A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Organisms that live in water.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Activities performed by humans.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
The climate of a very small area.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
The physical measurements of a body.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.
A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (1/10106)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/10106)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (3/10106)

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria. (4/10106)

Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community.  (+info)

Morphological and compositional changes in a planktonic bacterial community in response to enhanced protozoan grazing. (5/10106)

We analyzed changes in bacterioplankton morphology and composition during enhanced protozoan grazing by image analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Enclosure experiments were conducted in a small, fishless freshwater pond which was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The removal of metazooplankton enhanced protozoan grazing pressure and triggered a microbial succession from fast-growing small bacteria to larger grazing-resistant morphotypes. These were mainly different types of filamentous bacteria which correlated in biomass with the population development of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Small bacterial rods and cocci, which showed increased proportion after removal of Daphnia and doubling times of 6 to 11 h, belonged nearly exclusively to the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. The majority of this newly produced bacterial biomass was rapidly consumed by HNF. In contrast, the proportion of bacteria belonging to the gamma and alpha subdivisions of the Proteobacteria increased throughout the experiment. The alpha subdivision consisted mainly of rods that were 3 to 6 microm in length, which probably exceeded the size range of bacteria edible by protozoa. Initially, these organisms accounted for less than 1% of total bacteria, but after 72 h they became the predominant group of the bacterial assemblage. Other types of grazing-resistant, filamentous bacteria were also found within the beta subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. We conclude that the predation regimen is a major structuring force for the bacterial community composition in this system. Protozoan grazing resulted in shifts of the morphological as well as the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblage. Grazing-resistant filamentous bacteria can develop within different phylogenetic groups of bacteria, and formerly underepresented taxa might become a dominant group when protozoan predation is the major selective pressure.  (+info)

Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology. (6/10106)

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities.  (+info)

Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona. (7/10106)

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. (8/10106)

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

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Housing • Urban sustainability • Rural sustainability • The Ecosystem Approach/Ecosystem Services concepts • Bottom-up practices. Semester one covers a variety of topics concerning sustainability and the environment: from issues with the urban, to rural, housing and many more; assignment one provides you with an opportunity to explore one of these topics in more depth.. In this assignment, you are to produce an individual report on one of the themes below:. • Housing. • Urban sustainability. • Rural sustainability. • The Ecosystem Approach/Ecosystem Services concepts. • Bottom-up practices. This should not repeat the lecture material, but should involve a deeper exploration of literature in these areas: providing an overview of current discussions and arguments associated with these areas. You should use journal articles, books and other texts to frame your paper, the universitys Harvard system should be employed throughout (see ...
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems ...
Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal, cultivated, forest and woodlands, inland water bodies, islands, marine, mountains (elevation), polar, and urban. The data set also includes socioeconomic reporting units and the location of regional MA projects. The data were used in a number of different ways in the assessment, contributing to an understanding of how humans have altered ecosystems, how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, and how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades ...
Introduction. The scale, magnitude, and uncertainties permeating the current environmental crisis reveal how human activities have produced drastic environmental changes at the local and global levels, resulting in numerous serious health problems. Due to their very complexity, these problems require a search for alternative approaches that combine socioeconomic and biophysical aspects for better understanding and solutions.. The need to develop these alternative approaches has intensified at the transition from the 20th to the 21st century. The report of the World Resources Institute (WRI) 1 for 2000-2001 illustrates this process, pointing to the need to adopt an ecosystem approach premised on the capacity to contribute to: (1) the combination of diverse types of information that allows a careful weighing of the trade offs among various ecosystem goods and services and among environmental, political, social, and economic goals; (2) developing wiser policies and more effective institutions to ...
We examine the relationships between abundance of grassland nesting songbirds observed in the Boulder Open Space, CO, USA and parameters that described landscape and habitat characteristics, in order to provide information for Boulder Open Space planners and managers. Data sets included bird abundance and plant species composition, collected during three breeding seasons (1994-1996), and landscape composition and configuration measures from a satellite image-derived land-cover map. We used regression quantiles to estimate the limitations imposed on bird abundance by urban encroachment and decreasing areas of grassland cover-types on the landscape, and habitat characteristics within 200 m diameter sample plots. After accounting for the effect of landscape grassland composition on four species (Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)), change in abundance with proportion of urban area
The National Park Services draft discussion paper on ecosystem management recommends, The NPS should reduce the barriers to ecosystem approaches that result from artificially separating cultural and natural resources and strive to replace them with collaborative planning, research, and resource management efforts that reflect the real-world integration of material, human and natural features (National Park Service, 1994, Ecosystem Management in the National Park Service: Discussion Draft. NPS, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.). However, arguments concerning the value of archaeological data to ecosystem management fail to recognize the inherent limitations of traditional archaeological data. These limitations revolve around two central issues. First is that much of the data collected since the inception of cultural resource management some 20 years ago is fragmented, incompatible, and arbitrary. Personally I disagree with the first part of the assertion that, Given the wealth ...
TSUNAGARI aims to build an international network of researchers to link knowledge to action for the sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Asia. The project consists of 4 main objectives: (1) Establishing methodologies to integrate fine-resolution spatial information of ecosystems to broad-scale database; (2) Examining and understanding scale-dependency in the effects of multiple human-induced drivers on the variability in biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services, and in the decision-making processes of biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services used by societies at various levels; (3) Evaluating the importance of ecosystem connectivity (from forest to marine ecosystems) on the variability and changes in biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services, and investigating its effects on interactions among local communities at different sites within a watershed, and on their decision-making; (4) Developing new indicators and models for scenario analysis to achieve sustainable ...
Click to view larger image.. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that describes carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics of plants and soils for terrestrial ecosystems of the globe. The TEM uses spatially referenced information on climate, elevation, soils and vegetation as well as soil- and vegetation-specific parameters to make estimates of important carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and pool sizes of terrestrial ecosystems. The TEM normally operates on a monthly time step and at a 0.5 degrees latitude/longitude spatial resolution, but the model has been applied at finer spatial resolutions (down to 1 hectare).. Improvements in computer resources and the interests of an increasing number of researchers have allowed TEM to evolve over time to better examine the influence of ecosystem processes and human activities on terrestrial biogeochemistry and how changes in this biogeochemistry may feedback to influence atmospheric chemistry, climate, water quantity and ...
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment was finalized and is being published on-line.. Started mid 2009, the assessment led by Robert Watson and Steve Albon, it is the first analysis of the UKs natural environment in terms of the benefits it provides to society and continuing economic prosperity.. The key findings of the assessment were made available on June 2nd (pdf here) while specific technical chapters will be made available through June.. Until then the 87 pages of the synthesis report should keep you busy! Below are some of the main points raised by the assessment:. The authors mention the need to increase food production while at the same time decreasing its negative effects on ecosystem services. In fact, the idea is to harness ecosystem services to actually increase production. This sustainable intensification is what the French call ecological intensification.. ...
Integrated ecosystem assessments (IEA) are a set of approaches for organizing science in order to inform decisions in marine ecosystem assessments at multiple scales and across sectors. IEAs collate and analyse information of a wide range of ecosystem components and pressures. IEAs provide knowledge of the status, changes, relationships, and processes in an ecosystem. Within ICES, several working groups targeting IEA for different geographical areas have been established over the recent years. Despite the ICES IEA WGs being well coordinated, different approaches are being explored and there remains a need for further exchange of methodological expertise and experiences. IEA-Exchange aims to enhance the scientific foundation for an ecosystem approach to management of, in particular, the Norwegian and Barents Seas by transfer of knowledge on methods for IEA from other regions. The intent is a two-way exchange of knowledge so that also the non-Norwegian project members will gain knowledge that can ...
Investing in habitat restoration and ecosystem resiliency projects provides sustainable and lasting benefits that reduce risks posed to coastal communities from extreme weather events, changing environmental conditions, and known or potential climate change impacts. The Coastal Ecosystem Resiliency Grants Program is intended to build the resilience of coastal ecosystems and communities in the U.S. This grant program funds projects that develop healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystems through on-the-ground habitat restoration and conservation.
The ecosystem approach to ocean management presents a major challenge, most notably in terms of perceptions, enactment, and synthesizing the needs and goals of the multiple industry sectors plying their trades within these ecosystems and marine spaces.. International experts assembled at the end of January 2016 in Copenhagen for the AORA-CSA workshop.. ...
Université Côte dAzur is pleased to invite you to the 16th annual meeting and 11th conference of HEPA Europe. The conference is jointly organized with WHO/Europe, in partnership with the City of Nice and the French Society of Public Health. This year, the HEPA Europe conference will focus on An ecosystem approach to health-enhancing physical activity promotion. Conference topics feature a wide range of issues, including policy, active transport, sport, determinants of physical activity, health outcomes, sedentary behavior and many others. ...
RD-8308701-0. A Shallow-water Coastal Habitat Model for Regional Scale Evaluation of Management Decisions in the Chesapeake Region. C. L. Gallegos, D. E. Weller, T. E. Jordan, P. J. Neale, J. P. Megonigal. Overview. Study Systems Stressors of Interest Objectives and Tasks Modeling Approach...
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ...
Concern about degradation of natural resources has led in the ecological community to the concept of ecosystem services. The intent is to identify more fully what environmental economists would refer to as use values of ecosystems, concrete goods and services that have value, albeit perhaps unrecognized, to the market economy, as opposed to non-use values such as the pleasure of knowing that a natural system exists. The ecological community has also coined the term agroecosystems, recognizing that agricultural lands are, albeit modified through management, ecological systems. As such, conventional food and forest products are the products of ecosystems. Biofuels may be another important ecosystem service. Conventional economic analysis can be applied because these are goods that enter markets in the conventional sense. The values of other ecosystem services are not so explicit in economic data. Here we extend an economic model to explicitly represent the recreation value of ecosystems ...
This week International Association of Dredging Companies (IADC) will present an update on Ecosystems Services during a PIANC-Seminar: Ecosystem Goods and Services: Identification, Assessment and Benefits for Navigation Infrastructure Projects. Following a 2-day colloquium (May 5 and 6) on Ecosystem Services ‒ Challenges and opportunities in managing flowing waters of the German Federal Institute of Hydrology, PIANC will organize the seminar May 7 in Koblenz, Germany.. In the morning plenary presentations will be held, focusing on:. ...
Heterotrophic respiration (Rh), microbial processing of soil organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2), is a major, yet highly uncertain, carbon (C) flux from terrestrial systems to the atmosphere. Temperature sensitivity of Rh is often represented with a simple Q10 function in ecosystem models and earth system models (ESMs), sometimes accompanied by an empirical soil moisture modifier. More explicit representation of the effects of soil moisture, substrate supply, and their interactions with temperature has been proposed as a way to disentangle the confounding factors of apparent temperature sensitivity of Rh and improve the performance of ecosystem models and ESMs. The objective of this work was to insert into an ecosystem model a more mechanistic, but still parsimonious, model of environmental factors controlling Rh and evaluate the model performance in terms of soil and ecosystem respiration. The Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model simulates Rh using Michaelis-Menten, Arrhenius, ...
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial
Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that
Marine ecosystems are home to a host of different species ranging from planktonic organisms that form the base of the marine food web to large marine mammals. Many species rely on marine ecosystems for both food and shelter from predators. They are very important to the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. Coastal habitats are those above the spring high tide limit or above the mean water level in non-tidal waters. [2] They are close to the sea and include habitats such as coastal dunes and sandy shores, beaches , cliffs and supralittoral habitats. Coastal habitats alone account for approximately 30% of all marine biological productivity. The diversity and productivity are also important for humans. These habitats provide a rich source of food and income. They also support species that serve as animal feed, fertilizers, additives in food and cosmetics. Habitats such as mangroves and seagrasses protect the coastlines from wave action and erosion. Other areas provide ...
The lack of high-resolution measurements of 3D ecosystem structure across broad spatial extents impedes major advancements in animal ecology and biodiversity science. We aim to fill this gap by using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology to characterize the vertical and horizontal complexity of vegetation and landscapes at high resolution across regional to continental scales. The newly LiDAR-derived 3D ecosystem structures will be applied in species distribution models for breeding birds in forests and marshlands, for insect pollinators in agricultural landscapes, and songbirds at stopover sites during migration. This will allow novel insights into the hierarchical structure of animal-habitat associations, into why animal populations decline, and how they respond to habitat fragmentation and ongoing land use change. The processing of these massive amounts of LiDAR point cloud data will be achieved by developing a generic interactive eScience environment with multi-scale object-based image
Ecosystem Ecology is a lecture/discussion course that focuses on understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes regulating the dynamics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We discuss classic and current topics in ecology that have built our understanding of ecosystem organization and function. The course integrates across disciplines of physiological, microbial, population, and community ecology to understand how and why ecosystems differ in composition, structure, and function, and how ecosystems change over time. Students are expected to have a solid background in biology and ecology. We also expect that students will be able to use general principles of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology as tools to understand ecological processes occurring at the ecosystem level.. The scope of the course includes examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Selected topics for discussion include: ...
Prompt and large scale action is needed to overcome losses of large marine ecosystem (LME) goods and services; to mitigate degradation due to climate change; and to achieve integrated adaptive ecosystem management of LMEs.
As environmental regulatory and management agencies (most notably the Environmental Protection Agency) move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for ecosystem health has become increasingly important. This work is a multidisciplinary collection of perspectives on the concept of health as it relates to ecosystems. The contributors - leading ecologists, philosophers, and economists - analyze the normative, conceptual, and biological issues surrounding the idea of ecosystem health. They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the issues, and look at philosophical and ethical underpinnings as well as implications for public policy and ecosystems management. Ecosystem Health is a groundbreaking attempt to formulate an understanding of the quality and health of natural environments so that regulatory mandates can be brought in line with legislative goals. Ultimately, it seeks a new ethic of sustainability that will serve to protect
Experts Warn Ecosystem Changes Will Continue to Worsen, Putting Global Development Goals At Risk - March 30, 2005 - Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainability for Human Well-Being - Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Media Coverage - Index - Library - GENI - Global Energy Network Institute
PAME has teamed up with the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) to investigate the current state of the Central Arctic Ocean. Together, they are working on an integrated ecosystem assessment of the waters surrounding the North Pole. These waters are mainly outside national jurisdiction. The objective of their joint ICES/PICES/PAME Working Group on Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for the Central Arctic Ocean (WGICA) is to provide scientific advice and to identify the appropriate authorities on issues such as possible future fisheries in the central Arctic Ocean and the ecosystems sensitivity and vulnerability to shipping-related activities (e.g. seabed mining, dumping, and extraction of marine living resources). This work will contribute to the implementation of ecosystem-based management in the Central Arctic Ocean. ...
Healthy ecosystems can reduce the negative impacts of climate change. For instance, coastal habitats like mangroves provide natural flood defences, well-protected lakes retain water sources during droughts, and healthy forests reduce the risk of devastating wildfires. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is an approach that uses these ecosystem services as part of a holistic adaptation strategy. Often through win-win outcomes, EbA protects vulnerable communities from extreme weather while simultaneously providing a variety of benefits so crucial for human well-being, such as clean water and food ...
Decision makers now have a number of options for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ranging from improving energy efficiency and regulating emissions to sequestering carbon in geological reservoirs. While such strategies should be considered as part of a long-term solution, they may take some time to deploy. Ecosystems, meanwhile, can substantially offset human-generated emissions by naturally sequestering carbon, incorporating it through photosynthesis and storing it as organic matter. Ecosystem management therefore represents an effective and immediately available means of partially mitigating climate change.. Management strategies can help limit climate change by 1) accelerating the uptake of carbon into ecosystems and 2) preventing the release of carbon already stored. Current options range from protecting forests to reducing agricultural emissions to boosting carbon uptake above natural capacity. However, since ecosystems are sensitive to environmental change and their function is ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Ecosystem services valuation has achieved considerable prominence in research and policy circles in recent years. This paper reviews the studies that have tried to estimate the value of forest ecosystem services. Broadly, this study addresses the following questions: (1) What insights do these studies provide on the value of forest ecosystems? (2) What lessons do they offer from an economic and policy perspective? (3) What are the shortcomings of the existing studies, and what are the challenges and issues for future research? Evidence from a cross section of forest sites, countries and regions suggests that not only the total valuation of ecosystem services varies widely across studies but also the valuation of individual services. This variation suggests that policies to conserve ecosystems and their services should emphasise local contexts and values. This paper concludes by discussing the shortcomings of existing studies, and suggests that, among other things,
Dealing with grand challenges of the Anthropocene needs rigorous understanding of complex interactions between human and natural systems. Of particular concern is nonlinear dynamics of ecosystem change, which are hard to predict and are often costly for management, most probably impossible to reverse, if crosses the threshold. The mounting concerns about potential regime shifts from local to global scale, and better understanding of potential risks and consequences of such shifts has been identified as an urgent priority among scientists, stakeholders and policymakers.. Freshwater ecosystems, covering about 2.5% of the total water resources of the planet, have become one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. Cumulative effects of multiple drivers acting together at a time on freshwater ecosystems have caused substantial change on food webs, habitat change and ecosystem functions that have direct impacts on peoples livelihoods and well-being. How the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and ...
Thematic Group Leader Willem Ferwerda Thematic Group Co-Leader Simon Moolenaar SC Focal Point Ángela Ándrade In line with IUCNs work plan...
Species-rich semi-natural grassland are valuable habitats in the agricultural landscape as they may contain a high diversity of both plant and animal species, as well as provide essential ecosystem services like pollination. To keep these habitats open and to maintain the biodiversity in them, management like grazing or mowing is necessary. Due to changed agricultural practices many semi-natural grasslands have been lost, e.g. due to secondary succession after abandonment or use of more intense management practices. As limited resources are available for the management and restoration of semi-natural grasslands, research is needed to find the best available management method that maintains biodiversity at a low cost. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to use existing data to compare effects of different management methods and explore their effect on the biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands. More specifically, effects of grazing vs. mowing, different mowing frequencies and different ...
EVS is demonstrating the feasibility of integrating perennial biomass crops into agricultural landscapes to simultaneously produce bioenergy feedstock and commodity crops, while providing multiple ecosystem services.
It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not been examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we compiled data from 169 globally distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem‐level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum temperature) rather than changes in the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. ...
How will biodiversity loss affect ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and human well-being? In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
A sustainable multifunctional agricultural landscape has, beyond its role of providing us with food and fiber, other functions. This can be for example preventing eutrophication and regulating water flows, conservation of biodiversity, suitable habitats for pollinators and natural enemies as well as socio-economic viability for rural areas. These functions and processes, that direct or in direct are beneficial for humans, are what we call ecosystem services.. In this project (partly funded by Region Skåne), we will investigate how different groups of stakeholders perceive and value different ecosystem services produced in agricultural landscapes. Further we will together with stakeholders identify management options and by empirical studies evaluate their impact on multiple ecosystem services. In collaboration with stakeholders we will develop scenarios for future land use and illustrate the link between land use and services with spatially explicit models. The results of this project will be ...
Attempts to address declines in ecosystem services through legislation and policy reform began relatively early on, notably with the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act. More recently EU policies, have driven changes in national policy and legislation, which along with technological developments and changing public and private sector attitudes and behaviours, have led to improvements in some ecosystem services.. Despite improvements, currently over 30% of services are still declining and many others are in a reduced or degraded state and still far below their full potential, with adverse effects on human well-being. A growing population, which will increase the demand for food and other basic services, coupled with human-induced climate change, will continue to place significant pressures on many ecosystems and their services. Responding to declines in ecosystem services will require the adoption of more resilient ways of managing ecosystems, and a better balance between ...
Ecosystem, community, population, species The levels of organization from lowest complexity to highest are: species, population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphere. Since you are asking specifically about the levels of organization in an ecosystem, we leave out the levels of biome and biosphere since they are both more complex than ecosystem. The most inclusive level in an ecosystem is the ecosystem itself. An ecosystem includes all the living organisms and nonliving (abiotic) factors such as air, water, light etc. Community is the next level to discuss - a community in an ecosystem includes all of the living organisms which live in the defined area of the ecosystem. Population is the next least inclusive level - a population includes all the members of one species in a defined area. Finally the least inclusive level is that of a species. This would be one individual member of a species.
As our research focusses on ecosystem services, a concept linking biodiversity and human well-being, we naturally work at the science-society interface. This means collaborating across disciplines and political sectors to facilitate meaningful and participatory knowledge exchange processes. We use experiments and studies at the landscape level, analyses of large databases with multivariate statistics, modelling and geospatial analysis employing geographical information systems (GIS), as well as transdisciplinary workshops, focus groups, interviews and citizen science approaches. Our team is actively involved in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the development of the German Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP-DE). Working with partners from other research institutions, learned societies and NGOs, we are developing a citizen science strategy and citizen science capacities for Germany (GEWISS project) to encourage innovative approaches to science ...
Fig. 1. Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. They include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly affect people, and supporting services needed to maintain the other services. Biodiversity underlies all ecosystem services (source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, http://www.maweb.org//en/Products.Synthesis.aspx).. ...
Both the systematic review and the second-order meta-analysis show that agricultural diversification practices enhance biodiversity and the delivery of several supporting and regulating ecosystem services pivotal to crop yield. Crop and noncrop diversification increased the provisioning of pest control and pollination, respectively (Figs. 1, D and E, and 2), which is in line with global results based on raw primary data (17). Services associated with soil quality, particularly soil fertility and nutrient cycling, responded in a consistent positive manner to several diversification practices, mainly to organic amendment and reduced tillage (Fig. 1), and presenting the smallest variabilities (Figs. 2 and 3). This is likely because these services are largely affected by the soil organic carbon pool, which is typically promoted by diversification measures (2). Our sensitivity analysis revealed that the similar responses of soil services were not merely due to using common indicators or correlations ...
Whats the problem, who pays - and what about the rest of the natural world? Whats the problem? Ecosystem services and Payment for Ecosystem Services have gained in prominence in recent years. The UN The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) and the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA) reports have highlighted the importance of the natural environment to the economy. Ecosystem services are the goods and services which arise from the natural environment. Whilst the value of some ecosystem services can be seen through market transactions, such as for timber or wood for fuel, many are non-market common pool resources or public goods - such as regulation of the climate, maintaining water quality, mitigating flooding and biodiversity. | The Glory of the Garden
Criterion A seeks to identify ecosystem types that are currently declining in extent or may decline in the near future. The minimum data required for application of criterion A are two measures of the distribution of an ecosystem type, taken at different points in time and calibrated to the time scales of Red List of Ecosystems assessments [4,5]. To maximize repeatability of assessments of decline in distribution, assessors should be explicit and clear about what constitutes absence (i.e. local collapse) of the ecosystem type. In other words, how it was decided which areas were no longer occupied by the ecosystem type (e.g. replaced by agriculture, urban expansion or another ecosystem type) should be explicit.. Change in geographical distribution may be inferred from a time series of maps, written accounts or any other reliable data source that provides information on the distribution of an ecosystem type through time (figure 3). Assessors should include relevant maps in their account or provide ...
In a bid to work out a consistent and standard methodology that enhances understanding and capacity of partners for application of ecosystem assessment concepts, tools, and approaches, a regional orientation training on ecosystem services assessment was held from 3-7 April 2014.
Enhancing biodiversity in cropping systems is suggested to promote ecosystem services, thereby reducing dependency on agronomic inputs while maintaining high crop yields. We assess the impact of several diversification practices in cropping systems on above- and belowground biodiversity and ecosyste …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of gross primary productivity derived from GIMMS NDVI3g, GIMMS, and MODIS in Southeast Asia. AU - Wang, Junbang. AU - Dong, Jingwei. AU - Liu, Jiyuan. AU - Huang, Mei. AU - Li, Guicai. AU - Running, Steven W.. AU - Kolby Smith, W.. AU - Harris, Warwick. AU - Saigusa, Nobuko. AU - Kondo, Hiroaki. AU - Liu, Yunfen. AU - Hirano, Takashi. AU - Xiao, Xiangming. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Gross primary production (GPP) plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available, improved, third generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group provides a long temporal dataset, from July 1981 to December 2011, for terrestrial carbon cycle and climate response ...
We are a group of scientists and students from diverse backgrounds with a shared passion for ecology, and for plant communities and forest ecosystems in particular. We study how global environmental changes in climate, land-use (including forest management), biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem trophic structure, and invasions of non-native species affect biodiversity and the structure and function of terrestrial plant communities and forested ecosystems. Our goal is to advance ecological theory and to apply it in improving practices in ecosystem management, restoration, and nature conservation. We are interested in conceptual questions rather than particular plant taxa or ecosystems; consequently, our studies examine diverse plant groups (e.g., trees, herbs, and bryophytes) in varied ecological settings (e.g., temperate conifer and deciduous forests, tropical dry forests, old-fields, and tree-grass ecosystems) and locations (e.g., eastern U.S., Midwest, and the Pacific Northwest; northwestern ...
Select an ecosystem in your area (forest, lake, desert, grassland).. Write a 525- to 700-word paper explaining the following:. 1) Describe the structure of your ecosystem including important abiotic features and dominant plant and animal species. 2) Explain some functions/processes of your ecosystem including one nutrient cycle and one food chain. 3) Give two examples of species interactions (predation, competition, mutualism, etc.) that occur in your ecosystem. 4) Identify an invasive species in your ecosystem. Explain its effects on the ecosystem and efforts to control or eradicate it.. Include two outside references.. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.. I will pay 10.00 including the down payment charge. Please do the paper on desert ecosystem.. ...
... lentic ecosystem) Large marine ecosystem Marine ecosystem Montane ecosystem River ecosystem (lotic ecosystem) Terrestrial ... Leuser Ecosystem Longleaf pine ecosystem Tarangire Ecosystem Tropical salt pond ecosystem Ecosystems grouped by condition: ... Aquatic ecosystem Boreal ecosystem Freshwater ecosystem Groundwater-dependent ecosystems Lake ecosystem ( ... Agroecosystem Closed ecosystem Depauperate ecosystem Novel ecosystem Reference ecosystem Hatcher, Bruce Gordon (1990). "Coral ...
Both Ecosystem Marketplace and The Katoomba Group are initiatives under Forest Trends. Ecosystem Marketplace specializes in ... Ecosystem Marketplace, 2010. Diaz, David, Katherine Hamilton, and Evan Johnson. State of Forest Carbon Markets 2011. Ecosystem ... Ecosystem Marketplace, 2010. General EM Market Insights. Beyond Carbon: Biodiversity and Water Markets. Ecosystem Marketplace, ... Ecosystem Marketplace, 2009. Carroll, Nathaniel and Michael Jenkins. "The Matrix: Mapping Ecosystem Service Markets" (Table), ...
Terrestrial ecosystems differ from aquatic ecosystems by the predominant presence of soil rather than water at the surface and ... Terrestrial ecosystems are ecosystems which are found on land. Examples include tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, ... "terrestrial ecosystem". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2022-06-15. "terrestrial ecosystem". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved ... are also important in some terrestrial ecosystems. Major animal taxa in terrestrial ecosystems include the classes Insecta ( ...
Some examples of ecosystems that are rich in diversity are: Deserts Forests Large marine ecosystems Marine ecosystems Old- ... Ecosystem diversity deals with the variations in ecosystems within a geographical location and its overall impact on human ... Diversity in the ecosystem is significant to human existence for a variety of reasons. Ecosystem diversity boosts the ... It is a variation in the ecosystems found in a region or the variation in ecosystems over the whole planet. Ecological ...
... and much of this article applies to lentic ecosystems in general. Lentic ecosystems can be compared with lotic ecosystems, ... A lake ecosystem or lacustrine ecosystem includes biotic (living) plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (non- ... Lake ecosystems are a prime example of lentic ecosystems (lentic refers to stationary or relatively still freshwater, from the ... Together, these two ecosystems are examples of freshwater ecosystems. Lentic systems are diverse, ranging from a small, ...
River ecosystems are prime examples of lotic ecosystems. Lotic refers to flowing water, from the Latin lotus, meaning washed. ... Lotic ecosystems can be contrasted with lentic ecosystems, which involve relatively still terrestrial waters such as lakes, ... When a species is added or removed from an ecosystem it will have an effect on the remaining food web, the intensity of this ... River ecosystems are part of larger watershed networks or catchments, where smaller headwater streams drain into mid-size ...
The Urban Ecosystem), Dedalo Bari 1978 Ecosystem Human ecosystem Media ecosystem Urban planning Urban ecology Keith, DA; ... In ecology, urban ecosystems are considered a ecosystem functional group within the intensive land-use biome. They are ... The IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology 2.0: Descriptive profiles for biomes and ecosystem functional groups. Gland, Switzerland: ... Urbanization has large impacts on human and environmental health, and the study of urban ecosystems has led to proposals for ...
An entrepreneurial ecosystems or entrepreneurship ecosystems are peculiar systems of interdependent actors and relations ... There are several key conditions that typically define a healthy ecosystem. The ecosystem: is tailored around its own unique ... University-based entrepreneurship ecosystem - Entrepreneurship thrives in ecosystems in which multiple stakeholders play key ... This network is described as the entrepreneurship ecosystem. The Babson College Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project then ...
In ecosystems, gaining support and approval of the other members and legitimacy matters, as the very concept of an ecosystem is ... In many platform ecosystems there are switching costs that make it difficult or costly to change ecosystems. Platforms and ... Platform, ecosystem, and particularly "platform ecosystem" is a disputed term in information systems, organizational management ... The word "ecosystem" comes from biology and is a contraction of "ecological system"; it refers to a system in which entities ...
Media ecosystem Urban ecosystem Total human ecosystem (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Human ecosystems are human-dominated ecosystems of the anthropocene era that are viewed as complex cybernetic systems by ... A human ecosystem has three central organizing concepts: human environed unit (an individual or group of individuals), ... Anthropology, Ecosystems, Environmental sociology, Social systems concepts, Systems biology). ...
Like natural ecosystems, these knowledge ecosystems have inputs, throughputs and outputs operating in open exchange ... 2005). Chapter 7: Towards an Integrated Knowledge Ecosystem: A Research Strategy in Towards an Integrated Knowledge Ecosystem: ... Manzalini, A. Stavdas, A. (2008) [1] Collective intelligence Digital ecosystem Distributed cognition Ecosemiotics Ecosystem ... Knowledge ecosystems operate on two types of technology cores - one involving content or substantive industry knowledge, and ...
These ecosystems are commonly known as taiga and are located in parts of North America, Europe, and Asia. The ecosystems that ... The boreal ecosystem in Canada is one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the world. Moreover, these boreal ecosystems in ... A boreal ecosystem is an ecosystem with a subarctic climate located in the Northern Hemisphere, approximately between 50° to 70 ... In boreal ecosystems, carbon cycling is a major producer of ecosystem services especially timber production and climate ...
The Apple ecosystem is a term used to describe Apple Inc.'s digital ecosystem of products, including the iPhone, iPad, Apple ... Description apples ecosystem is actually less better than samsungs ecosystem function together with and take advantage of each ... Digital ecosystem Epic Games v. Apple Facebook#Phone data and activity "The Apple Ecosystem". AppleMagazine. 2018-03-14. ... Also, it is not easy to switch from the ecosystem once users have immersed themselves into it, as it is designed to keep users ...
Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystem, grassland ecosystems, and aquatic ecosystems. These ... Estuarine and coastal ecosystems are both marine ecosystems. Together, these ecosystems perform the four categories of ... See also: Biodiversity#Ecosystem services. Estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems are both marine ecosystems. Together, these ... Per the 2006 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), ecosystem services are "the benefits people obtain from ecosystems". The MA ...
Developer ecosystems are similar to software ecosystems. Many software platform producers are currently attempting to create ... A developer ecosystem is a set of software developers functioning as a unit and interacting with a shared market for software ... Slinger Jansen (2015). Opening the Ecosystem Flood Gates: Architecture Challenges of Opening Interfaces within a Product ... developer ecosystems, by mobilizing developers from other organizations to create extensions to those platforms. Examples of ...
... and values of ecosystems and ecosystem services. Due to these complexities, effective ecosystem management is flexible and ... This method to managing ecosystems can be seen by the U.S. Forest Service's shift away from sustaining ecosystem health and ... Ecosystem Services Working Group (2007). Ecosystem services and Australian natural resource management (NRM) futures: Paper to ... The condition of each resource in an ecosystem is subject to change at different spatial and time scales, and ecosystem ...
Classifying start-up ecosystems into structurally similar units is an important step towards effective ecosystem managing. ... Internal factors act as feedback loops inside any particular startup ecosystem. They not only control ecosystem processes, but ... Several researchers have created lists of essential internal attributes for startup ecosystems. Spigel suggests that ecosystems ... control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the way things work within it. Start-up ecosystems are dynamic entities that ...
An ecosystem model is an abstract, usually mathematical, representation of an ecological system (ranging in scale from an ... The number of ecosystem components that are incorporated into the model is limited by aggregating similar processes and ... 2001). Ecosystem approaches to landscape management in Central Europe. Springer. pp. 586-587. ISBN 978-3-540-67267-8. Ball, ... Conway's Game of Life and its variations model ecosystems where proximity of the members of a population are factors in ...
... and therefore the whole ecosystem, in a constant manner. To control these variables, the vertical ecosystem implements a system ... temperature and humidity are controlled by automated systems in interior vertical ecosystems. Ecosystems that are situated ... A vertical ecosystem is an architectural gardening system developed by Ignacio Solano from the mur vegetal created by Patrick ... Vertical ecosystems aim to prolong the life of planted species and bring the benefits of a traditional vertical garden, ...
The concept ecosystem in economy and business stems from the ecosystem concept in ecology. Some environmentalists, however, ... Moore defined "business ecosystem" as: An economic community supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and ... Those companies holding leadership roles may change over time, but the function of ecosystem leader is valued by the community ... Starting in the early 1990s, James F. Moore originated the strategic planning concept of a business ecosystem, now widely ...
A corporate ecosystem is a collection of organizations that are interdependent to form a complete solution or industry. The ...
A reference ecosystem, also known as an ecological reference, is a "community of organisms able to act as a model or benchmark ... Multiple reference ecosystems may be pieced together to form the model upon which an ecological restoration project may be ... Reference ecosystems are ideally complete with natural flora, fauna, abiotic elements, and ecological functions, processes, and ... "Reference Concepts in Ecosystem Restoration and Environmental Benefits Analysis (EBA): Principles and Practices" (PDF). Defense ...
Marine ecosystems are the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems and exist in waters that have a high salt content. These ... Marine ecosystems are important sources of ecosystem services and food and jobs for significant portions of the global ... Human uses of marine ecosystems and pollution in marine ecosystems are significantly threats to the stability of these ... Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems. Marine ecosystems can be divided into many zones depending upon water ...
The Leuser Ecosystem is an area of forest located in the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra on the island of Sumatra in ... "Aceh's Leuser Ecosystem pays a high price for the peace dividend". smh.com.au. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2016-05-30. "The Leuser ... The ecosystem stretches from the coast of the Indian Ocean to the Malacca Straits. It encompasses two vast mountain ranges ... In general the ecosystem can be characterised as a montane rainforest community. However, the typical vegetation type up to an ...
European workshop on software ecosystems International workshop on software ecosystems Workshop on Ecosystem Architectures v t ... the Ruby ecosystem). The ecosystem metaphor is used in order to denote an analysis which takes into account multiple software ... Profit from Software Ecosystems: Business Models, Ecosystems and Partnerships in the Software Industry. Norderstedt, Germany: ... Software Ecosystem is a book written by David G. Messerschmitt and Clemens Szyperski that explains the essence and effects of a ...
The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater ecosystems may be lentic ( ... An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem formed by surrounding a body of water, in contrast to land-based terrestrial ecosystems. ... A marine coastal ecosystem is a marine ecosystem which occurs where the land meets the ocean. Marine coastal ecosystems include ... Together, these two ecosystems are examples of freshwater ecosystems. River ecosystems are flowing waters that drain the ...
Their ecosystem consists of two networks, the internal ecosystem and the external ecosystem. The former consists of project ... Education Ecosystem is a decentralized learning ecosystem for online education and professional development that intends to ... Education Ecosystem (LEDU) is a project-based learning platform that teaches its users how to build products in areas such as ... In 2018, Education Ecosystem announced that it has raised 10 million and Chris Ji joined as advisor to the board. "LiveEdu ...
A data ecosystem often consists of numerous data assemblages. Research into data ecosystems has developed in response to the ... A data ecosystem contains numerous data assemblages, as each actor within the system have their own sets of tangible and non- ... A data ecosystem also comprises data providers and consumers, who as their titles denote, provide and consume the data through ... As mentioned, data ecosystems can span across sectors, for example, a client's medical data is shared with an insurance company ...
"Ecosystem engineer". Chapman, Colin A; et al. (2013). "Are primates ecosystem engineers?". International Journal of Primatology ... There's also an argument to say that the ubiquity of ecosystem engineers translates to all species being ecosystem engineers. ... Biodiversity may also be affected by ecosystem engineer's ability to increase the complexity of processes within an ecosystem, ... "An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species richness at the landscape scale". Ecosystems Ecology. 132 (1): 96-101. ...
... is an economic process which assigns a value (either monetary, biophysical, or other) to an ecosystem and/ ... Altruistic value based on the welfare the ecosystem may give other people. Bequest value based on the welfare the ecosystem may ... Some even suggest that valuation of ecosystem services is more cogent than financial valuation, as the ecosystem would continue ... The World Bank explains that these values are "derived from ecosystem services that provide benefits outside the ecosystem ...
The goal of this workshop is to develop a framework for using ENSO forecasts to predict changes in the marine ecosystem off of ... The US West Coast eastern boundary upwelling system supports one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world and is a ... Surprisingly, this aspect of the predictability of ENSO has not been exploited in real-time ecosystem forecasts, so the time is ... The workshop will bring together (a) biologists with expertise in ecosystem responses to physical climate forcing, and (b) ...
Five startups at the 8th MIT Pan Arab Conference in Kuwait consider ecosystem problems and potential solutions. ... While Im sure that Arab ecosystems will mature with experience in time, I still believe we suffer in the region because the ... Regardless of where you are or what the startup ecosystem is like, it is the responsibility of an entrepreneur to reinvent ... In order to increase investment in the North African startup ecosystem, we have to find the crossroads where these two ...
Ecosystems are made up of living organisms and their physical environment. People, animals, and local environments are all part ... of an ecosystem. Harmful algae and cyanobacteria are a One Health issue and can affect ecosystems in many ways. ...
Aniakchak Caldera is a raw and rugged volcanic feature located in a landscape that is, because of its remoteness, little affected by human occupancy. Plant and animal communities are in tune with the natural phenomena that control their habitat. Volcanic activity has subsided since the last eruption in 1931, but the geologic processes that follow such activity continue to weather, erode, and redistribute the volcanic materials. Hot spots and warm springs on the caldera floor indicate that eruptive activity may resume at any time ...
Explore helpful third-party plug-ins, devices and content for Final Cut Pro, including, books, web tutorials, supported devices, and more.
Discover Heliums rich ecosystem of hardware and software solutions that use and support The Peoples Network. ... Experiential Education Ecosystem A global IoT education initiative in 40+ schools around the globe. ...
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... An open analytics platform extends open source technologies with governance and scalability. ...
Marc Benioff wants us all to believe that Salesforce.coms Apex platform and AppExchange ecosystem will soon be as popular on ... The service platform ecosystem: This is a more traditional ecosystem play, in which a software infrastructure vendor helps ... era for that kind of ecosystem, but its just one of a number of different flavors of ecosystem that vendors and users will ... The utility computing ecosystem: Amazon Web Services is the best example of a provider that offers raw computing as a service. ...
... * 1. The European Startup Ecosystem April 2017 CONFIDENTIAL © Cachette Capital ... 5. EU Ecosystem Is Geographically Diffuse CONFIDENTIAL © Cachette Capital Management 2017 ● Not just London, Paris and Berlin ... 10. EU Startup Market Primed for Investment CONFIDENTIAL © Cachette Capital Management 2017 ● Because Europes ecosystem lags ... 6. EUs Startup Ecosystem Differs from the USAs CONFIDENTIAL © Cachette Capital Management 2017 ● Fragmented: Various ...
Purpose-Ecosystem standards.. (1) It is the purpose of chapter 163, Laws of 1996 that all state agricultural lands, grazing ... 4) The ecosystem standards are to be achieved by applying appropriate land management practices on riparian lands and on the ... 2) The ecosystem standards developed under chapter 4, Laws of 1993 sp. sess. for state-owned agricultural and grazing lands are ... ecosystem standards remain in effect, they shall be applied through a collaborative process that incorporates the following ...
Below is an overview of the current stakeholders listed across all sheets (bottom tabs) of this spreadsheet. It does not yet include all listings on dcstakeholders.coop/explore. This Overview does not sync data with each columns corresponding sheet, and is merely to show the current scope in one place. Any details beyond Name should be added to the appropriate sheet ...
You will build an ecosystem in the shape of a circle with the sun at its core. Layer the kids around the ecosystem as you build ... Part 2 - Building an Ecosystem. As a fun way to reinforce their new-found ecosystem knowledge, go outside and do the following ... Figure 1. Illustration of Craters ecosystem without plants and animals. Figure 2. Illustration of Craters ecosystem with only ... and desert ecosystems). An aquarium or a cave could even be described in ecosystem terms. ...
Using ecosystem risk assessment science in ecosystem restoration Recent global initiatives in ecosystem restoration offer an ... Ecosystem Restoration. Supporting ecosystem restoration helps improve environmental condition, reverse ecosystem degradation, ... Read more about Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Ecosystem-based mitigation.. ​ Read more about Disaster risk reduction. ​ Read ... Managing ecosystems Addressing ecosystem management means addressing complex systems. For this IUCN deploys a variety of tools ...
We as a chemical company are dependent on ecosystem services and also have an impact on them, include for examples the ... Biodiversity and Ecosystems Biodiversity is the foundation for numerous ecosystem services, for example air quality, climate, ... We as a chemical company are dependent on ecosystem services and also have an impact on them, include for examples the ... Forests do not only hold the majority of the worlds terrestrial biodiversity but provide crucial ecosystem services as they ...
Hawlena thinks that the ecosystem is likely to be changed in two ways by frightened grasshoppers. First, they eat more ... Hawlena says that this phenomenon may help ecologists to understand previously unexplained ecosystem changes, and could move ... or whether the effect is too small and is swamped by all the other convoluted causal factors in ecosystems. ... but also for the ecosystems they live in. ... How stress shapes ecosystems. *Emma Marris Nature (2010)Cite ...
This Sustainability Ecosystem initiative is powered by the John Molson Executive Centre. ... Contact us to find out how you can collaborate and create synergies with the Sustainability Ecosystem. ... content/concordia/en/jmsb/executive-education/expertise/governance-sustainable-business-practices/sustainability-ecosystem.html ...
... and one can see too many developers are now flocking over the different digital currency based ecosystems. ... It helps connect with the central development ecosystem that works all over the global developers to build the blockchain ... Sticking to Google protocols, we see this ecosystem supporting several language-based extensions. ... we also have to talk about innovation and specific new ecosystems that are constantly developing in the recent past. Both the ...
has joined the Anterix Active Ecosystem Program to help advance private long-term evolution (LTE) broadband deployments in the ... Home » Keysight Joins Anterix Active Ecosystem Program. Industry News Keysight Joins Anterix Active Ecosystem Program. December ... "A vibrant technology ecosystem includes more than a modern communications network and cutting-edge end-user applications and ... has joined the Anterix Active Ecosystem Program to help advance private long-term evolution (LTE) broadband deployments in the ...
A fully functioning safety ecosystem is made up of key components that play critical roles in fire, life and electrical safety ... When they work together, the Ecosystem protects everyone. If any component is missing or broken, the Ecosystem can collapse, ... Health of the Ecosystem. Tragic incidents worldwide continue to underscore the need to prioritize fire and life safety in ... Ecosystem Watch - NFPA Journal outlines recent success and failures. *Burn Treatment - Deadly hospital fires are frequent ...
Explore Oracles Fintech Ecosystem catalog and discover the many ways we can help you solve your next challenge. ... API Platform and Digital Ecosystem for Finance. Hydrogen Atom by Hydrogen allows enterprise-grade financial institutions to ... It also provides exposure to the rich fintech and Oracle Appications ecosystem. ...
The páramo ecosystem in Colombias Chingaza National Park. 2 of 7 I was on a day trip out of Bogotá organized by local tourism ... The páramo ecosystem in Colombias Chingaza National Park. 1 of 7 High up in the Andes is a beautiful and unusual shrubby ... The páramo ecosystem in Colombias Chingaza National Park. 3 of 7 The cyclists thinned out once they reached a string of garden ... The páramo ecosystem in Colombias Chingaza National Park. 7 of 7 After a muddy five-mile hike with incredible cloud forest ...
Simulated deep-sea mining affects ecosystem functions at the seafloor Deep-sea mining-related disturbances have a long-term ... As a result, they lose one of their key functions for the ecosystem. Microbial communities and their functions could thus be ... The damage to be expected is correspondingly greater, and it would be correspondingly more difficult for the ecosystem to ... Simulated deep-sea mining affects ecosystem functions at the seafloor. Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology ...
This report helps B2C marketers learn how to leverage their ecosystem of partners to embed loyalty across their marketing ...
For example, when used in conjunction with KOMPLETE KONTROL SERIES keyboards, they can fully harness the power of the Light Guide, allowing instant visual references for pattern-triggering, split key ranges, thousands of special articulations (such as muted brass notes or guitar slides), and step-sequencing ...
In an interview with Ecosystem Marketplace he said those activities would include the purchase of REDD offsets voluntarily ... Steve Zwick is Managing Editor of Ecosystem Marketplace. He can be reached at [email protected]. ...
Kenya to adopt space technology for wildlife and ecosystems conservation 28/06/2016 ...
The need for an ecosystems approach to urban areas, particularly in relation to conservation efforts, is discussed. Reviewing ... The need for an ecosystems approach to urban areas, particularly in relation to conservation efforts, is discussed. Reviewing ... The Field Museum that applies an ecosystems approach to ecological and anthropological research, conservation planning, and ... The Field Museum that applies an ecosystems approach to ecological and anthropological research, conservation planning, and ...
  • Recent global initiatives in ecosystem restoration offer an unprecedented opportunity to improve biodiversity conservation and human health and well-being. (iucn.org)
  • Mahogany grows in tropical ecosystems where a large number of tree species grow per hectare and species-level biodiversity is abundant. (fao.org)
  • Today, we're happy to share the State of Developer Ecosystem 2022 report! (jetbrains.com)
  • Climate, ecosystem resilience and the slave trade ," CEPR Discussion Papers 9449, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. (repec.org)
  • Climate, ecosystem resilience and the slave trade ," MPRA Paper 38398, University Library of Munich, Germany. (repec.org)
  • Climate, ecosystem resilience and the slave trade ," Working Papers 13036, Economic History Society. (repec.org)
  • Climate, ecosystem resilience and the slave trade ," CSAE Working Paper Series 2012-23, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford. (repec.org)
  • Selective use of the best mahogany trees, not only directly affects the resilience of the species in tropical ecosystems, it also presents a risk of genetic diversity erosion in natural stands, and a hazard for its natural regeneration, due to the elimination of the best seed producers. (fao.org)
  • The project's objective is to spearhead integrated natural resource management of Baikal Lake Basin and Hövsgöl Lake ensuring ecosystem resilience, reduced water quality threats in the context of sustainable economic development. (iwlearn.net)
  • We think about community resilience like an ecosystem. (cdc.gov)
  • The 2020 report examines the year's most notable ecosystem failures, successes, and lessons learned and serves as a valuable asset for informing policymakers, authorities having jurisdiction, and others on what decisions to make for a safer future. (nfpa.org)
  • This 2020 report takes a look at the year's most notable ecosystem failures, successes, and lessons learned. (nfpa.org)
  • Long-term historical observations of physical and biological variables in this region have been collected since the 1950s, leading to an excellent foundation for understanding the ecosystem impacts of dominant climate fluctuations such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). (usclivar.org)
  • ENSO forecasting has become routine in the climate community, however, little has been done to forecast the impacts of ENSO on ecosystems and their services. (usclivar.org)
  • The findings and recommendations will be disseminated to the wider scientific community in a review/white paper on the predictability of climate impacts on ecosystems with a case study for the California Current System. (usclivar.org)
  • ABSTRACT The use of water has always been vital for human survival, but with its actions, impacts on ecosystems have emerged, compromising quality. (bvsalud.org)
  • The US West Coast eastern boundary upwelling system supports one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world and is a primary source of ecosystem services for the US (e.g., fishing, shipping, and recreation). (usclivar.org)
  • However, despite empirical observations and understanding of the coupling between climate and marine ecosystems along the US West Coast, there has been no systematic attempt to use this knowledge to forecast marine ecosystem responses to individual ENSO events. (usclivar.org)
  • The Keys' Reef Environmental Education Foundation , whose mission is to conserve marine ecosystems, partnered with the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the dive community to create awareness about the importance of capturing and removing lionfish from Keys waters. (fla-keys.com)
  • Do you think that there is a fear of investing in the small startup ecosystems in the Gulf? (entrepreneur.com)
  • There is no one hero that will make it work, I believe that it is our collective responsibility to build and strengthen Arab startup ecosystems. (entrepreneur.com)
  • StartupBlink ranks the startup ecosystems of 100 countries and 1,000 cities. (startupblink.com)
  • For this IUCN deploys a variety of tools and strategies, addresses information gaps and capacity needs in terms of sustainable management, and tackles conservation and restoration of ecosystems with the aim of achieving sustainable and resilient development. (iucn.org)
  • Supporting ecosystem restoration helps improve environmental condition, reverse ecosystem degradation, enhance adaptation to climate change and improve human wellbeing. (iucn.org)
  • We offer in depth ecological understanding, integrated with physical processes, as needed for developing sustainable coastal defence and successful ecosystem restoration. (nioz.nl)
  • I am a post-doctoral Research Fellow in Restoration Genomics and my role involves the use of DNA-based assessments to better understand how soil microbial communities may be indicating and possibly facilitating the progress of post-disturbance restoration and recovery of biodiverse ecosystems. (azomining.com)
  • Such post-mining ecosystem restoration also forms part of the social license to operate. (azomining.com)
  • OVERVIEW Effective ecosystem restoration decision making requires analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative actions. (dtic.mil)
  • The digital currency market will run over in 2021, and one can see too many developers are now flocking over the different digital currency based ecosystems. (meritline.com)
  • By examining the events outlined in the 2021 Year in Review report, communities can see the fault lines that enabled each calamity and use the examples to help address fractures in their own fire and life safety ecosystems to create safer areas to live. (nfpa.org)
  • Launched in May 2021 the Anterix Active Ecosystem Program is a diverse group of over 65 innovators bringing technology, equipment and services to support utilities and critical infrastructure companies deploying and operating private LTE networks in the 900 MHz band. (microwavejournal.com)
  • The Field Museum that applies an ecosystems approach to ecological and anthropological research, conservation planning, and environmental action. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • The need for an ecosystems approach to urban areas, particularly in relation to conservation efforts, is discussed. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Display illustrations of non-living, living, and the whole ecosystem. (nps.gov)
  • The solution must involve a whole ecosystem involving the government, patients, providers, payors, and technology in dynamic interaction which enables all to function to their full potential. (technologyreview.com)
  • In addition to robust technology integration inside the platform itself, elements like long-term stability, prescriptive technical integration interfaces and commercial offerings for partners and customers are key ingredients for a successful ecosystem and for creating a healthy network effect designed to benefit ecosystem participants. (redhat.com)
  • The Red List of Ecosystems methodology helps evaluate the risk of ecosystems to collapse. (iucn.org)
  • If any component is missing or broken, the Ecosystem can collapse, often resulting in tragedy. (nfpa.org)
  • A recent academic study about signals of ecosystem collapse throughout history fits the space suit analogy. (dissidentvoice.org)
  • It does not seem possible that ecosystems collapse and life dies off. (dissidentvoice.org)
  • But continuing to remove them threatens a collapse in ecosystem functioning. (dissidentvoice.org)
  • Ecosystems are critically important components of Earth's biological diversity and as the natural capital that sustains human life and well-being. (iucn.org)
  • Earth's ecosystems support all life, though collapsed ecosystems would be like stepping outside of the international space station not wearing a space suit. (dissidentvoice.org)
  • As all businesses become increasingly more dependent on these social insights, the Mexican ecosystem continues to grow to serve their needs. (twitter.com)
  • Need more insights about the local ecosystem? (startupblink.com)
  • This result is strongest where African ecosystems are least resilient to climate change. (repec.org)
  • Our Master´s programme in Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science offers a deeper knowledge in working with advanced technical information and complex issues within the area of environmental and climate change. (lu.se)
  • [todo: rephrase intro, develop texts and link to correct pages] The well-being of people all over the world depends on healthy ecosystems to provide goods, like food and water, and services like climate regulation and protection from natural hazards. (iucn.org)
  • Votre compte Red Hat vous permet d'accéder à votre profil, à vos préférences et à d'autres services en fonction de votre statut client. (redhat.com)
  • Forest Trends works to promote investments, markets as well as other payment and incentive mechanisms for a broad range of ecosystem systems and services. (forest-trends.org)
  • Ecosystem services , defined as benefits to humans freely provided by our ecosystem, are foundational to our way of living. (ogallalacommons.org)
  • This being the case, we also have the potential to shape the world by our activities and habits, in turn, affecting our ecosystem and its capability of producing the services we need. (ogallalacommons.org)
  • For persons born and raised in a particular environment, these cultural ecosystem services may even provide us with a sense of place making the responsible stewardship of these resources all the more personal. (ogallalacommons.org)
  • However, for those of us that live and work in the Southern High Plains of Texas, we know it may take a more familiar eye to recognize the importance of the ecosystem services that are available to us here. (ogallalacommons.org)
  • The ecosystem services that we are provided are not inexhaustible, and sustainable use of these services will be rewarded in present and future generations. (ogallalacommons.org)
  • Tipping points - a concept that has become widely applied in relation to social behaviour, the climate system, ecosystems, and more recently, natural capital and ecosystem services, and socio-ecological systems. (valuing-nature.net)
  • But what exactly are tipping points and other abrupt changes, in particular in ecosystems and their services, and their relevance to societies and economies? (valuing-nature.net)
  • This report seeks to provide the readers with an introduction to the 'tipping point', as it relates to the climate system, ecosystems, and socio-ecological systems, with examples of tipping points in ecosystems and their services, and how evidence on tipping points and other forms of abrupt ecosystem change can be applied to policy and practice. (valuing-nature.net)
  • Tipping points are a growing threat to socio-ecological systems, as societies will find it extremely difficult to adapt to abrupt and potentially irreversible shifts in the functioning and character of ecosystems and the related ecosystem services on which they depend. (valuing-nature.net)
  • By joining, you do not only get access to the ecosystem of services provided by PrepayWay and other participants, but we also give you a chance to get actively involved and contribute your ideas, talent, and passion to drive higher levels of growth. (prepayway.com)
  • We have also established the International Smart Mediation and Arbitration Institute, an integral part of PrepayWay Blockchain Ecosystem that provides alternative dispute resolution services adapted for smart contracts. (prepayway.com)
  • ShonaquipSE builds well-functioning ecosystems that effect systemic change and empowerment for social inclusion through capacity building, advocacy and services. (who.int)
  • China's app ecosystem is somewhat of a maze for people who aren't familiar with the way it works. (thenextweb.com)
  • Five startups from the 8th MIT Arab Conference, from across the Arab world, discuss the biggest obstacles that young Arab entrepreneurs face in their ecosystems. (entrepreneur.com)
  • But a peek beneath the surface reveals a rich, blooming ecosystem of tech startups covering every possible angle of education, from individual learning styles and special needs to student response systems and professional development for teachers. (vator.tv)
  • 4) The ecosystem standards are to be achieved by applying appropriate land management practices on riparian lands and on the uplands in order to reach the desired ecological conditions. (wa.gov)
  • however, if we want to attract developers, we also have to talk about innovation and specific new ecosystems that are constantly developing in the recent past. (meritline.com)
  • Instead, it means embracing an ecosystem that encourages collaboration and innovation and which makes our IP accessible to a broad audience of potential new customers. (quicklogic.com)
  • Alongside this week's product announcements at Red Hat Summit 2019, Red Hat delivers yet another major milestone in building an open hybrid cloud ecosystem with new certification offerings, a new approach to RHEL-based container images, better tools for Red Hat and partners to support customers as well as addressing the need for application portability. (redhat.com)
  • Dell ( News - Alert ) is launching the Dell Cloud Partner Program to deliver public cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) through an ecosystem of partners. (tmcnet.com)
  • With the NetApp ONTAP ecosystem you can achieve operational efficiency across your entire ecosystem, from edge, to core, to hybrid cloud. (netapp.com)
  • With Simplicity365 and the ONTAP ecosystem, NetApp's goal is to lighten the load for IT operations teams by delivering operational efficiency for edge, core and hybrid cloud deployments. (netapp.com)
  • NEW YORK , Jan. 25, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Injective, a blockchain specifically designed for building financial applications, today announced a new $150 million ecosystem initiative to further accelerate the adoption of interoperable infrastructure and DeFi. (wfla.com)
  • Only a high level of integration can ensure that a health care ecosystem will be sustainable. (technologyreview.com)
  • Hawlena says that this phenomenon may help ecologists to understand previously unexplained ecosystem changes, and could move ecology closer towards being a fully predictive science. (nature.com)
  • That is why Ping An's health care ecosystem strategy-and the role of its 12 distinct entities in the sector-are built on this holistic online and offline approach. (technologyreview.com)
  • Recreational lionfish roundups provide divers a chance to earn prizes, sample the tasty edible fish and help preserve reef ecosystems. (fla-keys.com)
  • This Sustainability Ecosystem initiative is powered by the John Molson Executive Centre . (concordia.ca)
  • Forested ecosystems, mountainous terrains, and coastal wetlands are some of the landscapes that may come to mind as the embodiment of all things natural and aesthetically pleasing. (ogallalacommons.org)
  • For example, 1.02 billion tons of carbon dioxide are being released annually from degraded coastal ecosystems, equivalent to 19% of emissions from tropical deforestation globally. (reefresilience.org)
  • This new ecosystem initiative is backed by a consortium of leading firms in Web3, including Pantera Capital, Kraken Ventures, Jump Crypto , Kucoin Ventures, Delphi Labs, Flow Traders, Gate Labs and IDG Capital. (wfla.com)
  • Since expanding our operations in with the launch of our office in Mexico City this past July, we wanted to highlight the rich analytics ecosystem rapidly growing with us. (twitter.com)
  • Marketers: Leverage Your Agency Ecosystem To Take. (forrester.com)
  • This report helps B2C marketers learn how to leverage their ecosystem of partners to embed loyalty across their marketing strategy. (forrester.com)
  • Companies that are seeking to integrate blockchain into existing business functions can leverage our ecosystem to generate value. (prepayway.com)
  • Tell the students that you're going to build an ecosystem with humans playing the different parts. (nps.gov)
  • 2) The ecosystem standards developed under chapter 4, Laws of 1993 sp. (wa.gov)
  • Device makers, ecosystem vendors, and component technology suppliers are working together to drive the industry forward and the result of that common pursuit is a jaw-dropping collection of products that are either already available or on the immediate horizon. (silabs.com)
  • Open source technologies can provide layers of abstraction and offer an ecosystem worth investing in for customers and vendors alike. (redhat.com)
  • It describes a walled-in ecosystem, in which every participant is dependent on the underlying proprietary platform. (zdnet.com)
  • Every solution developed by PrepayWay or any other Ecosystem participant smoothly integrates some or all of the core elements of the Ecosystem to boost business processes. (prepayway.com)
  • It asks a series of yes or no questions on the policies, practices, and resources that support each of the eight components of the Fire & Life Safety Ecosystem, delivering a score of green (excellent), yellow (good), fair (orange), or red (poor) along with a downloadable report. (nfpa.org)
  • Download our latest Global Ecosystem Report . (startupblink.com)
  • The report analyses the potential impact of a transition towards Open Science on the stakeholders of the research ecosystem. (bvsalud.org)
  • An ecosystem like the one that grew up around Microsoft Windows created a virtual monopoly which, while it created opportunities for some ISVs, sounded a death knell for others when Microsoft decided to create competitive products of its own that ran on its platform. (zdnet.com)
  • Utilizing our knowledge and creativity to bring Creative Ecosystems to life has reaffirmed our team's commitment to the power of deep collaboration. (webbyawards.com)
  • Craig Liddicoat from Flinders University speaks to AZoMining about his team's work on effective rehabilitation in post-mining ecosystems and whether it can set up a predictable trajectory of recovery. (azomining.com)
  • We need to ensure that all stakeholders in the ecosystem including entrepreneurs, investors, policymakers, incubators etc. are playing their roles correctly. (entrepreneur.com)
  • By working together, all these stakeholders can build a strong and trustworthy ecosystem for everyone. (entrepreneur.com)
  • In order to increase investment in the North African startup ecosystem, we have to find the crossroads where these two stakeholders can meet . (entrepreneur.com)
  • About 80 inches of rain fall per year in this ecosystem that shelters many rare and endangered species, such as the mountain taper, poison dart frogs, the spectacled bear and the Colombian lightbulb lizard. (inhabitat.com)
  • The same fingers are pointing to food stress related to an ecosystem-wide change," he says. (newscientist.com)
  • The ecosystems aim to a) change perceptions of disabilities b) increase access & appropriateness of assistive technology (AT) delivered by confident & competent therapists c) increase the number of children participating in play & learning d) mobilize parents to monitor everyday barriers to policy delivery. (who.int)
  • Science Ecosystem 2.0: how will change occur? (bvsalud.org)
  • The first battle is assuaging the fears of Arab communities around innovative entrepreneurship, and second, establishing and monetizing unconventional business models in existing MENA ecosystems . (entrepreneur.com)
  • Microbial communities and their functions could thus be suitable as early indicators of damage to deep-sea ecosystems caused by nodule mining - and of the extent of their potential recovery. (eurekalert.org)
  • Activist-creative Annika Hansteen-Izora had a vision to cultivate Black creative ecosystems: communities led by Black people to advance art, creativity and imagination. (webbyawards.com)
  • We then publish the results that show the current trends in various communities, including the Go ecosystem. (jetbrains.com)
  • EDDIE Earth and Ecosystems is a collaboration among STEM disciplinary and educational researchers. (carleton.edu)
  • INCREDIBLE (dont l'acronyme signifie " réseaux d'innovation du liège, des résines et des produits comestibles dans le bassin méditerranéen» encourage la collaboration intersectorielle et l'innovation, afin de mettre en valeur la valeur et le potentiel des PFNL dans les régions méditerranéennes. (incredibleforest.net)
  • NFPA is committed to promoting the Fire & Life Safety Ecosystem to protect people and property against evolving safety threats, and wants to work with others who are part of this critical system. (nfpa.org)
  • Explore the real-world customers benefiting from ONTAP ecosystem efficiencies. (netapp.com)
  • As a growing digital garden and directory of ecosystems that explore Black art and imagination, the site design balanced between simple and usable while equally optimistic and expressive. (webbyawards.com)
  • The workshop will bring together (a) biologists with expertise in ecosystem responses to physical climate forcing, and (b) physical climate scientists with expertise in predicting and understanding ENSO and its impact on the physical state of the Northeast Pacific. (usclivar.org)
  • Discover Helium's rich ecosystem of hardware and software solutions that use and support The People's Network. (helium.com)
  • An ecosystem is the total of living parts (plants and animals) and non-living parts (sunlight, air, water, soil) that support life in a unit of nature. (nps.gov)
  • PrepayWay Blockchain Ecosystem has been designed to be self-expanding and effortlessly scalable to support all types of international business operations, ranging from real estate to global commercial trade, with market size of up to 15 trillion USD. (prepayway.com)
  • The goal of this workshop is to develop a framework for using ENSO forecasts to predict changes in the marine ecosystem off of the US West Coast, which shows large imprints of ENSO on biological processes. (usclivar.org)
  • The NFPA Fire & Life Safety Ecosystem™ is a framework that identifies the components that must work together to minimize risk and help prevent loss, injuries, and death from fire, electrical, and other hazards. (nfpa.org)
  • Mathematical modeling of ecosystems requires a considerable amount of knowledge about the subsystems functioning within the broad framework and the various rate processes and transfer coefficients that control the dynamic aspects. (who.int)
  • In addition to identifying practical applications of using ENSO forecast to predict ecosystem changes, the discussions at this meeting will also identify a set of research priorities and challenges needed to fill the gaps in our understanding of ecosystem predictability, as well as to suggest new data streams from remote sensing and in situ observational platforms. (usclivar.org)
  • Contact us to find out how you can collaborate and create synergies with the Sustainability Ecosystem. (concordia.ca)
  • WordPress was chosen as the CMS to allow users to effortlessly self-create profiles, without intervention by the Creative Ecosystems team. (webbyawards.com)
  • Weak Links - Decades of neglecting key aspects of the Fire & Life Safety Ecosystem have resulted in devastating wildfires. (nfpa.org)
  • Studies have shown that many sessile inhabitants of the surface of the seafloor depend on the nodules as a substrate, and are still absent decades after a disturbance in the ecosystem. (eurekalert.org)
  • It provides methodological guidance on assessing the current state of entrepreneurial ecosystems and offers a set of resources and tools that can be used by development practitioners. (aspeninstitute.org)
  • IUCN promotes Ecosystem based approaches for climate adaptation and mitigation , to reduce risk associated with natural hazards and as a key measure of Nature-based Solutions. (iucn.org)
  • We may think of ourselves as wholly separate from the "natural world," but we are as much a part of it as any other living thing in our ecosystem. (ogallalacommons.org)
  • We will discuss and identify the predictable components of the physical climate system that can be used to predict key aspects of the ecosystem on monthly, seasonal, and multi-season timescales. (usclivar.org)
  • Highly fragmented, rapidly evolving markets have always loved programmable logic for the high degree of flexibility it provides, but to be successful we needed to embrace flexibility in all aspects of our ecosystem. (quicklogic.com)
  • Developer activity on Injective is rapidly increasing with major projects and this new ecosystem fund will provide unmatched opportunities for new builders entering Web3 and the Cosmos ecosystem overall. (wfla.com)
  • The ecosystem is thriving, brands are demanding more data-driven solutions, and users keep Tweeting. (twitter.com)
  • The companies will initially focus on aligning their efforts and creating a vigorous ecosystem for Zoned Storage solutions. (westerndigital.com)
  • Used by the Ecosystem participants as building blocks for the development of innovative Blockchain solutions. (prepayway.com)
  • It is also one of the vital blockchain-based platforms known to offer scalability, higher availability of dApps and the Tron ecosystem. (meritline.com)