webserver, hosted by the W.M. ... straylight.tamu.edu/bene/bene.html The goal of the BENE webserver is to help those interested in biodiversity and ecosystems to ... BENE also represents a demonstration of some of the capabilities suggested for the proposed U.S. National Biodiversity ...
Mexico - The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
Biodiversity, Ecology and Ecosystems | Prospects.ac.uk
Development Studies: TEEB - The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity - Routledge
TEEB - The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. *. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Business and Enterprise ... national and global economic benefits of biodiversity, to highlight the growing costs of biodiversity loss and ecosystem ... The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity). It provides important evidence of growing corporate concern about biodiversity ... The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Local and Regional Policy and Management. 1st Edition. Edited by Heidi Wittmer ...
Plant Production and Protection Division: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services and Their Importance For Agriculture. Ecosystem services are defined as "the benefits provided by ecosystems ... In this context, AGP assists member countries in developing capacities to manage biodiversity and the ecosystem services it ... and contribute to the resilience of ecosystems for risk mitigation. Indeed, biodiversity enhances ecosystem services because ... Biodiversity for food and agriculture can be managed to maintain or enhance ecosystem functions to provide options for the ...
Dragonfly Study Shows How Ecosystem Changes Affect Biodiversity - Redorbit
"Thats the last thing that happens after you mess up the entire ecosystem for a long period of time," he said. By the time a ... Rudolph also noted the disappearance of a species is the most extreme cause of biodiversity loss, but not the only one. ... The team found that the structure of the entire community and how the whole ecosystem functioned could be altered by changing ... This helped the researchers determine that such changes did alter the dynamics of complex ecosystems in a measurable way. ...
Biodiversity & Ecosystems - Environmental Resources Management (ERM)
By addressing biodiversity and ecological issues in their decision-making and operations, our clients attain long-term ... and financial goals that are frequently impacted by sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems. ... Biodiversity & Ecosystems. Quality of life depends on diverse and complex ecological systems. Protecting those systems also has ... and financial goals that are frequently impacted by sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems. ...
Biodiversity just as powerful as climate change for healthy ecosystems | EurekAlert! Science News
A study in this weeks issue of Nature offers a decisive answer: biodiversitys power in the wild surpasses experimental ... In past experiments, diversity has fostered healthier, more productive ecosystems, like shoreline vegetation that guards ... Biodiversity is proving to be one of humanitys best defenses against extreme weather. ... Biodiversity just as powerful as climate change for healthy ecosystems In the wild, diversity determines ecosystem production ...
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- Kelp forests provide important structural features and ecosystem function to coastal marine communities. (sanctuarysimon.org)
- However, current and past monitoring efforts, including the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) and the Cooperative Research and Assessment of Nearshore Ecosystems (CRANE) programs, will improve our understanding of kelp forest habitats in the sanctuary. (sanctuarysimon.org)
- Here we present data from a new 5-y study of a tropical freshwater ecosystem showing that change in the two dimensions of biodiversity-assemblage diversity (number and abundance of species) and assemblage composition-is decoupled from and uncorrelated among taxa. (pnas.org)
- With Australia's biodiversity in steep decline, CSIRO researchers are leading the efforts to build fundamental knowledge on the nature, extent and history of our native species. (www.csiro.au)
- Biodiversity is the name given to the variety of ecosystems (natural capital), species and genes in the world or in a particular habitat. (europa.eu)
- With its six targets, the Strategy addresses nature (target 1), ecosystems and their restoration (target 2), the sustainable use of Europe's nature, land and sea resources via agriculture, forestry and fisheries (targets 3 and 4), the problem of alien species (target 5) and the EU's global impacts (target 6). (europa.eu)
- Unsustainable farming and forestry, urban sprawl and pollution are the top pressures to blame for a drastic decline in Europe's biodiversity, threatening the survival of thousands of animal species and habitats. (europa.eu)
- The scarce lime bark beetle Ernoporus tiliae is classed as a Red Data Book category 1 species and is listed as a Priority species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan due to its apparent decline in post war years. (forestry.gov.uk)
- According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the main drivers for biodiversity impact are habitat change (land use change), over-exploitation, invasive alien species, pollution and climate change. (akzonobel.com)
- Many recent studies support the idea that greater biodiversity helps maintain more stable and productive ecosystems," says Lefcheck, "but this conclusion rests mostly on experiments that tested how losing species affects only a single ecosystem process, such as plant growth. (eurekalert.org)
- Each experiment involved manipulation of at least 3 different species and the monitoring of at least 2 and up to 12 distinct ecosystem functions--from the accumulation of soil nitrogen to the control of aquatic algae. (eurekalert.org)
- In other words, as you consider more aspects of an ecosystem, biodiversity becomes more important: one species cannot do it all. (eurekalert.org)
- Based on a ten-year study, the team´s findings lend scientific weight to moral and esthetic arguments for preserving species biodiversity and confirm that greater species diversity in an area helps ecosystems avoid irreversible collapse after human disturbances. (redorbit.com)
- Biodiversity is important in ecosystems because it prevents extinction of species, allows organisms to adapt to changes in the environment and provides a wide range of materials and foods for survival. (reference.com)
- Biodiversity is categorized into species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity. (reference.com)
- Loss of biodiversity weakens the connections that exist among various species, which harms the ecosystem. (reference.com)
- Biodiversity - the variety and variability of animals, plants and micro-organisms at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels - is necessary to sustain key functions of the ecosystem, its structure and processes. (fao.org)
- Rudolph also noted the disappearance of a species is the most extreme cause of biodiversity loss, but not the only one. (redorbit.com)
- Rudolf also found it important that changing the structure of populations sometimes had bigger effects on the ecosystem than changing the predator species. (redorbit.com)
- While these changes would be hard to predict by the classical approach, our results suggests such changes are expected when human activities alter the population structure of keystone species in an ecosystem," Rudolf said. (redorbit.com)
- The name of an ecosystem doesn't automatically imply that all the species in that ecosystem are the same everywhere in the world. (khanacademy.org)
- High diversity among types of ecosystems means that there will also be a high diversity of species themselves. (khanacademy.org)
- Each species is specialized to a type of ecosystem in a particular place. (khanacademy.org)
- In other words, the ecosystem functions performed by these different reef organisms will be the same in spite of how different the lists of species from each reef might be. (khanacademy.org)
- And, in turn, the ecosystem functions will be similar, but the species will be different in the Great Barrier Reef off Australia or reefs off Madagascar or wherever things that we would label a tropical coral reef might occur. (khanacademy.org)
- To me, that's the essence of ecosystem diversity, distinct types of ecosystems, such as tropical reef or tropical rainforest, combined with the diversity of the species within a specific type of ecosystem. (khanacademy.org)
- We can maximize protection of species numbers in a given type of ecosystem by protecting the most biodiverse example of that ecosystem in the world. (khanacademy.org)
- There are complex webs of interactions among the species that make each type of ecosystem unique. (khanacademy.org)
- But just as there are complex webs of species interactions within ecosystems, there are webs of interactions among ecosystems themselves. (khanacademy.org)
- Aquatic biodiversity in both freshwater and marine environments are under continuous decline because of overexploitation of species, introduced exotic plant or animal, pollution sources from cities, industries and agricultural zones, loss and changes in ecological niche. (scirp.org)
- Natural ecosystems already tend to have vastly more species than most experiments. (eurekalert.org)
- Biodiversity in model ecosystems, II: species assembly and food web structure. (nih.gov)
- As discussed in the first paper, rapid environmental fluctuations, interacting with the condition for coexistence of competing species, limit the maximal biodiversity that a trophic level can host. (nih.gov)
- Andersen, A.N. (1997) Measuring invertebrate biodiversity surrogates of ant species richness in the Australian seasonal tropics. (springer.com)
- The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. (cambridge.org)
- Systems with a higher number of species can thus keep their biomass production stable for longer than those with less biodiversity. (innovations-report.com)
- However, increasing stress in systems with few species had a considerably more negative impact than in those with high biodiversity levels. (innovations-report.com)
- However, the stability of ecosystem productivity is only changed by those drivers that alter biodiversity, with a given decrease in plant species numbers leading to a quantitatively similar decrease in ecosystem stability regardless of which driver caused the biodiversity loss. (nih.gov)
- The study involved the construction of a database drawn from 192 peer-reviewed publications about experiments that manipulated species richness and examined their effect on ecosystem processes. (nsf.gov)
- This global synthesis found that in areas where local species loss during this century falls within the lower range of projections (losses of 1 to 20 percent of plant species), negligible effects on ecosystem plant growth will result, and changes in species richness will rank low relative to the effects projected for other environmental changes. (nsf.gov)
- In ecosystems where species losses fall within intermediate projections of 21 to 40 percent of species, however, species loss is expected to reduce plant growth by 5 to 10 percent. (nsf.gov)
- TEEB recommends that urgent remedial action is essential because species loss and ecosystem degradation are inextricably linked to human well-being. (wikipedia.org)
- Further progress on exploring links between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function will require that we develop a better understanding of the functional traits of individual species and better understand how interactions among species impact ecosystem services. (oxfordscholarship.com)
- The Nordic countries have a great potential to create a joint highway for biodiversity informatics, enabling cutting edge research and models for a sustainable use of our natural resources, says Ulf Gärdenfors from the Swedish Species Information Centre and manager of Swedish LifeWatch. (innovations-report.de)
- By providing better access to biodiversity and environmental data, LifeWatch can help us towards a better understanding of ecosystem functions and to make predictions and simulations of e.g. species distribution and environmental interactions in a changing world. (innovations-report.de)
- Sweden was the first country to start the construction of national research infrastructure for biodiversity within the LifeWatch initiative, an effort coordinated by the Swedish Species Information Centre (ArtDatabanken) at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) and involving several major universities and institutions in Sweden. (innovations-report.de)
- Following these suggestions, Coffman's work on rare and native plant species could be largely expanded through understanding Metropark's bedrock meadow remnant ecosystems. (kent.edu)
- As there can exist high interspecific variation in leaf litter chemistry among tree species, how consumers (e.g. bacteria, fungi, invertebrates) respond to resource variability is often the focus of biodiversity-ecosystem function research in these ecosystems. (els.net)
- Although competition and facilitation among microbial and invertebrate consumers might generate emergent effects of biodiversity on organic matter processing rates at the consumer level, the strong interactions between consumers and leaf litter species diversity comprise an important link as to how biodiversity in detritus‐based ecosystems influences decomposition. (els.net)
- There has been a shift from managing individual species and their habitats toward managing the ecosystem in which the species reside. (archive-it.org)
- Although management of an individual species is often required, managing ecosystems is a more effective approach to maintaining the whole range of species that live in a geographical area or landscape. (archive-it.org)
- Maintaining healthy ecosystems is far more effective than last-minute efforts to rescue individual species. (archive-it.org)
- First, to understand the impacts of different land use systems on species distributions and the capacity of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services. (ufz.de)
- If we want to understand how ecosystems function, we have to go beyond cataloguing species and where they occur," said Enquist, who is one of the principal investigators of BIEN and a professor in the UA's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. (science20.com)
- Enquist's team used several big data approaches and applied them to trait data and species distribution data from all of North and South America, to make inferences about functional biodiversity from the tropics to the temperate zones. (science20.com)
- It wasn't until recently that we have had access to all this data on not only where species occur and what they are, but also to their traits and the ecosystems they thrive in," Enquist said. (science20.com)
- They also depend upon a broad diversity or biodiversity of habitats and species (plants and animals) living within these Great Lakes habitats, essential to the ecological health and function of these invaluable ecosystems. (msu.edu)
- Specific habitat communities or indicator species, were identified with the purpose of representing the whole of Lake Huron's diversity of ecosystems. (msu.edu)
- The advection of water, nutrients, biomass, and species from the south through the sub-Arctic has an essential impact on the function of the Arctic Ocean and the function and biodiversity of pan-arctic ecosystems. (uarctic.org)
- Despite its rich biodiversity elements, Jordan's nature is facing many threats as reflected by the national and global status of many species and their habitats. (org.jo)
- Is the degree of variation of organisms, and can be described in relation to ecosystems, species, or genetic level within an area. (org.jo)
- Biodiversity describes the variety of species that make up an ecosystem. (ehow.co.uk)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency describes invasive species as "one of the largest threats to our terrestrial, coastal and freshwater ecosystems. (ehow.co.uk)
- Invasive species are not native to an ecosystem. (ehow.co.uk)
- When these species are introduced to an ecosystem, they can quickly overwhelm the natural habitats, competing with native species for limited resources and eventually causing a decline in native numbers. (ehow.co.uk)
- Our theory shows that biodiversity stabilises ecosystems through three main mechanisms: (1) asynchrony in species' responses to environmental fluctuations, (2) reduced demographic stochasticity due to overyielding in species mixtures and (3) reduced observation error (including spatial and sampling variability). (wur.nl)
- Parameterised with empirical data from four long-term grassland biodiversity experiments, our prediction explained 22-75% of the observed variability, and captured much of the effect of species richness. (wur.nl)
- We demonstrated increased biodiversity and abundance associated with habitat structured by red grouper, and we speculate here as to its fishery importance as habitat for other economically important species such as spiny lobster ( Panulirus argus ) and vermilion snapper ( Rhomboplites aurorubens ). (asknature.org)
- As buffering species disappear, rates of disease spread can accelerate," says Drew Harvell, professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University and a co-author of the study, "Impacts of Biodiversity on the Emergence and Transmission of Infectious Diseases," which is published online in the current issue of Nature . (newswise.com)
- The authors argue that, in a diverse ecosystem, often only a fraction of organisms are susceptible to particular diseases or parasites - the presence of buffering species means the spread of a malady is muted. (newswise.com)
- Research related to human-made effects on biodiversity includes the identification of endangered biodiversity hotspots affected by global change, potential risks of an escape of transgenes from crops to wild species, and the consequences of habitat fragmentation for the viability and genetic diversity of populations and species. (wikipedia.org)
- The delineation of biodiversity hotspots that protect as many species as possible with as little land as possible has been the dominant paradigm in conservation science. (ucsb.edu)
- In ecosystems where species losses fall within intermediate projections (21 to 40 percent of species), however, species loss is expected to reduce plant growth by 5 to 10 percent, an effect that is comparable in magnitude to the expected impacts of climate warming and increased ultraviolet radiation due to stratospheric ozone loss. (innovations-report.com)
- Proposed biodiversity evaluations will identify plant species that support key beneficial invertebrates and enhance ecosystem service and resilience, enabling farmers to grow beneficial plants within their cropping systems to improve food security and alleviate poverty. (kew.org)
- Improve bean yield and quality and ultimately food security, through enhanced biodiversity, and promoting sustainable use of pesticidal plant species. (kew.org)
- Output 1: Ecosystems and plant species that are habitats for key natural enemies of bean pests identified. (kew.org)
- To explain this question, a team of 50 international scientists spent eight years researching the species diversity of microorganisms, plants, and animals, as well as the related ecosystem functions on the southern slopes of Kilimanjaro. (azocleantech.com)
- Here, maize is grown extensively and about 50% of the species are locally lost, and the majority of the 30 explored ecosystem functions face considerable decrease. (azocleantech.com)
- In these regions on the slopes of Kilimanjaro, where bananas, coffee, and several other products are grown-generally using conventional cultivation methods-fewer species are lost due to land use and the ecosystem functions vary to a much lesser degree when compared that in the savanna. (azocleantech.com)
- Additionally, the research team found that introduced species are diluting the effects of island age within the patterns of local biodiversity. (earth.com)
- The researchers also found that widespread introduced species weakened the effect of island age on biodiversity. (earth.com)
Integrating biodiversity and ecosystem serv1
- The natural environment is the foundation of sustainable urban development and integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in urban planning can offer a valuable response to the economic challenges Europe is facing by contributing to sustainable urban development, concluded Chantal van Ham of IUCN . (iucn.org)
- The Earth's ecosystems are under unprecedented pressure, yet the nature of contemporary biodiversity change is not well understood. (pnas.org)
- the main finding of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment , a four-year, international, scientific appraisal of the condition and trends in the Earth's ecosystems. (iucn.org)
- Each organism within an ecosystem serves important functions that help balance the Earth's ecology. (reference.com)
- What effect will there be on the stability of all Earth's ecosystems if we focus on only one example of a particular ecosystem? (khanacademy.org)
- Aquatic ecosystems support a substantial source of the earth's biological diversity. (scirp.org)
- Therefore, if we want to maintain the productivity and functioning of Earth's ecosystems, conserving their biodiversity is critically important. (eurekalert.org)
- Human-driven environmental changes may simultaneously affect the biodiversity, productivity, and stability of Earth's ecosystems, but there is no consensus on the causal relationships linking these variables. (nih.gov)
- A term loosely used to refer to the total of the Earth's ecosystems. (sustainabilitydictionary.com)
- The other part of aquatic biodiversity has marine ecosystems, which makes up an ocean, estuaries, salt marshes, coral reefs, mangroves and algal colonies. (scirp.org)
- Marine ecosystems are valuable wealth but vulnerable too. (scirp.org)
- Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. (cambridge.org)
- With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. (cambridge.org)
- We present fisheries and fisheries-related data at spatial scales that have ecological and policy relevance, such as by Exclusive Economic Zones, High Seas, or Large Marine Ecosystems. (seaaroundus.org)
- The Sea Around Us is a research initiative at The University of British Columbia (located at the Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, formerly Fisheries Centre) that assesses the impact of fisheries on the marine ecosystems of the world, and offers mitigating solutions to a range of stakeholders. (seaaroundus.org)
- We regularly update our products at the scale of countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, Large Marine Ecosystems, the High Seas and other spatial scales, and as global maps and summaries. (seaaroundus.org)
- This is particularly true for the Pacific Islands which are home to diverse and unique terrestrial and marine ecosystems. (samoaobserver.ws)
- It could open the door to more creative and forward looking funds and mechanisms covering other nature-based infrastructure such as peatlands and wetlands en route to support for the services generated by coastal and marine ecosystems such as coral reefs to mangroves," he said. (bio-medicine.org)
- Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss. (europa.eu)
- As the UN development agency, UNDP is proactively addressing biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation through a large portfolio of approximately 400 projects in over 130 countries with US$ 1.6 billion in funding, from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and other sources, and co-financing of US$ 5.1 billion. (undp.org)
- The degradation of biodiversity and ecosystems is tangible and visible, and people have become increasingly aware of this over the last few decades. (iddri.org)
- To halt ecosystem degradation, thus, the values of ecosystem services need to be visualised and economic instruments for ecosystem conservation should be further developed. (routledge.com)
- This book focuses on these two aspects and performs several studies, including valuation of ecosystem services, productivity analysis, institutional design of payment for ecosystem services (PES), impact assessment of reduction emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), and economic experiment of mitigation banking scheme. (routledge.com)
- Its objective is to highlight the growing cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions. (wikipedia.org)
- Its sponsors declare TEEB to be a "major international initiative to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity, to highlight the growing costs of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions moving forward. (wikipedia.org)
- The TEEB Interim Report was released in May 2008 under Phase I. The report provided evidence for significant global and local economic losses and human welfare impacts due to the ongoing losses of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
- In the latest issue of their "Sustainable Insight" newsletter, KPMG, Fauna and Flora International, and the UN Environmental Program Finance Initiative take a look at the risks posed to business by biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- The food system is the primary driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. (fcrn.org.uk)
Addressing biodiversity loss1
- The University of Guelph's SES distinguishes itself from other environmental science programs in that it comprises a true integration of the life and physical sciences to address important environmental problems in forest, aquatic and agro-ecosystems. (uoguelph.ca)
- Both aquatic resources and its biodiversity are interrelated to each other and they perform a myriad of functions and are valuable and essential for the sustainability of biotic communities. (scirp.org)
- Their conservation and management in the form of bio reserve points and bioregional management and worldwide monitoring are needed for the protection of the aquatic biodiversity. (scirp.org)
- This review is presenting information on biodiversity in aquatic habitats and their resources, in marine and fresh water ecosystems, their importance conservation and restoration mechanisms. (scirp.org)
- Irfan, S. and Alatawi, A. (2019) Aquatic Ecosystem and Biodiversity: A Review. (scirp.org)
- Water reservoirs and aquatic biodiversity have intimate relationship and both the ecological units have interdependency on each other. (scirp.org)
- With a focus on aquatic systems, this book offers insight on the state of local biodiversity, challenges in management and conservation of biodiversity, and newly developed methods for monitoring biodiversity. (springer.com)
- Nutrient overloads in aquatic ecosystems can cause algae blooms and ultimately a loss of oxygen, and of life. (unece.org)
- aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Aquatic Ecosystems and Freshwater Biodiversity. (waset.org)
- Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Aquatic Ecosystems and Freshwater Biodiversity are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
- ICAEFB 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Aquatic Ecosystems and Freshwater Biodiversity . (waset.org)
- Integrating biodiversity into our sustainability management tools. (basf.com)
- The huge role biodiversity plays in the sustainability of our world and our lives makes its ongoing loss all the more troubling. (europa.eu)
- This can be achieved though good farming practices which follow ecosystem-based approaches designed to improve sustainability of production systems. (fao.org)
- This innovative book identifies socio-economic processes which transform the stock of genetic resources and ecosystems and discusses sustainability issues raised by variations in this stock. (e-elgar.com)
- Some factors can affect this biodiversity and thus the sustainability of an ecosystem. (ehow.co.uk)
- Biodiversity & Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) is a six-year (2011-2017) NERC research programme, designed to reduce that uncertainty. (sei.org)
- The Center for Biodiversity Outcomes is a partnership between the Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability and the School of Life Sciences. (asu.edu)
- to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity, and to communicate its findings to the governments and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote practices which ensure the sustainability of the Arctic's living resources. (caff.is)
- Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. (routledge.com)
- Overall, our data show that land use on Kilimanjaro causes the loss of a significant proportion of biodiversity and leads to serious changes in ecosystem functions, such as pollination or litter decomposition. (azocleantech.com)
- We usually describe an ecosystem in terms of a habitat and a climatic descriptor, such as tropical rainforest or arid grassland, but it's important to note that there's diversity of habitats and ecological processes within each ecosystem type. (khanacademy.org)
- By addressing biodiversity and ecological issues in their decision-making and operations, our clients attain long-term stability and gain access to new market opportunities, licenses to operate, enhanced stakeholder relations, and greater competitive advantage. (erm.com)
- Experiments have been incredibly valuable for showing us how and why biodiversity can influence basic ecological processes like the production of biomass, which is important to people because it produces the oxygen we breathe, makes the food we eat and purifies the water we drink," said co-author Brad Cardinale, an ecologist and University of Michigan professor. (eurekalert.org)
- The broad scope and rational scepticism with which this book has been compiled make it an ideal read for economists interested in ecological and environmental economics, natural scientists with an interest in biodiversity conservation and higher level policy makers in ecological and environmental fields. (e-elgar.com)
- Advances in Genetic Engineering and Changes in Biodiversity and Ecosystems: Economic and Ecological Considerations 8. (e-elgar.com)
- This analysis establishes that reduced biodiversity affects ecosystems at levels comparable to those of global warming and air pollution,' said Henry Gholz, program director in the National Science Foundation's Division of Environmental Biology, which funded the research directly and through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. (nsf.gov)
- The first volume published in October 2010: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Ecological and Economic Foundations. (wikipedia.org)
- Output 2: Key invertebrate pollinators of beans and their key habitat (plants/ecosystems) established at 25 locations in four agro-ecological zones. (kew.org)
Importance of biodiversity5
- Co-author Dr. Emmett Duffy, director of the Smithsonian's Tennenbaum Marine Observatory Network and co-leader on the project, says, "Our review of these experiments suggests that, contrary to some prior interpretations, we may have actually underestimated the importance of biodiversity to the functioning of ecosystems in nature. (eurekalert.org)
- Professor Nico Eisenhauer, a co-author from the German Centre of Integrative Biodiversity Research, adds "Only with this level of international, cross-system collaboration can we explore global patterns and understand the importance of biodiversity loss for all of humanity. (eurekalert.org)
- Illustrating the importance of biodiversity, a bi-national planning initiative and report explores status and issues, opportunities and strategies for conserving Lake Huron biodiversity. (msu.edu)
- The lessons provided here engage students in exploring their own backyard, and highlight the importance of biodiversity not just for ecosystem health but also human health, such as in the case of Lyme disease. (caryinstitute.org)
- The finding, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, underscores the importance of biodiversity to an ecosystem's value, such as capturing the global warming gas carbon dioxide. (risingtidenorthamerica.org)
- As stability in community size could be underpinned by marked temporal turnover, a key question is the extent to which changes in both biodiversity dimensions (temporal α- and temporal β-diversity) covary within and among the assemblages that comprise natural communities. (pnas.org)
- Here, we draw on a multiassemblage dataset (encompassing vertebrates, invertebrates, and unicellular plants) from a tropical freshwater ecosystem and employ a cyclic shift randomization to assess whether any directional change in temporal α-diversity and temporal β-diversity exceeds baseline levels. (pnas.org)
- Catherine Lambelet, Florist at the Geneva Botanical Garden and Conservatory , highlighted the importance of green spaces in urban areas as a privileged place for citizens to learn about plant diversity in their home region and create better understanding of the values of biodiversity for urban life. (iucn.org)
- gentle music) - [Narrator] The science of measuring ecosystem diversity is still pretty young, but scientific knowledge at the ecosystem level is now recognized as a critical part of understanding total biodiversity on Earth. (khanacademy.org)
- It's always important to keep ecosystem diversity in mind in any management or conservation strategy. (khanacademy.org)
- Is it enough to preserve a single ecosystem as a kind of museum of diversity for that type of ecosystem? (khanacademy.org)
- In past experiments, diversity has fostered healthier, more productive ecosystems, like shoreline vegetation that guards against hurricanes. (eurekalert.org)
- We now have strong evidence from models, controlled experiments, and studies of natural systems--all of which agree that ecosystems with a greater variety of life are more productive than those with less biological diversity," said Casey Godwin, a co-author and ecologist at the University of Michigan. (eurekalert.org)
- The stock of the world's biological diversity and the state of its ecosystems are major determinants of the availability of commodities, both essential and desirable, for human life. (e-elgar.com)
- As ecosystems are impacted, so is the biological diversity. (unece.org)
- The International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests provides a periodic overview on the condition of forest ecosystems in terms of health, productivity, diversity and nutrition. (unece.org)
- Still to be determined is how diversity loss and other large-scale environmental changes will interact to alter ecosystems. (nsf.gov)
- Kew is leading plant diversity surveys of bean agricultural ecosystems and training. (kew.org)
- Their interaction (or food) web will give you insights into both of these big ideas, plus it will help you understand how they view the way the diversity of the ecosystem relates to key functions like growth or decomposition. (caryinstitute.org)
- We believe that unless students recognize that biodiversity exists everywhere, and that there are important differences within large groups of taxa, they cannot begin to explain how biodiversity persists and that diversity is important for ecosystem function. (caryinstitute.org)
- Our paper thus identifies an important question for future research: at what point does compositional turnover threaten ecosystem resilience? (pnas.org)
- Biodiversity for food and agriculture can be managed to maintain or enhance ecosystem functions to provide options for the optimization of agricultural production, and contribute to the resilience of ecosystems for risk mitigation. (fao.org)
- Promoting the healthy functioning of ecosystems ensures the resilience of agriculture as it intensifies to meet growing demands for food production. (fao.org)
- Native habitat decline and destruction continue as a part of the Anthropocene, yet conservation land planning can be used to improve ecosystem resilience and buffer against biodiversity service loss in urbanizing locations. (kent.edu)
- The project will provide insight into the effectiveness of the urban conservation practice of living architecture to provide beneficial habitat to plants and invertebrates by quantifying ecosystem service support within these habitat patches. (kent.edu)
- Specifically, this project will investigate vegetative roof invertebrate community, estimate insect mediated ecosystem service provision, and advance a current design decision-making tool used in conceptualizing roofs that prioritize habitat. (kent.edu)
Value of biodivers2
- The new global and EU targets to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2020 are ambitious and achieving them will require better policy implementation, coordination across sectors, ecosystem management approaches and a wider understanding of the value of biodiversity. (europa.eu)
- The Value of Biodiversity and Recreation Demand Models: A Spatial Kuhn-Tucker Model, Koichi Kuriyama , Yasushi Shoji and Takahiro Tsuge 4. (routledge.com)
Conservation of biodiversity1
- The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 will help further integrate biodiversity needs into the development and implementation of sectoral policies. (europa.eu)
- The Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 helps deliver the natural capital objective of the Seventh Environmental Action Programme ( 7th EAP ) to 2020, "Living well, within the limits of our planet", which came into force in January 2014 and will guide European environment policy until 2020. (europa.eu)
- The Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 follows on from the 2006 EU Biodiversity Action Plan, learning lessons from its implementation and raising the level of ambition. (europa.eu)
- Finally, the report provides results on progress towards Targets 1 and 3 of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy. (europa.eu)
- It is nevertheless crucial that biodiversity protection policies, on different levels, are guided by a credible plan of action: this implies preparing a critical analysis of the Aichi targets and reopening strategic options for the post-2020 international biodiversity governance regime, building in particular on the analysis of possible tools for action and their effectiveness. (iddri.org)
- Participants explored the potential applications of the global Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) Standard for achieving Canada's 2020 Biodiversity Goals and Targets , in particular for increasing coverage of land and water by protected areas and developed a plan for a national coordination body to complete the identification of KBAs in Canada. (asu.edu)
- Thus, natural ecosystems are likely to be much more fragile then we previously thought. (redorbit.com)
- The book concludes with an exploration of the economic topics dealing with changes in the stock of wild germplasm and natural ecosystems, and discusses the associated valuation problems. (e-elgar.com)
- Economic growth and the conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural production are forecasted to continue, but TEEB feels that it is essential to ensure that such development takes proper account of the real value of natural ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
- The biggest challenge looking forward is to predict the combined impacts of these environmental challenges to natural ecosystems and to society," said J. Emmett Duffy of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, a co-author of the paper. (innovations-report.com)
- In an effort to strengthen IUCN Members' capacity to develop even more successful businesses, the IUCN Business and Biodiversity Programme embarked on a project to determine IUCN Members' experiences in developing biodiversity businesses as part of their conservation programmes. (iucn.org)
- The new report, prepared by The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) initiative hosted by the UN Environment Programme, calls on policy-makers to accelerate, scale-up and embed investments in the management and restoration of ecosystems. (bio-medicine.org)
Links between biodiversity1
- The findings of TEEB (Interim Report) were largely in three areas-the economic size and welfare impact of losses of ecosystems and biodiversity, the strong links between biodiversity conservation and ecosystem health on the one hand and poverty elimination and the achievement of Millennium Development Goals on the other, and the ethical choices involved in selecting a social discount rate for discounting the benefits of ecosystems and biodiversity. (wikipedia.org)
- We investigate how water ecosystems respond to different water resource management and allocation strategies, including environmental water flows. (www.csiro.au)
- Developed through a partnership comprising four highly respected environmental organizations, IBAT compiles critical biodiversity data in accordance with globally accepted standards. (iucn.org)
- New approaches to biodiversity conservation or unexpected but irreversible forms of environmental disruption? (europa.eu)
- There are many examples of environmental issues, some of which are interrelated, including climate changes and biodiversity. (reference.com)
- Biodiversity is not just a pretty face," said Emmett Duffy, lead author and marine ecologist at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md. "Protecting it is important for keeping the ecosystems working for us, providing food, absorbing waste and protecting shorelines, which is important right now. (eurekalert.org)
- Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning change along environmental stress gradients. (innovations-report.com)
- Anthropogenic environmental changes affect ecosystem stability via biodiversity. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest that changes in biodiversity caused by drivers of environmental change may be a major factor determining how global environmental changes affect ecosystem stability. (nih.gov)
- Some people have assumed that biodiversity effects are relatively minor compared to other environmental stressors,' said biologist David Hooper of Western Washington University, the lead author of the paper. (nsf.gov)
- Until now, it's been unclear how biodiversity losses stack up against other human-caused environmental changes that affect ecosystem health and productivity. (nsf.gov)
- The strength of the observed biodiversity effects suggests that policymakers searching for solutions to other pressing environmental problems should be aware of potential adverse effects on biodiversity as well. (nsf.gov)
- The Nordic countries now initiate collaboration to establish a joint Nordic LifeWatch project, to create a better access to biodiversity data in favour of environmental research. (innovations-report.de)
- A vast amount of public funded biodiversity data and environmental data are held by voluntary organizations, research institutions and environmental management institutions in the Nordic countries. (innovations-report.de)
- By increasing primary commodity imports (meat, wood, coffee, sugar, etc.), developed nations are indirectly exporting environmental pressures to resource-rich developing countries in the form of heightened land-use change largely manifesting as deforestation and, consequently, increased biodiversity loss (see Chapter 6 ). (oreilly.com)
- These values depend upon environmental health and properly functioning ecosystems. (msu.edu)
- The BioFresh information portal for freshwater biodiversity will allow scientists and planners to complement, integrate, and analyse quantitative data to discover, evaluate and examine patterns that will shed new light on how freshwater biodiversity responds to global, European, and local environmental pressures. (europa.eu)
- Until now, it has not always been easy to incorporate understanding of freshwater biodiversity explicitly into environmental agreements (EU WFD, for example) or in related policy instruments (for example the Habitats Directive). (europa.eu)
- Prairie strips are a new conservation technology designed to alleviate biodiversity loss and environmental damage associated with row-crop agriculture. (pnas.org)
- An international research team led by the University of Göttingen , German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), along with the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa , used data from over 500 forest plots across the Hawai'ian Islands. (earth.com)
- Despite numerous government pledges, biodiversity loss is accelerating in all regions of the world. (unep.org)
- We are, however, currently witnessing a steady loss of biodiversity, which has profound consequences for the natural world and for human well-being. (europa.eu)
- Although it has been acknowledged at various levels that the target to halt biodiversity loss has not yet been met, setting such a target has certainly increased public awareness. (europa.eu)
- It provides important evidence of growing corporate concern about biodiversity loss and offers examples of how leading companies are taking action to conserve biodiversity and to restore ecosystems. (routledge.com)
- Crops and the Socio-Economics of Biodiversity Loss and Change 6. (e-elgar.com)
- Livestock and the Socio-Economics of Biodiversity Loss 7. (e-elgar.com)
- The TEEB study was launched by Germany and the European Commission in response to a proposal by the G8+5 Environment Ministers in Potsdam, Germany in 2007, to develop a global study on the economics of biodiversity loss. (wikipedia.org)
- As biodiversity is declining at an unprecedented rate, an important current scientific challenge is to understand and predict the consequences of biodiversity loss. (wur.nl)
- This chapter looks into what biodiversity is, why it matters, and how global political institutions are seeking to address and remedy the loss of biodiversity. (fni.no)
Benefits provided by ecosystems1
- It aims to achieve this goal by following a structured approach to valuation that helps decision-makers recognize the wide range of benefits provided by ecosystems and biodiversity, demonstrate their values in economic terms and, where appropriate, capture those values in decision-making. (teebweb.org)
- The biodiversity of these forests regulates weather patterns on Earth. (reference.com)
- Classifying the Stock of Genetic Resources and Ecosystems: Their Economic Nature and Patterns of Biodiversity Change 3. (e-elgar.com)
- Other activities that could lead to a reduction in biodiversity include the construction of dams, which alter the natural flow of water and affect the migratory patterns of fish on their way to spawn. (ehow.co.uk)
- Kevin McCann studies food webs and ecosystem stability. (redorbit.com)
- In contrast, an informed, sustainable approach to biodiversity management can provide opportunities for business stability and growth. (erm.com)
- Our approach calls for a re-evaluation of the mechanisms explaining the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem stability. (wur.nl)
Impact on biodiversity1
- And there's another factor to consider when we're talking about biodiversity at the ecosystem level, the interactions between the different types of ecosystems. (khanacademy.org)
- You can go further by explaining the idea of an "interaction web" - all of the interactions among the components of a community or ecosystem, including abiotic resources and conditions - as it differs from a "food web" (which only focuses on food interactions). (caryinstitute.org)
- Managing and rehabilitating ecosystems for climate risk management, including ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation. (undp.org)
- Details about this plus the latest news on financing biodiversity inside this weeks Mitigation Mail. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- NOTE: This article has been reprinted from Ecosystem Marketplace's Mitigation Mail newsletter. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- The report, a companion piece to last year's State of Biodiversity Markets report, summarizes the latest activity in compensatory mitigation programs and policies around the world over the past year. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- This report provides the status and trends of biodiversity offset and compensatory mitigation programs by geographical region. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
State of Biodiversity Markets2
- If you have not yet had a look at the 2011 Update: State of Biodiversity Markets that we released last Monday, take a look for a quick review of developments around the globe. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- Despite - or, perhaps, because of - a still-recovering economy, biodiversity markets achieved a record volume in 2010, with the value of transactions topping US $3 billion, according to a new report by Ecosystem Marketplace, the 2011 Update: State of Biodiversity Markets released on June 27th. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- Productivity Analysis on Ecosystems and Biodiversity, Kei Kabaya and Shunsuke Managi 7. (routledge.com)
- Decreasing ice-cover and increasing temperatures of in-flowing waters induces changes in the productivity and biodiversity of both the resource-rich sub-Arctic and the pan-arctic region. (uarctic.org)
Economics of biodivers1
Changes in Biodiversity1
- 1. Towards a Global Study on The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Agriculture and Food (TEEBAgFood) Alexander Müller, UNEP Geneva 17. (slideshare.net)
- Inspired by the growing global focus on natural capital accounting, the note identifies the ongoing challenges related to the development of natural capital accounting and water quality accounting, in order to encourage debate and commitment towards effective water and biodiversity policy. (teebweb.org)
- As a growing body of evidence and global initiatives highlight the seriousness of biodiversity decline, and measures are put in place to reverse this trend, it is becoming increasingly important for companies to understand and minimize their impact on ecosystems. (erm.com)
- Project Portfolio Analysis on the Global Ecosystem Restoration, Kei Kabaya and Shunsuke Managi 12. (routledge.com)
- It is an international initiative to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity. (wikipedia.org)
- Making such huge amounts of data freely available for the general public is today a global trend and also an essential strategy for improved scientific biodiversity and ecosystem research. (innovations-report.de)
- You can receive this summary of global news and views from the world of biodiversity automatically in your inbox here . (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- Then join us this Monday, 11 July, as we team up with Mission Markets for a webinar, "Biodiversity Markets: Challenges and Opportunities in the Developing World" to review the latest global activity in biodiversity markets from our 2011 Update report, and convene an expert discussion on challenges and opportunities in biodiversity markets in the developing world. (ecosystemmarketplace.com)
- This work will help to shed light on how future climate and socioeconomic pressures will give rise to global, continental and local responses in freshwater biodiversity. (europa.eu)
Impacts on biodiversity1
- We found that biodiversity generally enhances multiple functions in experimental ecosystems," says Lefcheck. (eurekalert.org)
- Biodiversity is an important regulator of agro-ecosystem functions, not only in the strictly biological sense of impact on production, but also in satisfying a variety of needs of the farmer and society at large. (fao.org)
- With Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions Clem Tisdell has given us a framework to critically explore one of the overarching issues of our time-the unprecedented scale of the destruction of the biological systems upon which we ultimately depend. (e-elgar.com)
- So far, only little is known about the impacts of land use on biodiversity and ecosystem functions of tropical mountains, for example, Kilimanjaro. (azocleantech.com)
- Scientists in the BioFresh consortium will take advantage of the information in the databases that the project links, by using the data to examine how various stressors interact to impact freshwater biodiversity. (europa.eu)
- The products and findings of the project will be used on the one hand to make people more aware of the importance and beauty of freshwater biodiversity, and on the other to help policy makers take decisions based on the best available evidence. (europa.eu)
- Approaches to establishing and maintaining vegetative roofs can be optimized to select the desired 'ecosystem service bundles' (sensu Raudsepp-Hearne 2010). (kent.edu)
- The workshop also reviewed and tested approaches for assessing the ecosystem service values of KBAs and protected areas in Canada, as part of determining and promoting the values of these sites for human well-being. (asu.edu)
- The scientists suggest that the data obtained from this research may also be used as a foundation for creating and executing immediately required approaches for sustainable use of the ecosystems on Kilimanjaro. (azocleantech.com)