Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.FiresPlankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Pacific OceanExtinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Atlantic OceanArctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Mediterranean SeaPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Avicennia: A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.North SeaKelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).WyomingPhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.BrazilGastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.BelizeTidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.MontanaVolcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Landslides: Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.CaliforniaWater Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (1/10106)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/10106)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (3/10106)

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria. (4/10106)

Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community.  (+info)

Morphological and compositional changes in a planktonic bacterial community in response to enhanced protozoan grazing. (5/10106)

We analyzed changes in bacterioplankton morphology and composition during enhanced protozoan grazing by image analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Enclosure experiments were conducted in a small, fishless freshwater pond which was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The removal of metazooplankton enhanced protozoan grazing pressure and triggered a microbial succession from fast-growing small bacteria to larger grazing-resistant morphotypes. These were mainly different types of filamentous bacteria which correlated in biomass with the population development of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Small bacterial rods and cocci, which showed increased proportion after removal of Daphnia and doubling times of 6 to 11 h, belonged nearly exclusively to the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. The majority of this newly produced bacterial biomass was rapidly consumed by HNF. In contrast, the proportion of bacteria belonging to the gamma and alpha subdivisions of the Proteobacteria increased throughout the experiment. The alpha subdivision consisted mainly of rods that were 3 to 6 microm in length, which probably exceeded the size range of bacteria edible by protozoa. Initially, these organisms accounted for less than 1% of total bacteria, but after 72 h they became the predominant group of the bacterial assemblage. Other types of grazing-resistant, filamentous bacteria were also found within the beta subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. We conclude that the predation regimen is a major structuring force for the bacterial community composition in this system. Protozoan grazing resulted in shifts of the morphological as well as the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblage. Grazing-resistant filamentous bacteria can develop within different phylogenetic groups of bacteria, and formerly underepresented taxa might become a dominant group when protozoan predation is the major selective pressure.  (+info)

Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology. (6/10106)

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities.  (+info)

Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona. (7/10106)

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. (8/10106)

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

*Pallikaranai wetland

The heterogeneous ecosystem of the marshland supports about 337 species of floras and faunas. Of the faunal groups, birds, ... The topography of the swamp is such that it always retains some storage, thus forming an aquatic ecosystem. A project on ' ... In late 2005, the government constituted a high-level committee to restore the ecosystem, and in the summer of 2006 the locals ... to protect the ecosystem in its totality from becoming an open dumpyard. Save Pallikaranai, a campaign for protecting an ...

*Concord River

These plants have helped to prevent subsequent damage to the river ecosystem when they were able to operate within federally ...

*Urban forest

In a narrower sense (also called forest park) it describes areas whose ecosystems are inherited from wilderness leftovers or ... There are numerous projects underway aimed at restoration and preservation of ecosystems, ranging from simple elimination of ... Urban Forestry South Center for Urban Forest Research Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute Urban Forestry USDA Forest Service ... leaf-raking and elimination of invasive plants to full-blown reintroduction of original species and riparian ecosystems. In ...

*Ecological network

Ecosystem complexity was once thought to reduce stability by enabling the effects of disturbances, such as species loss or ... The relationship between ecosystem complexity and stability is a major topic of interest in ecology. Use of ecological networks ... The community of species in an ecosystem is expected to affect both the ecological interaction and coevolution of pairs of ... An ecological network is a representation of the biotic interactions in an ecosystem, in which species (nodes) are connected by ...

*Fishing industry in Russia

... most of the stocks in the Amur Basin ecosystem transformation due to the introduction of invasive species: sprat in the Black ...

*Wild river

The natural river flows that are the heartbeat of the North's diverse ecosystems and lifeblood for many existing communities ...

*John A. Church

Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre. On an international level, Church has been the Principal ... and is leader of the Sea level Rise Project at the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre. (2007) 2006 ...

*Alpine climate

"The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 26 ...

*Eutrophication

Ecosystems receiving more nitrogen than the plants require are called nitrogen-saturated. Saturated terrestrial ecosystems then ... Terrestrial ecosystems rely on microbial nitrogen fixation to convert N2 into other forms such as nitrates. However, there is a ... In aquatic ecosystems, species such as algae experience a population increase (called an algal bloom). Algal blooms limit the ... 141-157 in M. J. McDonnell and S.T.A. Pickett (eds.) Humans as components of ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, ...

*Global biodiversity

Biodiversity is important for humans through ecosystem services and goods. Ecosystem services are broken down into: regulating ... 2002). "A typology for the classification, and description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services". ...

*Glossary of fishery terms

Oceanography - the branch of earth sciences that studies the ocean, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean ... Eutrophication - an increase in chemical nutrients - typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus - in an ecosystem. ... or ecosystem structure and functioning, from one human generation to the next. Sustainable yield - Sustainable yield is the ...

*Manawatu River

"Ecosystem metabolism in the Manawatu River". Cawthron Institute. Retrieved 15 May 2011. "Manawatu River pollution blamed on ...

*River

The ecosystem of rivers is generally described by the river continuum concept, which has some additions and refinements to ... Other systems are based on a whole eco-system approach such as developed by the New Zealand Ministry for the Environment. In ... In rivers succession is virtually absent and the composition of the ecosystem stays fixed in time. The chemistry of rivers is ... the availability of food particles and the composition of the ecosystem are continuously changing along its length. The food ( ...

*Ecosystem

The State of the Nation's Ecosystems (U.S.) Bering Sea Climate and Ecosystem (Current status) Arctic Climate and Ecosystem ( ... Thus, ecosystem processes are driven by the number of species in an ecosystem, the exact nature of each individual species, and ... Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which people depend; the principles of ecosystem management suggest ... Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which people depend. Ecosystem goods include the "tangible, material ...

*Ecosystem diversity

Some examples of ecosystems that are rich in diversity are: Deserts Forests Large marine ecosystems Marine ecosystems Old ... Ecosystem diversity deals with the variations in ecosystems within a geographical location and its overall impact on human ... Diversity in the ecosystem is significant to human existence for a variety of reasons. Ecosystem diversity boosts the ... It is the variation in the ecosystems found in a region or the variation in ecosystems over the whole planet. Ecological ...

*Novel ecosystem

Marris 2009 Novel ecosystems "differ in composition and/or function from present and past systems". Novel ecosystems are the ... Novel ecosystems are human-built, modified, or engineered niches of the Anthropocene. They exist in places that have been ... Novel ecosystems are part of the human environment and niche (including urban, suburban, and rural), they lack natural analogs ... Novel ecosystems are creating many different kinds of dilemmas for conservation biologists. On a more local scale, abandoned ...

*Digital ecosystem

... Community: Envisioning the future of the Digital Ecosystem Archived 2008-12-27 at the Wayback Machine.. F ... Digital ecosystem models are informed by knowledge of natural ecosystems, especially for aspects related to competition and ... Ecosystem Information ecology Knowledge commons Knowledge ecosystem Media ecology Social system Web literacy (Understanding the ... Damiani E., Uden, L, & Trisnawaty W. The future of E-learning: E-learning ecosystem. Inaugural IEEE Digital Ecosystems and ...

*Ecosystem health

... is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem. Ecosystem condition can vary as a result of fire ... Ecosystem management and ecosystem-based management refer to the sustainable management of ecosystems and in some cases may ... Edward Grumbine's highly cited paper "What is ecosystem management?" surveyed ecosystem management and ecosystem health ... which drive ecosystem definition. An ecosystem is an abstraction. "Ecosystems cannot be identified or found in nature. Instead ...

*Ecosystem engineer

"Ecosystem engineer". Chapman, Colin A; et al. (2013). "Are primates ecosystem engineers?". International Journal of Primatology ... Biodiversity may also be affected by ecosystem engineer's ability to increase the complexity of processes within an ecosystem, ... Due to the complexity of many communities and ecosystems, restoration projects are often difficult. Ecosystem engineers have ... "An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species richness at the landscape scale". Ecosystems Ecology. 132: 96-101. doi: ...

*Urban ecosystem

Dedalo Bari 1978 Ecosystem Human ecosystem Media ecosystem Urban planning Urban ecology Steenberg (2015). "Neighborhood- scale ... Urban ecosystems are the cities, towns, and urban strips constructed by humans. This is the growth in the urban population and ... CSIRO CSE's urban ecosystem research is focused on: Understanding how cities work as integrated social-ecological systems ... Meirong, Su (2010). "Urban ecosystem health assessment:A review". The Science of the total environment. 408 (12): 2425-2434. ...

*Freshwater ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into lentic ecosystems (still water) and lotic ecosystems (flowing water). Limnology (and ... Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes and ponds, rivers, streams, springs, and ... XU, F.L., Tao, S., Dawson, R. W., Pen-gang, L., & Jun, C. (2001). Lake Ecosystem Health Assessment: Indicators and Methods. ... The use of reference sites is common when assessing what a healthy freshwater ecosystem should "look like". Reference sites are ...

*Human ecosystem

Ecosystem Media ecosystem Urban ecosystem Total human ecosystem. ... A human ecosystem has three central organizing concepts: human ... Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by ecological anthropologists and other ...

*Ecosystem management

... ecosystem management should maintain ecosystems in the appropriate condition to achieve desired social benefits; ecosystem ... Ecosystem managers form hypotheses about the ecosystem and its functionality and then implement different management techniques ... Adaptive management has had mixed success in the field of ecosystem management, possibly because ecosystem managers may not be ... Natural resource managers must initially measure the overall integrity of the ecosystem they are involved in. If the ecosystem ...

*Leuser Ecosystem

"Aceh's Leuser Ecosystem pays a high price for the peace dividend". smh.com.au. Retrieved 2016-05-30. "The Leuser Ecosystem A ... The Leuser Ecosystem is an area of forest located in the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra on the island of Sumatra in ... The ecosystem stretches from the coast of the Indian Ocean to the Malacca Straits. It encompasses two vast mountain ranges ... In general the ecosystem can be characterised as a montane rainforest community. However, the typical vegetation type up to an ...

*Software ecosystem

Ecosystem European workshop on software ecosystems International workshop on software ecosystems Workshop on Ecosystem ... the Ruby ecosystem). The ecosystem metaphor is used in order to denote an analysis which takes into account multiple software ... Software Ecosystem is a book written by David G. Messerschmitt and Clemens Szyperski that explains the essence and effects of a ... The most frequent of such analyses is static analysis of the source code of the component systems of the ecosystem. Richard ...
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems ...
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems ...
Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal, cultivated, forest and woodlands, inland water bodies, islands, marine, mountains (elevation), polar, and urban. The data set also includes socioeconomic reporting units and the location of regional MA projects. The data were used in a number of different ways in the assessment, contributing to an understanding of how humans have altered ecosystems, how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, and how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades ...
Introduction. The scale, magnitude, and uncertainties permeating the current environmental crisis reveal how human activities have produced drastic environmental changes at the local and global levels, resulting in numerous serious health problems. Due to their very complexity, these problems require a search for alternative approaches that combine socioeconomic and biophysical aspects for better understanding and solutions.. The need to develop these alternative approaches has intensified at the transition from the 20th to the 21st century. The report of the World Resources Institute (WRI) 1 for 2000-2001 illustrates this process, pointing to the need to adopt an ecosystem approach premised on the capacity to contribute to: (1) the combination of diverse types of information that allows a careful weighing of the trade offs among various ecosystem goods and services and among environmental, political, social, and economic goals; (2) developing wiser policies and more effective institutions to ...
The National Park Services draft discussion paper on ecosystem management recommends, The NPS should reduce the barriers to ecosystem approaches that result from artificially separating cultural and natural resources and strive to replace them with collaborative planning, research, and resource management efforts that reflect the real-world integration of material, human and natural features (National Park Service, 1994, Ecosystem Management in the National Park Service: Discussion Draft. NPS, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.). However, arguments concerning the value of archaeological data to ecosystem management fail to recognize the inherent limitations of traditional archaeological data. These limitations revolve around two central issues. First is that much of the data collected since the inception of cultural resource management some 20 years ago is fragmented, incompatible, and arbitrary. Personally I disagree with the first part of the assertion that, Given the wealth ...
Click to view larger image.. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that describes carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics of plants and soils for terrestrial ecosystems of the globe. The TEM uses spatially referenced information on climate, elevation, soils and vegetation as well as soil- and vegetation-specific parameters to make estimates of important carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and pool sizes of terrestrial ecosystems. The TEM normally operates on a monthly time step and at a 0.5 degrees latitude/longitude spatial resolution, but the model has been applied at finer spatial resolutions (down to 1 hectare).. Improvements in computer resources and the interests of an increasing number of researchers have allowed TEM to evolve over time to better examine the influence of ecosystem processes and human activities on terrestrial biogeochemistry and how changes in this biogeochemistry may feedback to influence atmospheric chemistry, climate, water quantity and ...
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment was finalized and is being published on-line.. Started mid 2009, the assessment led by Robert Watson and Steve Albon, it is the first analysis of the UKs natural environment in terms of the benefits it provides to society and continuing economic prosperity.. The key findings of the assessment were made available on June 2nd (pdf here) while specific technical chapters will be made available through June.. Until then the 87 pages of the synthesis report should keep you busy! Below are some of the main points raised by the assessment:. The authors mention the need to increase food production while at the same time decreasing its negative effects on ecosystem services. In fact, the idea is to harness ecosystem services to actually increase production. This "sustainable intensification" is what the French call "ecological intensification".. ...
Integrated ecosystem assessments (IEA) are a set of approaches for organizing science in order to inform decisions in marine ecosystem assessments at multiple scales and across sectors. IEAs collate and analyse information of a wide range of ecosystem components and pressures. IEAs provide knowledge of the status, changes, relationships, and processes in an ecosystem. Within ICES, several working groups targeting IEA for different geographical areas have been established over the recent years. Despite the ICES IEA WGs being well coordinated, different approaches are being explored and there remains a need for further exchange of methodological expertise and experiences. IEA-Exchange aims to enhance the scientific foundation for an ecosystem approach to management of, in particular, the Norwegian and Barents Seas by transfer of knowledge on methods for IEA from other regions. The intent is a two-way exchange of knowledge so that also the non-Norwegian project members will gain knowledge that can ...
... to ocean management presents a major challenge, most notably in terms of perceptions, enactment, and synthesizing the needs and goals of the multiple industry sectors plying their trades within these ecosystems and marine spaces.. International experts assembled at the end of January 2016 in Copenhagen for the AORA-CSA workshop.. ...
Recovering biological diversity and ecosystem functioning are primary objectives of ecological restoration, yet these outcomes are often unpredictable. Assessments based on functional traits may help with interpreting variability in both community composition and ecosystem functioning because of their mechanistic and generalizable nature. This promise remains poorly realized, however, because tests linking environmental conditions, functional traits, and ecosystem functioning in restoration are rare. Here, we provide such a test through what is to our knowledge the first empirical application of the response-effect trait framework to restoration. This framework provides a trait-based bridge between community assembly and ecosystem functioning by describing how species respond to environmental conditions based on traits and how the traits of species affect ecosystem functioning. Our study took place across 29 prairies restored from former agricultural fields in southwestern Michigan. We ...
ROJAS-DE-ARIAS, Antonieta. Chagas disease prevention through improved housing using an ecosystem approach to health. Cad. Saúde Pública [online]. 2001, vol.17, suppl., pp.S89-S97. ISSN 1678-4464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2001000700017.. This Chagas disease prevention project via housing improvement aims to determine the efficiencyof different interventions in vector control. The following study describes the target communities, disease magnitude, and housing improvements. Transmission levels are analysed from an ecological and socioeconomic perspective. Special interest was focused on the peridomicile as the origin of domiciliary reinfestation. In the original project, three intervention programs were proposed, one for each of the three communities: (a) an insecticide spraying program; (b) a housing improvement program; and (c) a combined program of spraying and housing improvement. The three communities currently have different risks of exposure to triatominae reinfestation as a ...
RD-8308701-0. A Shallow-water Coastal Habitat Model for Regional Scale Evaluation of Management Decisions in the Chesapeake Region. C. L. Gallegos, D. E. Weller, T. E. Jordan, P. J. Neale, J. P. Megonigal. Overview. Study Systems Stressors of Interest Objectives and Tasks Modeling Approach...
DTU Aqua carries out research into marine populations and ecosystem dynamics in order to understand the general principles behind ecosystem dynamics and in order to be able to develop models of these ecosystems. We study key processes at the individual level and scale up to population and ecosystem levels. As an example, migrations of individual fish become population distributions within the ecosystem. In this way, we gain knowledge about growth and reproduction, the interaction between species, the relationship between predator and prey, the age distribution within each species, and feeding and migration behaviour. We are thus better able to understand current conditions prevailing in an ecosystem as well as future changes to the ecosystem ...
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ...
Concern about degradation of natural resources has led in the ecological community to the concept of "ecosystem services." The intent is to identify more fully what environmental economists would refer to as "use values" of ecosystems, concrete goods and services that have value, albeit perhaps unrecognized, to the market economy, as opposed to "non-use values" such as the pleasure of knowing that a natural system exists. The ecological community has also coined the term "agroecosystems," recognizing that agricultural lands are, albeit modified through management, ecological systems. As such, conventional food and forest products are the products of ecosystems. Biofuels may be another important ecosystem service. Conventional economic analysis can be applied because these are goods that enter markets in the conventional sense. The values of other ecosystem services are not so explicit in economic data. Here we extend an economic model to explicitly represent the recreation value of ecosystems ...
Ecosystem Ecology is a lecture/discussion course that focuses on understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes regulating the dynamics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We discuss classic and current topics in ecology that have built our understanding of ecosystem organization and function. The course integrates across disciplines of physiological, microbial, population, and community ecology to understand how and why ecosystems differ in composition, structure, and function, and how ecosystems change over time. Students are expected to have a solid background in biology and ecology. We also expect that students will be able to use general principles of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology as tools to understand ecological processes occurring at the ecosystem level.. The scope of the course includes examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Selected topics for discussion include: ...
Prompt and large scale action is needed to overcome losses of large marine ecosystem (LME) goods and services; to mitigate degradation due to climate change; and to achieve integrated adaptive ecosystem management of LMEs.
As environmental regulatory and management agencies (most notably the Environmental Protection Agency) move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for ecosystem health has become increasingly important. This work is a multidisciplinary collection of perspectives on the concept of health as it relates to ecosystems. The contributors - leading ecologists, philosophers, and economists - analyze the normative, conceptual, and biological issues surrounding the idea of ecosystem health. They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the issues, and look at philosophical and ethical underpinnings as well as implications for public policy and ecosystems management. Ecosystem Health is a groundbreaking attempt to formulate an understanding of the quality and health of natural environments so that regulatory mandates can be brought in line with legislative goals. Ultimately, it seeks a new ethic of sustainability that will serve to protect
Experts Warn Ecosystem Changes Will Continue to Worsen, Putting Global Development Goals At Risk - March 30, 2005 - Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainability for Human Well-Being - Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Media Coverage - Index - Library - GENI - Global Energy Network Institute
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Ecosystem services valuation has achieved considerable prominence in research and policy circles in recent years. This paper reviews the studies that have tried to estimate the value of forest ecosystem services. Broadly, this study addresses the following questions: (1) What insights do these studies provide on the value of forest ecosystems? (2) What lessons do they offer from an economic and policy perspective? (3) What are the shortcomings of the existing studies, and what are the challenges and issues for future research? Evidence from a cross section of forest sites, countries and regions suggests that not only the total valuation of ecosystem services varies widely across studies but also the valuation of individual services. This variation suggests that policies to conserve ecosystems and their services should emphasise local contexts and values. This paper concludes by discussing the shortcomings of existing studies, and suggests that, among other things,
Dealing with grand challenges of the Anthropocene needs rigorous understanding of complex interactions between human and natural systems. Of particular concern is nonlinear dynamics of ecosystem change, which are hard to predict and are often costly for management, most probably impossible to reverse, if crosses the threshold. The mounting concerns about potential regime shifts from local to global scale, and better understanding of potential risks and consequences of such shifts has been identified as an urgent priority among scientists, stakeholders and policymakers.. Freshwater ecosystems, covering about 2.5% of the total water resources of the planet, have become one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. Cumulative effects of multiple drivers acting together at a time on freshwater ecosystems have caused substantial change on food webs, habitat change and ecosystem functions that have direct impacts on peoples livelihoods and well-being. How the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and ...
In line with IUCNs work plan 2017-2020 and, especially the IUCN Business and Biodiversity program the focus of the IUCN CEM Thematic Group Business and Ecosystem Management (TG B&EM) embraces the transformation of the way business values, manages and invests in nature, highlighting the opportunities and benefits of a more sustainable approach. This Thematic Group will focus on the question how to create long-term business commitment on the ground for ecosystem management.. Building on our experiences with business and the 4 returns framework we have learned that creating a clear language and a framework that is understood by business is the key to successful implementation on the ground.. Please read the concept of activity plan From profit maximisation to multiple returns that is now under consideration with the members of the TG B&EM.. Thematic Group Lead: Mr. Willem Ferwerda ([email protected]) Twitter: @ ...
Species-rich semi-natural grassland are valuable habitats in the agricultural landscape as they may contain a high diversity of both plant and animal species, as well as provide essential ecosystem services like pollination. To keep these habitats open and to maintain the biodiversity in them, management like grazing or mowing is necessary. Due to changed agricultural practices many semi-natural grasslands have been lost, e.g. due to secondary succession after abandonment or use of more intense management practices. As limited resources are available for the management and restoration of semi-natural grasslands, research is needed to find the best available management method that maintains biodiversity at a low cost. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to use existing data to compare effects of different management methods and explore their effect on the biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands. More specifically, effects of grazing vs. mowing, different mowing frequencies and different ...
It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not been examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we compiled data from 169 globally distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem‐level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum temperature) rather than changes in the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. ...
How will biodiversity loss affect ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and human well-being? In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
A sustainable multifunctional agricultural landscape has, beyond its role of providing us with food and fiber, other functions. This can be for example preventing eutrophication and regulating water flows, conservation of biodiversity, suitable habitats for pollinators and natural enemies as well as socio-economic viability for rural areas. These functions and processes, that direct or in direct are beneficial for humans, are what we call ecosystem services.. In this project (partly funded by Region Skåne), we will investigate how different groups of stakeholders perceive and value different ecosystem services produced in agricultural landscapes. Further we will together with stakeholders identify management options and by empirical studies evaluate their impact on multiple ecosystem services. In collaboration with stakeholders we will develop scenarios for future land use and illustrate the link between land use and services with spatially explicit models. The results of this project will be ...
Attempts to address declines in ecosystem services through legislation and policy reform began relatively early on, notably with the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act. More recently EU policies, have driven changes in national policy and legislation, which along with technological developments and changing public and private sector attitudes and behaviours, have led to improvements in some ecosystem services.. Despite improvements, currently over 30% of services are still declining and many others are in a reduced or degraded state and still far below their full potential, with adverse effects on human well-being. A growing population, which will increase the demand for food and other basic services, coupled with human-induced climate change, will continue to place significant pressures on many ecosystems and their services. Responding to declines in ecosystem services will require the adoption of more resilient ways of managing ecosystems, and a better balance between ...
Ecosystem, community, population, species The levels of organization from lowest complexity to highest are: species, population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphere. Since you are asking specifically about the levels of organization in an ecosystem, we leave out the levels of biome and biosphere since they are both more complex than ecosystem. The most inclusive level in an ecosystem is the ecosystem itself. An ecosystem includes all the living organisms and nonliving (abiotic) factors such as air, water, light etc. Community is the next level to discuss - a community in an ecosystem includes all of the living organisms which live in the defined area of the ecosystem. Population is the next least inclusive level - a population includes all the members of one species in a defined area. Finally the least inclusive level is that of a species. This would be one individual member of a species.
As our research focusses on ecosystem services, a concept linking biodiversity and human well-being, we naturally work at the science-society interface. This means collaborating across disciplines and political sectors to facilitate meaningful and participatory knowledge exchange processes. We use experiments and studies at the landscape level, analyses of large databases with multivariate statistics, modelling and geospatial analysis employing geographical information systems (GIS), as well as transdisciplinary workshops, focus groups, interviews and citizen science approaches. Our team is actively involved in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the development of the German Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP-DE). Working with partners from other research institutions, learned societies and NGOs, we are developing a citizen science strategy and citizen science capacities for Germany (GEWISS project) to encourage innovative approaches to science ...
Fig. 1. Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. They include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly affect people, and supporting services needed to maintain the other services. Biodiversity underlies all ecosystem services (source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, http://www.maweb.org//en/Products.Synthesis.aspx).. ...
Whats the problem, who pays - and what about the rest of the natural world?

Whats the problem?

Ecosystem services and Payment for Ecosystem Services have gained in prominence in recent years. The UN The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) and the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA) reports have highlighted the importance of the natural environment to the economy.

Ecosystem services are the goods and services which arise from the natural environment. Whilst the value of some ecosystem services can be seen through market transactions, such as for timber or wood for fuel, many are non-market common pool resources or public goods - such as regulation of the climate, maintaining water quality, mitigating flooding and biodiversity. | The Glory of the Garden
Criterion A seeks to identify ecosystem types that are currently declining in extent or may decline in the near future. The minimum data required for application of criterion A are two measures of the distribution of an ecosystem type, taken at different points in time and calibrated to the time scales of Red List of Ecosystems assessments [4,5]. To maximize repeatability of assessments of decline in distribution, assessors should be explicit and clear about what constitutes absence (i.e. local collapse) of the ecosystem type. In other words, how it was decided which areas were no longer occupied by the ecosystem type (e.g. replaced by agriculture, urban expansion or another ecosystem type) should be explicit.. Change in geographical distribution may be inferred from a time series of maps, written accounts or any other reliable data source that provides information on the distribution of an ecosystem type through time (figure 3). Assessors should include relevant maps in their account or provide ...
In a bid to work out a consistent and standard methodology that enhances understanding and capacity of partners for application of ecosystem assessment concepts, tools, and approaches, a regional orientation training on ecosystem services assessment was held from 3-7 April 2014.
We are a group of scientists and students from diverse backgrounds with a shared passion for ecology, and for plant communities and forest ecosystems in particular. We study how global environmental changes in climate, land-use (including forest management), biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem trophic structure, and invasions of non-native species affect biodiversity and the structure and function of terrestrial plant communities and forested ecosystems. Our goal is to advance ecological theory and to apply it in improving practices in ecosystem management, restoration, and nature conservation. We are interested in conceptual questions rather than particular plant taxa or ecosystems; consequently, our studies examine diverse plant groups (e.g., trees, herbs, and bryophytes) in varied ecological settings (e.g., temperate conifer and deciduous forests, tropical dry forests, old-fields, and tree-grass ecosystems) and locations (e.g., eastern U.S., Midwest, and the Pacific Northwest; northwestern ...
Plant functional traits reflect different evolutionary responses to environmental variation, and among extant species determine the outcomes of interactions between plants and their environment, including other plant species. Thus, combining phylogenetic and trait-based information can be a powerful approach for understanding community assembly processes across a range of spatial scales. We used this approach to investigate tree community composition at Phou Khao Khouay National Park (18 degrees 14-18 degrees 32N; 102 degrees 38-102 degrees 59 E), Laos, where several distinct forest types occur in close proximity. The aim of our study was to examine patterns of plant community assembly across the strong environmental gradients evident at our site. We hypothesized that differences in tree community composition were being driven by an underlying gradient in soil conditions. Thus, we predicted that environmental filtering would predominate at the site and that the filtering would be strongest ...
Concerns related to global environmental changes due to land use changes have been driving international communities towards more sustainable land use systems. Brazil is a country of global strategic importance in this matter considering that it is the nation with the largest extension of preserved tropical native vegetation, recognised for its ecosystem services and high and unique biodiversity values. Expansion of forestry and agriculture is taking place rapidly in Brazil, partly over degraded pastureland, but to a large extent over native vegetation. Regulating policies to govern and limit this expansion is crucial to ensure the preservation of the ecosystems services provided by native vegetation. This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing public and private policies in the conservation of nature in Brazil. For this purpose, the Land Use Policy Assessment (LUPA) model was developed to evaluate potential scenarios of implementation of the current ...
The problems posed by adaptive management for improved ecosystem health are reviewed. Other kinds of science-informed ecosystem management are needed for those regions of conflict between rapid human
GATE-2015 Syllabus for Ecology and Evolution. Ecology. Population ecology; metapopulation dynamics; growth rates; density independent growth; density dependent growth; niche concept; Species interactions: Plant-animal interactions; mutualism, commensalism, competition and predation; trophic interactions; functional ecology; ecophysiology; behavioural ecology;. Community ecology: Community assembly, organization and evolution; biodiversity: species richness, evenness and diversity indices;endemism; species-area relationships; Ecosystem structure, function and services; nutrient cycles; biomes; habitat ecology; primary and secondary productivity; invasive species;global and climate change; applied ecology.. Evolution Origin, evolution and diversification of life; natural selection; levels of selection. Types of selection (stabilizing, directional etc.); sexual selection; genetic drift; gene flow; adaptation; convergence; species concepts; Life history strategies; adaptive radiation; biogeography ...
Land conversion, climate change and species invasions are contributing to the widespread emergence of novel ecosystems, which demand a shift in how we think about traditional approaches to conservation, restoration and environmental management. They are novel because they exist without historical precedents and are self-sustaining. Traditional approaches emphasizing native species and historical continuity are challenged by novel ecosystems that deliver critical ecosystems services or are simply immune to practical restorative efforts. Some fear that, by raising the issue of novel ecosystems, we are simply paving the way for a more laissez-faire attitude to conservation and restoration. Regardless of the range of views and perceptions about novel ecosystems, their existence is becoming ever more obvious and prevalent in todays rapidly changing world. In this first comprehensive volume to look at the ecological, social, cultural, ethical and policy dimensions of novel ecosystems, the authors ...
Some people have assumed that biodiversity effects are relatively minor compared to other environmental stressors," said biologist David Hooper of Western Washington University, the lead author of the Nature paper. "Our new results show that future loss of species has the potential to reduce plant production just as much as global warming and pollution.". In their study, Hooper and his colleagues used combined data from a large number of published studies to compare how various global environmental stressors affect two processes important in all ecosystems: plant growth and the decomposition of dead plants by bacteria and fungi. The new study involved the construction of a data base drawn from 192 peer-reviewed publications about experiments that manipulated species richness and examined the impact on ecosystem processes.. The global synthesis by Hooper and his colleagues found that in areas where local species loss this century falls within the lower range of projections (loss of 1 to 20 ...
The interest to build ecosystem models is well acknowledged in order to improve the understanding of the sophisticated linkages between humans and natural species embedded within variable local and global environmental contexts. It is especially true when a complex temporal evolution intervenes as in population regulations. Ecological modellers usually resort to numerical models supported by accurate data and extensive knowledge on biological processes. Unfortunately, the task becomes more difficult to model ecosystems with limited data and knowledge. Qualitative models may be more suitable for designing data-poor systems in a decision-aid context. We propose a new qualitative approach for ecosystem modelling based on timed automata (TA) formalism combined with a high-level query language for exploring scenarios. TA rely on a discrete-event system formalism to reproduce the temporal dynamics of a system. Combined with model-checking techniques, TA enable the exploration of system properties in response
Soil microorganisms and plants are key players in the production and breakdown of organic matter, and together control global biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. TER, the Division of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, aims to advance our fundamental understanding of how plants and soil microorganisms respond to, and in turn shape, their abiotic and biotic environment, and to determine the consequences for the functioning of Earths ecosystems.. Primarily dedicated to basic research, TER addresses pressing environmental issues, such as the impact of climate and land-use change on ecosystem functioning and the role of soils in the global carbon cycle and in food security. In doing so, we work on scales from µm (i.e. the scale at which microbes operate) to the biosphere (i.e. where plant and microbial processes become evident), and in ecosystems spanning the Arctic tundra to tropical rainforests. We integrate this scale of thinking with state-of-the-art methods, including stable ...
Modern human-dominated landscapes are typically characterized by intensive land-use and high levels of habitat destruction, often resulting in sharply contrasted habitat mosaics. Fragmentation of remaining habitat is a major threat to biodiversity. In the present paper, we focus on the different features of habitat fragmentation. First we discuss the importance of pure habitat loss, fragment size, fragment isolation and quality, edge effects, and the importance of landscape structure. Second, we characterize life-history features of fragmentation-sensitive species, showing that rare, specialized, little dispersing species are most affected, as well as species characterized by high population variability and a high trophic position, while the effect of body size is unclear. Third, we discuss the conservation value of habitat fragments. The question arises how to relate studies on population survival to those of community structure and studies on biodiversity to those on ecologicalal functions. ...
The range and use of ecosystem services provided by urban sacred sites has hardly been considered in studies of urban ecology, sustainability and human wellbeing. This paper examines the perceived ecosystem services supplied by green spaces or gardens associated with places of religious worship and appreciated by worshippers in a mid-sized town in South Africa. A questionnaire with open, closed and Likert scale questions was administered at 30 places of worship (25 with gardens and five without). Respondents identified a wide diversity of ecosystem services provided by gardens, with social ones being more recognized than ecological, and economic services the least. Approximately two-thirds of respondents visited a sacred site garden weekly or more often. The majority of respondents (96%) felt that a garden was necessary because it added to their feelings of connection with God, or helped them relax and so be better able to concentrate, and 54% stated that a garden enhanced their overall spiritual
Article From wisdom to information: 350 years of ecosystem management. This paper will examine how the Paterson Valley ecosystem has been managed by humanity with snapshots at 1750, 1830, 1900 and the present. It arises from research into a study of ...
Land-use and -cover changes (LUCC) are among the most pervasive of human impacts on ecosystems, with complex direct and indirect consequences across spatial and temporal scales [1,2]. In tropical regions, the most important land-cover change is the agricultural conversion and consequent degradation of natural ecosystems [3,4], with drastic impacts for biodiversity and ecosystem function, in turn affecting the provision of ecosystem services that support human well-being [2,5]. On the other hand, clearing of natural vegetation can be, to a degree, mitigated by natural regeneration, a process frequently neglected in LUCC studies [6], and conservation research and policies [3,7]. However, specific programmes and funds to both protect biodiversity and promote ecosystem recovery are usually focused or even restricted to tropical forests with higher carbon stocks [8,9].. The intensity of tropical land conversion and rates of regeneration varies both spatially and temporally as influenced by a range of ...
Inspired by the this, we were led by our lecturer Mika Rekola from the Department of Forest Sciences to valuate the price of good weather. The question was "How much are you at maximum willing to pay for having nice weather like today during next week?" The answers ranged between 0 and 1000 euros based on personal preferences, wealth and other assets (e.g. umbrella), mode of transport, country of origin etc. Some doubted whether paying for weather was at all possible. Anyhow, even this simple mental exercise revealed the complexity of valuating an ecosystem service (or an environmental service in this particular scenario). Contingent valuation, or willingness-to-pay, is the most common method to give a value to many intangible ecosystem services, such as biodiversity or scenic beauty.. The lecture on Tuesday 11th August was focused on the valuation of ecosystem services. One of the most important points of the lecture was Total Economic Value (TEV), which means a sum of all market costs and ...
... act as natures recycling systems by exchanging inorganic and organic materials within ecosystems. Nutrients cycle through ecosystems in different forms, following the movement of energy. The carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles are three important nutrient cycles in ecology since these three chemical elements are essential nutrients required by organisms and the environment.. Carbon is a fundamental element required by all living matter. Carbon is essential for both photosynthesis and respiration and thus, the carbon cycle is critical for distributing carbon. Globally, the major flows of carbon are between: 1) land and the atmosphere, 2) the lake and atmosphere and 3) the ocean and the atmosphere. Throughout this cycle, carbon is not created nor destroyed. However, anthropogenic forces such as the burning of fossil fuels, are causing an increase in the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.. Nitrogen is a majorly important element for ecosystem functioning and is fundamental for ...
Natural News) Vegetation is an essential part of any aquatic ecosystem. Sick or dying underwater vegetation, typically due to pollution, indicates that the ecosystem is in trouble, which leads to degradation of water quality. On the other hand, thriving vegetation is a sign of a healthier ecosystem.. This is especially critical for the Chesapeake Bay estuary; underwater grasses provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals, stabilize sediments, and help clarify the water. Since the 1970s, pollution and human development have decimated the population of underwater grass in the Chesapeake Bay, further degrading the water quality. States surrounding the Bay have been working together since 2010 to restore its ecosystems.. One study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences analyzed the positive impact of long-term nutrient reduction on valuable ecosystems in the estuary.. The study, led by Jonathan Lefcheck, Ph.D., formerly of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science ...
Benthic microbial ecosystems of Laguna La Brava, Salar de Atacama, a high altitude hypersaline lake, were characterized in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity, biogeochemistry, (including O2 and sulfide depth profiles and mineralogy), and physicochemical characteristics. La Brava is one of several lakes in the Salar de Atacama where microbial communities are growing in extreme conditions, including high salinity, high solar insolation, and high levels of metals such as lithium, arsenic, magnesium, and calcium. Evaporation creates hypersaline conditions in these lakes and mineral precipitation is a characteristic geomicrobiological feature of these benthic ecosystems. In this study, the La Brava non-lithifying microbial mats, microbialites, and rhizome-associated concretions were compared to each other and their diversity was related to their environmental conditions. All the ecosystems revealed an unusual community where Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Acetothermia, Firmicutes and Planctomycetes
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The newly established IUCN drylands programme stepped out in style for the first time at the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development in New ...
BACKGROUND: An ecosystem illustrates the relationship of plants and animals with each other and with the environment. Ecosystems can be as large as the ocean or as small as an aquarium. The only factor in determining an ecosystem is the exchange of nutrients, gases, or processes that aid or overcome another organism. Simply, an organism will help another one to survive by doing something essential to the others survival or to survival of the environment, or will simply kill or eat the other. Irrespective of the size of the ecosystem, plants and animals will continuously live in a never-ending cycle of life.. The first step in the ecosystem begins with the Sun. The majority of primary producers are plants whether they are in, the water or on land. Plants use the energy from the sun to produce food in the form of simple sugars. Photosynthesis, is very vital to the survival of animal life. Animals depend just as much on photosynthesis as plants do. The plants that produce sugars by photosynthesis ...
Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem during 2013 represented a moderation of thermal conditions compared to the record highs observed in 2012. The moderation in temperature was not uniform over the ecosystem, with more cooling occurring in the southern part of the ecosystem ...
It is now well established that the long-chain, omega-3 (ω3 or n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are vitally important in human nutrition, reflecting their particular roles in critical physiological processes (see Chapter 14). In comparison to terrestrial ecosystems, marine or freshwater ecosystems are characterised by relatively high levels of long-chain n-3PUFA and, indeed, fish are the most important source of these vital nutrients in the human food basket. Virtually all PUFA originate from primary producers but can be modified as they pass up the food chain. This is generally termed trophic upgrading and various aspects of these phenomena have been described in Chapters 2, 6 and 7 (this volume). However, while qualitative aspects of essential fatty acid production and requirements in aquatic ecosystems are relatively well understood, in order to fully understand and model ecosystems, quantitative information is needed on synthesis and turnover rates of n-3PUFA at different trophic ...
Highly dependent on the different aspects of global change, variations in ecosystem services supply can also have direct impacts on human well being. A new article published in the open access journal One Ecosystem assesses the relationships between climate and land use change and ecosystem services supply in Europe, to pave the way on research connecting them to adaptation and human well being in a changing world.
Ecosystem respiration (Reco) is one of the largest terrestrial carbon (C) fluxes. The effect of climate change on Reco depends on the responses of its autotrophic and heterotrophic components. How autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration sources respond to climate change is especially important in ecosystems underlain by permafrost. Permafrost ecosystems contain vast stores of soil C (1672 Pg) and are located in northern latitudes where climate change is accelerated. Warming will cause a positive feedback to climate change if heterotrophic respiration increases without corresponding increases in primary production. We quantified the response of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to permafrost thaw across the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We partitioned Reco using Δ14C and δ13C into four sources-two autotrophic (above - and belowground plant structures) and two heterotrophic (young and old soil). We sampled the Δ14C and δ13C of sources using incubations and the Δ14C and δ13C of ...
The pH values will bring effects in flora and fauna nearby, change the taste of water and lead to heavy corrosion in pipe lines. High conductivity naturally indicates the presence of ionic substances dissolved in the river water. However, the result showed that 90% of the study site exceeded the data reported for non-contaminated rivers due to excessive metal ions within the water. At the site nearer to kaolin industry the conductivity is 852 times higher than the non-polluted study site. The industrial discharge also changed the hardness in river water. ...
The European CARBOEUROPE/FLUXNET monitoring sites, spatial remote sensing observations via the EOS-MODIS sensor and ecosystem modelling provide independent and complementary views on the effect of the 2003 heatwave on the European biospheres productivity and carbon balance. In our analysis, these data streams consistently demonstrate a strong negative anomaly of the primary productivity during the summer of 2003. FLUXNET eddy-covariance data indicate that the drop in productivity was not primarily caused by high temperatures (heat stress) but rather by limitation of water (drought stress) and that, contrary to the classical expectation about a heat wave, not only gross primary productivity but also ecosystem respiration declined by up to more than to 80 gC m−2 month−1. Anomalies of carbon and water fluxes were strongly correlated. While there are large between-site differences in water-use efficiency (WUE, 1-6 kg C kg−1 H2O) here defined as gross carbon uptake divided by evapotranspiration (WUE
1]. This is concerning the usefulness of ecosystems in monetary terms:- Recent study estimated that total value of goods and services provided by the earths ecosystems is US$33 trillion. There is an enormous variety of products obtained from ecosystems:- Rattan (wild vine in SE Asian forests) - cane furniture and other products. Generates $2.7 billion in exports/year. US Coastal fishing industry valued at US$3.3 billion in 1991. Rubber & tropical fruits (Amazon rainforest) - net economic value of US$7000/hectare w/o harming the forest. If the same area is cleared however, 94m³ of timber produced. In 1992, an estimate of medicines derived from natural sources, came to US$40 billion/yr worldwide. Tribes in Peru were found to use plants to treat skin disorders, tuberculosis, fevers, animal bites, infertility, kidney disorders, wounds, burns, tooth decay. Ecosystems with a high utility value include: Mangroves Forests Swamps Floodplains Natural marshes. [2]. All the living and non-living ...
Habitat variables were correlated with scaled quail (Callipep/,a squamata) whistle counts on 133 (24-km) random transects in Texas. Whether or not a particular habitat variable was correlated with whistle counts appeared to depend upon abundance and distribution of other habitat types and structural features. If |= 1 requisite for quail survival and reproduction (food, water, cover, nest sites) was limited, habitat types and structural features were usually positively correlated with whistle counts (P | 0.10). Conversely, abundant habitat types which did not provide all of these requisites were usually negatively correlated with whistle counts (P| 0.10). Correlations indicated breeding scaled quail selected the more dense, shorter shrub habitats. Mesquite (Prosopsis spp.) habitats were especially important to scaled quail in the Trans-Pecos region.
Article European ecosystem assessment - concept, data, and implementation. This report summarises EEA contributions to Target 2 Action 5 Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) for the implementation of the EU Biodiversity St...
New diseases in forest ecosystems have been reported at an increasing rate over the last century. Some reasons for this include the increased disturbance by humans to forest ecosystems, changed climatic conditions and intensified international trade. Although many of the contributing factors to the changed disease scenarios are anthropogenic, there has been a reluctance to control them by legislation, other forms of government authority or through public involvement. Some of the primary obstacles relate to problems in communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere of society. Relevant response to new disease scenarios is very often associated with a proper understanding of intraspecific variation in the challenging pathogen. Other factors could be technical, based on a lack of understanding of possible countermeasures. There are also philosophical reasons, such as the view that forests are part of the natural ecosystems and should not be managed for natural disturbances such
Structures and dynamics of ocean ecosystems. The dynamics of global to local scale biophysical interaction processes are explored in terms of basic dynamic principles. Existing ecosystem models are used to solve some realistic coastal ecosystem problems. There is a strong emphasis on solving process oriented problems requiring integration of lecture materials. A term paper is required.
Across our scenarios, trophic skew increased with both intensity and extent, indicating important differences in the responses of different trophic levels to land-use change. Our mean trophic skew value of 0.148 represents that following impact, a minimum of approximately 15% of the total ecosystem biomass was redistributed between autotrophs, herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores-a major change in ecosystem dynamics. This is not driven solely by autotroph biomass loss mitigation, as a high trophic skew is observed at 100% impact intensity, where the mitigation effect is not apparent (figures 2 and 4). Differences in heterotroph feeding guild responses to habitat change are well documented. Predators are known to be more sensitive to habitat loss [26,27,30]. In our simulations, greater sensitivity to habitat change among predators may compound with body size also affecting sensitivity. Predators are typically between 0.5 and 4 orders of magnitude larger than their prey [40], and this size ...
As the ecosystem service concept has become more widely recognised, so the number of biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary methods available to assess ecosystem services has increased. There is relatively little guidance on how to select and combine these methods into hybrid approaches that address policy purposes. Based on experiences from 27 case studies with 33 different assessment and valuation methods in the OpenNESS project, this report aims to fill some of that gap in science and practice. This report provides a number of tools that practitioners can use to plan, commission and evaluate integrated assessment and valuation studies of ecosystem services. The report starts by providing a rapid guide to commonly used biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary methods. A number of different bottom-up and top-down approaches to selecting methods fit-for-purpose are provided. OpenNESS method experts have developed detailed fact sheets on each method in the report appendix and available ...
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. Rice University researchers have found that communities in nature are likely to be a lot more sensitive to change than previously thought.. The study findings, published in Nature Communications, points to a need for scientists concerned with human impact on the biosphere to take a different look at the consequences of altering the dynamics of a population. One example of such alteration would be removing large members of a species through overfishing, according to Rice ecologist Volker Rudolph.. "Natural communities are increasingly altered through human impact, and ecologists have long strived to determine how these changes influence communities," Rudolf said. Rudolph also noted the disappearance of a species is the most extreme cause of biodiversity loss, but not the only one.. "Thats the last thing that happens after you mess up the entire ecosystem for a long period of time," he said. By the time a species disappears entirely, changes ...
In spite of the increasing international popularity of the notion of ecosystem services, it is not very widely applied in Dutch environmental policies. There is therefore a great need to highlight experiences and expertise in the field in order to generate interest and support among policy makers in the Netherlands.. With its Exploring Ecosystem Services project, the IVM is seeking to develop an analytical framework with which ecosystem service applications can be demonstrated in the context of Dutch policies. The end products of this flagship project include a national workshop, a case study in Surinam, scientific publications and course material for Bachelors and Masters programmes at VU Amsterdam ...
There is now compelling evidence that microbially mediated reactions impart a significant effect upon the dynamics, composition, and abundance of nutrients in glacial melt water. Consequently, we must now consider ice masses as ecosystem habitats in their own right and address their diversity, functional potential, and activity as part of alpine and polar environments. Although such research is already underway, its fragmentary nature provides little basis for developing modern concepts of glacier ecology. This paper therefore provides a much-needed framework for development by reviewing the physical, biogeochemical, and microbiological characteristics of microbial habitats that have been identified within glaciers and ice sheets. Two key glacial ecosystems emerge, one inhabiting the glacier surface (the supraglacial ecosystem) and one at the ice-bed interface (the subglacial ecosystem). The supraglacial ecosystem is characterized by a diverse consortium of microbes (usually bacteria, algae, ...
FC: Ecosystems: Forests By: Daria and Cody. 1: The forest is a place of wonder, full of natural surprises. Aside from its beauty, the forest is essential to Earths ecosystem. Trees and plants filter out the carbon dioxide in the air, making it breathable for humans.. 2: The forest is a place of great wonder. Many animals call it their home. Forests cover about 30% of all land area, and vary in life.. 4: Forests are unique and special. Like every other ecosystem, they also have abiotic and biotic interactions. For instance, trees provides a home for animals like birds and chipmunks, while streams give hydration to many animals.. 5: The forest is an abundance of wildlife, as well as dangerous. It contains many predator/prey reactions.. 7: Animal life is a large part of forest life. These pictures are examples of animals that would die in the ocean, but live a comfortable life in the forest.. 8: The forest is made of mainly trees. The trees provide homes for woodland creatures, bark for claws, and ...
How fast can a disaster zone bounce back? Apparently, faster than previously thought. Yale University ecologists conducted a meta-analysis of 240 studies of devastated ecosystems. They found that ecosystems damaged by pollution can be restored in as few as 10 years. Why then was it believed they would take so much longer to recover?. The study, published in PLoS ONE, "rebuts speculation that it will take centuries or millennia for degraded ecosystems to recover and justifies an increased effort to restore degraded areas for the benefit of future generations," according to a Yale University press release.1 The researchers found that forest ecosystems recover in 42 years, and marine environments in 10 years, with some ecosystems able to recover from maladies like oil spills in as few as five years.. Such short recovery times contrast gloomy sentiments portrayed in popular literature, such as: "Our rare forest type can never recover from this kind of treatment [clearcutting]."2 References to ...
In urban landscapes, nearby birds contribute to allochthonous nutrient flow from residential areas to fragmented forests by consuming food in residential areas and depositing feces in forests. To esti
Good science should always guide policy. In the ocean, policy reflects decades of scientific work on single species and on single endpoints, like water quality. However, it is now clear that ocean ecosystems are more than the sum of their parts, and policy needs to catch up to this new scientific understanding.. Of course, we must continue to protect the aspects of ocean ecosystems that we value the most. Fisheries need catch limits to keep stocks at sustainable levels. Pollutants need caps to keep waters fishable and swimmable. Forestry and farming need best practices and standards to keep estuaries healthy. But it turns out that ocean ecosystems have tipping points - ecological thresholds beyond which they undergo dramatic changes.. Healthy and resilient ocean ecosystems function similar to the United States governments system of checks and balances-different species do similar things but in slightly different ways, which help keep these systems both interconnected and even-keeled. However, ...
The concept of ecosystem services roared into the policy world in the mid-1990s and has been going strong since. It asks us to recognize a rather obvious proposition-that functioning ecosystems provide valuable services to human populations, such as storm surge protection from dunes and groundwater recharge from wetlands-and to incorporate those values into land use and resource management decisions. Yet, like many marriages, this one between economic and ecologic perspectives has attracted critics from both of the families.. On Wednesday, March 26, Pace Law School will host the annual Lloyd K. Garrison Lecture on Environmental Law at 5:00 p.m. in the Gerber Glass Moot Court Room at the Law School, featuring J.B. Ruhl, David Daniels Allen Distinguished Chair in Law, Co-director, Energy, Environment, and Land Use Program at Vanderbilt Law School, who will trace the arc of ecosystem services to the present, explain where it sits in law today, and describe and respond to the critiques from both ...
The concept of ecosystem services roared into the policy world in the mid-1990s and has been going strong since. It asks us to recognize a rather obvious proposition-that functioning ecosystems provide valuable services to human populations, such as storm surge protection from dunes and groundwater recharge from wetlands-and to incorporate those values into land use and resource management decisions. Yet, like many marriages, this one between economic and ecologic perspectives has attracted critics from both of the families.. On Wednesday, March 26, Pace Law School will host the annual Lloyd K. Garrison Lecture on Environmental Law at 5:00 p.m. in the Gerber Glass Moot Court Room at the Law School, featuring J.B. Ruhl, David Daniels Allen Distinguished Chair in Law, Co-director, Energy, Environment, and Land Use Program at Vanderbilt Law School, who will trace the arc of ecosystem services to the present, explain where it sits in law today, and describe and respond to the critiques from both ...
Ecosystem is a term used to describe the sum total of all living organisms in a geographic area, their relationships to each other and their non-living environment. There are two types of ecosystem: an aquatic ecosystem, which is a water-based ecosystem, and a terrestrial ecosystem, which is a land-based ...
Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differed from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above ...
Approximately twice as much carbon is stored in soils than is present in the atmosphere as CO2. Indeed, more carbon is stored in soil than in the atmosphere and above-ground biomass combined. Depending on land management and potential responses to future climate change terrestrial ecosystems can act as either a carbon source or a carbon sink. As well as the potential to store vast amounts of carbon, terrestrial ecosystems provide many services that rely on processes where organic matter is transformed.. The availability of biologically accessible nitrogen is a limiting factor in the primary productivity of many ecosystems. Much is known about the cycling of inorganic forms of N in soils, however, the processing of organic forms of N (such as amino acids and proteins) has received much less attention. Understanding how these compounds behave in complex ecosystems such as soil, is vital if we are to develop models to help inform land management and agricultural practices. In the OGU we study ...
The US Department of Defense (DoD) has granted $2 million to Harvard Forest researchers Kristina Stinson (UMass Amherst) and Serita Frey (UNH) for a five-year study of how soil microbial communities respond to major ecosystem change.. Soil fungi are crucial to the growth of many native trees, but their functions can be easily disrupted by the belowground toxins produced by garlic mustard (Allaria petiolata), a widespread invasive plant. The studys two main experiments will investigate how soil fungi repopulate an ecosystem after a garlic mustard invasion is eradicated.. One set of experiments will take place on DoD lands in Massachusetts and New York, the other will take place on existing soil warming and nitrogen addition plots at the Harvard Forest, which incorporate additional environmental stressors to mimic future global change. Stinson and Freys results will advance fundamental knowledge about soil fungi in forest ecosystems, and will improve resource managers ability to restore ...
Human activities from climate change to waste discharges to water management are modifying ecosystems across the earth, often in ways that are not well understood. This project addresses the problem of better understanding changes in aquatic ecosystems as driven by human disturbances interacting with natural processes. More specifically, the project studies a) the mechanisms of biological and ecological response to stressors such as metal contamination, nutrient enrichment, physical habitat alteration, climate change, and introduced species, and b) the influence of species, communities, and ecosystem processes on the distribution, transport, and fate of chemical contaminants (e.g., metals, nutrients). Most studies on the project ultimately consider physical, chemical and biological processes that interact in ecosystem change, as well as mechanisms of stressor-specific responses in species, populations, and communities, with an emphasis on invertebrate organisms/communities. Both intensive ...
One part of my research investigates how the environment and human activities influence the species composition of ecological communities. In other words, why do we find some species in some environments and how will species compositions change as a consequence of natural environmental change or due to human activities? These questions are investigated in both aquatic and terrestrial (forest) environments and at the border between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. When species compositions change, independent of reason, there will be effects on important ecosystem processes, the function of ecosystems and their ability to deliver ecosystem services. Hence, in my research, I try to understand the consequences of a changed species composition, or species loss, for ecosystems ability to function for other organisms (biodiversity) and human needs (ecosystem services). Here, it is important to understand how human needs may support or hurt general biodiversity, with the aim to obtain high ...
Q. Summary. One of the fundamental tenets of the concept of sustainable development is the maintenance of a homeostatic equilibrium within the ecosystem. Over-exploitation of the ecosystem, or degradation of its biotic structure, alters ecosystem processes to the point whereby the ability of the ecosystem to meet desired conditions is seriously diminished. Water is the medium for all ecological processes, from the molecular to the global scales. The physical quantification of ecological processes, in terms of water and energy, is fundamental to the scientific investigations that should underpin a programme of sound ecosystem management.. The most appropriate scale for measuring and quantifying energy and nutrient dynamics in aquatic ecosystems is the mesocycle within a basin, which forms the basic geographic unit within which to determine and quantify the interconnected processes that comprise the ecosystem and provide a framework for the interactions between its biotic, physical and chemical ...
Elements of risk management are found in a variety of risk assessment and management frameworks or guidelines. In some cases, planning processes rely upon risk assessment frameworks to ascertain risk without a clear sense of the ecosystem management context. The results of such risk assessments are, based on perceived management needs, sometimes misaligned with or irrelevant to the context of ecosystem management.. Risk assessment frameworks also typically focus on the characterization of the likelihood and magnitude of ecological impacts. They seldom ascertain socio-economic consequences in relation to both the communities of interest that depend on the ecosystem management outcomes being achieved and the regulatory or policy repercussions reliant on the governance structures needed to achieve such outcomes. Few frameworks provide the evaluation step needed to determine what level of management should be considered in light of a gap analysis of existing legislation and policy. The International ...
U.S.-led scientists have found that an ecosystem below an Antarctic glacier has survived millions of years by using sulfur and iron compounds for growth.. Co-led by Montana State University Professor John Priscu and Jill Mikucki of Dartmouth College, the scientists said the ecosystem lives without light or oxygen in a pool of brine trapped below Taylor Glacier, next to frozen Lake Bonney in eastern Antarctica.. Priscu said the ecosystem contains a diversity of bacteria that thrive in cold, salty water loaded with iron and sulfur. The water averages 14 degrees Fahrenheit, but doesnt freeze because it is three or four times saltier than the ocean. Since it has been isolated for so long in extreme conditions, the researchers said the ecosystem might explain how life could exist on other planets and serve as a model for how life can exist under ice.. Mikucki said the ecosystem has the ...
Many global change drivers (GCDs) lead to chronic alterations in resource availability. As communities change through time in response to these GCDs, the magnitude and direction of ecosystem responses is also predicted to change in a non-linear fashion. This LTER NCO Synthesis Working Group proposes to examine whether plant community dynamics are predictive of shifts in ecosystem function across 101 long-term resource manipulation experiments (including 32 LTER experiments).. The working group will address three main objectives: 1) identify temporal patterns of plant community change in response to global change manipulations; 2) link these patterns of community change to changes in aboveground net primary productivity and carbon storage; and 3) incorporate community change into ecosystem models predicting functional responses to GCDs. These objectives address four of the five LTER core thematic areas (primary production, population studies, organic matter dynamics, and disturbance ...
Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical forcing variables at a regional scale. Analysis, explanation, and ultimately prediction of such ecological phenomena are, however, impeded by a lack of knowledge of, and tools to delimit, spatial patterns of material supply to point locations. To more fully understand factors controlling spatially-explicit phenomena in aquatic ecosystems, specifically the physical forcing variable of water movement, we apply the concept of "resource sheds" to coasts and watersheds. Resource sheds are defined as source areas for materials supplied to an individual organism, population, or point location, over a specified time interval. Here we delimit resource shed total spatial extent and relative contributory importance across space, for ...
Agricultural ecosystems have been viewed with the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) through reduced tillage and cover cropping practices. There remains considerable uncertainty, however, regarding the carbon (C) sink/source potential of these systems and few studies have examined C dynamics in conjunction with other important greenhouse gases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an alternative management scenario (reduced tillage and cover cropping) on ecosystem respiration (RE) and nitrous oxide (N2O) andmethane (CH4) fluxes in a maize (Zea mays L.)/soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation ecosystem in east-central Minnesota, United States. The control treatment was managed using fall tillage with a chisel plow in combination with a tandem disk, and the experimental treatment was managed using strip tillage and a winter rye (Secal cereale) cover crop. Over the two-year study period (2004-2005), cumulative RE was 222.7 g C m 2
ACES, brings together government, non- governmental organization, academia, tribal, and private sector leaders to advance the use of ecosystem services and related science in conservation, restoration, resource management, and decisions.
Ecosystem Facilitation Given the hydrodynamic environment of marine ecosystems, mangroves forests, seagrass beds and coral reefs will always be connected via the seawater to neighboring ecosystems. This connection means that there can be an exchange of physical (hydrodynamic energy), chemical (sediment and nutrient) and biological (organisms) factors. As a consequence, changes in one specific ecosystem can have consequences on neighboring ecosystems both in close proximity or (via these connections) further away. In case adjacent ecosystems improve each other growing conditions, one could speak of large-scale facilitative or positive interactions. The research in this project aims at identifying the importance of local-scale facilitating and large-scale facilitation by ecosystem (especially nutrient) connections as critical factors needed for ecosystem-based designs, ecosystem conservation and re-establishment. This objective will be met by the combination of elaborating experimentally ...
Ecosystem Services Some economic values of an ecosystem are measured, with large margins of error, in terms of the goods and services that the ecosystem provides. The values estimate the cost of replacing these products and studying how much a buyer, including governments, would pay for such ecosystem service. Ecosystem services include: Species protection (think of what it costs to keep an endangered animal alive in a zoo, compared to a native habitat. Then think what extra is needed to keep their succeeding generations alive.), storm protection, flood control, drought recovery and other aspects of habitat response to environmental variability mainly controlled by vegetation structure, prevention of loss of soil by wind, runoff or other removal processes, soil formation, nutrient cycling, waste treatment, water filtration, pollution control, detoxification, atmospheric gas regulation, climate regulation, pollination, dynamic regulation of populations, reduction of herbivory by top predators, ...
Over the past quarter century, global change research has evolved to encompass many aspects of the human-Earth system. In the process, perturbations to the Earth system such as climate change, alterations to biogeochemical cycles, ozone depletion, human population, development, land use, and biodiversity loss have been made increasingly apparent through advancing capacity in monitoring, modeling, and the understanding of underlying processes. The evolution of global change research has not only advanced scientific understanding of Earth systems but has also heightened awareness and concern regarding the societal and ecological impacts of global environmental change. Major studies continue to enumerate these areas of concern (e.g., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the IPCC series of reports, U.S. National Climate Assessments). During the last 25 years, AGCI has played a leadership role in convening key workshops with a focus on interdisciplinary dialogue. These workshops have helped inform ...
Anthropogenic activity is causing dramatic changes in the nitrogen (N) cycle in many ecosystems. Most research has focused on the increase in N input caused by atmospheric deposition and invasion of N-fixing species, and on their effects on resource availability and species composition. However, in contrast to many ecosystems experiencing large increases in N input, many arid ecosystems are experiencing loss of nutrients due to land-use change. An important component of many arid ecosystems on a worldwide basis is the microbiotic crust, a biological soil crust composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, mosses, and algae. Nitrogen fixation by lichens and cyanobacteria comprising the crust is the primary source of N input in many of these ecosystems. We quantified the long-term consequences of surface disturbance in an arid ecosystem on the Colorado Plateau by comparing pristine sites with those of known disturbance history. Disturbance caused an increase in the abundance of cyanobacteria and a decrease in
While the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on parasite prevalence or richness are well investigated, host-parasite networks are still understudied despite their importance in understanding the mechanisms of these major disturbances. Because fragmentation may negatively impact species occupancy, abundance and co-occurrence, we predict a link between spatiotemporal changes in habitat and the architecture of host-parasite networks. For this, we used an extensive data set on 16 rodent species and 29 helminth species from seven localities of South-East Asia. We analysed the effects of rapid deforestation on connectance and modularity of helminth-parasite networks. We estimated both the degree of fragmentation and the rate of deforestation through the development of land uses and their changes through the last 20 to 30 years in order to take into account the dynamics of habitat fragmentation in our statistical analyses. We found that rapid fragmentation does not affect helminth ...
The foraging habitats of 7 species of marine apex predators were observed simultaneously in a shallow sea, with continuous measurements taken of the detailed bio-physical water column characteristics to determine habitat preferences. We found the occurrence of small-scale hotspots, where 50% of all animals were actively foraging in less than 5% of the 1000 km of transects surveyed. By investigating a contrasting range of foraging strategies across a variety of fish-eating seabirds and marine mammals, we determined which habitat characteristics were consistently important across species. A static habitat variable, tidal stratification, log(10)(h/U-3) (h = water depth, U = tidal current amplitude), was found to be the best indicator of the probability of presence and abundance of individual species. All 7 mobile top-predators preferentially foraged within habitats with small-scale (2 to 10 km) patches having (1) high concentrations of chlorophyll in the sub-surface chlorophyll maximum (CHLmax) ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! A broad range of agriculture-environment interactions can be organized around the concept of agriculture as a producer and consumer of ecosystem services. Viewed as capital assets, ecosystems embody production technologies that are valuable, complex, and often poorly understood. The quantity and quality of services they deliver depend almost always on the joint actions of many dispersed resource users. Furthermore, ecosystems deliver multiple types of services, across widely varying spatial scales. Efficient delivery of alternative environmental crops such as carbon sequestration, water quality, and wildlife habitat requires distinctive institutional forms, and an intellectual integration of ecology into agricultural economics.
The Ecosystems and Conservation team seeks to understand how ecosystems function and to effect management change that enhances the sustainability of resource use. Key stakeholders in our research are DOC, Maori, MPI, DairyNZ, MfE and Regional Councils. The team specialises in the use of quantitative tools to understand a diverse range of ecosystems including pastures, shingle beaches and forests including ancient stands reconstructed from their pollen records.. We use a range of techniques including micrometeorological, physiological, plot-based measurements and molecular and chemical analyses in order to enhance our understanding of the processes governing ecosystem function. We also use mechanistic, spatial and statistical models to achieve spatial and temporal scaling so that results can be generalised across the broad geographic areas and time scales relevant to our diverse stakeholders.. Much of our work is carried out at field study sites on farms, islands, public conservation lands and ...
conservaci n de la biodiversidad; gesti n forestal; procesos ecosist micos Abstract:,We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging,a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity. These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural ...
Kathys research interests are in how the Earth system is changing, both in response to and driven by human activities and the climate system. Much of her research has been focused on characterizing successional recovery and ecosystem change to catastrophic fire or incremental change in ecosystem structure and function due to direct human management (e.g., grazing, logging) and indirect human influence (e.g., fire suppression) in semiarid ecosystems. Kathy worked for over ten years for the Earth system modeling projects of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and expanded her knowledge of the terrestrial carbon, nitrogen and hydrologic cycles to global interactions with the atmosphere, coastal and marine systems. During that time, she worked with the global climate modeling community to develop a carbon cycle diagnostics framework for the Fifth IPCC Assessment Report (AR5) as well as the design and development of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) that form the ...
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being. From 2001 to 2005, the MA involved the work of more than 1,360 experts worldwide. Their findings provide a state-of-the-art scientific appraisal of the condition and trends in the worlds ecosystems and the services they provide, as well as the scientific basis for action to conserve and use them sustainably ...
Aim We developed an ecosystem classification within a 110,000-ha Arizona Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson (ponderosa pine) landscape to support ecological restoration of these forests. Specific objectives included identifying key environmental variables constraining ecosystem distribution and comparing plant species composition, richness and tree growth among ecosystems.. Location The Coconino National Forest and the Northern Arizona University Centennial Forest, in northern Arizona, USA.. Methods We sampled geomorphology, soils and vegetation on 66 0.05-ha plots in open stands containing trees of pre-settlement (c. 1875) origin, and on 26 plots in dense post-settlement stands. Using cluster analysis and ordination of vegetation and environment matrices, we classified plots into ecosystem types internally similar in environmental and vegetational characteristics.. Results We identified 10 ecosystem types, ranging from dry, black cinders/Phacelia ecosystems to moist aspen/Lathyrus ecosystems. ...
MEYER, Helen W. e KIRSTEN, Tiaan G.J.C.. The effect of psychological violence in the workplace on health: A holistic eco-system approach. Health SA Gesondheid (Online) [online]. 2014, vol.19, n.1, pp.1-11. ISSN 2071-9736. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hsag.v19i1.757.. BACKGROUND: Psychological violence has emerged as a priority concern in all workplaces because of its adverse consequences on victims health. So far, limited research has been conducted on the effect of psychological violence on the five interrelated contexts of human existence. OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study investigated the perceived effect of psychological violence in the workplace on staff members holistic health at a multi-campus South African Further Education and Training College. By investigating the effect of psychological violence on these five interrelated contexts, the resultant effect on holistic health might be more fully understood and applicable recommendations formulated to ameliorate the perceived effects. ...
The continued recovery of great whales may help to buffer marine ecosystems from destabilizing stresses," the team of scientists writes. This recovered role may be especially important as climate change threatens ocean ecosystems with rising temperatures and acidification. "As long-lived species, they enhance the predictability and stability of marine ecosystems," Roman said. Baleen and sperm whales, known collectively as the "great whales," include the largest animals to have ever lived on Earth. With huge metabolic demands - and large populations before humans started hunting them - great whales are the oceans ecosystem engineers: they eat many fish and invertebrates, are themselves prey to other predators like killer whales, and distribute nutrients through the water. Even their carcasses, dropping to the seafloor, provide habitat for many species that only exist on these "whale falls." Commercial whaling dramatically reduced the biomass and abundance of great whales.. "As humpbacks, gray ...
The effects of old-growth forests in relation to global warming has been contested in various studies and journals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: "In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit."[23]. Old-growth forests are often perceived to be in equilibrium or in a state of decay.[24] However, evidence from analysis of carbon stored above ground and in the soil has shown old-growth forests are more productive at storing carbon than younger forests.[25] Forest harvesting has little or no effect on the amount of carbon stored in the soil,[26] but other research suggests older forests that have trees of many ages, multiple layers, and little disturbance have the highest capacities for carbon storage.[27] As trees grow, they remove carbon from the ...
Understanding the key processes that control bacterial community composition has enabled predictions of bacterial distribution and function within ecosystems. In this study, we used the Baltic Sea as a model system to quantify the phylogenetic signal of salinity and season with respect to bacterioplankton community composition. The abundances of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reads were analyzed from samples obtained from similar geographic locations in July and February along a brackish to marine salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea. While there was no distinct pattern of bacterial richness at different salinities, the number of bacterial phylotypes in winter was significantly higher than in summer. Bacterial community composition in brackish vs. marine conditions, and in July vs. February was significantly different. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial community composition was primarily separated according to salinity and secondly according to seasonal differences at ...
Deforestation has detrimental consequences on biodiversity, affecting species interactions at multiple scales. The associations among vertebrates, pathogens and their commensal/symbiotic microbial communities (i.e. microbiomes) have important downstream effects for biodiversity conservation, yet we know little about how deforestation contributes to changes in host microbial diversity and pathogen abundance. Here, we tested the effects of landcover, forest connectivity and infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) on amphibian skin bacterial diversity along deforestation gradients in Brazilian landscapes. If disturbance to natural habitat alters skin microbiomes as it does in vertebrate host communities, then we would expect higher host bacterial diversity in natural forest habitats. Bd infection loads are also often higher in these closed-canopy forests, which may in turn impact skin-associated bacterial communities. We found that forest corridors shaped composition of ...
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP or sometimes T-RFLP) is a molecular biology technique for profiling of microbial communities based on the position of a restriction site closest to a labelled end of an amplified gene. The method is based on digesting a mixture of PCR amplified variants of a single gene using one or more restriction enzymes and detecting the size of each of the individual resulting terminal fragments using a DNA sequencer. The result is a graph image where the x-axis represents the sizes of the fragment and the y-axis represents their fluorescence intensity. TRFLP is one of several molecular methods aimed to generate a fingerprint of an unknown microbial community. Other similar methods include DGGE, TGGE, ARISA, ARDRA, PLFA, etc. These relatively high throughput methods were developed in order to reduce the cost and effort in analyzing microbial communities using a clone library. The method was first described by Liu and colleagues in 1997 which employed ...
Anthropogenic activities contribute to increased levels of nitrogen deposition and elevated CO2 concentrations in terrestrial ecosystems. The response of soil respiration to nitrogen fertilization in an on going 18- year field nitrogen amendment study was conducted from July 2014 to October 2014. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil carbon cycling, via respiration. Our objectives were to (1) test the hypothesis that N additions would increase soil respiration in Rocky Mountain National Park, and (2) understand the impacts of N additions on carbon ...

Microbiome Of The Gut: An Insight To A Diverse EcosystemMicrobiome Of The Gut: An Insight To A Diverse Ecosystem

... Dr. Maya Kuczma , Minute Read. Gut Health, Health. ... There are trillions of bacteria residing throughout our body, creating a diverse ecosystem. Most of these bacteria reside in ...
more infohttps://integrative.ca/gut-microbiome-diverse-ecosystem/

FES Homepage | Forest Ecosystems & SocietyFES Homepage | Forest Ecosystems & Society

The Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society at Oregon State is world renowned for its education, outreach and research in ...
more infohttp://fes.forestry.oregonstate.edu

Eco-systemEco-system

... the world that needs to be saved. The eco-system, the biosphere, not the planet, but nevertheless our world, is a ... who make a big to-do about least terns or eucalyptus trees instead of sounding a much louder alarm for the entire ecosystem may ...
more infohttp://www.angelfire.com/amiga2/enclavista/DefinitionsTermsConcepts/Eco-system.htm

ecosystem | PNASecosystem | PNAS

Allowing variance may enlarge the safe operating space for exploited ecosystems Stephen R. Carpenter, William A. Brock, Carl ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/keyword/ecosystem

Ecosystem | New ScientistEcosystem | New Scientist

Ecosystem *. News 19 January 2018. Commercial electric pulse fishing should be banned for now. The growing use in Europe of ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/article-topic/ecosystem/

Knowledge ecosystem - WikipediaKnowledge ecosystem - Wikipedia

Like natural ecosystems, these knowledge ecosystems have inputs, throughputs and outputs operating in open exchange ... 2005). Chapter 7: Towards an Integrated Knowledge Ecosystem: A Research Strategy in Towards an Integrated Knowledge Ecosystem: ... Knowledge Ecology: Knowledge Ecosystems for Business Education and Training. *^ Homa Bahrami,J. Stuart Evans (2005). The ... The idea of a knowledge ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_ecosystem

LogicalDOC EcosystemLogicalDOC Ecosystem

... * 1. Document Repository FullText Search Index Repository Records Repository WORKFLOW CRM System ERP ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/logicalobjects/logicaldoc-ecosystem

Device Description EcosystemDevice Description Ecosystem

In a working ecosystem, those demanding trust must place a value on this trust and therefore accept the associated overheads. ... At the time of writing, the ecosystem is still in its early days. Models of exchange and management have yet to evolve and ... Device Description Ecosystem. W3C Working Draft 21 November 2005. This version:. http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-dd-ecosystem- ... Many actors are unsure of the roles they will play in the ecosystem, but there is general agreement that the availability of ...
more infohttp://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-dd-ecosystem-20051121/

Ecosystem | SASEcosystem | SAS

It takes a village! Analytics and its benefits can be pervasive, and it takes close collaboration of the ecosystem and its ...
more infohttps://www.sas.com/en_my/events/18/analytics-insights-exchange-malaysia-july2018/ecosystem.html

EcosystemEcosystem

182 Followers A Cloud-centric Ecosystem Approach to Ease IoT Development by Yujing Wu Yujing Wu Follow 0 Followers Posted on ... Yujing Wu discusses two use cases of a cloud-based IoT ecosystem that enables IoT device communication across silos and ... Paul Fremantle explores open source approaches to APIs and PaaS to create new digital connected ecosystems. He takes a look at ... making banking data more accessible via an ecosystem of apps and services. ...
more infohttps://www.infoq.com/ecosystem

Ecosystem ReviewEcosystem Review

... Quick review of the ecosystem, aimed at developing context specific impact initiatives to create & implement ... in order to develop the fabric of well-functioning ICT centric innovation ecosystem.. The project based ecosystem review ... The Ecosystem Review is a lightweight Country Review and implementation framework looking into core challenges of systemic ...
more infohttps://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Innovation/Pages/Platform/ecosystemreview.aspx

Novel ecosystem - WikipediaNovel ecosystem - Wikipedia

Novel ecosystems "differ in composition and/or function from present and past systems".[13] Novel ecosystems are the hallmark ... Odum, E. P. (2001). "The "Techno-Ecosystem"". Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 82 (2): 137-138. JSTOR 20168542.. ... Novel ecosystems are part of the human environment and niche (including urban, suburban, and rural), they lack natural analogs ... Novel ecosystems are human-built, modified, or engineered niches of the Anthropocene. They exist in places that have been ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technoecosystems

EcosystemEcosystem

So, basically with this track I wanted to reflect an ecosystem. The key feature of an ecosystem is harmony; a functioning ... to really highlight the unity of an ecosystem. However, an ecosystem is also diverse, so youre going to hear plenty of ...
more infohttps://www.newgrounds.com/audio/listen/504339

IBM Blockchain Ecosystem  | IBMIBM Blockchain Ecosystem | IBM

What is the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem?. No single company can unlock the potential of blockchain on its own. Which is why the ... Discover blockchain opportunities with the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem Access the tools, networks and resources to build and scale ... Thierry Hubert, CEO, Darwin Ecosystem, explains how IBM Watson helps with tasks that vary from gleaning insights on personality ... Explore the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem for the right opportunities and networks to help you achieve business success. ...
more infohttps://www.ibm.com/blockchain/ecosystem?cm_mmc=OSocial_Blog-_-Blockchain+and+Watson+Financial+Services_Blockchain-_-WW_WW-_-How+the+benefits+of+open+source+blockchain+can+benefit+credit+markets+In+Text+Ecosystem&

Business Ecosystem DefinitionBusiness Ecosystem Definition

A business ecosystem is the network of organizations involved in the delivery of a specific product or service through both ... Ecosystems and Competition Ecosystems create strong barriers to entry for new competition, as potential entrants not only have ... Understanding Business Ecosystems In the 1930s, British botanist Arthur Tansley introduced the term ecosystem to describe a ... What Is a Business Ecosystem? A business ecosystem is the network of organizations-including suppliers, distributors, customers ...
more infohttps://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/business-ecosystem.asp

Iranian Startup EcosystemIranian Startup Ecosystem

... * Iran Startup Ecosystem First Published: August 3, 2015 Version 1.13 ... CEE Startup Ecosystem by Founder of 150sec... 11057 views * Innovation is Everywhere - Startups... by Innovation is Eve... ... Vietnam Startup Ecosystem (May 2015) by Topica Founder In... 10501 views * Intro to la startup community [avesta] by Yohei ... Startup Ecosystem * Why Iran? Population: 80+ million 20-35: 32 million Users: ~40+ million 50% Users: ~ 72 million Est. 30+ ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/Techly/iranian-startup-ecosystem

Biodiversity: Ecosystem approachBiodiversity: Ecosystem approach

Ecosystem approach The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that ... Ecosystem approaches are applied to specific elements in FAOs work, and most notably, through its work:. *in achieving ... The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes ... An ecosystem approach to agriculture and natural resource management explicitly identifies opportunities and trade-offs. It can ...
more infohttp://www.fao.org/biodiversity/cross-sectoral-issues/ecosystem-approach/en/

The Evolving EcosystemThe Evolving Ecosystem

... By ‎@ev‎ Friday, 3 September 2010 Link copied successfully ... Its great to see this kind of variety and growth in the ecosystem as it moves beyond basic Twitter clients. These new services ... to user growth and new business opportunities-both of which are critical to the long-term viability of the ecosystem. Were ...
more infohttps://blog.twitter.com/official/en_us/a/2010/the-evolving-ecosystem.html

EcosystemEcosystem

The Ecostation What to Do Green Architecture The Ecosystem Prairie Ridge Blog Nature Garden Rules and Regulations Nature ...
more infohttps://naturalsciences.org/prairie-ridge/ecosystem

Ecosystem Services | IUCNEcosystem Services | IUCN

The earths ecosystems provide various services which are crucial for human well-being and economic development (e.g., ... Ecosystem Services. The earths ecosystems provide various services which are crucial for human well-being and economic ... In this way, both "sellers" and "buyers" of ecosystem services can profit while helping to protect ecosystems. ... As the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has shown, ecosystems have seriously been changed in the past century. Although these ...
more infohttps://www.iucn.org/km/node/25453

Moqui Ecosystem / Wiki / HomeMoqui Ecosystem / Wiki / Home

Moqui is an all-in-one, enterprise-ready application framework based on Groovy and Java. Moqui includes tools for screens, services, entities. NOTE: the code repository for Moqui is hosted on GitHub at: https://github.com/jonesde/moqui ...
more infohttps://sourceforge.net/p/moqui/wiki/Home/

2. ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS2. ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

It relates to ecosystem issues of key relevance to EAF such as: (1) the characteristics of ecosystems, their complexity, ... The description of the fishers interaction within the ecosystem requires identification of four main ecosystem compartments: ( ... As stated by Lackey (1999), ecosystems are defined at a wide range of scales of observation "from a drop of morning dew to an ... An ecosystem is a very complex entity with many interactive components. It can be defined as "a system of complex interactions ...
more infohttp://www.fao.org/3/Y4773E/y4773e04.htm

My EcosystemMy Ecosystem

... students should write a short poem about the interaction of the biotic and abiotic factors in their mini-ecosystem. It should ...
more infohttps://www.uen.org/lessonplan/view/37293

Ecosystem AnalysisEcosystem Analysis

Summarize how energy flows through an ecosystem.. Materials:. *student sheet (attached) *video about ecosystems and food chains ... Students should be familiar with the concept of an ecosystem and a food web. Instructional Procedures:. *Distribute handout to ... Students will watch a video that discusses ecosystems and food chains and complete the accompanying video guide. Main ...
more infohttp://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=37196
  • IUCN uses ecosystem-based approaches and works with governments and local communities to develop and implement policies and actions contributing to long-term disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation . (iucn.org)
  • IUCN addresses information gaps and capacity needs on the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems , with the aim of achieving sustainable and resilient development. (iucn.org)
  • Thierry Hubert, CEO, Darwin Ecosystem, explains how IBM Watson helps with tasks that vary from gleaning insights on personality for HR and recruiting purposes to ensuring correct medical coding. (ibm.com)
  • The Watson Ecosystem is driving innovation. (ibm.com)
  • The IBM Watson Ecosystem program is made for ISVs looking to dramatically disrupt and transform an existing market. (ibm.com)
  • An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem). (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy and carbon enter ecosystems through photosynthesis, are incorporated into living tissue, transferred to other organisms that feed on the living and dead plant matter, and eventually released through respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecosystem diversity boosts the availability of oxygen via the process of photosynthesis amongst plant organisms domiciled in the habitat. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1930s, British botanist Arthur Tansley introduced the term ecosystem to describe a community of organisms interacting with each other and their environments-air, water, earth, etc. (investopedia.com)
  • It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment, and recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems. (fao.org)
  • These long- and medium-term natural fluctuations result in changes in distribution, abundance and physiology of marine organisms, associated with changes in the extension, localization, structure, productivity and other characteristics of the ecosystems in which they live. (fao.org)
  • The idea of a knowledge ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions between entities to improve decision-making and innovation through improved evolutionary networks of collaboration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Agent-Based Approach for Revitalization Strategy of Knowledge Ecosystem J. Phys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ecosystem Review is a lightweight Country Review and implementation framework looking into core challenges of systemic approach. (itu.int)
  • The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. (fao.org)
  • An ecosystem approach to agriculture and natural resource management explicitly identifies opportunities and trade-offs. (fao.org)
  • The ecosystem approach to agriculture requires adjustments in institutional and governance arrangements that ensure informed, balanced, transparent and legitimate decision making in relation to trade-offs and stakeholder participation. (fao.org)
  • Stakeholders can quickly come together on the scope & agreement on the problems to develop specific projects, and engage in quick high impact initiatives to help address missing pieces in the framework, in order to develop the fabric of well-functioning ICT centric innovation ecosystem. (itu.int)
  • The idea is that each entity in the ecosystem affects and is affected by the others, creating a constantly evolving relationship in which each entity must be flexible and adaptable in order to survive as in a biological ecosystem. (investopedia.com)
  • Ecosystem diversity deals with the variations in ecosystems within a geographical location and its overall impact on human existence and the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecosystems may be considered at different geographical scales, from a grain of sand with its rich microfauna, to a whole beach, a coastal area or estuary, a semi-enclosed sea and, eventually, the whole Earth. (fao.org)
  • Ecosystems defined at a given geographical and functional scale are therefore nested within larger ones and contain smaller ones with which they exchange matter and information. (fao.org)
  • While mapping ecosystems is one of the prerequisites of their management, their geographical boundaries are not easy to determine. (fao.org)
  • Yujing Wu discusses two use cases of a cloud-based IoT ecosystem that enables IoT device communication across silos and interoperability across different vendors. (infoq.com)
  • Students will watch a video that discusses ecosystems and food chains and complete the accompanying video guide. (uen.org)
  • In effect, the business ecosystem consists of a network of interlinked companies that dynamically interact with each other through competition and cooperation to grow sales and survive. (investopedia.com)
  • Simon Redfern presents how the Open Bank Project innovates by leveraging open APIs, open source and open data, making banking data more accessible via an ecosystem of apps and services. (infoq.com)
  • The economic community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. (investopedia.com)
  • These new services help people get the most out of Twitter, contributing to user growth and new business opportunities-both of which are critical to the long-term viability of the ecosystem. (twitter.com)
  • Although these changes have led to net gains in human well-being and economic development in some parts of the world, the gains have far too often gone hand in hand with deterioration of the ecosystem services. (iucn.org)
  • In this way, both "sellers" and "buyers" of ecosystem services can profit while helping to protect ecosystems. (iucn.org)
  • An ecosystem is a very complex entity with many interactive components. (fao.org)
  • Those companies holding leadership roles may change over time, but the function of ecosystem leader is valued by the community because it enables members to move toward shared visions to align their investments and to find mutually supportive roles. (investopedia.com)
  • Moore suggested that a company be viewed not as a single firm in an industry, but as a member of a business ecosystem with participants spanning across multiple industries. (investopedia.com)
  • When an ecosystem thrives, it means that the participants have developed patterns of behavior that streamline the flow of ideas, talent, and capital throughout the system. (investopedia.com)
  • The project based ecosystem review includes an implementation, monitoring and evaluation framework for long term engagement. (itu.int)
  • Through the SIA program, we help accelerate the development of cohesive security solutions, simplify the integration of these products, and provide a truly integrated, connected security ecosystem to maximize the value of existing customer security investments. (mcafee.com)
  • Which is why the IBM Blockchain Ecosystem provides companies building on the IBM Blockchain Platform a range of opportunities to access valuable new channels, exclusive strategic partnerships and innovative technology and resources to accelerate growth. (ibm.com)
  • Analytics and its benefits can be pervasive, and it takes close collaboration of the ecosystem and its partners to bring today's connected world of Intelligence to life. (sas.com)
  • Ecosystems are dynamic entities-invariably, they are subject to periodic disturbances and are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has shown, ecosystems have seriously been changed in the past century. (iucn.org)
  • Vegetation associations on old buildings or along field boundary stone walls in old agricultural landscapes are examples of sites where research into novel ecosystem ecology is developing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diversity in the ecosystem is significant to human existence for a variety of reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's great to see this kind of variety and growth in the ecosystem as it moves beyond basic Twitter clients. (twitter.com)
  • Ecosystems create strong barriers to entry for new competition. (investopedia.com)
  • Ecosystems create strong barriers to entry for new competition, as potential entrants not only have to duplicate or better the core product, but they must also compete against the entire system of independent complementing businesses and suppliers that form the network. (investopedia.com)
  • Ecosystems are dynamic, composite entities within which large quantities of matter, energy and information flow, within and between components, in a way that is not yet completely understood. (fao.org)
  • Students should be familiar with the concept of an ecosystem and a food web. (uen.org)
  • To understand knowledge ecology as a productive operation, it is helpful to focus on the knowledge ecosystem that lies at its core. (wikipedia.org)
  • This common communications layer connects products and capabilities developed from a vibrant ecosystem of players. (mcafee.com)