Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.FiresPlankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Pacific OceanExtinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Atlantic OceanArctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Mediterranean SeaPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Avicennia: A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.North SeaKelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).WyomingPhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.BrazilGastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.BelizeTidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.MontanaVolcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Landslides: Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.CaliforniaWater Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (1/10106)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/10106)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (3/10106)

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria. (4/10106)

Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community.  (+info)

Morphological and compositional changes in a planktonic bacterial community in response to enhanced protozoan grazing. (5/10106)

We analyzed changes in bacterioplankton morphology and composition during enhanced protozoan grazing by image analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Enclosure experiments were conducted in a small, fishless freshwater pond which was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The removal of metazooplankton enhanced protozoan grazing pressure and triggered a microbial succession from fast-growing small bacteria to larger grazing-resistant morphotypes. These were mainly different types of filamentous bacteria which correlated in biomass with the population development of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Small bacterial rods and cocci, which showed increased proportion after removal of Daphnia and doubling times of 6 to 11 h, belonged nearly exclusively to the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. The majority of this newly produced bacterial biomass was rapidly consumed by HNF. In contrast, the proportion of bacteria belonging to the gamma and alpha subdivisions of the Proteobacteria increased throughout the experiment. The alpha subdivision consisted mainly of rods that were 3 to 6 microm in length, which probably exceeded the size range of bacteria edible by protozoa. Initially, these organisms accounted for less than 1% of total bacteria, but after 72 h they became the predominant group of the bacterial assemblage. Other types of grazing-resistant, filamentous bacteria were also found within the beta subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. We conclude that the predation regimen is a major structuring force for the bacterial community composition in this system. Protozoan grazing resulted in shifts of the morphological as well as the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblage. Grazing-resistant filamentous bacteria can develop within different phylogenetic groups of bacteria, and formerly underepresented taxa might become a dominant group when protozoan predation is the major selective pressure.  (+info)

Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology. (6/10106)

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities.  (+info)

Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona. (7/10106)

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. (8/10106)

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

  • Nominations for the technical workshop for review of the voluntary guidelines for the design and effective implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, 20-22 November 2017 - Bonn, Germany. (cbd.int)
  • Biodiversity & Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) is a six-year (2011-2017) NERC research programme, designed to reduce that uncertainty. (sei.org)
  • An ecosystem model is an abstract , usually mathematical , representation of an ecological system (ranging in scale from an individual population , to an ecological community , or even an entire biome ), which is studied to better understand the real system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using data gathered from the field, ecological relationships-such as the relation of sunlight and water availability to photosynthetic rate, or that between predator and prey populations-are derived, and these are combined to form ecosystem models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. (cbd.int)
  • books.google.com - As environmental regulatory and management agencies (most notably the Environmental Protection Agency) move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for 'ecosystem health' has become increasingly important. (google.com)
  • They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the issues, and look at philosophical and ethical underpinnings as well as implications for public policy and ecosystems management. (google.com)
  • Forest Ecosystem Management grads take leadership roles in private companies, nonprofits, and government agencies. (psu.edu)
  • Following the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) by the United Nations in 2005, the concept can be certain of attracting a great deal of interest. (vu.nl)
  • As described by the Conference of the Parties , the ecosystem approach is the primary framework for action under the Convention. (cbd.int)
  • Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. (cbd.int)
  • The Conference of the Parties, at its Fifth Meeting, endorsed the description of the ecosystem approach and operational guidance and recommended the application of the principles and other guidance on the Ecosystem Approach ( decision V/6 ). (cbd.int)
  • The seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties agreed that the priority at this time should be on facilitating implementation of the ecosystem approach and welcomed additional guidelines to this effect ( decision VII/11 ). (cbd.int)
  • Existing ecosystem models are used to solve some realistic coastal ecosystem problems. (umassd.edu)
  • If you have a product or provide services that supports developers and organizations, using Kubernetes, grow and expand their platforms, we would love to have you as a part of the Kubernetes partner ecosystem. (google.com)
  • The primary benefits we see with Oracle Cloud are one, a robust and growing partner ecosystem, two, security first and a services-based architecture with an emphasis on core-to-edge security and three, commitment to open cloud. (oracle.com)
  • CareCloud, a specialist in cloud-based software and services for medical groups, announced the launch of CareCloud Connect, an integrated partner ecosystem designed to provide physicians and administrators with the solutions they need in an increasingly complex health care environment. (eweek.com)
  • Announced in 2017, Marketo Accelerate is a part of Marketo's robust, best-in-class partner ecosystem, LaunchPoint. (prnewswire.com)
  • If you are delivering repeatable and scalable IoT offerings using Intel technology, the Intel® IoT Market Ready Solutions or Intel® IoT RFP Ready Kit programs can empower you with benefits such as greater visibility through Intel's joint marketing programs, a trusted IoT advisor with selling resources and expertise, and global and channel expansion through Intel's vast partner ecosystem. (intel.com)
  • Salesforce has the largest partner ecosystem of any tech company in the world. (salesforce.com)
  • In spite of the ecological, cultural and economic importance of these services, ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them are still being degraded and lost at an unprecedented scale. (iucn.org)
  • The IPBES (the Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) is a new mechanism that focuses on strengthening the interface between the scientific community and policymakers, that aims at building capacity for and strengthen the use of science in policymaking. (iucn.org)
  • The maps also can support biodiversity, agricultural, and resource management strategies that incorporate an ecosystem approach. (esri.com)
  • Understanding the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems is critical for understanding environmental challenges such as global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development and pollution. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) enables nongovernmental and private sector organizations to conserve vital ecosystems in the world's biodiversity hotspots. (conservation.org)
  • In addition to establishing or expanding more than 14 million hectares of critical ecosystems, CEPF grantees have improved the management of more than 45 million hectares of Key Biodiversity Areas and more than 8 million hectares of production landscapes - areas used for crops or other products. (conservation.org)
  • Biodiversity affects ecosystem function, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea of launching Ecosystem Marketplace was borne out of meeting by members of The Katoomba Group, an international working group composed of leading experts from forest and energy industries, research institutions, the financial world, and environmental NGOs dedicated to advancing markets for some of the ecosystem services provided by forests - such as watershed protection, biodiversity habitat, and carbon capture and storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecosystem Marketplace specializes in market-based approaches to environmental protection-in the public and private spheres-regarding greenhouse gases, water, biodiversity, and conservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water quality and nutrient trading Schemes to pay for watershed services Nitrogen offset programs Biodiversity Relevant material can be accessed via the main Ecosystem Marketplace website and the Species Banking Portal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conservation banking in the U.S. Wetland/stream mitigation banking in the U.S. Australian biodiversity offset programs Voluntary biodiversity offsets Communities Relevant material can be accessed via the main Ecosystem Marketplace website and the Communities Portal. (wikipedia.org)
  • PES program design community ecosystem management community buyer relations poverty equity community as buyer payments compensation land tenure rights Biodiversity Madsen, Becca, Nathaniel Carroll, and Kelly Moore Brands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ecosystem Science Group pursues fundamental research to develop an understanding of mechanisms of terrestrial response to environmental change at multiple scales for the projection of the fate and function of terrestrial ecosystems under current and alternate environments and atmospheres. (ornl.gov)
  • SAN FRANCISCO , Jan. 30, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Metadata ( http://www.metadata.io ), the patented platform for closed-loop account based marketing, announced it has joined the Marketo® Accelerate ecosystem, the MarTech industry's first partner accelerator. (prnewswire.com)
  • In Budget 2018, the Government of Canada allocated $85 million to the WES Ecosystem Fund to strengthen capacity within the entrepreneurship ecosystem and close gaps in service for women entrepreneurs. (gc.ca)
  • The Ecosystem Science Group conducts research on carbon, water and nutrient cycles of terrestrial ecosystems and their organisms (microbes to trees). (ornl.gov)
  • Our research is intended to inform models of terrestrial feedbacks to the Earth climate system and how changes in ecosystem structure and land use alter those biogeochemical feedbacks. (ornl.gov)
  • Our group designs, constructs and operates targeted, large-scale, field experiments to predict vulnerability of terrestrial ecological systems and their organisms to hypothesized changes in climate and atmospheric composition and how those responses might alter both the delivery of ecosystem goods and services to society. (ornl.gov)
  • Landscape s and regions are made up of groups of distinct terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that interact with one another. (britannica.com)
  • The AAG is pleased and honored to announce the publication of A New Map of Standardized Terrestrial Ecosystems of Africa as a special supplement to the African Geographical Review , an AAG journal edited and managed by the AAG's African Specialty Group in close collaboration with African scientists and one of the leading continent-wide geographic journals for African scholars. (esri.com)
  • Esri mapping tools and software were central to the development of the new terrestrial ecosystem maps of Africa. (esri.com)
  • The Ecosystem Science Cluster supports research on natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems, including those in terrestrial, freshwater, and wetland (including salt marsh) environments. (nsf.gov)
  • Terrestrial ecosystems play a pivotal role in modulating the fluxes of energy and matter at the Earth's surface, including the cycling of carbon, nutrients and greenhouse gases. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Kyoto-related carbon markets (EU ETS, CDM, JI) Voluntary over-the-counter markets North American state and regional markets Payments for terrestrial carbon sequestration Water Relevant material can be accessed via the main Ecosystem Marketplace website and Watershed Connect. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand knowledge ecology as a productive operation, it is helpful to focus on the knowledge ecosystem that lies at its core. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vegetation associations on old buildings or along field boundary stone walls in old agricultural landscapes are examples of sites where research into novel ecosystem ecology is developing. (wikipedia.org)
  • On a more local scale, abandoned lots, agricultural land, old buildings, field boundary stone walls or residential gardens provide study sites on the history and dynamics of ecology in novel ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rangeland Ecosystem Services research described below is conducted and managed under the USGS Applied Landscape Ecology and Remote Sensing project and partners. (usgs.gov)
  • In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based ecosystem called a terraqua column. (merlot.org)
  • This course develops principles of systems ecology and biogeochemistry, focusing on the fundamental role played by living things in regulating key ecosystem processes such as carbon cycling, nutrient dynamics, trophic transfers, and land-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • This course will develop the fundamental principles of ecosystem ecology and biogeochemistry, to further develop the students' understanding of how the principles of systems ecology can be applied to understand the structure and function of both natural and managed ecosystems. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Although they cannot be controlled directly, they exert a fundamental influence on the stability and resilience of marine ecosystems and their resources and they must be taken into account by managers. (fao.org)
  • Sea otters provide one of the best documented examples of top-down forcing effects on the structure and function of nearshore marine ecosystems in the North Pacific Ocean. (usgs.gov)
  • Arm executives and influencers bring insights and opinions from the world's largest compute ecosystem. (arm.com)
  • Red Hat, Inc. (NYSE: RHT), the world's leading provider of open source solutions, today announced that Swisscom IT Services AG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Swisscom, Switzerland's leading telecommunications provider, has joined the Red Hat Cloud ecosystem as a Certified Cloud Provider partner, offering more choice and flexibility for open cloud deployments. (redhat.com)
  • The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. (fao.org)
  • It can preserve or increase the capacity of an ecosystem to produce benefits for the society, fairly apportions benefits and costs, and is sustainable over the longer-term. (fao.org)
  • The overall objective of this Thematic Group is to improve the knowledge base on ecosystem services and their values, and stimulate the integration of this knowledge in planning and decision making for sustainable ecosystem management. (iucn.org)
  • Stimulate research on the capacity and resilience of ecosystems to provide goods and services in a sustainable manner, and develop tools and guidelines for practical applications and integrated ecosystem services assessments. (iucn.org)
  • Communicate the knowledge and applications of ecosystem services and values to decision makers at all scales and the general public, thus building local and political support and convincing (potential) donors that benefits of conservation, restoration and sustainable use of ecosystems usually outweigh the costs. (iucn.org)
  • This open access book surveys the frontier of scientific river research and provides examples to guide management towards a sustainable future of riverine ecosystems. (springer.com)
  • The ecosystem approach incorporates nature into urban settings to make them more sustainable, liveable and resilient, and means managing cities themselves as ecosystems: intricately connected, dynamic subsystems of social, built and natural components. (nature.com)
  • Sundry individual projects reveal the benefits of the ecosystem approach, including water purification, improved public health, reduced disaster exposure, enhanced resilience and social justice, but it will take a lot more to change the future of cities and achieve the global targets agreed to in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals and emerging guidelines encompassed in the New Urban Agenda. (nature.com)
  • Before investing in a region's vital ecosystems, CEPF involves anywhere between 100 and 500 of the hotspot's experts and stakeholders - botanists, zoologists, local organizations, local government officials and sustainable development specialists among them. (conservation.org)
  • PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES AND HEALTHY OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS through work with fisheries managers to reduce bycatch and adopt ecosystem-based, precautionary approaches to ocean management. (earthjustice.org)
  • "Current urban-industrial society not only impacts natural life-support ecosystems, but also has created entirely new arrangements that we can call techno-ecosystems, a term believed to be first suggested by Zev Neveh (1982). (wikipedia.org)
  • OCEAN SPRINGS - The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) has selected 12 research consortia to conduct scientific studies of the impacts of oil, dispersed oil, and dispersant on the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem and public health. (msbusiness.com)
  • and ecosystem sustainability (human impacts, feedback effects). (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The well-being of people all over the world depends on healthy ecosystems to provide goods, like food and water, and services like climate regulation and protection from natural hazards. (iucn.org)
  • What are Ecosystem Services? (iucn.org)
  • One major reason for this is that the value (importance) of ecosystems to human welfare is still underestimated and not fully recognized in every day planning and decision-making, in other words, the benefits of their services are not, or only partly, captured in conventional market economics. (iucn.org)
  • Furthermore, the costs of externalities of economic development (e.g. pollution, deforestation) are usually not accounted for, while inappropriate tax and subsidy (incentive) systems encourage the over-exploitation and unsustainable use of natural resources and other ecosystem services at the expense of the poor and future generations. (iucn.org)
  • and stimulate partnerships and other incentive mechanisms to conserve and restore ecosystems and their services. (iucn.org)
  • The Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP): a platform that aims to enhance communication, coordination and cooperation, and to build a strong network of individuals and organizations. (iucn.org)
  • The ESP is chaired by Rudolf de Groot, former Lead and current Special Advisor of the Ecosystem Services Thematic Group. (iucn.org)
  • The economic community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. (investopedia.com)
  • Simon Redfern presents how the Open Bank Project innovates by leveraging open APIs, open source and open data, making banking data more accessible via an ecosystem of apps and services. (infoq.com)
  • We developed integrated climate and land use change scenarios for California rangeland ecosystem services, focusing on wildlife habitat, soil carbon and water supply. (usgs.gov)
  • Below are publications for research conducted by the USGS Rangeland Ecosystem Services project. (usgs.gov)
  • Below are partners and collaborators that worked on research with the USGS Rangeland Ecosystem Services project. (usgs.gov)
  • A broad range of agriculture-environment interactions can be organized around the concept of agriculture as a producer and consumer of ecosystem services. (repec.org)
  • Furthermore, ecosystems deliver multiple types of services, across widely varying spatial scales. (repec.org)
  • Economies of Scope in the Agricultural Provision of Ecosystems Services: A Swiss Case Study ," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 43969, European Association of Agricultural Economists. (repec.org)
  • The future of farming: The value of ecosystem services in conventional and organic arable land. (repec.org)
  • The Ecosystem Management Coordination Staff supports and manages planning and decision making processes used by the Forest Service to manage the lands and resources of the National Forest System and delivery of services to the American people. (usda.gov)
  • Ecosystem Marketplace, an initiative of Forest Trends, is a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that focuses on increasing transparency and providing reliable information for ecosystem services and payment schemes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecosystem Marketplace's website states: "We believe that by providing solid and trust-worthy information on prices, regulation, science, and other market-relevant issues, markets for ecosystem services will one day become a fundamental part of our economic and environmental system, helping give value to environmental services that have, for too long, been taken for granted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stakeholders can quickly come together on the scope & agreement on the problems to develop specific projects, and engage in quick high impact initiatives to help address missing pieces in the framework, in order to develop the fabric of well-functioning ICT centric innovation ecosystem. (itu.int)
  • Attracting international companies to the region is an important component to our strategy to grow our innovation ecosystem and goes hand-in-hand with promoting local entrepreneurship," said Sam Fiorello, president, BRDG Park and COO at the Danforth Center. (constantcontact.com)
  • Last month, BRDG Park hosted a special program to discuss strategies, opportunities and challenges involved in advancing the growth of the innovation ecosystem in St. Louis. (constantcontact.com)
  • in forests, with work on technical, policy and legal support to ecosystem approaches. (fao.org)
  • In this solutions track talk, sponsored by WSO2, Paul Fremantle explores open source approaches to APIs and PaaS to create new digital connected ecosystems. (infoq.com)
  • Our vision is to establish practical opportunities to map and create better, more efficient approaches for this quickly-evolving ecosystem. (rsc.org)
  • Knowledge ecosystems operate on two types of technological core - one dealing with the content or substantive knowledge of the industry, and the other involving computer hardware and software and telecommunications, that serve as the "procedural technology" of operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known as the Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem (DECE), the consortium brings together Warner Bros. Entertainment, Fox Entertainment Group, NBC Universal, Sony, Paramount Pictures and Comcast Corp. with retailer Best Buy along with tech giants Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Cisco, Philips, Toshiba and Verisign. (reuters.com)
  • Make an Ecosystem Diorama main content. (amnh.org)
  • The Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society at Oregon State is world renowned for its education, outreach and research in the areas of forest science, natural resources, and tourism, recreation and adventure leadership. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Like natural ecosystems, these knowledge ecosystems have inputs, throughputs and outputs operating in open exchange relationship with their environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel ecosystems are part of the human environment and niche (including urban , suburban , and rural ), they lack natural analogs, and they have extended an influence that has converted more than three-quarters of wild Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technoecosystems interface with natural life-supporting ecosystems in competitive and parasitic ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ecosystem approach to agriculture and natural resource management explicitly identifies opportunities and trade-offs. (fao.org)
  • It relates to ecosystem issues of key relevance to EAF such as: (1) the characteristics of ecosystems, their complexity, structure, functioning, natural variability and boundaries, and (2) their modification and degradation by fisheries and other land- and sea-based economic activities. (fao.org)
  • Your right to be within the natural flow simply means standing in your spiritual strength, thriving within your personal framework and flowing within a diverse and rich Divine Ecosystem. (beliefnet.com)
  • Tansley regarded ecosystems not simply as natural units, but as mental isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • This stunning series of new and detailed maps of African ecosystems that comprises this special supplement was created by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the conservation nongovernmental organization (NGO) NatureServe and with an international team of scientists from most African countries, as well as from North America and Europe. (esri.com)
  • The new maps also will be crucial for a broad range of conservation applications and, in particular, gap analyses to identify unrepresented or underrepresented ecosystems in protected areas. (esri.com)
  • Grants are awarded on a competitive basis to implement the conservation strategy developed in each ecosystem profile. (conservation.org)
  • In other words, Microsoft has bought itself a prime location in the heart of local entrepreneurial ecosystems, gathering intelligence on the latest trends and enhancing its own innovative capabilities. (forbes.com)
  • Both Ecosystem Marketplace and The Katoomba Group are initiatives under Forest Trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • I want to find out about a shrimp's ecosystem, including a food web, and the influence of abiotic factors. (yahoo.com)
  • Working individually, students should write a short poem about the interaction of the biotic and abiotic factors in their mini-ecosystem. (uen.org)
  • Communications between computers and among humans permit knowledge ecosystems to be interactive and responsive within the wider community and within its subsystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel ecosystem is one that has been heavily influenced by humans but is not under human management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an ecosystem. (merlot.org)
  • Although humans exist and operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IBM Watson Ecosystem program is made for ISVs looking to dramatically disrupt and transform an existing market. (ibm.com)
  • The Marketo Accelerate program provides emerging companies with a tailored program to grow their business with Marketo,' said Shai Alfandary , vice president, global head of ISVs and LaunchPoint® ecosystem, Marketo. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Ecosystem Readiness Program is designed to help Independent Hardware Vendors (IHVs), Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), developers, Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) and Original Device Manufacturers (ODMs) achieve compatibility and innovation with Windows 7. (eweek.com)
  • The Research Laboratory: Silicon Valley's Knowledge Ecosystem , in Super-Flexibility for Knowledge Enterprises . (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a part of a business ecosystem provides mechanisms to leverage technology, achieve excellence in research and business competence and compete effectively against other companies. (investopedia.com)
  • This survey is part of a research effort that aims at understanding aspects of the current interconnection agreement ecosystem and how it can evolve in the next years. (google.com)
  • The Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse (IRIT), created in 1990, is a Joint Research Unit (UMR) of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INP), the Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse3 (UT3), the Université Toulouse1 Capitole (UT1) and the Université de Toulouse Jean Jaurès (UT2J). (irit.fr)
  • Long considered a wetland of unparalleled importance, "the Copper River Delta is one of the most productive, beautiful and untamed wetland ecosystems in the world," says Anthony Turrini, director of NWF's Alaska Office. (nwf.org)
  • The idea of a knowledge ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions between entities to improve decision-making and innovation through improved evolutionary networks of collaboration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Agent-Based Approach for Revitalization Strategy of Knowledge Ecosystem J. Phys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ecosystem Review is a lightweight Country Review and implementation framework looking into core challenges of systemic approach. (itu.int)
  • The ecosystem approach to agriculture requires adjustments in institutional and governance arrangements that ensure informed, balanced, transparent and legitimate decision making in relation to trade-offs and stakeholder participation. (fao.org)
  • Ecosystem and the Private Sector TG and Ecosystem Approach TG. (iucn.org)
  • Researchers must ask when, and to what extent, the ecosystem approach can truly replace conventional infrastructure. (nature.com)
  • The fact that such critiques are hard to find in the literature signals how the ecosystem approach is still at an early stage of application in practice. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the ecosystem approach must be assessed and applied in the global south. (nature.com)
  • The new maps show the potential distribution of 126 ecosystem types modeled using a cartographic statistical regression approach based on knowledge of vegetation types and environmental features at more than 32,000 locations. (esri.com)
  • Marcel Mez, Account Manager for Swisscom at Ericsson, says: "By teaming up with Swisscom as the main sponsor of the M2M Challenge we support both the operator and application and parts of the M2M ecosystem. (ericsson.com)
  • The main key to having the stamp collecting ecosystem prosper is to have good communication and coordination between the various components. (bellaonline.com)
  • Access to capital for later stages is a universal issue for most Eastern European startup ecosystems, and startups that have survived long enough usually prefer to look for "smarter" money on the better developed markets. (thenextweb.com)
  • These fintechs have joined Oracle for Start-ups or the Oracle Partner Network to help accelerate their growth and leverage our world-class platforms and ecosystems. (oracle.com)
  • Being able to leverage the Intel brand to scale and reach different industry verticals, ecosystem partners, verticals has been invaluable. (intel.com)
  • Analytics and its benefits can be pervasive, and it takes close collaboration of the ecosystem and its partners to bring today's connected world of Intelligence to life. (sas.com)
  • Learn how our ecosystem of trusted partners can help you make the most of IoE opportunities. (cisco.com)
  • Delivering on the transformative promise of IoT, Intel and its ecosystem of partners offer Intel® IoT Market Ready Solutions and Intel® IoT RFP Ready Kits that achieve real world results today and lay the foundation for a more intelligent tomorrow. (intel.com)
  • Microsoft on Feb. 2 released the Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Ecosystem Readiness Program as part of its effort to prepare its partners for the availability of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. (eweek.com)
  • Launched on Feb. 2, the Ecosystem Readiness Program provides the tools and resources partners need to begin testing their existing applications, devices and systems to ensure compatibility with Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. (eweek.com)
  • To access the Ecosystem Readiness Program, hardware partners can go to http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/Win7_Beta.mspx, and software partners can go to www.msdn.com/windows. (eweek.com)
  • Secondly, hardware and software partners should go to the sites mentioned above to join the Ecosystem Readiness Program and access the resources available to begin testing their applications and devices on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 at their earliest convenience. (eweek.com)
  • To learn more about the Red Hat Cloud ecosystem, visit http://www.redhat.com/solutions/cloud/partners/ . (redhat.com)
  • In contrast to purely directive management efforts that attempt either to manage or direct outcomes, knowledge ecosystems espouse that knowledge strategies should focus more on enabling self-organization in response to changing environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • McAfee embraces an open architecture, giving customers unified workflow management across hundreds of ecosystem vendors. (mcafee.com)
  • Provides single pane of glass management and unified workflows for pre-integrated solutions delivered through the SIA ecosystems. (mcafee.com)
  • While mapping ecosystems is one of the prerequisites of their management, their geographical boundaries are not easy to determine. (fao.org)
  • Contributed Presentations: Forest ecosystem science and monitoring, resource management, and public policy. (uvm.edu)
  • Silvicultural systems for this purpose are being tested in several regions globally and have been the focus of the Vermont Forest Ecosystem Management Demonstration Project (FEMDP), now in its 15th year. (uvm.edu)
  • Classifying ecosystems into ecologically homogeneous units is an important step towards effective ecosystem management, but there is no single, agreed-upon way to do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thierry Hubert, CEO, Darwin Ecosystem, explains how IBM Watson helps with tasks that vary from gleaning insights on personality for HR and recruiting purposes to ensuring correct medical coding. (ibm.com)
  • The Watson Ecosystem is driving innovation. (ibm.com)
  • African scientists developed a new ecosystem classification and provided sample points representing known locations of the newly described ecosystems. (esri.com)
  • U.S.-led scientists have found that an ecosystem below an Antarctic glacier has survived millions of years by using sulfur and iron compounds for growth. (redorbit.com)
  • Co-led by Montana State University Professor John Priscu and Jill Mikucki of Dartmouth College, the scientists said the ecosystem lives without light or oxygen in a pool of brine trapped below Taylor Glacier, next to frozen Lake Bonney in eastern Antarctica. (redorbit.com)
  • The bacteria living on and in us make up our "microbiome," an ecosystem that plays a role, scientists believe, in many conditions that genes and environmental factors alone can't explain, including obesity, autism, depression, asthma, and even cancer. (theweek.com)
  • Through the SIA program, we help accelerate the development of cohesive security solutions, simplify the integration of these products, and provide a truly integrated, connected security ecosystem to maximize the value of existing customer security investments. (mcafee.com)
  • Watch a webinar that highlights the benefits of Hootsuite's powerful ecosystem of over 100 best-of breed apps and integrations. (hootsuite.com)
  • Offering a 360-degree ecosystem, Acer for Education brings together devices and technologies, teaching resources solutions, Academy training, best-in class service and partnership network to meet the requirements of the schools of tomorrow. (acer.com)
  • Driven by people and powered by technology, EY alliance and ecosystem relationships spark true business transformation to build a better working world. (ey.com)
  • The Human Microbiome Project, a government-supported effort to map our bacterial ecosystems, has discovered that people harbor 10 bacterial cells for every human cell. (theweek.com)
  • Known implementation considerations of knowledge ecosystem include the Canadian Government. (wikipedia.org)
  • These anthropogenic biomes include technoecosystems that are fuelled by powerful energy sources (fossil and nuclear) including ecosystems populated with technodiversity, such as roads and unique combinations of soils called technosols . (wikipedia.org)
  • We include these two individuals in our educational count and their importance in the ETF Ecosystem is not unnoticed, but as private companies, their value cannot be a part of the benchmark. (yahoo.com)
  • One reason why many companies have shied away from encouraging an ecosystem around their products is that coordination and control can be difficult. (reuters.com)
  • Are guided by regional investment strategies - known as "ecosystem profiles" - developed with dozens of local stakeholders. (conservation.org)