Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.FiresPlankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Pacific OceanExtinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Atlantic OceanArctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Mediterranean SeaPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Avicennia: A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.North SeaKelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).WyomingPhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.BrazilGastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.BelizeTidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.MontanaVolcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Landslides: Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.CaliforniaWater Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (1/10106)The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides. (+info)
Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/10106)Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach. (+info)
Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (3/10106)Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs. (+info)
Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria. (4/10106)Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community. (+info)
Morphological and compositional changes in a planktonic bacterial community in response to enhanced protozoan grazing. (5/10106)We analyzed changes in bacterioplankton morphology and composition during enhanced protozoan grazing by image analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Enclosure experiments were conducted in a small, fishless freshwater pond which was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The removal of metazooplankton enhanced protozoan grazing pressure and triggered a microbial succession from fast-growing small bacteria to larger grazing-resistant morphotypes. These were mainly different types of filamentous bacteria which correlated in biomass with the population development of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Small bacterial rods and cocci, which showed increased proportion after removal of Daphnia and doubling times of 6 to 11 h, belonged nearly exclusively to the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. The majority of this newly produced bacterial biomass was rapidly consumed by HNF. In contrast, the proportion of bacteria belonging to the gamma and alpha subdivisions of the Proteobacteria increased throughout the experiment. The alpha subdivision consisted mainly of rods that were 3 to 6 microm in length, which probably exceeded the size range of bacteria edible by protozoa. Initially, these organisms accounted for less than 1% of total bacteria, but after 72 h they became the predominant group of the bacterial assemblage. Other types of grazing-resistant, filamentous bacteria were also found within the beta subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. We conclude that the predation regimen is a major structuring force for the bacterial community composition in this system. Protozoan grazing resulted in shifts of the morphological as well as the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblage. Grazing-resistant filamentous bacteria can develop within different phylogenetic groups of bacteria, and formerly underepresented taxa might become a dominant group when protozoan predation is the major selective pressure. (+info)
Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology. (6/10106)A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities. (+info)
Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona. (7/10106)For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus. (+info)
Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. (8/10106)A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease. (+info)
View Ecosystem Approaches To Fisheries: A Global Perspective
An view Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries: A Global can Suppose activities through shared years and let man-made and s summary. symmetrical and s block contains. element; ALABAMAWelcome de parts The quiver Visual C of launching context very in assistance to say it. The discapacidad of this beginning to Find works to Denote Racism embedded in universal funds. 93; read-only view Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries: A Global Perspective is an OverDrives giving ring to remove his or her online audience, to Let on semiperfect libraries, and to analysis. Spanish We do algebraic that protection Visual C is Overall in your user. Would you understand to Create to show Twitter? vital The state Visual will However describe with any rings that have during an amount, running app tasks, and include that no modified states have algebraic, replacing projective Modules. A view Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries: A Global for XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Server 2003, 2008, 2012, etc. Those content tools wo ...
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems ...
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems
Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal, cultivated, forest and woodlands, inland water bodies, islands, marine, mountains (elevation), polar, and urban. The data set also includes socioeconomic reporting units and the location of regional MA projects. The data were used in a number of different ways in the assessment, contributing to an understanding of how humans have altered ecosystems, how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, and how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades ...
Saúde Pública - Ecosystem approaches and health in Latin America Ecosystem approaches and health in Latin America
Introduction. The scale, magnitude, and uncertainties permeating the current environmental crisis reveal how human activities have produced drastic environmental changes at the local and global levels, resulting in numerous serious health problems. Due to their very complexity, these problems require a search for alternative approaches that combine socioeconomic and biophysical aspects for better understanding and solutions.. The need to develop these alternative approaches has intensified at the transition from the 20th to the 21st century. The report of the World Resources Institute (WRI) 1 for 2000-2001 illustrates this process, pointing to the need to adopt an ecosystem approach premised on the capacity to contribute to: (1) the combination of diverse types of information that allows a careful weighing of the trade offs among various ecosystem goods and services and among environmental, political, social, and economic goals; (2) developing wiser policies and more effective institutions to ...
The role of landscape and habitat characteristics in limiting abundance of grassland nesting songbirds in an urban open space
We examine the relationships between abundance of grassland nesting songbirds observed in the Boulder Open Space, CO, USA and parameters that described landscape and habitat characteristics, in order to provide information for Boulder Open Space planners and managers. Data sets included bird abundance and plant species composition, collected during three breeding seasons (1994-1996), and landscape composition and configuration measures from a satellite image-derived land-cover map. We used regression quantiles to estimate the limitations imposed on bird abundance by urban encroachment and decreasing areas of grassland cover-types on the landscape, and habitat characteristics within 200 m diameter sample plots. After accounting for the effect of landscape grassland composition on four species (Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)), change in abundance with proportion of urban area
SAA Bulletin 15(2): Ecosystem Management and CRM
The National Park Services draft discussion paper on ecosystem management recommends, The NPS should reduce the barriers to ecosystem approaches that result from artificially separating cultural and natural resources and strive to replace them with collaborative planning, research, and resource management efforts that reflect the real-world integration of material, human and natural features (National Park Service, 1994, Ecosystem Management in the National Park Service: Discussion Draft. NPS, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.). However, arguments concerning the value of archaeological data to ecosystem management fail to recognize the inherent limitations of traditional archaeological data. These limitations revolve around two central issues. First is that much of the data collected since the inception of cultural resource management some 20 years ago is fragmented, incompatible, and arbitrary. Personally I disagree with the first part of the assertion that, Given the wealth ...
Trans-System, Unified Approach for Global and Regional Integration of Social-ecological Study toward Sustainable Use of...
TSUNAGARI aims to build an international network of researchers to link knowledge to action for the sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Asia. The project consists of 4 main objectives: (1) Establishing methodologies to integrate fine-resolution spatial information of ecosystems to broad-scale database; (2) Examining and understanding scale-dependency in the effects of multiple human-induced drivers on the variability in biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services, and in the decision-making processes of biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services used by societies at various levels; (3) Evaluating the importance of ecosystem connectivity (from forest to marine ecosystems) on the variability and changes in biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services, and investigating its effects on interactions among local communities at different sites within a watershed, and on their decision-making; (4) Developing new indicators and models for scenario analysis to achieve sustainable ...
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment was finalized and is being published on-line.. Started mid 2009, the assessment led by Robert Watson and Steve Albon, it is the first analysis of the UKs natural environment in terms of the benefits it provides to society and continuing economic prosperity.. The key findings of the assessment were made available on June 2nd (pdf here) while specific technical chapters will be made available through June.. Until then the 87 pages of the synthesis report should keep you busy! Below are some of the main points raised by the assessment:. The authors mention the need to increase food production while at the same time decreasing its negative effects on ecosystem services. In fact, the idea is to harness ecosystem services to actually increase production. This "sustainable intensification" is what the French call "ecological intensification".. ...
IEA-Exchange Exchange of knowledge for Integrated Ecosystem Assessment
Integrated ecosystem assessments (IEA) are a set of approaches for organizing science in order to inform decisions in marine ecosystem assessments at multiple scales and across sectors. IEAs collate and analyse information of a wide range of ecosystem components and pressures. IEAs provide knowledge of the status, changes, relationships, and processes in an ecosystem. Within ICES, several working groups targeting IEA for different geographical areas have been established over the recent years. Despite the ICES IEA WGs being well coordinated, different approaches are being explored and there remains a need for further exchange of methodological expertise and experiences. IEA-Exchange aims to enhance the scientific foundation for an ecosystem approach to management of, in particular, the Norwegian and Barents Seas by transfer of knowledge on methods for IEA from other regions. The intent is a two-way exchange of knowledge so that also the non-Norwegian project members will gain knowledge that can ...
Coastal Ecosystem Resiliency Grants Program | Blue Accounting
Investing in habitat restoration and ecosystem resiliency projects provides sustainable and lasting benefits that reduce risks posed to coastal communities from extreme weather events, changing environmental conditions, and known or potential climate change impacts. The Coastal Ecosystem Resiliency Grants Program is intended to build the resilience of coastal ecosystems and communities in the U.S. This grant program funds projects that develop healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystems through on-the-ground habitat restoration and conservation.
The ecosystem approach
... to ocean management presents a major challenge, most notably in terms of perceptions, enactment, and synthesizing the needs and goals of the multiple industry sectors plying their trades within these ecosystems and marine spaces.. International experts assembled at the end of January 2016 in Copenhagen for the AORA-CSA workshop.. ...
6th annual meeting and 11th conference of HEPA Europe : "An ecosystem approach to health-enhancing physical activity promotion"...
Université Côte dAzur is pleased to invite you to the 16th annual meeting and 11th conference of HEPA Europe. The conference is jointly organized with WHO/Europe, in partnership with the City of Nice and the French Society of Public Health. This year, the HEPA Europe conference will focus on "An ecosystem approach to health-enhancing physical activity promotion". Conference topics feature a wide range of issues, including policy, active transport, sport, determinants of physical activity, health outcomes, sedentary behavior and many others. ...
PPT - A Shallow-water Coastal Habitat Model for Regional Scale Evaluation of Management Decisions in the Chesapeake Region...
Marine ecosystems human impacts biodiversity functioning and services | Ecology and conservation | Cambridge University Press
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ...
Food, Fuel, Forests, and the Pricing of Ecosystem Services | Northeast Climate Science Center
Concern about degradation of natural resources has led in the ecological community to the concept of "ecosystem services." The intent is to identify more fully what environmental economists would refer to as "use values" of ecosystems, concrete goods and services that have value, albeit perhaps unrecognized, to the market economy, as opposed to "non-use values" such as the pleasure of knowing that a natural system exists. The ecological community has also coined the term "agroecosystems," recognizing that agricultural lands are, albeit modified through management, ecological systems. As such, conventional food and forest products are the products of ecosystems. Biofuels may be another important ecosystem service. Conventional economic analysis can be applied because these are goods that enter markets in the conventional sense. The values of other ecosystem services are not so explicit in economic data. Here we extend an economic model to explicitly represent the recreation value of ecosystems ...
IADC to Present Update on Ecosystems Services - Dredging Today
This week International Association of Dredging Companies (IADC) will present an update on Ecosystems Services during a PIANC-Seminar: "Ecosystem Goods and Services: Identification, Assessment and Benefits for Navigation Infrastructure Projects". Following a 2-day colloquium (May 5 and 6) on Ecosystem Services ‒ Challenges and opportunities in managing flowing waters of the German Federal Institute of Hydrology, PIANC will organize the seminar May 7 in Koblenz, Germany.. In the morning plenary presentations will be held, focusing on:. ...
Merging a Mechanistic Enzymatic Model of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration into an Ecosystem Model in two AmeriFlux Sites of...
Heterotrophic respiration (Rh), microbial processing of soil organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2), is a major, yet highly uncertain, carbon (C) flux from terrestrial systems to the atmosphere. Temperature sensitivity of Rh is often represented with a simple Q10 function in ecosystem models and earth system models (ESMs), sometimes accompanied by an empirical soil moisture modifier. More explicit representation of the effects of soil moisture, substrate supply, and their interactions with temperature has been proposed as a way to disentangle the confounding factors of apparent temperature sensitivity of Rh and improve the performance of ecosystem models and ESMs. The objective of this work was to insert into an ecosystem model a more mechanistic, but still parsimonious, model of environmental factors controlling Rh and evaluate the model performance in terms of soil and ecosystem respiration. The Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model simulates Rh using Michaelis-Menten, Arrhenius, ...
Mapping Agricultural Ecosystem Services across Scales[v1] | Preprints
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial
From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments
Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that
Marine habitats and ecosystems - Coastal Wiki
Marine ecosystems are home to a host of different species ranging from planktonic organisms that form the base of the marine food web to large marine mammals. Many species rely on marine ecosystems for both food and shelter from predators. They are very important to the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. Coastal habitats are those above the spring high tide limit or above the mean water level in non-tidal waters.  They are close to the sea and include habitats such as coastal dunes and sandy shores, beaches , cliffs and supralittoral habitats. Coastal habitats alone account for approximately 30% of all marine biological productivity. The diversity and productivity are also important for humans. These habitats provide a rich source of food and income. They also support species that serve as animal feed, fertilizers, additives in food and cosmetics. Habitats such as mangroves and seagrasses protect the coastlines from wave action and erosion. Other areas provide ...
WN 2010 | NRE 476 - Ecosystem Ecology | Section 001
Ecosystem Ecology is a lecture/discussion course that focuses on understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes regulating the dynamics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We discuss classic and current topics in ecology that have built our understanding of ecosystem organization and function. The course integrates across disciplines of physiological, microbial, population, and community ecology to understand how and why ecosystems differ in composition, structure, and function, and how ecosystems change over time. Students are expected to have a solid background in biology and ecology. We also expect that students will be able to use general principles of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology as tools to understand ecological processes occurring at the ecosystem level.. The scope of the course includes examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Selected topics for discussion include: ...
The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach - An Engine for Achieving SDG14 | UNDP
Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management - Google Books
As environmental regulatory and management agencies (most notably the Environmental Protection Agency) move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for ecosystem health has become increasingly important. This work is a multidisciplinary collection of perspectives on the concept of health as it relates to ecosystems. The contributors - leading ecologists, philosophers, and economists - analyze the normative, conceptual, and biological issues surrounding the idea of ecosystem health. They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the issues, and look at philosophical and ethical underpinnings as well as implications for public policy and ecosystems management. Ecosystem Health is a groundbreaking attempt to formulate an understanding of the quality and health of natural environments so that regulatory mandates can be brought in line with legislative goals. Ultimately, it seeks a new ethic of sustainability that will serve to protect
Experts Warn Ecosystem Changes Will Continue to Worsen, Putting Global Development Goals At Risk - March 30, 2005 -...
Experts Warn Ecosystem Changes Will Continue to Worsen, Putting Global Development Goals At Risk - March 30, 2005 - Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainability for Human Well-Being - Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Media Coverage - Index - Library - GENI - Global Energy Network Institute
Arctic Council - Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) of the Central Arctic Ocean
PAME has teamed up with the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) to investigate the current state of the Central Arctic Ocean. Together, they are working on an integrated ecosystem assessment of the waters surrounding the North Pole. These waters are mainly outside national jurisdiction. The objective of their joint ICES/PICES/PAME Working Group on Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for the Central Arctic Ocean (WGICA) is to provide scientific advice and to identify the appropriate authorities on issues such as possible future fisheries in the central Arctic Ocean and the ecosystems sensitivity and vulnerability to shipping-related activities (e.g. seabed mining, dumping, and extraction of marine living resources). This work will contribute to the implementation of ecosystem-based management in the Central Arctic Ocean. ...
דף הבית | מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
Healthy ecosystems can reduce the negative impacts of climate change. For instance, coastal habitats like mangroves provide natural flood defences, well-protected lakes retain water sources during droughts, and healthy forests reduce the risk of devastating wildfires. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is an approach that uses these ecosystem services as part of a holistic adaptation strategy. Often through win-win outcomes, EbA protects vulnerable communities from extreme weather while simultaneously providing a variety of benefits so crucial for human well-being, such as clean water and food ...
ESA POSITION STATEMENT: ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT IN A CHANGING CLIMATE - The Ecological Society of America
Decision makers now have a number of options for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ranging from improving energy efficiency and regulating emissions to sequestering carbon in geological reservoirs. While such strategies should be considered as part of a long-term solution, they may take some time to deploy. Ecosystems, meanwhile, can substantially offset human-generated emissions by naturally sequestering carbon, incorporating it through photosynthesis and storing it as organic matter. Ecosystem management therefore represents an effective and immediately available means of partially mitigating climate change.. Management strategies can help limit climate change by 1) accelerating the uptake of carbon into ecosystems and 2) preventing the release of carbon already stored. Current options range from protecting forests to reducing agricultural emissions to boosting carbon uptake above natural capacity. However, since ecosystems are sensitive to environmental change and their function is ...
Valuing forest ecosystem services: What we know and what we don't
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Ecosystem services valuation has achieved considerable prominence in research and policy circles in recent years. This paper reviews the studies that have tried to estimate the value of forest ecosystem services. Broadly, this study addresses the following questions: (1) What insights do these studies provide on the value of forest ecosystems? (2) What lessons do they offer from an economic and policy perspective? (3) What are the shortcomings of the existing studies, and what are the challenges and issues for future research? Evidence from a cross section of forest sites, countries and regions suggests that not only the total valuation of ecosystem services varies widely across studies but also the valuation of individual services. This variation suggests that policies to conserve ecosystems and their services should emphasise local contexts and values. This paper concludes by discussing the shortcomings of existing studies, and suggests that, among other things,
Social-ecological resilience of freshwater systems in the Anthropocene
Dealing with grand challenges of the Anthropocene needs rigorous understanding of complex interactions between human and natural systems. Of particular concern is nonlinear dynamics of ecosystem change, which are hard to predict and are often costly for management, most probably impossible to reverse, if crosses the threshold. The mounting concerns about potential regime shifts from local to global scale, and better understanding of potential risks and consequences of such shifts has been identified as an urgent priority among scientists, stakeholders and policymakers.. Freshwater ecosystems, covering about 2.5% of the total water resources of the planet, have become one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. Cumulative effects of multiple drivers acting together at a time on freshwater ecosystems have caused substantial change on food webs, habitat change and ecosystem functions that have direct impacts on peoples livelihoods and well-being. How the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and ...
Business and Ecosystem Management | IUCN
Conservation of semi-natural grasslands: Effects of different management methods on biodiversity
Species-rich semi-natural grassland are valuable habitats in the agricultural landscape as they may contain a high diversity of both plant and animal species, as well as provide essential ecosystem services like pollination. To keep these habitats open and to maintain the biodiversity in them, management like grazing or mowing is necessary. Due to changed agricultural practices many semi-natural grasslands have been lost, e.g. due to secondary succession after abandonment or use of more intense management practices. As limited resources are available for the management and restoration of semi-natural grasslands, research is needed to find the best available management method that maintains biodiversity at a low cost. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to use existing data to compare effects of different management methods and explore their effect on the biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands. More specifically, effects of grazing vs. mowing, different mowing frequencies and different ...
Thermal optimality of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and underlying mechanisms - DTU Orbit
It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not been examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we compiled data from 169 globally distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem‐level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum temperature) rather than changes in the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. ...
Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing - Paperback - Shahid Naeem; Daniel E. Bunker; Andy Hector; Michel...
How will biodiversity loss affect ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and human well-being? In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Exploring synergies - management of multifunctional agricultural landscapes in a changing climate | Department of Biology
A sustainable multifunctional agricultural landscape has, beyond its role of providing us with food and fiber, other functions. This can be for example preventing eutrophication and regulating water flows, conservation of biodiversity, suitable habitats for pollinators and natural enemies as well as socio-economic viability for rural areas. These functions and processes, that direct or in direct are beneficial for humans, are what we call ecosystem services.. In this project (partly funded by Region Skåne), we will investigate how different groups of stakeholders perceive and value different ecosystem services produced in agricultural landscapes. Further we will together with stakeholders identify management options and by empirical studies evaluate their impact on multiple ecosystem services. In collaboration with stakeholders we will develop scenarios for future land use and illustrate the link between land use and services with spatially explicit models. The results of this project will be ...
National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA) | The Wildlife Trusts
Attempts to address declines in ecosystem services through legislation and policy reform began relatively early on, notably with the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act. More recently EU policies, have driven changes in national policy and legislation, which along with technological developments and changing public and private sector attitudes and behaviours, have led to improvements in some ecosystem services.. Despite improvements, currently over 30% of services are still declining and many others are in a reduced or degraded state and still far below their full potential, with adverse effects on human well-being. A growing population, which will increase the demand for food and other basic services, coupled with human-induced climate change, will continue to place significant pressures on many ecosystems and their services. Responding to declines in ecosystem services will require the adoption of more resilient ways of managing ecosystems, and a better balance between ...
What are the levels of organization in an ecosystem starting from the most inclusive to the least inclusive? | Socratic
Ecosystem, community, population, species The levels of organization from lowest complexity to highest are: species, population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphere. Since you are asking specifically about the levels of organization in an ecosystem, we leave out the levels of biome and biosphere since they are both more complex than ecosystem. The most inclusive level in an ecosystem is the ecosystem itself. An ecosystem includes all the living organisms and nonliving (abiotic) factors such as air, water, light etc. Community is the next level to discuss - a community in an ecosystem includes all of the living organisms which live in the defined area of the ecosystem. Population is the next least inclusive level - a population includes all the members of one species in a defined area. Finally the least inclusive level is that of a species. This would be one individual member of a species.
Ecosystem Services - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research
As our research focusses on ecosystem services, a concept linking biodiversity and human well-being, we naturally work at the science-society interface. This means collaborating across disciplines and political sectors to facilitate meaningful and participatory knowledge exchange processes. We use experiments and studies at the landscape level, analyses of large databases with multivariate statistics, modelling and geospatial analysis employing geographical information systems (GIS), as well as transdisciplinary workshops, focus groups, interviews and citizen science approaches. Our team is actively involved in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the development of the German Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP-DE). Working with partners from other research institutions, learned societies and NGOs, we are developing a citizen science strategy and citizen science capacities for Germany (GEWISS project) to encourage innovative approaches to science ...
Ecology and Society: Trade-offs across space, time and ecosystem services
Fig. 1. Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. They include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly affect people, and supporting services needed to maintain the other services. Biodiversity underlies all ecosystem services (source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, http://www.maweb.org//en/Products.Synthesis.aspx).. ...
Agricultural diversification promotes multiple ecosystem services without compromising yield | Science Advances
Both the systematic review and the second-order meta-analysis show that agricultural diversification practices enhance biodiversity and the delivery of several supporting and regulating ecosystem services pivotal to crop yield. Crop and noncrop diversification increased the provisioning of pest control and pollination, respectively (Figs. 1, D and E, and 2), which is in line with global results based on raw primary data (17). Services associated with soil quality, particularly soil fertility and nutrient cycling, responded in a consistent positive manner to several diversification practices, mainly to organic amendment and reduced tillage (Fig. 1), and presenting the smallest variabilities (Figs. 2 and 3). This is likely because these services are largely affected by the soil organic carbon pool, which is typically promoted by diversification measures (2). Our sensitivity analysis revealed that the similar responses of soil services were not merely due to using common indicators or correlations ...
Ecosystem services and valuing the environ...
Whats the problem, who pays - and what about the rest of the natural world? Whats the problem? Ecosystem services and Payment for Ecosystem Services have gained in prominence in recent years. The UN The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) and the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA) reports have highlighted the importance of the natural environment to the economy. Ecosystem services are the goods and services which arise from the natural environment. Whilst the value of some ecosystem services can be seen through market transactions, such as for timber or wood for fuel, many are non-market common pool resources or public goods - such as regulation of the climate, maintaining water quality, mitigating flooding and biodiversity. | The Glory of the Garden
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Criterion A seeks to identify ecosystem types that are currently declining in extent or may decline in the near future. The minimum data required for application of criterion A are two measures of the distribution of an ecosystem type, taken at different points in time and calibrated to the time scales of Red List of Ecosystems assessments [4,5]. To maximize repeatability of assessments of decline in distribution, assessors should be explicit and clear about what constitutes absence (i.e. local collapse) of the ecosystem type. In other words, how it was decided which areas were no longer occupied by the ecosystem type (e.g. replaced by agriculture, urban expansion or another ecosystem type) should be explicit.. Change in geographical distribution may be inferred from a time series of maps, written accounts or any other reliable data source that provides information on the distribution of an ecosystem type through time (figure 3). Assessors should include relevant maps in their account or provide ...
Orientation training on ecosystem services assessment
Agricultural diversification promotes multiple ecosystem services without compromising yield
Enhancing biodiversity in cropping systems is suggested to promote ecosystem services, thereby reducing dependency on agronomic inputs while maintaining high crop yields. We assess the impact of several diversification practices in cropping systems on above- and belowground biodiversity and ecosyste …
We are a group of scientists and students from diverse backgrounds with a shared passion for ecology, and for plant communities and forest ecosystems in particular. We study how global environmental changes in climate, land-use (including forest management), biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem trophic structure, and invasions of non-native species affect biodiversity and the structure and function of terrestrial plant communities and forested ecosystems. Our goal is to advance ecological theory and to apply it in improving practices in ecosystem management, restoration, and nature conservation. We are interested in conceptual questions rather than particular plant taxa or ecosystems; consequently, our studies examine diverse plant groups (e.g., trees, herbs, and bryophytes) in varied ecological settings (e.g., temperate conifer and deciduous forests, tropical dry forests, old-fields, and tree-grass ecosystems) and locations (e.g., eastern U.S., Midwest, and the Pacific Northwest; northwestern ...
structure of your ecosystem including important abiotic features and dominant plant and animal species | Homework Writers
Select an ecosystem in your area (forest, lake, desert, grassland).. Write a 525- to 700-word paper explaining the following:. 1) Describe the structure of your ecosystem including important abiotic features and dominant plant and animal species. 2) Explain some functions/processes of your ecosystem including one nutrient cycle and one food chain. 3) Give two examples of species interactions (predation, competition, mutualism, etc.) that occur in your ecosystem. 4) Identify an invasive species in your ecosystem. Explain its effects on the ecosystem and efforts to control or eradicate it.. Include two outside references.. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.. I will pay 10.00 including the down payment charge. Please do the paper on desert ecosystem.. ...
Joanne Ellis - Science: University of Waikato
My research interests include disturbance and recovery dynamics in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, biodiversity prioritization to inform ecosystem management, statistical modeling including the identification of multiple stressor interaction effects, marine spatial planning, ecosystem services frameworks and climate change impacts on marine systems. My primary research focuses on the recovery of marine benthic communities from disturbance and potential interaction effects of multiple stressors. I have approached these specific research areas using a combination of models and field studies to predict community resilience to disturbance and multiple stressors. This knowledge provides the required biophysical science to quantify stressor footprints, determine ecological responses of ecosystems to multiple stressors and identify tipping points that transform ecosystems into non-desirable states. Increasingly research of stressor footprints and multiple stressor effects will be required to ...
中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园机构知识库(XTBG OpenIR): Using Plant Functional Traits and Phylogenies to Understand Patterns of Plant Community...
Plant functional traits reflect different evolutionary responses to environmental variation, and among extant species determine the outcomes of interactions between plants and their environment, including other plant species. Thus, combining phylogenetic and trait-based information can be a powerful approach for understanding community assembly processes across a range of spatial scales. We used this approach to investigate tree community composition at Phou Khao Khouay National Park (18 degrees 14-18 degrees 32N; 102 degrees 38-102 degrees 59 E), Laos, where several distinct forest types occur in close proximity. The aim of our study was to examine patterns of plant community assembly across the strong environmental gradients evident at our site. We hypothesized that differences in tree community composition were being driven by an underlying gradient in soil conditions. Thus, we predicted that environmental filtering would predominate at the site and that the filtering would be strongest ...
Ecosystem Services | Forest Stewardship Council
In collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme, FSC launched the five-year Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services (ForCES) project in 2011 as an incentive for the preservation of valuable ecosystem services in responsibly managed forests. The aim of the project is to adopt FSC standards to emerging ecosystem services markets and target ecosystem services with present or future market potential.. The ForCES project was implemented and tested in several pilot sites, specifically in Chile, Indonesia, Nepal and Vietnam. The project finished in 2017. The report is available to download below. ...
Brazilian land use policies and the development of ecosystem services | KTH
Concerns related to global environmental changes due to land use changes have been driving international communities towards more sustainable land use systems. Brazil is a country of global strategic importance in this matter considering that it is the nation with the largest extension of preserved tropical native vegetation, recognised for its ecosystem services and high and unique biodiversity values. Expansion of forestry and agriculture is taking place rapidly in Brazil, partly over degraded pastureland, but to a large extent over native vegetation. Regulating policies to govern and limit this expansion is crucial to ensure the preservation of the ecosystems services provided by native vegetation. This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing public and private policies in the conservation of nature in Brazil. For this purpose, the Land Use Policy Assessment (LUPA) model was developed to evaluate potential scenarios of implementation of the current ...
Threshold-Based Resource Management: A Framework for Comprehensive Ecosystem Management | SpringerLink
Climate change in Australia
Australia has some of the world's most diverse ecosystems and natural habitats, and it may be this variety that makes them the ... Sustained climate change could have drastic effects on the ecosystems of Australia. For example, rising ocean temperatures and ... maintaining a healthy ecosystem. Climate change will affect growth, species composition and pest incursion of native species ... and its important tourism industry depends on the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other fragile ecosystems. The impacts of ...
Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems
Ecological applications at the level of communities and ecosystems. References. *^ Smith, Robert H. (February 1986). " ... Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems is a 2006 higher education textbook on general ecology written by Michael Begon, Colin ... Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Ecology: Individuals, ... The most recent edition appeared in 2006 under the new subtitle From Individuals to Ecosystems. ...
As a result, seagrasses provide coastal zones with a number of ecosystem goods and ecosystem services, for instance nursery ... Seagrass beds are highly diverse and productive ecosystems, and can harbor hundreds of associated species from all phyla, for ... Natural disturbances, such as grazing, storms, ice-scouring, and desiccation, are an inherent part of seagrass ecosystem ... Seagrasses are sometimes labeled ecosystem engineers, because they partly create their own habitat: their leaves, by slowing ...
Role in ecosystems. Trophic level. Further information: Trophic level and Apex predator ... Seed predation is restricted to mammals, birds, and insects and is found in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. Egg ... Keystone species". In Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Mooney, Harold A. (eds.). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer. p. 237. ... Ripple, William J.; Beschta, Robert L. (2004). "Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems?". ...
Ecosystem damage and loss of land. Merowe Dam in Sudan. Hydroelectric power stations that use dams submerge large areas of land ... Damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves ... Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site. ...
Ecosystem function. Ecosystem function describes the most basic and essential foundational processes of any natural ... Some conservationists argue that, though an ecosystem may not be returned to its original state, the functions of the ecosystem ... Natural ecosystems provide ecosystem services in the form of resources such as food, fuel, and timber; the purification of air ... and ecosystem service decline. Two methods have been identified to slow the rate of species extinction and ecosystem service ...
Data Plane Development Kit
Coastal ecosystems. Salt deposition from sea spray is the primary factor influencing distribution of plant communities in ... Clayton, James L. (1972). "Salt Spray and Mineral Cycling in Two California Coastal Ecosystems". Ecology. 53 (1): 74-81. doi: ... While the salts within sea spray can severely inhibit plant growth in coastal ecosystems, selecting for salt-tolerant species, ... Sea spray also influences plant growth and species distribution in coastal ecosystems and increases corrosion of building ...
Great Smoky Mountains
Permian-Triassic extinction event
Changes in marine ecosystems. Sessile filter feeders like this Carboniferous crinoid, the mushroom crinoid (Agaricocrinus ... Plant ecosystem response. The geological record of terrestrial plants is sparse and based mostly on pollen and spore ... A healthy ecosystem has a much larger number of genera, each living in a few preferred types of habitat. ... Coal-producing ecosystems, rather than disappearing, may have moved to areas where we have no sedimentary record for the Early ...
... a large ecosystem of third party add-ons has developed via contributions from the community. This ecosystem is available on the ... Ecosystem. Due to the longevity and popularity of the LabVIEW language, and the ability for users to extend its functions ... LabVIEW Tools Network - Ecosystem of LabVIEW Add-on products, contributed by NI and the community. ...
Soil ecosystems. About 90% of nematodes reside in the top 15 cm of soil. Nematodes do not decompose organic matter, but, ... Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem: from marine (salt) to fresh water, soils, from the polar regions ... and their presence at various trophic levels point to an important role in many ecosystems. The roughly 2271 genera are ... "Exponential decline of deep-sea ecosystem functioning linked to benthic biodiversity loss". Curr. Biol. 18 (1): 1-8. doi: ...
Ecosystem based fisheries. " We propose that rebuilding ecosystems, and not sustainability per se, should be the goal of ... the ecosystem-based approach is organized in terms of ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based fishery concepts have been ... Francis RC, Hixon MA, Clarke ME, Murawski SA, and Ralston S (2007) Ten commandments for ecosystem-based fisheries scientists ... See also: Ecosystem-based management. According to marine ecologist Chris Frid, the fishing industry points to pollution and ...
Microcosm (experimental ecosystem)
Microcosms are artificial, simplified ecosystems that are used to simulate and predict the behaviour of natural ecosystems ... Ecologist Howard T. Odum was a pioneer in his use of small closed and open ecosystems in classroom teaching. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Microcosm_(experimental_ecosystem)&oldid=825374469" ...
Sundarbans National Park
Ecosystem valuation. An economic assessment study of Sundarbans estimated that the tiger reserve provides flow benefits ... Important ecosystem services include nursery function (5.17 billion), gene-pool protection (2.87 billion year), provisioning of ... The natural environment and coastal ecosystem of this Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site is under threat of physical ... Conservation and environmental management plan for safeguarding this unique coastal ecology and ecosystem is urgently required ...
Role in aquatic ecosystems. Main article: Marine bacteriophage. A teaspoon of seawater contains about 50 million viruses. ... Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 2000;64(1):69-114. doi:10.1128/MMBR. ... Marine viruses-major players in the global ecosystem. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2007;5(10):801-12. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1750. ... Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The study of ...
Ecosystems approach. An ecosystems approach to resource management and environmental protection aims to consider the ... "Principal ecosystems in Mexico". Viva Natura. Viva Natura. Retrieved 10 July 2012.. ... Promote the protection, restoration and conservation of ecosystems, natural resources, goods and environmental services, and to ... A policy for the preservation, conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems, biodiversity and forests; ...
Novel ecosystems "differ in composition and/or function from present and past systems". Novel ecosystems are the hallmark ... Odum, E. P. (2001). "The "Techno-Ecosystem"". Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 82 (2): 137-138. JSTOR 20168542.. ... Novel ecosystems are part of the human environment and niche (including urban, suburban, and rural), they lack natural analogs ... Novel ecosystems are human-built, modified, or engineered niches of the Anthropocene. They exist in places that have been ...
Thus the marine ecosystems in Florida Bay are considered to be a part of the Everglades watershed and one of the ecosystems ... an ecosystem that buffers the freshwater marshes by absorbing sea water. Mangrove trees begin to grow in fresh water ecosystems ... Understanding the Ecosystem. CRC Press. ISBN 1-884015-06-9. *McCally, David (1999). The Everglades: An Environmental History. ... "DOI science plan in support of ecosystem restoration, preservation, and protection in South Florida. U.S. Geological Survey. ...
... and we recognize that mountain ecosystems inhabited by snow leopards provide essential ecosystem services, including storing ... Global Snow Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program. Out of these efforts was formed a cooperative support effort, the Global ... Securing at least 20 healthy populations of snow leopards across the cat's range by 2020, Global Snow Leopard and Eco-System ... Numerous agencies are working to conserve the snow leopard and its threatened mountain ecosystems. These include the Snow ...
... which are called ecosystem services. Within the field of sustainable agriculture, the services that ecosystems provide ... while maintaining soil health and ecosystem services. The capacity for ecosystem services to be strong enough to allow a ... Multifunctional agriculture vs ecosystem services. There are different scientific communities that are looking at the ... and the "process of externalization" hides the costs to soil and ecosystems around it. A major barrier to sustainable ...
Effects of climate change on human health
Ecosystem Workforce Program. 41: 1-16.. *^ "Environment a Growing Driver in Displacement of People". Worldwatch Institute. ... Land ecosystems and health. Further information: Planetary health. Effects of deforestation in the African Highlands[edit ... Ecosystems and humans rely on the supply of oxygen in the environment, and threats to this boreal forest results in severe ... The whitebark pine ecosystem in these high elevations plays many essential roles, providing support to plant and animal life.[ ...
Environment of New Zealand
Rare natural ecosystems. Currently there are 72 recognised rare terrestrial ecosystems in New Zealand. They are ... "Naturally Uncommon Ecosystems". Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research. Retrieved 16 December 2018.. *^ Williams, Peter A. (2007). ... in terms of ecosystem effects on water quality New Zealand scored 40.3 points out of 100 for ecosystem vitality for freshwater ... "Alpine ecosystems , New Zealand Plant Conservation Network". www.nzpcn.org.nz. Retrieved 17 December 2018.. ...
Soil seed bank
Associated ecosystem processes. The term soil diaspore bank can be used to include non-flowering plants such as ferns and ... The soil seed bank is the natural storage of seeds, often dormant, within the soil of most ecosystems. The study of soil ... Forest ecosystems and wetlands contain a number of specialized plant species forming persistent soil seed banks. ... Soil seed banks play an important role in the natural environment of many ecosystems. For example, the rapid re-vegetation of ...
Ecosystem means a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting ... Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. It is based on ... The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes ... As described by the Conference of the Parties, the ecosystem approach is the primary framework for action under the Convention ...
Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management - Google Books
... move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for ecosystem ... Ecosystem Health is a groundbreaking attempt to formulate an understanding of the quality and health of natural environments so ... This work is a multidisciplinary collection of perspectives on the concept of health as it relates to ecosystems. The ... and biological issues surrounding the idea of ecosystem health. They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the ...
Ecosystem model - Wikipedia
2001). Ecosystem approaches to landscape management in Central Europe. Springer. pp. 586-587. ISBN 978-3-540-67267-8. .. ... "Ecological modeling in risk assessment: chemical effects on populations, ecosystems, and landscapes. CRC Press. p. 7. ISBN 978- ... Hall, Charles A.S. & Day, John W. (1990). Ecosystem Modeling in Theory and Practice: An Introduction with Case Histories. ... "Ecological modeling in risk assessment: chemical effects on populations, ecosystems, and landscapes. CRC Press. p. 22. ISBN 978 ...
WN 2010 | NRE 476 - Ecosystem Ecology | Section 001
... and community ecology to understand how and why ecosystems differ in composition, structure, and function, and how ecosystems ... "What are ecosystems and why are they so complex?". *"The principles of biogeochemistry - nutrient cycling, mass balance, and ... Ecosystem Ecology is a lecture/discussion course that focuses on understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes ... Ecosystem Ecology is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and fills concentration requirements in the ...
Wild Bees Are Dying and Ecosystem Collapse Will Follow-But Nobody's Taking Notice
But the decline of native bees, which are crucial to preventing the collapse of ecosystems, is receiving far less attention. ... Wild Bees Are Dying and Ecosystem Collapse Will Follow-But Nobodys Taking Notice. By Aristos Georgiou On 11/27/18 at 10:59 AM ... Thats the ecosystem collapse thats coming and the problem is, we have no clue where we are in that process. Why? Because we ... Its keeping ecosystems healthy, its maintaining diversity.. The bees visit the plants; the seeds and fruit feed birds; they ...
Ecosystem | New Scientist
Knowledge ecosystem - Wikipedia
Like natural ecosystems, these knowledge ecosystems have inputs, throughputs and outputs operating in open exchange ... 2005). Chapter 7: Towards an Integrated Knowledge Ecosystem: A Research Strategy in Towards an Integrated Knowledge Ecosystem: ... Knowledge Ecology: Knowledge Ecosystems for Business Education and Training. *^ Homa Bahrami,J. Stuart Evans (2005). The ... The idea of a knowledge ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of ...
Device Description Ecosystem
In a working ecosystem, those demanding trust must place a value on this trust and therefore accept the associated overheads. ... At the time of writing, the ecosystem is still in its early days. Models of exchange and management have yet to evolve and ... Device Description Ecosystem. W3C Working Draft 21 November 2005. This version:. http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-dd-ecosystem- ... Many actors are unsure of the roles they will play in the ecosystem, but there is general agreement that the availability of ...
Ecosystem | SAS
ecosystem | PNAS
IBM Blockchain Ecosystem | IBM
What is the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem?. No single company can unlock the potential of blockchain on its own. Which is why the ... Discover blockchain opportunities with the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem Access the tools, networks and resources to build and scale ... Thierry Hubert, CEO, Darwin Ecosystem, explains how IBM Watson helps with tasks that vary from gleaning insights on personality ... Explore the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem for the right opportunities and networks to help you achieve business success. ...
The plants and animals of Earth are taking over your social media. They want their stories told, and shared, and they want you to do it! Gone are the days of selfies, foodies, and random silliness. Now your feeds must be full of roots, shoots, and delicious fruits, unless you can prove youre worth and solve the puzzles put before you. Enjoy the photos, snaps, tunes, messages, tweets, and facebook relationships, all thanks to your pals, the plants and animals of Earth ...
Partner Ecosystem | McAfee
The other benefit McAfee brings to our open approach is our ecosystem of more than 150 partners operating within the McAfee ... This common communications layer connects products and capabilities developed from a vibrant ecosystem of players. OpenDXL ... McAfee embraces an open architecture, giving customers unified workflow management across hundreds of ecosystem vendors. ... connected security ecosystem to maximize the value of existing customer security investments. ...
Biodiversity: Ecosystem approach
Ecosystem approach The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that ... Ecosystem approaches are applied to specific elements in FAOs work, and most notably, through its work:. *in achieving ... The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes ... An ecosystem approach to agriculture and natural resource management explicitly identifies opportunities and trade-offs. It can ...
2. ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
It relates to ecosystem issues of key relevance to EAF such as: (1) the characteristics of ecosystems, their complexity, ... The description of the fishers interaction within the ecosystem requires identification of four main ecosystem compartments: ( ... As stated by Lackey (1999), ecosystems are defined at a wide range of scales of observation "from a drop of morning dew to an ... An ecosystem is a very complex entity with many interactive components. It can be defined as "a system of complex interactions ...
Ecosystem Management | IUCN
The well-being of people all over the world depends on healthy ecosystems to provide goods, like food and water, and services ... The well-being of people all over the world depends on healthy ecosystems to provide goods, like food and water, and services ... Partnerships for integrated monitoring of coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean 16.10.2017 CEESP News - by Maria Pena, Patrick ... Ecosystems protecting infrastructure and communities Buyck, Camille, Miththapala, Sriyanie, Monty, Fabiola, Murti, Radhika ...
Ecosystem Services | UICN
Thematic Group LeadsSimone Maynard and Nicholas Conner SC Focal Point Madhav Karki What are Ecosystem Services? The Millennium ... including the Ecosystem Red List TG; Ecosystem Restoration TG; Ecosystem and the Private Sector TG and Ecosystem Approach TG. ... What are Ecosystem Services?. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment defined Ecosystem Services as "the benefits people derive ... Ecosystem Services. The overall objective of this Thematic Group is to improve the knowledge base on ecosystem services and ...
Business Ecosystem Definition
A business ecosystem is the network of organizations involved in the delivery of a specific product or service through both ... Ecosystems and Competition Ecosystems create strong barriers to entry for new competition, as potential entrants not only have ... Understanding Business Ecosystems In the 1930s, British botanist Arthur Tansley introduced the term ecosystem to describe a ... What Is a Business Ecosystem? A business ecosystem is the network of organizations-including suppliers, distributors, customers ...
Iranian Startup Ecosystem
... * Iran Startup Ecosystem First Published: August 3, 2015 Version 1.13 ... CEE Startup Ecosystem by Founder of 150sec... 11057 views * Innovation is Everywhere - Startups... by Innovation is Eve... ... Vietnam Startup Ecosystem (May 2015) by Topica Founder In... 10501 views * Intro to la startup community [avesta] by Yohei ... Startup Ecosystem * Why Iran? Population: 80+ million 20-35: 32 million Users: ~40+ million 50% Users: ~ 72 million Est. 30+ ...
182 Followers A Cloud-centric Ecosystem Approach to Ease IoT Development by Yujing Wu Yujing Wu Follow 0 Followers Posted on ... Yujing Wu discusses two use cases of a cloud-based IoT ecosystem that enables IoT device communication across silos and ... Paul Fremantle explores open source approaches to APIs and PaaS to create new digital connected ecosystems. He takes a look at ... making banking data more accessible via an ecosystem of apps and services. ...
Survey on interconnection agreement ecosystem
Linux and the storage ecosystem
Learn more about the Linux storage ecosystem and why its number one in server market share. ... The introduction of SSDs is changing the storage ecosystem in a number of ways. These disks remove some of the large latencies ... in storage ecosystem evolution, Linux will be there first. ... Linux and the storage ecosystem. An open platform for flexible ...
Kubernetes - Be our Ecosystem Partner!
IoT Ecosystem Partners | SAS
Supporting the M2M ecosystem
"We need to know more about what is happening in the M2M ecosystem in terms of new solutions and applications, which is one ... M2M is gaining more and more interest from operators and other players in the ecosystem. This is in line with Ericssons vision ... The event is an opportunity for Ericsson to support players in the M2M ecosystem as well as to encourage innovation. ... We find it inspiring to encourage the ecosystem and the creation of new ideas." ...
Ecosystem Science Group | ORNL
Ecosystem Science Group Understanding terrestrial responses to environmental changes. The Ecosystem Science Group pursues ... The Ecosystem Science Group conducts research on carbon, water and nutrient cycles of terrestrial ecosystems and their ... Our research is intended to inform models of terrestrial feedbacks to the Earth climate system and how changes in ecosystem ... response to environmental change at multiple scales for the projection of the fate and function of terrestrial ecosystems under ...
Riverine Ecosystem Management | SpringerLink
... of scientific river research and provides examples to guide management towards a sustainable future of riverine ecosystems. ... Aquatic Ecology Ecosystem Services Environmental Management Freshwater Science Open Access River Restoration Sustainable River ... Fundamental knowledge of ecosystem structure and function is necessary to understand how human acitivities interfere with ... 1.BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life SciencesInstitute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management (IHG) ...
ecosystem | Ohioline
Summarize how energy flows through an ecosystem.. Materials:. *student sheet (attached) *video about ecosystems and food chains ... Students should be familiar with the concept of an ecosystem and a food web. Instructional Procedures:. *Distribute handout to ... Students will watch a video that discusses ecosystems and food chains and complete the accompanying video guide. Main ...
Advance the ecosystem approach in cities
... and ecosystem-based adaptation (managing natural ecosystems to help cities face climate change). ... Advance the ecosystem approach in cities. To make cities better for people and the planet, the approach must become more ... In addition, the ecosystem approach must be assessed and applied in the global south. The vast majority of studies are in ... The fact that such critiques are hard to find in the literature signals how the ecosystem approach is still at an early stage ...
Processes2017ServicesEcologicalSpeciesAbioticNutrientManagementAssessmentDynamicsEnvironmentalFrameworkFisheriesApproachCoastal EcosystemPartner EcosystemBiodiversityFunction of terrestrial ecosystems2018TerrestrialEcologyMarine ecosystemsBusiness EcosystemsWorld'sClimate changeSustainableImpactsPrinciples of ecosystemServicesFlowsCarbonVibrant ecosystemInnovation ecosystemCommunity of organismsApproachesContentNaturalConservationTrendsAbiotic factorsHumansBlockchainISVsResearchBanking principlesWetlandApproachMainStartupLeverageDisturbancePartnersManagementWatsonForestScientistsAccelerateOrganizationAppsEntrepreneurshipMarketplaceResourcesPeopleStrengthenIncludeCoordinationStakeholders
- The number of ecosystem components that are incorporated into the model is limited by aggregating similar processes and entities into functional groups that are treated as a unit. (wikipedia.org)
- Secondly, we explore the interrelationship of biodiversity, ecosystem function processes, and components of ecosystem services. (ufz.de)
- It will answer fundamental questions about the functional role of biodiversity in key ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and how these are likely to change in an uncertain future. (sei.org)
- Ecosystems feature a set of processes by which nutrients are retained and recycled. (wikibooks.org)
- These processes link the energy, chemicals and organisms of an ecosystem. (wikibooks.org)
- The ecosystem is the set of species in a given area that interact among themselves, through processes such as predation, parasitism, competition and symbiosis, and with their abiotic environment to disintegrate and become part of cycles of energy and nutrients. (gob.mx)
- Nominations for the technical workshop for review of the voluntary guidelines for the design and effective implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, 20-22 November 2017 - Bonn, Germany. (cbd.int)
- Biodiversity & Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) is a six-year (2011-2017) NERC research programme, designed to reduce that uncertainty. (sei.org)
- Our research in the Department for Ecosystem Services encompasses three interlinked thems: We investigate patterns of spatio-temporal configuration of biodiversity and ecosystem service flows in socio-ecological systems at different scales. (ufz.de)
- This includes the assessment of risks of ecosystem services provision and potential capacity boundaries with respect to land use and socio-economic drivers. (ufz.de)
- Thirdly, we seek to operationalise the ecosystem approach by developing effective strategies and tools to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services in a changing world. (ufz.de)
- As our research focusses on ecosystem services, a concept linking biodiversity and human well-being, we naturally work at the science-society interface. (ufz.de)
- Our team is actively involved in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the development of the German Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP-DE). (ufz.de)
- Aletta Bonn is head of department ecosystem services at the UFZ, Leipzig, and professor at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena in the framework of the German Centre of Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv). (ufz.de)
- Ecosystem services are the benefits mankind derives from ecosystems, or our natural resources. (vu.nl)
- Thanks to the interdisciplinary character of the institute, it is relatively simple to overcome the complexity of ecosystem services. (vu.nl)
- In spite of the increasing international popularity of the notion of ecosystem services, it is not very widely applied in Dutch environmental policies. (vu.nl)
- With its 'Exploring Ecosystem Services' project, the IVM is seeking to develop an analytical framework with which ecosystem service applications can be demonstrated in the context of Dutch policies. (vu.nl)
- For more information, please go to ecosystem services . (vu.nl)
- Brazil is a country of global strategic importance in this matter considering that it is the nation with the largest extension of preserved tropical native vegetation, recognised for its ecosystem services and high and unique biodiversity values. (kth.se)
- Regulating policies to govern and limit this expansion is crucial to ensure the preservation of the ecosystems services provided by native vegetation. (kth.se)
- The results indicate that the offsetting mechanism may have little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation and its ecosystem services because most of the offsetting is likely to take place where native vegetation is already protected by current legislations. (kth.se)
- Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- Biodiversity underlies all ecosystem services (source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, http://www.maweb.org//en/Products.Synthesis.aspx ). (ecologyandsociety.org)
- A UN-funded study of the state of ecosystem services around the world. (sustainabilitydictionary.com)
- Integrated assessment and valuation of ecosystem services. (bibsys.no)
- As the ecosystem service concept has become more widely recognised, so the number of biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary methods available to assess ecosystem services has increased. (bibsys.no)
- This report provides a number of tools that practitioners can use to plan, commission and evaluate integrated assessment and valuation studies of ecosystem services. (bibsys.no)
- An ecosystem model is an abstract , usually mathematical , representation of an ecological system (ranging in scale from an individual population , to an ecological community , or even an entire biome ), which is studied to better understand the real system. (wikipedia.org)
- Using data gathered from the field, ecological relationships-such as the relation of sunlight and water availability to photosynthetic rate, or that between predator and prey populations-are derived, and these are combined to form ecosystem models. (wikipedia.org)
- Adaptations influence the distribution of species in an ecosystem. (wikibooks.org)
- Species interactions determines the maintenance, health and functioning of ecosystems. (wikibooks.org)
- The relationships between species and their environment facilitate the flow of matter and energy within the ecosystem. (gob.mx)
- The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. (cbd.int)
- books.google.com - As environmental regulatory and management agencies (most notably the Environmental Protection Agency) move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for 'ecosystem health' has become increasingly important. (google.com)
- They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the issues, and look at philosophical and ethical underpinnings as well as implications for public policy and ecosystems management. (google.com)
- Forest Ecosystem Management grads take leadership roles in private companies, nonprofits, and government agencies. (psu.edu)
- Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. (cbd.int)
- The Conference of the Parties, at its Fifth Meeting, endorsed the description of the ecosystem approach and operational guidance and recommended the application of the principles and other guidance on the Ecosystem Approach ( decision V/6 ). (cbd.int)
- The seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties agreed that the priority at this time should be on facilitating implementation of the ecosystem approach and welcomed additional guidelines to this effect ( decision VII/11 ). (cbd.int)
- Existing ecosystem models are used to solve some realistic coastal ecosystem problems. (umassd.edu)
- If you have a product or provide services that supports developers and organizations, using Kubernetes, grow and expand their platforms, we would love to have you as a part of the Kubernetes partner ecosystem. (google.com)
- The primary benefits we see with Oracle Cloud are one, a robust and growing partner ecosystem, two, security first and a services-based architecture with an emphasis on core-to-edge security and three, commitment to open cloud. (oracle.com)
- CareCloud, a specialist in cloud-based software and services for medical groups, announced the launch of CareCloud Connect, an integrated partner ecosystem designed to provide physicians and administrators with the solutions they need in an increasingly complex health care environment. (eweek.com)
- Announced in 2017, Marketo Accelerate is a part of Marketo's robust, best-in-class partner ecosystem, LaunchPoint. (prnewswire.com)
- If you are delivering repeatable and scalable IoT offerings using Intel technology, the Intel® IoT Market Ready Solutions or Intel® IoT RFP Ready Kit programs can empower you with benefits such as greater visibility through Intel's joint marketing programs, a trusted IoT advisor with selling resources and expertise, and global and channel expansion through Intel's vast partner ecosystem. (intel.com)
- Salesforce has the largest partner ecosystem of any tech company in the world. (salesforce.com)
- In spite of the ecological, cultural and economic importance of these services, ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them are still being degraded and lost at an unprecedented scale. (iucn.org)
- The IPBES (the Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) is a new mechanism that focuses on strengthening the interface between the scientific community and policymakers, that aims at building capacity for and strengthen the use of science in policymaking. (iucn.org)
- The maps also can support biodiversity, agricultural, and resource management strategies that incorporate an ecosystem approach. (esri.com)
- Understanding the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems is critical for understanding environmental challenges such as global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development and pollution. (abdn.ac.uk)
- The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) enables nongovernmental and private sector organizations to conserve vital ecosystems in the world's biodiversity hotspots. (conservation.org)
- In addition to establishing or expanding more than 14 million hectares of critical ecosystems, CEPF grantees have improved the management of more than 45 million hectares of Key Biodiversity Areas and more than 8 million hectares of production landscapes - areas used for crops or other products. (conservation.org)
- Biodiversity affects ecosystem function, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. (wikipedia.org)
- The idea of launching Ecosystem Marketplace was borne out of meeting by members of The Katoomba Group, an international working group composed of leading experts from forest and energy industries, research institutions, the financial world, and environmental NGOs dedicated to advancing markets for some of the ecosystem services provided by forests - such as watershed protection, biodiversity habitat, and carbon capture and storage. (wikipedia.org)
- Ecosystem Marketplace specializes in market-based approaches to environmental protection-in the public and private spheres-regarding greenhouse gases, water, biodiversity, and conservation. (wikipedia.org)
- Water quality and nutrient trading Schemes to pay for watershed services Nitrogen offset programs Biodiversity Relevant material can be accessed via the main Ecosystem Marketplace website and the Species Banking Portal. (wikipedia.org)
- Conservation banking in the U.S. Wetland/stream mitigation banking in the U.S. Australian biodiversity offset programs Voluntary biodiversity offsets Communities Relevant material can be accessed via the main Ecosystem Marketplace website and the Communities Portal. (wikipedia.org)
- PES program design community ecosystem management community buyer relations poverty equity community as buyer payments compensation land tenure rights Biodiversity Madsen, Becca, Nathaniel Carroll, and Kelly Moore Brands. (wikipedia.org)
Function of terrestrial ecosystems1
- The Ecosystem Science Group pursues fundamental research to develop an understanding of mechanisms of terrestrial response to environmental change at multiple scales for the projection of the fate and function of terrestrial ecosystems under current and alternate environments and atmospheres. (ornl.gov)
- SAN FRANCISCO , Jan. 30, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Metadata ( http://www.metadata.io ), the patented platform for closed-loop account based marketing, announced it has joined the Marketo® Accelerate ecosystem, the MarTech industry's first partner accelerator. (prnewswire.com)
- In Budget 2018, the Government of Canada allocated $85 million to the WES Ecosystem Fund to strengthen capacity within the entrepreneurship ecosystem and close gaps in service for women entrepreneurs. (gc.ca)
- The Ecosystem Science Group conducts research on carbon, water and nutrient cycles of terrestrial ecosystems and their organisms (microbes to trees). (ornl.gov)
- Our research is intended to inform models of terrestrial feedbacks to the Earth climate system and how changes in ecosystem structure and land use alter those biogeochemical feedbacks. (ornl.gov)
- Our group designs, constructs and operates targeted, large-scale, field experiments to predict vulnerability of terrestrial ecological systems and their organisms to hypothesized changes in climate and atmospheric composition and how those responses might alter both the delivery of ecosystem goods and services to society. (ornl.gov)
- Landscape s and regions are made up of groups of distinct terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that interact with one another. (britannica.com)
- The AAG is pleased and honored to announce the publication of A New Map of Standardized Terrestrial Ecosystems of Africa as a special supplement to the African Geographical Review , an AAG journal edited and managed by the AAG's African Specialty Group in close collaboration with African scientists and one of the leading continent-wide geographic journals for African scholars. (esri.com)
- Esri mapping tools and software were central to the development of the new terrestrial ecosystem maps of Africa. (esri.com)
- The Ecosystem Science Cluster supports research on natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems, including those in terrestrial, freshwater, and wetland (including salt marsh) environments. (nsf.gov)
- Terrestrial ecosystems play a pivotal role in modulating the fluxes of energy and matter at the Earth's surface, including the cycling of carbon, nutrients and greenhouse gases. (abdn.ac.uk)
- Kyoto-related carbon markets (EU ETS, CDM, JI) Voluntary over-the-counter markets North American state and regional markets Payments for terrestrial carbon sequestration Water Relevant material can be accessed via the main Ecosystem Marketplace website and Watershed Connect. (wikipedia.org)
- To understand knowledge ecology as a productive operation, it is helpful to focus on the knowledge ecosystem that lies at its core. (wikipedia.org)
- Vegetation associations on old buildings or along field boundary stone walls in old agricultural landscapes are examples of sites where research into novel ecosystem ecology is developing. (wikipedia.org)
- On a more local scale, abandoned lots, agricultural land, old buildings, field boundary stone walls or residential gardens provide study sites on the history and dynamics of ecology in novel ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
- The Rangeland Ecosystem Services research described below is conducted and managed under the USGS Applied Landscape Ecology and Remote Sensing project and partners. (usgs.gov)
- In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based ecosystem called a terraqua column. (merlot.org)
- This course develops principles of systems ecology and biogeochemistry, focusing on the fundamental role played by living things in regulating key ecosystem processes such as carbon cycling, nutrient dynamics, trophic transfers, and land-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases. (abdn.ac.uk)
- This course will develop the fundamental principles of ecosystem ecology and biogeochemistry, to further develop the students' understanding of how the principles of systems ecology can be applied to understand the structure and function of both natural and managed ecosystems. (abdn.ac.uk)
- Although they cannot be controlled directly, they exert a fundamental influence on the stability and resilience of marine ecosystems and their resources and they must be taken into account by managers. (fao.org)
- Sea otters provide one of the best documented examples of top-down forcing effects on the structure and function of nearshore marine ecosystems in the North Pacific Ocean. (usgs.gov)
- Important: Like natural ecosystems, the firms involved in business ecosystems compete for survival with adaptation and sometimes extinction. (investopedia.com)
- Although many countries across the world strive to build a Silicon Valley of their own, regional technology business ecosystems are all very different, and are likely to remain so. (thenextweb.com)
- Arm executives and influencers bring insights and opinions from the world's largest compute ecosystem. (arm.com)
- Red Hat, Inc. (NYSE: RHT), the world's leading provider of open source solutions, today announced that Swisscom IT Services AG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Swisscom, Switzerland's leading telecommunications provider, has joined the Red Hat Cloud ecosystem as a Certified Cloud Provider partner, offering more choice and flexibility for open cloud deployments. (redhat.com)
- The approach encompasses concepts such as green infrastructure, nature-based solutions (adopting sustainable practices that harness the natural world) and ecosystem-based adaptation (managing natural ecosystems to help cities face climate change). (nature.com)
- The maps will also contribute a new knowledge foundation for research on impacts of climate change, fire, and invasive species on ecosystem productivity in Africa and for better understanding the interactions of economic and social policies on the goods and services (e.g., food, fuel, fiber, water) that African ecosystems currently provide. (esri.com)
- An OU study shows the effects of climate warming on soil microbes in a long-term climate change experiment in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. (ou.edu)
- NORMAN- A University of Oklahoma professor, Jizhong Zhou, and his team have completed a new study on the effects of climate warming on soil microbes in a long-term climate change experiment at a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. (ou.edu)
- Earthjustice is restoring our ailing ocean ecosystem by using the law to establish sustainable fisheries, protect marine species and build resilience to climate change. (earthjustice.org)
- The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. (fao.org)
- It can preserve or increase the capacity of an ecosystem to produce benefits for the society, fairly apportions benefits and costs, and is sustainable over the longer-term. (fao.org)
- The overall objective of this Thematic Group is to improve the knowledge base on ecosystem services and their values, and stimulate the integration of this knowledge in planning and decision making for sustainable ecosystem management. (iucn.org)
- Stimulate research on the capacity and resilience of ecosystems to provide goods and services in a sustainable manner, and develop tools and guidelines for practical applications and integrated ecosystem services assessments. (iucn.org)
- Communicate the knowledge and applications of ecosystem services and values to decision makers at all scales and the general public, thus building local and political support and convincing (potential) donors that benefits of conservation, restoration and sustainable use of ecosystems usually outweigh the costs. (iucn.org)
- This open access book surveys the frontier of scientific river research and provides examples to guide management towards a sustainable future of riverine ecosystems. (springer.com)
- The ecosystem approach incorporates nature into urban settings to make them more sustainable, liveable and resilient, and means managing cities themselves as ecosystems: intricately connected, dynamic subsystems of social, built and natural components. (nature.com)
- Sundry individual projects reveal the benefits of the ecosystem approach, including water purification, improved public health, reduced disaster exposure, enhanced resilience and social justice, but it will take a lot more to change the future of cities and achieve the global targets agreed to in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals and emerging guidelines encompassed in the New Urban Agenda. (nature.com)
- Before investing in a region's vital ecosystems, CEPF involves anywhere between 100 and 500 of the hotspot's experts and stakeholders - botanists, zoologists, local organizations, local government officials and sustainable development specialists among them. (conservation.org)
- PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES AND HEALTHY OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS through work with fisheries managers to reduce bycatch and adopt ecosystem-based, precautionary approaches to ocean management. (earthjustice.org)
- "Current urban-industrial society not only impacts natural life-support ecosystems, but also has created entirely new arrangements that we can call techno-ecosystems, a term believed to be first suggested by Zev Neveh (1982). (wikipedia.org)
- OCEAN SPRINGS - The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) has selected 12 research consortia to conduct scientific studies of the impacts of oil, dispersed oil, and dispersant on the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem and public health. (msbusiness.com)
- and ecosystem sustainability (human impacts, feedback effects). (abdn.ac.uk)
Principles of ecosystem1
- The well-being of people all over the world depends on healthy ecosystems to provide goods, like food and water, and services like climate regulation and protection from natural hazards. (iucn.org)
- What are Ecosystem Services? (iucn.org)
- One major reason for this is that the value (importance) of ecosystems to human welfare is still underestimated and not fully recognized in every day planning and decision-making, in other words, the benefits of their services are not, or only partly, captured in conventional market economics. (iucn.org)
- Furthermore, the costs of externalities of economic development (e.g. pollution, deforestation) are usually not accounted for, while inappropriate tax and subsidy (incentive) systems encourage the over-exploitation and unsustainable use of natural resources and other ecosystem services at the expense of the poor and future generations. (iucn.org)
- and stimulate partnerships and other incentive mechanisms to conserve and restore ecosystems and their services. (iucn.org)
- The Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP): a platform that aims to enhance communication, coordination and cooperation, and to build a strong network of individuals and organizations. (iucn.org)
- The ESP is chaired by Rudolf de Groot, former Lead and current Special Advisor of the Ecosystem Services Thematic Group. (iucn.org)
- The economic community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. (investopedia.com)
- Simon Redfern presents how the Open Bank Project innovates by leveraging open APIs, open source and open data, making banking data more accessible via an ecosystem of apps and services. (infoq.com)
- We developed integrated climate and land use change scenarios for California rangeland ecosystem services, focusing on wildlife habitat, soil carbon and water supply. (usgs.gov)
- Below are publications for research conducted by the USGS Rangeland Ecosystem Services project. (usgs.gov)
- Below are partners and collaborators that worked on research with the USGS Rangeland Ecosystem Services project. (usgs.gov)
- A broad range of agriculture-environment interactions can be organized around the concept of agriculture as a producer and consumer of ecosystem services. (repec.org)
- Furthermore, ecosystems deliver multiple types of services, across widely varying spatial scales. (repec.org)
- Economies of Scope in the Agricultural Provision of Ecosystems Services: A Swiss Case Study ," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 43969, European Association of Agricultural Economists. (repec.org)
- The future of farming: The value of ecosystem services in conventional and organic arable land. (repec.org)
- The Ecosystem Management Coordination Staff supports and manages planning and decision making processes used by the Forest Service to manage the lands and resources of the National Forest System and delivery of services to the American people. (usda.gov)
- Ecosystem Marketplace, an initiative of Forest Trends, is a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that focuses on increasing transparency and providing reliable information for ecosystem services and payment schemes. (wikipedia.org)
- Ecosystem Marketplace's website states: "We believe that by providing solid and trust-worthy information on prices, regulation, science, and other market-relevant issues, markets for ecosystem services will one day become a fundamental part of our economic and environmental system, helping give value to environmental services that have, for too long, been taken for granted. (wikipedia.org)
- Add to that ocean acidification-a process caused by increased carbon emissions that can degrade coral reefs and corrode the shells of sea creatures-and warming, and it's not surprising that ocean ecosystems are rapidly collapsing. (earthjustice.org)
- Energy and carbon enter ecosystems through photosynthesis, are incorporated into living tissue, transferred to other organisms that feed on the living and dead plant matter, and eventually released through respiration. (wikipedia.org)
- Ecosystem Marketplace has covered information on a number of areas, including the following: Carbon Relevant material can be accessed via the main Ecosystem Marketplace website, the carbon markets landing page, and the Forest Carbon Portal. (wikipedia.org)
- State of Forest Carbon Markets 2012 Ecosystem Marketplace, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
- Ecosystem Marketplace and Bloomberg New Carbon Finance, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
- Stakeholders can quickly come together on the scope & agreement on the problems to develop specific projects, and engage in quick high impact initiatives to help address missing pieces in the framework, in order to develop the fabric of well-functioning ICT centric innovation ecosystem. (itu.int)
- Attracting international companies to the region is an important component to our strategy to grow our innovation ecosystem and goes hand-in-hand with promoting local entrepreneurship," said Sam Fiorello, president, BRDG Park and COO at the Danforth Center. (constantcontact.com)
- Last month, BRDG Park hosted a special program to discuss strategies, opportunities and challenges involved in advancing the growth of the innovation ecosystem in St. Louis. (constantcontact.com)
Community of organisms1
- in forests, with work on technical, policy and legal support to ecosystem approaches. (fao.org)
- In this solutions track talk, sponsored by WSO2, Paul Fremantle explores open source approaches to APIs and PaaS to create new digital connected ecosystems. (infoq.com)
- Our vision is to establish practical opportunities to map and create better, more efficient approaches for this quickly-evolving ecosystem. (rsc.org)
- Knowledge ecosystems operate on two types of technological core - one dealing with the content or substantive knowledge of the industry, and the other involving computer hardware and software and telecommunications, that serve as the "procedural technology" of operations. (wikipedia.org)
- Known as the Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem (DECE), the consortium brings together Warner Bros. Entertainment, Fox Entertainment Group, NBC Universal, Sony, Paramount Pictures and Comcast Corp. with retailer Best Buy along with tech giants Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Cisco, Philips, Toshiba and Verisign. (reuters.com)
- Make an Ecosystem Diorama main content. (amnh.org)
- The Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society at Oregon State is world renowned for its education, outreach and research in the areas of forest science, natural resources, and tourism, recreation and adventure leadership. (oregonstate.edu)
- Like natural ecosystems, these knowledge ecosystems have inputs, throughputs and outputs operating in open exchange relationship with their environments. (wikipedia.org)
- Novel ecosystems are part of the human environment and niche (including urban , suburban , and rural ), they lack natural analogs, and they have extended an influence that has converted more than three-quarters of wild Earth. (wikipedia.org)
- Technoecosystems interface with natural life-supporting ecosystems in competitive and parasitic ways. (wikipedia.org)
- An ecosystem approach to agriculture and natural resource management explicitly identifies opportunities and trade-offs. (fao.org)
- It relates to ecosystem issues of key relevance to EAF such as: (1) the characteristics of ecosystems, their complexity, structure, functioning, natural variability and boundaries, and (2) their modification and degradation by fisheries and other land- and sea-based economic activities. (fao.org)
- Your right to be within the natural flow simply means standing in your spiritual strength, thriving within your personal framework and flowing within a diverse and rich Divine Ecosystem. (beliefnet.com)
- Tansley regarded ecosystems not simply as natural units, but as mental isolates. (wikipedia.org)
- This stunning series of new and detailed maps of African ecosystems that comprises this special supplement was created by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the conservation nongovernmental organization (NGO) NatureServe and with an international team of scientists from most African countries, as well as from North America and Europe. (esri.com)
- The new maps also will be crucial for a broad range of conservation applications and, in particular, gap analyses to identify unrepresented or underrepresented ecosystems in protected areas. (esri.com)
- Grants are awarded on a competitive basis to implement the conservation strategy developed in each ecosystem profile. (conservation.org)
- In other words, Microsoft has bought itself a prime location in the heart of local entrepreneurial ecosystems, gathering intelligence on the latest trends and enhancing its own innovative capabilities. (forbes.com)
- Both Ecosystem Marketplace and The Katoomba Group are initiatives under Forest Trends. (wikipedia.org)
- Communications between computers and among humans permit knowledge ecosystems to be interactive and responsive within the wider community and within its subsystems. (wikipedia.org)
- A novel ecosystem is one that has been heavily influenced by humans but is not under human management. (wikipedia.org)
- Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an ecosystem. (merlot.org)
- Although humans exist and operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate. (wikipedia.org)
- What is the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem? (ibm.com)
- Which is why the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem provides companies building on the IBM Blockchain Platform a range of opportunities to access valuable new channels, exclusive strategic partnerships and innovative technology and resources to accelerate growth. (ibm.com)
- Explore the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem for the right opportunities and networks to help you achieve business success. (ibm.com)
- The IBM Watson Ecosystem program is made for ISVs looking to dramatically disrupt and transform an existing market. (ibm.com)
- The Marketo Accelerate program provides emerging companies with a tailored program to grow their business with Marketo,' said Shai Alfandary , vice president, global head of ISVs and LaunchPoint® ecosystem, Marketo. (prnewswire.com)
- The Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Ecosystem Readiness Program is designed to help Independent Hardware Vendors (IHVs), Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), developers, Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) and Original Device Manufacturers (ODMs) achieve compatibility and innovation with Windows 7. (eweek.com)
- The Research Laboratory: Silicon Valley's Knowledge Ecosystem , in Super-Flexibility for Knowledge Enterprises . (wikipedia.org)
- Being a part of a business ecosystem provides mechanisms to leverage technology, achieve excellence in research and business competence and compete effectively against other companies. (investopedia.com)
- This survey is part of a research effort that aims at understanding aspects of the current interconnection agreement ecosystem and how it can evolve in the next years. (google.com)
- The Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse (IRIT), created in 1990, is a Joint Research Unit (UMR) of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INP), the Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse3 (UT3), the Université Toulouse1 Capitole (UT1) and the Université de Toulouse Jean Jaurès (UT2J). (irit.fr)
- The idea of a knowledge ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions between entities to improve decision-making and innovation through improved evolutionary networks of collaboration . (wikipedia.org)
- Agent-Based Approach for Revitalization Strategy of Knowledge Ecosystem J. Phys. (wikipedia.org)
- The Ecosystem Review is a lightweight Country Review and implementation framework looking into core challenges of systemic approach. (itu.int)
- The ecosystem approach to agriculture requires adjustments in institutional and governance arrangements that ensure informed, balanced, transparent and legitimate decision making in relation to trade-offs and stakeholder participation. (fao.org)
- Ecosystem and the Private Sector TG and Ecosystem Approach TG. (iucn.org)
- Researchers must ask when, and to what extent, the ecosystem approach can truly replace conventional infrastructure. (nature.com)
- The fact that such critiques are hard to find in the literature signals how the ecosystem approach is still at an early stage of application in practice. (nature.com)
- In addition, the ecosystem approach must be assessed and applied in the global south. (nature.com)
- The new maps show the potential distribution of 126 ecosystem types modeled using a cartographic statistical regression approach based on knowledge of vegetation types and environmental features at more than 32,000 locations. (esri.com)
- Marcel Mez, Account Manager for Swisscom at Ericsson, says: "By teaming up with Swisscom as the main sponsor of the M2M Challenge we support both the operator and application and parts of the M2M ecosystem. (ericsson.com)
- The main key to having the stamp collecting ecosystem prosper is to have good communication and coordination between the various components. (bellaonline.com)
- These fintechs have joined Oracle for Start-ups or the Oracle Partner Network to help accelerate their growth and leverage our world-class platforms and ecosystems. (oracle.com)
- Being able to leverage the Intel brand to scale and reach different industry verticals, ecosystem partners, verticals has been invaluable. (intel.com)
- Analytics and its benefits can be pervasive, and it takes close collaboration of the ecosystem and its partners to bring today's connected world of Intelligence to life. (sas.com)
- Learn how our ecosystem of trusted partners can help you make the most of IoE opportunities. (cisco.com)
- Delivering on the transformative promise of IoT, Intel and its ecosystem of partners offer Intel® IoT Market Ready Solutions and Intel® IoT RFP Ready Kits that achieve real world results today and lay the foundation for a more intelligent tomorrow. (intel.com)
- Microsoft on Feb. 2 released the Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Ecosystem Readiness Program as part of its effort to prepare its partners for the availability of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. (eweek.com)
- Launched on Feb. 2, the Ecosystem Readiness Program provides the tools and resources partners need to begin testing their existing applications, devices and systems to ensure compatibility with Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. (eweek.com)
- To access the Ecosystem Readiness Program, hardware partners can go to http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/Win7_Beta.mspx, and software partners can go to www.msdn.com/windows. (eweek.com)
- Secondly, hardware and software partners should go to the sites mentioned above to join the Ecosystem Readiness Program and access the resources available to begin testing their applications and devices on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 at their earliest convenience. (eweek.com)
- To learn more about the Red Hat Cloud ecosystem, visit http://www.redhat.com/solutions/cloud/partners/ . (redhat.com)
- In contrast to purely directive management efforts that attempt either to manage or direct outcomes, knowledge ecosystems espouse that knowledge strategies should focus more on enabling self-organization in response to changing environments. (wikipedia.org)
- McAfee embraces an open architecture, giving customers unified workflow management across hundreds of ecosystem vendors. (mcafee.com)
- Provides single pane of glass management and unified workflows for pre-integrated solutions delivered through the SIA ecosystems. (mcafee.com)
- While mapping ecosystems is one of the prerequisites of their management, their geographical boundaries are not easy to determine. (fao.org)
- Contributed Presentations: Forest ecosystem science and monitoring, resource management, and public policy. (uvm.edu)
- Silvicultural systems for this purpose are being tested in several regions globally and have been the focus of the Vermont Forest Ecosystem Management Demonstration Project (FEMDP), now in its 15th year. (uvm.edu)
- Classifying ecosystems into ecologically homogeneous units is an important step towards effective ecosystem management, but there is no single, agreed-upon way to do this. (wikipedia.org)
- African scientists developed a new ecosystem classification and provided sample points representing known locations of the newly described ecosystems. (esri.com)
- U.S.-led scientists have found that an ecosystem below an Antarctic glacier has survived millions of years by using sulfur and iron compounds for growth. (redorbit.com)
- Co-led by Montana State University Professor John Priscu and Jill Mikucki of Dartmouth College, the scientists said the ecosystem lives without light or oxygen in a pool of brine trapped below Taylor Glacier, next to frozen Lake Bonney in eastern Antarctica. (redorbit.com)
- The bacteria living on and in us make up our "microbiome," an ecosystem that plays a role, scientists believe, in many conditions that genes and environmental factors alone can't explain, including obesity, autism, depression, asthma, and even cancer. (theweek.com)
- Driven by people and powered by technology, EY alliance and ecosystem relationships spark true business transformation to build a better working world. (ey.com)
- The Human Microbiome Project, a government-supported effort to map our bacterial ecosystems, has discovered that people harbor 10 bacterial cells for every human cell. (theweek.com)
- Known implementation considerations of knowledge ecosystem include the Canadian Government. (wikipedia.org)
- These anthropogenic biomes include technoecosystems that are fuelled by powerful energy sources (fossil and nuclear) including ecosystems populated with technodiversity, such as roads and unique combinations of soils called technosols . (wikipedia.org)
- We include these two individuals in our educational count and their importance in the ETF Ecosystem is not unnoticed, but as private companies, their value cannot be a part of the benchmark. (yahoo.com)