The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.
The economic aspects of health care, its planning, and delivery. It includes government agencies and organizations in the private sector.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
Economic aspects of the nursing profession.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
Instructional materials used in teaching.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

Psychosocial and economic problems of parents of children with epilepsy. (1/433)

The parents of children with epilepsy (PCE) face multiple psychosocial and economic problems that are often neglected. We undertook this study to ascertain these problems among the patients attending a tertiary referral center for epilepsy in India. A structured questionnaire was administrated to parents of 50 children aged between 5-10 years and having epilepsy for more than 1 year's duration. Some 52% of the children had partial epilepsy whilst the remaining had generalized epilepsy. The median seizure frequency was one per 6 months. The majority of the patients (86%) were living in villages. The family income was less than 1000 Rs per month (1 USD = 42 INR) for 66% of the patients. A decline in social activities, after the onset of epilepsy in their children, was reported by 80% of the parents. Daily routines were significantly affected in over 75% of the parents. Parents had been experiencing frustration (52%) and hopelessness (76%), whilst 60% were in financial difficulties. The most important item of expenditure was cost of drugs or cost of travel to hospital for 54% and 36% parents respectively. Impaired emotional status and poor social adaptation were co-related with the severity of epilepsy (frequent seizures/generalized seizures/attention disorder) and low economic status of the parents. These observations need to be borne in mind while organizing rehabilitation programs for epilepsy.  (+info)

The health impact of economic sanctions. (2/433)

Embargoes and sanctions are tools of foreign policy. They can induce a decline in economic activity in addition to reducing imports and untoward health effects can supervene, especially among older persons and those with chronic illnesses. Often, violations of the rights of life, health, social services, and protection of human dignity occur among innocent civilians in embargoed nations. This paper examines the effects of embargoes and sanctions against several nations, and calls for studies to determine ways in which economic warfare might be guided by the rule of humanitarian international law, to reduce the effects on civilians. It suggests that the ability to trade in exempted goods and services should be improved, perhaps by establishing uniform criteria and definitions for exemptions, operational criteria under which sanctions committees might function, and methods for monitoring the impact of sanctions on civilian populations in targeted states, particularly with regard to water purity, food availability, and infectious-disease control. Prospective studies are advocated, to generate the data needed to provide better information and monitoring capacity than presently exists.  (+info)

Rapid economic growth and 'the four Ds' of disruption, deprivation, disease and death: public health lessons from nineteenth-century Britain for twenty-first-century China? (3/433)

Rapid economic growth has always entailed serious disruption: environmental, ideological, and political. As a result the relationship between economic growth and public health is complex since such disruption always threatens to spill over into deprivation, disease and death. The populations of most current high-income, high-life expectancy countries of 'the West' endured several decades of severely compromised health when they first experienced industrialization in the last century Although health technologies have moved on, the social, administrative and political disruption accompanying economic growth can still impede the delivery of health improvements. The case history of 19th-century laissez-faire Britain is explored in some detail to demonstrate the importance of these social and political forces, particularly the relative vigour and participatory nature of local government, linking to recent work on the importance of social capital in development. For a country like China today, paradoxically, there is nothing that needs such careful planning as a 'free market' economy.  (+info)

The challenge for Cuba. (4/433)

The restrictions of a U.S. trade embargo and the collapse of the Soviet Union marked the beginning of a period of extreme economic hardship in Cuba. Economic adversity has had tremendous effects, both positive and negative, on all aspects of life on the Island, including environmental and public health.  (+info)

Life expectancy in Central and Eastern European countries and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union: changes by gender. (5/433)

AIM: To examine changes in life expectancy at birth for countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS) for the period 1989-1996. Differences in the change by gender were examined and several factors which likely bear on the changes were discussed. Methods. Data from the WHO Health for All European Data Base were used to determine changes in life expectancy and selected economic factors for CEE and NIS countries. RESULTS: Changes in life expectancy varied by gender in both CEE and the NIS, with the difference increasing for the two groups during the period with the largest increase occurring in the NIS. Both male and female life expectancy declined, with male life expectancy dropping at a more rapid rate. In 1994, the year in which most, but not all countries, reached a low point, life expectancy for males had declined below 60 years for two countries. CONCLUSIONS: The most striking point about the decline in life expectancies was the short period in which the declines occurred, especially in the NIS. It is not possible to determine the exact cause for the changes, but there are likely multiple reasons. It is not completely clear why the decline in life expectancy was greater for males, although the linkage between economic and behavioral and lifestyle factors appear to have some association. Further research is necessary to determine why effects by gender vary so greatly and whether the negative outcomes are a short-term anomaly or will persist.  (+info)

Health insurance and productivity. (6/433)

AIM: To provide a conceptual understanding of the basic relationship between health insurance and overall economic productivity, and to look at the human development index as a proxy for the quality of human capital. METHODS: Economic data and data related to human development in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Croatia, were compared to the European Union (EU) average. Data were selected out of databases provided by the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations. Income and growth rates were related to the EU averages. The human development index was used to compare the level of the average achievements in the longevity of life, knowledge, and quality of living in CEE countries. RESULTS: Relative to the EU-average, human development is lagging behind in CEE countries. Considering the world as a benchmark regarding human development, 8 out of 13 CEE countries exceed the world. However, all CEE countries have 3-28% lower human development than the industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS: The specific challenge for transition countries is how to adopt strategies to translate economic progress into health and social gains through reliable institutions, among them social health insurance bodies. The institutions and the provision of social health insurance are particularly challenged at a turning point when transition in terms of macroeconomic stabilization, along with the consolidated organization and financing of social and health insurance schemes, is accommodated to a business cycle-driven market economy.  (+info)

The world economic crisis. Part 1: Repercussions on health. (7/433)

The widespread economic crisis has resulted in a fall in living standards in the western hemisphere of over 9% (1981-83) and in Sub-Saharan Africa they have fallen to the level of 1970. Food production in the African countries most seriously affected by drought dropped by 15% between 1981 and 1983. Living standards also fell in some countries in Europe and in some of the poorest countries of Asia. The high cost of fuel, the heavy burden of interest payments and unfavourable terms of trade in Africa and Latin America led to serious unemployment, devaluation of national currencies and formidable austerity policies. While some countries have succeeded in protecting their health services from cuts in public expenditure, in many others cuts in health budgets have been substantial. The effects of the crisis in some countries have amounted to the virtual disintegration of rural health services. There are limited data available to show what has been happening to levels of expenditure on health, but those presented here demonstrate that levels of health expenditure per head have fallen in many countries. The cumulative effects on health of increased poverty, unemployment, underemployment and famine, and the reduced capacity of health services to respond to health problems can be documented with facts for a number of countries in Latin America and Africa. Malnutrition has increased and improvements in infant mortality have been checked or reversed. The economic crisis has placed at risk the health of the most vulnerable.  (+info)

Fish and mammals in the economy of an ancient Peruvian kingdom. (8/433)

Fish and mammal bones from the coastal site of Cerro Azul, Peru shed light on economic specialization just before the Inca conquest of A. D. 1470. The site devoted itself to procuring anchovies and sardines in quantity for shipment to agricultural communities. These small fish were dried, stored, and eventually transported inland via caravans of pack llamas. Cerro Azul itself did not raise llamas but obtained charqui (or dried meat) as well as occasional whole adult animals from the caravans. Guinea pigs were locally raised. Some 20 species of larger fish were caught by using nets; the more prestigious varieties of these show up mainly in residential compounds occupied by elite families.  (+info)

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This chapter works out the total value added in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors based largely on the estimates already set out in the book. The result is an estimate of GDP for c. 1595 at 25,058.51 million dāms, with the primary sector accounting for 52.4 per cent, secondary 18.2 per cent, and tertiary 29.4 per cent. The per capita income in terms of wheat works out as 14.69 maunds, compared to 14.51 maunds in 1901-10. The significant feature of GDP in c. 1595 was the large secondary sector (18.18 per cent against 11.20 per cent in 1901-10), which suggests that de-industrialization during the nineteenth century was indeed a significant phenomenon.
The haute-couture fashion era started in October 1773, when Rose Bertin (1747 - 1813), an unmarried twenty-four-year-old woman from Picardy, set up a little shop exotically named Le Grand Mogol on Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris. In the large shop windows she displayed her one-of-a-kind ensembles, covered from neckline to hemline in luscious frippery. However, her calling card to the French court was the innovate headdress called the pouf, that she invented. Soon, Rose was introduced to the Queen Marie Antoinette and eventually became her couturière, confidante and friend - Minister of Fashion as her detractors used to call her. The Queens mourning dress, after the execution of the Louis XVI, would also be tailored by Bertin.. Bertins creations became a great success and haute couture orders started to arrive from London, Sankt Petersburg, Vienna, Venice and Constantinople. Thus, France made its first step towards turning into a centre of the fashion industry.. ...
Examples of simple economic theory models are analyzed as restrictions on the Cointegrated VAR (CVAR). This establishes a correspondence between basic economic concepts and the econometric concepts of the CVAR: The economic relations correspond to cointegrating vectors and exogeneity in the economic model is related to econometric concepts of exogeneity. The economic equilibrium corresponds to the so-called long-run value (Johansen 2005), the long-run impact matrix, C; captures the comparative statics and the exogenous variables are the common trends. The adjustment parameters of the CVAR are related to expectations formation, market clearing, nominal rigidities, etc. Finally, the general-partial equilibrium distinction is analyzed. ...
First published in 1904, this important economic work explores some of the leading principles underlining the development of international trade. Hobson offered a departure from the conventional treatment of international trade in economic theory,…
My title is intended to suggest that the community of scientists is organized in a way which resembles certain features of a body politic and works according to economic principles similar to those by which the production of material goods is regulated. Much of what I will have to say will be common knowledge among scientists, but I believe that it will recast the subject from a novel point of view which can both profit from and have a lesson for political and economic theory. For in the free cooperation of independent scientists we shall find a highly simplified model of a free society, which presents in isolation certain basic features of it that are more difficult to identify within the comprehensive functions of a national body.. The first thing to make clear is that scientists, freely making their own choice of problems and pursuing them in the light of their own personal judgment, are in fact co-operating as members of a closely knit organization. The point can be settled by considering ...
As a widely used tool of foreign policy, economic sanctions take many forms. They include mandating trade restrictions (for example, limiting imports from or exports to a sanctioned nation), freezing bank accounts, limiting international travel to and from an area, imposing additional tariffs, and exerting other pressures that are intended to slow key economic activities. Since the end of the Cold War, as the global market has expanded, many countries and the United Nations have increasingly used economic sanctions instead of military intervention to compel nations to end civil or extraterritorial war or to reduce abuse of human rights. Similarly, the United States has attempted to influence international governments domestic policies by using other economic means, such as relating most favored nation trading status to a countrys human rights record or prohibiting the import of goods from countries in which illegal child labor is widespread. ...
In interview with The Weekend Australian, the prime minister says Iran, for the first time, is beginning to bend under sanctions and under threat of sanctions on central bank.
The U.S. Department of the Treasury expanded the sanction for the export of medical devices on Thursday to ensure the longstanding sanctions on Iran do not hinder the import of humanitarian aid.
Attached is the text of a letter from the President to the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the House and Senate Committees on Armed Services and the Judiciary, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Committee on Ways and Means, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the Senate Committees on Foreign Relations and Finance, and the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence regarding sanctions on foreign narcotics kingpins.. ...
The UN Security Council has unanimously approved tough new sanctions on North Korea in response to the latest launch of a ballistic missile that Pyongyang says is capable of reaching anywhere on the US mainland.
The U.S. Treasury Department has slapped sanctions on Irans main intelligence organization, accusing it of supporting terrorist groups, committing human rights abuses, and backing the Syrian governments lethal crackdown on its citizens.
Gordon Brown was last night fighting to salvage Britains policy on Zimbabwe after moves to impose sanctions on Robert Mugabes regime collapsed.
This study contains data on the political, social, economic, religious, ecological, and demographic characteristics of 32 Black African nations in the late 1950s and 1960s. Data are provided on political regime characteristics, such as the existence and nature of political parties, elections, the nature of the judicial system, the extent of government influence, and the occurrence of riots, civil violence, terrorist activities, civil wars, irredentist movements, and coup detats. Economic variables provide information on government revenues, government expenditures, gross domestic capital formation, public investment as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), defense budgets, energy, investment, labor, number of wage earners as a percentage of active population, industrial production, electricity production, per capita energy consumption, educational expenditures, economic welfare, consumer price index, international economic aid, total international ...
This study contains data on the political, social, economic, religious, ecological, and demographic characteristics of 32 Black African nations in the late 1950s and 1960s. Data are provided on political regime characteristics, such as the existence and nature of political parties, elections, the nature of the judicial system, the extent of government influence, and the occurrence of riots, civil violence, terrorist activities, civil wars, irredentist movements, and coup detats. Economic variables provide information on government revenues, government expenditures, gross domestic capital formation, public investment as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), defense budgets, energy, investment, labor, number of wage earners as a percentage of active population, industrial production, electricity production, per capita energy consumption, educational expenditures, economic welfare, consumer price index, international economic aid, total international ...
Seminal papers of Solow (1957) and Swan (1956) stimulated debate among economists on the role of technical change in productivity improvements and for that matter economic growth. The consensus is that technological change accounts for a significant proportion of gross national product (GNP) growth in industrialised economies. In the case of Australia, the aggregate productivity performance was poor in the 1970s and 1980s, but picked up very strongly by the 1990s, and was above the OECD average growth level for the first time in its productivity growth history. However, this high productivity growth rate could not be sustained and Australia started to experience a slowdown in productivity growth since 2000. This study empirically measures the performance of productivity in Australias economy for the period 1950-2005, using an econometric approach. Time-series data are used to develop econometric models that capture the dynamic interactions between GDP, fixed capital, labour units, human ...
Three Core Values of Development Economics Three core values serve as standards of development. Sustenance. This refers to the capacity to meet basic necessities such as food, clothing, and shelter. Lack of even one of these means that a...
Information for calculation of Producer price indices in industry is received on the bases of monthly surveys on producer prices of industrial products, sold on the domestic market and on industrial products sold on non-domestic market. The aim of Producer price surveys is: (1) To be compared prices of specific products with equal quality in the two surveyed time periods; (2) In the case of quality change of the surveyed specific products this quality change to be taken into account.. Data collection is based on a representative sample of products (specifications).. Producer price indexes on domestic market: According to the methodology the sampling method used for domestic producer price index compilation involves a three stage sampling process: first PRODCOM groups are selected, as a second step - reporting units are selected and then specific products (specifications) are selected. The sample method used is probability proportional to size.. On the base of the annual survey on production and ...
Information for calculation of Producer price indices in industry is received on the bases of monthly surveys on producer prices of industrial products, sold on the domestic market and on industrial products sold on non-domestic market. The aim of Producer price surveys is: (1) To be compared prices of specific products with equal quality in the two surveyed time periods; (2) In the case of quality change of the surveyed specific products this quality change to be taken into account.. Data collection is based on a representative sample of products (specifications).. Producer price indexes on domestic market: According to the methodology the sampling method used for domestic producer price index compilation involves a three stage sampling process: first PRODCOM groups are selected, as a second step - reporting units are selected and then specific products (specifications) are selected. The sample method used is probability proportional to size.. On the base of the annual survey on production and ...
Agriculture, farming, and fishing form the primary sector of industry of the Japanese economy, together with the Japanese mining industry, but together they account for only 1.3% of gross national product. Only 20% of Japans land is suitable for cultivation, and the agricultural economy is highly subsidized.. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominated the Japanese economy until the 1940s, but thereafter declined into relative unimportance. In the late 19th century (Meiji period), these sectors had accounted for more than 80% of employment. Employment in agriculture declined in the prewar period, but the sector was still the largest employer (about 50% of the work force) by the end of World War II. It was further declined to 23.5% in 1965, 11.9% in 1977, and to 7.2% in 1988. The importance of agriculture in the national economy later continued its rapid decline, with the share of net agricultural production in GNP finally reduced between 1975 and 1989 from 4.1% to 3% In the late 1980s, 85.5% ...
If national economic improvements lead to greater expenditure on tobacco but not on food, then the benefit of the economic growth will be erased. Increased spending power is not sufficient to guarantee improvements in well being, particularly where tobacco companies advertise their products freely to an uneducated public. In Bangladesh, where tobacco prices remained low and advertising proliferated, the most significant spending change over the years was in more money going to cigarettes, rather than food. In that situation, reducing taxes on tobacco products may be regressive, as it provides an incentive for more poor people to use tobacco and to spend more of their income on tobacco.12 13 As others have also observed, since the poor are more responsive to price and thus more likely to reduce usage or quit when prices increase, they may actually save money when taxes increase.14-16 UNICEF estimates that Bangladesh loses the equivalent of more than 5% of its gross national product in lost lives, ...
The second and third ancillary value judgments do not spring directly from the world view. Instead, they make the paradigm based thereon operational. The separation of means and ends is not strictly required by the world view itself, but is an operational requirement, without which the paradigm could generate no meaningful research or study. If means and ends were not mutually exclusive, then neo-classical economics would be nothing more than a simple statement that humans do what they do because they wish to do it. There could be, for example, no inquiry into how satisfaction is maximized by choosing among various alternatives. If some activity (e.g., production or consumption) could be both means and end then one could not determine which part is which. This results in the value judgment that consumption is the end or `good to be achieved. In so doing, any good inherent in the process or means for obtaining higher consumption is ignored. For example, if the production activity of human labor ...
This is the latest in a string of blunders, mishaps and falsehoods that have evidently crept into IPCC AR4, touted as THE most well-researched and vetted scientific publication in human history. Just yesterday it came out that the IPCC AR4 report used exaggerated and actually completely unfounded numbers, when describing the Netherlands as being susceptible to both sea-level rise and river flooding because 55% of its territory is below sea level where 60% of its population lives and 65% of its Gross National Product (GNP) is produced. In actual fact, only 20% of our damp corner lies below sea level, which represents 19% GNP ...
1.1 BACKGROUND. Even though a country may be naturally endowed with diverse kinds of resources, the gestures of such country lies in her ability to manage her resources properly. Public sector, in a nutshell, is the sector that manages the resources of the government in other to ensure effective and efficient allocation of these resources for satisfaction of the citizenry concerned. The sector is used in implementing government policies. It is the tool for accelerating development in the entire economy. For instance, it accounts for approximately two-third of gross national products (GNPs) in Nigeria. Pubic sector includes all government ministries and departments, extra-ministerial department, parastatals agencies, commissions and public enterprises. Being a service-oriented sector, it is usually budget financed.. Essentially, funds, in the public sector, refers to the sum of money or other resources segregated for the purpose of carrying out specific activities in accordance with special ...
Make things for your home. Invest in tools. Make your yard beautiful. If you have done those things, weatherize your home. Invest in deeper attic insulation. Replace all your light bulbs with energy efficient ones. Buy a good bicycle and use it. You will cut your transportation costs and regain physical fitness, while reducing your health care costs as well. And if you have done all those things, pay down debt. You will be expected to use your windfall to jack up oil company profits. But with some care and planning you can crank your own life up to a higher level of comfort, security, and personal satisfaction. The consequence whether intended or not will be that you will live in greater harmony with family, community and the environment. If you listen to the Bush line and Bush fears, you might feel guilty about failing to sustain the growth of our Gross National Product. That might make sense if our GNP werent so gross in the first place. Our transition from helpless consumers to hands-on ...
The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) is a measure developed by sociologist Morris David Morris in the 1970s, based on basic literacy, infant mortality, and life expectancy. Although not as complex as other measures, and now essentially replaced by the Human Development Index, the PQLI is notable for Morriss attempt to show a less fatalistic pessimistic picture by focusing on three areas where global quality of life was generally improving at the time and ignoring gross national product and other possible indicators that were not improving.[14] The Happy Planet Index, introduced in 2006, is unique among quality of life measures in that, in addition to standard determinants of well-being, it uses each countrys ecological footprint as an indicator. As a result, European and North American nations do not dominate this measure. The 2012 list is instead topped by Costa Rica, Vietnam and Colombia.[15] Gallup researchers trying to find the worlds happiest countries found Denmark to be at the ...
According to the most recent evidence, the United States has 313 billionaires now. The total wealth of these people would be enough to buy the gross national products of many, many countries. To be quite honest, I think that there is something extremely distasteful in one person owning so much that a whole struggling nation could be lifted up from poverty with the same amount of money. Any argument that relies on the deserved fruits from the effort of the single individual leaves me cold as for it to apply Id need to assume that one person could actually be worthier than a whole nation. I also cant see what kind of pleasure one could get from earning another billion on top of a big pile of them: we can only eat and drink and wear so much, and its not possible to live in more houses than one at the same time. In short, successive dollars are worth less to you the richer you are ...
Besides the graphical and mathematical representation of who eats whom and at what rate, ENA performs calculus focusing both on single-compartment and whole-system levels.. TST and AMI are basal indices advocating a systemic approach.. The total amount of flows occurring in the system is called TST, and for Cone Spring is equal to 42 445 kcalm _2yr_1:. TST defines ecosystem activity (size) and it conceptually corresponds to what in economy is known as gross national product (GDP), an indicator of economic community size.. Ecosystem development is connected to flow organization and it increases when uncertainty is diminishing. Mathematically, uncertainty (H), related to a distribution of probability over n categories (with scalar constant K), is equivalent to. System flow disorganization is measured by uncertainty and its amount can be distinguished into output H(a) and input H(b) contributions:. With completely independent events, total system uncertainty becomes H(a) + H(b). However, inputs ...
Interactive Design Process, Collaborative Design Approach, Integrated Project Delivery, BIM, 3P, and Lean production process … so many new terms in the world of design and construction. What does it all mean? How will it affect and change my business that Ive been practicing for the past too many years to mention? I recently discussed these changes with an expert in the field of transition and innovation. We started our discussion talking about change that happens over the course of 100 years-from farming to the industrial age-then talked about change that happens over the course of a generation-from horses to trains to automobiles-then talking about change that occurs over the course of modern innovation-from the first cell phone shaped like a brick to my new smart phone that only a 13-year-old can program! Stop and consider how our own industry is changing. The influences of healthcare reform; cost of healthcare at 18-19% of our gross national product; interactive and BIM software; and ...
Affordable Health Care Policies in the United States, exhibits that about 17.1% of its gross national product is spent on offering health care companies. Great
Taipei, June 7 (CNA) Taiwans current financial situation would make it difficult to reach the governments target of allocating 3 percent of the gross national product (GDP) to national defense, Premier Lin Chuan (林全) said Tuesday.
Sometime soon, its entirely possible that Pfizer will buy AstraZeneca for a price that would exceed the gross national product of all but about 50 countri
Stress represents a significant problem for Western societies inducing costs as high as 3-4 % of the European gross national products, a burden that is continually increasing (WHO Briefing, EUR/04/5047810/B6). The classical stress response system is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which acts to restore homeostasis after disturbances. Two major components within the HPA axis system are the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Cortisol, released from the adrenal glands at the end of the HPA axis, binds to MRs and with a 10 fold lower affinity to GRs. Both, impairment of the HPA axis and an imbalance in the MR/GR ratio enhances the risk for infection, inflammation and stress related psychiatric disorders. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterised by a variety of symptoms, however, one of the most consistent findings is the hyperactivity of the HPA axis. This may be the result of lower numbers or reduced activity of GRs and MRs. The GR gene ...
In economics, the economic value of income elasticity is the responsiveness of a certain amount demanded for a good to an increase in consumers income. It is defined as the ratio between the change in consumers income to the change in the total amount demanded of a good.. The price-inelasticity refers to the tendency for the supply of a good to remain unchanged irrespective of its market price, and hence, the increase in demand will reduce the supply. Economic theory shows that, when the supply of a good is fixed, the price cannot increase. The same theory also shows that when the price increases, the demand will decrease and the elasticity is negative.. The demand elasticity is defined as the tendency for the supply of a commodity to decline when the supply increases. The higher the demand for a commodity, then the lower the price. This means that when there are increased quantities of goods, the price can be reduced. Economic theory also shows that if the demand for a commodity is increased, ...
complete a buy Economic Sanctions and International, Use some applications, speed system. Please be a buy or information of your neuroscience and close from the Prerequisite. microvascular to test your buy Economic.
This book is about fundamental economic theory, but it maintains that economics is meaningless outside the framework of history.It therefore analyses the evolution of some leading economies since the ... More. This book is about fundamental economic theory, but it maintains that economics is meaningless outside the framework of history.It therefore analyses the evolution of some leading economies since the Industrial Revolution.It opens with a critical discussion of some earlier attempts to expound a theory of history, notably, the so‐called new economic history or cliometrics and then the ideas of two outstanding social scientists-Kondratiev and Schumpeter.They were both concerned with major qualitative as well as quantitative changes in evolving economic systems, with the explanation of such revolutionary transformations and with their periodization.Our book too is concerned with exploring these problems, but it offers deep criticism both of Kondratievs long wave theory and of ...
The growing role of many asymmetries between (and inside) countries poses many relevant questions under the scenarios of globalization + crisis. The external imbalances have been a feature of the road to the crisis, linked with important differentials in competitiveness, both at the global and the European level. In parallel, inequalities in the distribution of the dividends of globalization and of the costs of the crisis surge and, at the same time, public policies are losing effectiveness. How have we arrived to the present difficulties, with stronger asymmetries, weaker institutions?. Which are the scenarios emerging under these dynamics, at the global and more specifically in Europe and the countries more affected ...
Austen-Smith, D., Banks, J. (1996) Information Aggregation, Rationality, and the Condorcet Jury Theorem, American Political Science Review 90: 34�45. Bovens, L., Rabinowicz, W. (2006) Democratic answers to complex questions: an epistemic perspective, Synthese 150(1): 131-153. Bozbay, I., Dietrich, F., Peters, H. (2011) Judgment aggregation in search for the truth,working paper, London School of Economics. Condorcet, Marquis, D. (1785) Essai sur l�application de l�analyse á la probabilité des décisions rendues á la pluralité des voix. Dietrich, F. (2006a) Judgment aggregation: (im)possibility theorems, Journal of Economic Theory 126(1): 286-298. Dietrich, F. (2006b) General representation of epistemically optimal procedures, Social Choice and Welfare 26(2): 263-283. Dietrich, F. (2010) The possibility of judgment aggregation on agendas with subjunctive implications, Journal of Economic Theory 145(2): 603-638. Dietrich, F., List, C. (2007a) Arrow�s theorem in judgment aggregation, ...
There is a view that the recovery of our economy in the UK is underway. This, however, is not entirely true, because true regeneration is investment-led, not consumer-driven. In fact, new companies generate 80% of growth, new jobs, and inward investment, despite the contradictory message from the financial press. It is these innovators, through sheer entrepreneurial endeavour, that are largely building the future rather than trying to protect the past. Yet the ratios for capital formation in this country are terrible; broadly-speaking the percentage of GDP that is invested each year. We have the lowest ratio in the OECD and our capital formation rate was 14% last year. Chinas is over 50%. Our companies are sitting on some £284 billion of cash. We may as well just be sitting on it like Smaug in The Hobbit. Continue reading →. ...
Dubé, who has been named the Sigmund E. Edelstone Professor of Marketing in the Graduate School of Business, brings economic theory into the design of empirical models to study pricing and advertising strategies in an environment with competitive reactions by rivals.. For example, one of his recent papers, Do Switching Costs Make Markets Less Competitive? co-authored with GSB colleagues Günter Hitsch and Peter Rossi, challenges the conventional wisdom in economic theory that switching costs-the costs for a consumer to switch to a competing brand or product-makes markets less competitive, causing prices to be higher than otherwise.. In the presence of switching costs, firms face two incentives in setting their prices. On the one hand, the incentive to harvest their base of loyal customers puts upward pressure on prices. At the same time, the incentive to invest in future loyal customers puts downward pressure on prices. The net effect on prices depends on the relative magnitude of the ...
By Murray N. Rothbard. Murray N. Rothbard's nice treatise guy, financial system, and country and its complementary textual content strength and industry, are right here mixed right into a unmarried variation as they have been written to be. It presents a sweeping presentation of Austrian fiscal conception, a reconstruction of many points of that concept, a rigorous feedback of different faculties, and an inspiring examine a technological know-how of liberty that matters approximately every thing and may problem every person. The Mises Institute's new version of guy economic climate, and kingdom, united with its previously sundered significant other quantity strength and marketplace, is a landmark within the heritage of the Institute. It takes this ebook out of the class of underground vintage and increases it as much as its right prestige as one of many nice financial treatises of all time, a ebook thats crucial for someone looking a powerful monetary schooling. This new version will ...
I have not yet sufficiently spelled out and/or emphasized one vital difference between the first premise of Benthams psychology and that of his ethics. His basic psychological principle was that of egoistic hedonism-that everyones actual behavior is determined entirely by self-interest or the aim at his own greatest happiness. And yet at the same time his basic ethical principle was that of universalistic hedonism-that the proper ethical goal is the greatest happiness of all mankind. It was this discrepancy between the positive and the norma-tive side of this system of thought which made the concept and problem of the harmony of interests within society crucial and central for it. The individual members of society who were assumed to be inherently selfish could be expected or be led to behave generally in the ways most conducive to the common welfare of the entire society only if it could either be shown to be true, or he made true (by the requisite reforms), that all the self-interests ...
Downloadable! In the paper we have investigated to what extent the behaviour of CPI inflation depends on changes in domestic economic activity in Polish economy which is usually described as a small open economy. We conducted a disaggregated analysis using price indices at the COICOP 4-digit level. We specified a small open economy Phillips curve for individual price indices. Additionally we investigated the exchange rate pass through at COICOP group levels. We found that more than 50 per cent of the categories react to the output gap. According to our expectations the categories which are mostly linked to the output gap are services but also non-durable goods. We identified that only small share of prices of durable and semi-durable goods react to domestic demand which can be explained to some extent by globalization process. We also found that more than one third of the price indices respond to exchange rate movements and/or foreign inflation. The impact of exchange rate is most substantial for
A top European Union official has threatened to sanction Panama and other nations if they dont cooperate to fight money laundering and tax evasion of the type seen in leaked documents this week.
China said on Wednesday it wanted to cooperate with President Joe Bidens new U.S. administration, while announcing sanctions against lying and cheating outgoing Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and 27 other top officials under Donald Trump. The move was a sign of Chinas anger, especially at an accusation Pompeo made on his final full day in office that China had committed genocide against its Uighur Muslims, an assessment that Bidens choice to succeed Pompeo, Anthony Blinken, said he shared.
Kim Jong-un hopes a summit with President Trump will lead to sanctions relief, while experts disagree over whether increased pressure would push Pyongyang toward denuclearization.
GPs could face sanctions for prescribing anti-psychotic drugs when there is no alternative, as ministers pledged a zero tolerance crackdown on their use.
The National Blood Agreement describes the process for determining the products which are supplied under the National Blood Arrangements. Products which are agreed by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) on Health Council under the National Blood Agreement are funded 63% by the Commonwealth and 37% by the states and territories.. Changes to the products supplied under the National Blood Agreement are subject to an approval process. See Changes to National Product List for more information.. There may be blood and blood products approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for supply in Australia that are not included on the National Product Price List. It may be possible for these products to be purchased directly from the supplier. However, payments for these purchases must be arranged separately, and are not funded under the National Blood Agreement.. The National Blood Authority is responsible for the procurement of products agreed by the COAG Health Council. The products ...
Introduction. a) Explain the concepts of negative externalities b) Evaluate three policies that may be used by government to reduce external costs of production. An externality occurs when the production of a good or service has an effect upon a third party. There are 4 types of externalities: negative externalities of production, positive externalities of production, negative externalities of consumption and positive externalities of consumption. This paper shall examine the concepts of negative externalities of production. As I mentioned earlier, an externality occurs when the production of a good or service has an effect upon a third party. If the effect of an externality is harmful, then we are talking about a negative externality. A negative externality of production occurs when the production of a good or service creates external cost that are damaging to other third parties. more. Middle. Resources are misallocated because too much paper is being produced at too low a price. There ...
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The United States is preparing new sanctions on Russia over its continued support of Syrian President Bashar-al Assad, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, Nikki Haley, said Sunday.. In an interview with CBS Face the Nation, Haley said that the sanctions would be announced Monday by Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin. They will go directly to any sort of companies that were dealing with equipment related to Assad and chemical weapons use, Haley said.. ...
Ann Arbor (Informed Comment) - I asked last week how it could be that Trump greenlighted the Turkish invasion of northern Syrian and the ethnic cleansing of Syrian Kurds along the Turkish border, but at the same time announced sanctions on Turkey for doing just that.. On Wednesday, Trump announced that there wouldnt be any sanctions on Turkey after all, given that Turkey had agreed with Russia to stop its invasion of Syria and to allow Russia instead to patrol the Syrian-Turkish border.. I had written,. the sanctions may be a political cover. Trump is being pilloried by Republican stalwarts (though not mostly those still actually in office) for his abrupt retreat from Syria. What he did makes him look weak and threatens to damage his blustery brand.. Announcing sanctions on Turkey at least creates an image of strength and pushback. It also puts him on the same page with Sen. Lindsay Graham and other GOP Syria war hawks who have called for sanctions on Turkey.. Remember, Trumps sanctions may ...
OTTAWA-Canada said on Thursday it had imposed sanctions on an additional 31 officials in Belarus, increasing international pressure ...
Argentina - Argentina - Economy: Argentinas economy, which is one of the more powerful in the region, is dependent on services and manufacturing, although agribusiness and ranching dominated the economy for much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Argentina still produces more grain than any other country in Latin America and is second in cattle raising only to Brazil, and its receipts from tourism are second in the region only to those of Mexico. Its gross national product (GNP), GNP per capita, and value added from manufacturing are also among the highest in the region. However, the country has withstood a number of economic downturns,
The article provides the first estimates of prevalence and trends in child poverty amongst young carers aged 5-19 in the UK using specialized income data from the Family Resources Survey / theHouseholds BelowAverage Income Survey. Looking across four key indicators, we find that child poverty rates were higher amongst young carers than other children based on 3 years pooled data for 2013/14-2015/16. The differences in the prevalence of child poverty amongst young carers and other children are statistically significant in relation to two indicators (anchored low income before housing costs, and a combined measure of low income and material deprivation). Young carers also appear to have fared worse than other children in terms of trends in child poverty outcomes over the period that coincided with the financial crisis, economic downturn and onset of austerity. Amongst young carers, there was a statistically significant increase in relative low income after housing costs of nine percentage points ...
Abosedra, S., Baghestani, H., 1989. New evidence on the causal relationship between United States energy consumption and gross national product, Journal of Energy and Development 14, 285-292.. Akarca, A.T., Long, T.V., 1980. On the relationship between energy and GNP: a re-examination, Journal of Energy and Development 5, 326-331.. Alam, S., & Butt, M. S. (2002). Causality between energy and economic growth in Pakistan: An application of cointegration and error correction modeling techniques. Pacific and Asia Journal of Energy, 12(2), 151-165.. Alam, S., Fatima, A. and Butt, M.S., (2007). Sustainable development in Pakistan in the context of energy consumption demand and environmental degradation, Journal of Asian Economics 18 (2007) 825-837. Ang, J. B., 2008. Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia, Journal of Policy Modeling 30(2), 271-278. Ang, J.B., 2007. CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France, Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778.. Azomahou, T., ...
District public health services - cost-benefit analysis: The basic needs concept is a reminder that the objective of the development effort is to provide all human beings with the opportunity for a full life - Paul Streeton. Development assures the fulfilment of the needs of man and the society, individual and the economy, and citizen and the nation. Development warrants a high level of gross national product (GNP) and the attainment of the highest standard of living . Rapid economic growth has been shown to be dependent on human resources - health and education programmes that will boost the GNP. The hierarchy of goals of development may be shown in the form of a pyramid wherein at the base are basic minimum needs followed by economic and social necessities for bare subsistence. The fulfilment of these needs leads to a higher set of socio-political needs and ultimately to the goal of the full owering of human personality or total development and the release of the creative energies of every ...
Michael D. Intriligator, Ph.D is Professor Emeritus of Economics and Professor of Political Science, Professor of Public Policy, and Co-Director of the Jacob Marschak Interdisciplinary Colloquium on Mathematics in the Behavioral Sciences at UCLA. He is also a Senior Fellow of the Milken Institute. He has taught economic theory, econometrics, mathematical economics, international relations, and health economics; and he has received several distinguished teaching awards. Intriligator is the author of more than 200 journal articles and other publications in economic theory and mathematical economics, econometrics, health economics, reform of the Russian economy, and strategy and arms control, his principal research fields. He has authored or edited many books in economics and international relations. Intriligator is Vice Chair of Economists for Peace & Security and past president of the Peace Science Society (International) and Western Economic Association International. Intriligator is a member of ...
Prosperity and Protest. In the century after , the colonies enjoyed extraordinary economic growth. The gross national product (GNP) of British North America multiplied some 25 times between and , and scholars estimate that American colonists may have enjoyed the highest standard of living in the world by the time of the Revolution.
An Economic Theory of Clubs, Economica 32 (February 1965): 1-14. The Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Economics, 68155 (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill). In Economic Theories of International Politics, ed. B. Russett (Chicago: Markham, 1968), 50-63; Readings in Microeconomics, 2d ed., ed. William Breit and Harold Hochman (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971), 547-56; Externalities: Theoretical Dimensions of Political Economy, ed. Robert Staaf and Francis Tannian (New York: Dunellen, 1972), 321-33; Municipal Expenditures, Revenues, and Services, ed. W. Patrick Deatin (New Brunswick: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, 1983), 20-30; Economics: Between Predictive Science and Moral Philosophy, comp. Robert D. Tollison and Viktor J. Vanberg (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1987), 207-21; The Theory of Market Failure, ed. Tyler Cowen (Fairfax, Va.: George Mason University Press, 1988), 193-208; The Economics of Fiscal Federalism and Local Finance, ed. Wallace E. Oates ...
Irans president dismissed US efforts to restore all UN sanctions on the country, as mounting economic pressure from Washington pushed the currency down to its lowest level ever on Sunday.. Irans currency dropped to 272,500 to the US dollar at money exchange offices across Tehran.. The rial has lost more than 30% of its value to the dollar since June as sweeping US sanctions on Iran continue to crush its ability to sell oil globally.. Irans currency was at 32,000 rials to the dollar at the time of Tehrans 2015 nuclear deal with world powers, which was signed by the Obama administration but which the Trump administration pulled the US out of.. As the currency plummeted, Irans president Hassan Rouhani attacked the Trump administrations declaration on Saturday that all UN sanctions against Iran have been reimposed because Tehran is not complying with the nuclear deal.. If America uses its bullying … and does something in practice, it will have to face our decisive response, Mr Rouhani said ...
Amhara Mass Media Agency. Vision, Mission and Core values. VISSION. To be an epitome and accredited media institution in the country in 2020through imparting information that will bring forth and foster an ideology breakthrough in inducing developmental democracy.. MISSION. Becoming a leading edge in bring about national consensus and evoke ideological transformation via broadcasting information that catalyze inspiration and change; hence pushing forward individual and collective consciousness that will grant economic and social well being.. CORE VALUES. A. Conforming to professional tenets. B. Public advocacy C. Artistic creativity. D.Team work. ...
WASHINGTON - Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke says data that show the U.S. economy in recovery doesnt fully capture the tough times felt by many.. Bernanke says that while measures of consumer spending, income and wealth point to improvement, many individuals and households continue to struggle with difficult economic and financial conditions.. His comments were made during a pre-recorded speech on economic measurement to the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth in Cambridge, Mass.. Bernanke says statistics can sometimes hide important information. He said there has been interesting developments in the study of well-being and cited the Kingdom of Bhutan, which abandoned tracking gross national product in 1972 in favor of a measure of happiness.. Bernanke made no comments about Fed policy or the July jobs report released last Friday. ...
ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile ACA Arms Control Association. ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. AFB Air Force Base. ALCM Air-Launched Cruise Missiles. ASBM Air-Surface Ballistic Missiles. BMEWS Ballistic Missile Early Warning System. C3I Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence. CBM Confidence Building Measures. CCD Charge-Coupled Device. CFE Conventional Forces in Europe (Treaty). CIA Central Intelligence Agency. CIS Commonwealth of Independent States. COMINT Communications Intelligence. CPD Committee on the Present Danger. DCI Directorate of Central Intelligence. DEW Distance Early Warning. ELINT Electronic Intelligence. EMP Electro-Magnetic Pulse. GAC General Advisory Committee (of ACDA). GLCM Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. GNP Gross National Product. HUMINT Human Intelligence. IAEA Intemational Atomic Energy Agency. ICBM InterContinental Ballistic Missile. INF Intermediate Nuclear Forces (Treaty). JCIC Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission. KGB Komitet Gosudarstvennoy ...
Dirt to dirt and rust to rust. Our national economy is based on an investment of high-quality energy to upgrade natural resources into economically useful forms and to maintain finished products against natural entropic decay. There are strong statistical relations between energy use and important macroeconomic indicators for the United States-such as gross national product, labor productivity, and inflation-over the past 60 to 100 years. See page 890. [David Skole, Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824] ...
Ive found that addressing the evening version of this Rapture is helped along considerably by a smallish pour of something woodsy and malty and drenched in caramel goodness. And Makers is pretty much the original template for that character, minus a price tag that looks like the gross national product of Tajikistan. This is the same Makers Mark that I spoke semi-coherently about in a previous The Pour Fool entitled Makers Mark Whiskys: A ReMarkable Development, posted back there in February of 2012. Folks, Makers Mark is Good, with a capital G. Those who spend something North of $60 for a Bourbon, on the theory that More $$$ = Better Booze are fooling themselves and missing out on some great drinks.. The ONLY drawback I can see with this special bottling is that, in order to enjoy the Makers, you have to destroy that handsome wax cap. Im fairly sure that the folks at MM would tell you to buy one to put on permanent display and one to drink. And thats just what Im planning to do. I ...
Yes, theres a percentage that isnt working and has given up all hope of a better life. But if they (for whatever reason) are convinced they cant do better than they currently are? I think society has failed them. Educationally, or emotionally, medically, or otherwise. Most people have a survival instinct to do better to get more, to feed and clothe and live with more... the ones that dont - they need a short-term hand out and a long-term educational, emotional and maybe medical support plan that brings them around to recognizing that they are capable of more. I dont think this makes me a Socialist. I think a socialist would say to give them what they need and not expect them to rise above. I see myself as a realist. Portions of society that have given up hope dont contribute (taxes, purchases, gross national product, etc). They take... it happens now in subtle ways and not so subtle ways (welfare assistance, medicaid, unpaid medical bills passed on to other patients, fraud, all the way to ...
Guide to Economic Recession and its definition. Here we discuss types and examples of economic recession along with advantages and disadvantages.
Will COVID-19 cause an economic recession? If so, what is an economic recession and what can you do about it to stay safe? Click here to learn more now.
I understand it intellectually, but I certainly dont go on a buying spree the moment the Fed announces more QE (though in retrospect looking a the rise in financial asset prices over the last few years, I should have).. But where I was going with all this is there are real-world effects that I am positive contribute to the depth of recessions that I seldom see in these economic theories. For example, economic theories tend to assume firms are properly staffed heading into the downturn, such that layoffs are driven by the fall in prices/demand.. But that is not ever the case. In my experience, it is an iron law of organizations that their staffing grows fat in the good times. No matter how tough or attentive the management, firms will put on too much staff.. My personal theory is that organizations have a life of their own. Almost literally. In many ways the organization acts as a living entity with a mind of its own, trying to grow and feed itself. It does not consider what size it should be, ...
Lola Duque from the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid will be visiting the Department from Dec 2nd to Dec 5th. Lola is interested in services marketing for non-profit and public-sector organizations, consumer behaviour (consumer satisfaction with public services), among others.. ...
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) adopted resolution 1718 (2006) on 14 October 2006 imposing sanctions on the DPRK. The sanctions have been amended and extended by UNSC resolution 1874 (2009), resolution 2087 (2013), resolution 2094 (2013), resolution 2270 (2016), resolution 2321 (2016), resolution 2356 (2017), resolution 2371 (2017) and resolution 2375 (2017). Australia implements UNSC-mandated sanctions in respect of the DPRK primarily via the Charter of the United Nations (Sanctions - Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea) Regulations 2008. Australia also imposes autonomous sanctions in relation to the DPRK. The Australian Government announced its autonomous sanctions in September 2006 in response to Australias concerns about the DPRKs nuclear, weapons of mass destruction and proliferation programs. The autonomous sanctions have been amended on several occasions since. Australia implements its autonomous sanctions in respect of the DPRK primarily via the Autonomous Sanctions ...
At a press conference, UNICEF Social Policy Advisor Anthony Hodges said research indicates the people most-affected by the economic situation live in the developing world and Africa, in particular. The economic downturn will have a negative impact on households with possible serious knock-on effects on children in terms of worsened nutrition, worsened dietary diversity, in some cases withdrawal of children from schools, increased child labor, difficulties for the families to access health services and so on, he said. ...
The recent economic downturn The decline in GDP during the recession has been concentrated in manufacturing and construction and triggered...
Citing the California economic downturn that has steadily eroded advertising revenue, the Los Angeles Times on Friday announced the closing of eight specialized editorial sections, including the weekly World Report and Spanish-language Nuestro Tiempo sections, and the elimination of 150 editorial positions.
Business owners and traders at some of the major markets in Ilorin, the Kwara State capital, have complained over poor sales.. A survey by PREMIUM TIMES revealed that the poor sales came as part of the ripple effects of the economic recession plaguing the nation.. The traders lamented the impact of the poor sales and expressed hope that things would improve once the economy is normalised.. Shade Oduola, a dried fish seller at Yoruba Road market who spoke with PREMIUM TIMES, explained that there is no money in circulation and it affects the consumption pattern of customers. She maintained that it was far worse than what they experienced last year.. Sales and rate of turnover have been very poor. Many customers do not have money, while traders have been turned into bench warmers in the market. Sales have never been this terrible, quite unlike what we experienced last year.. When probed further, she lamented the increase in the cost of dried fish, saying it is one of the reasons customers dont ...
Article: Americas Icons Collapsing Under Economic Recession - The global economic downturn is taking its toll on some of Americas most iconic companies. American corporations once thought to be blue-chip are now hovering around $1 per share, making them tempting targets to be the next victims of the Great American Sell-Off.
Nigeria economic recession solutions for country economic growth using exportation of goods, support for small scale business, human capacity development
What is the difference between Financial Crisis and Economic Crisis? Finacial crisis directly affects the banking and financial sector. Economic crisis ...
RAMALLAH, Jan. 28 (Xinhua) -- Palestinian fruits trader Jaber Al-Shanti in Gaza city sufficed with the minimum shipments of import from Israel due to what he says the severe worsening of the economic recession.. Al-Shanti told Xinhua that the quantities of his imports have been reduced by more than 60 percent compared to the first half of last year due to weak sales.. Until the first half of 2017, I used to import 60 to 70 tons a day of fruits and vegetables shipments and delivering them easily to the local markets, Al-Shanti said.. Nowadays, we import less than 80 tons a week and find difficulty to distribute, he added.. Beside fruits and vegetables, the weak purchasing power has also reached to an unprecedented level, he sighed.. Local officials and economists believe that imports into the key commercial crossing with Israel have fallen sharply in recent months.. Kerem Shalom is one of the Gazas few lifelines to the outer world and the principal entry point for humanitarian ...
No. 2001-28 Pursuant to section 9001(b) of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-79), I hereby determine and certify to the Congress that the application to India and Pakistan of the sanctions and prohibitions contained in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) of section 102(b)(2) of the Arms Export Control Act would not be in the national security interests of the United States. Furthermore, pursuant to section 9001(a) of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-79), I hereby waive, with respect to India and Pakistan, to the extent not already waived, the application of any sanction contained in section 101 or 102 of the Arms Export Control Act, section 2(b)(4) of the Export Import Bank Act of 1945, and section 620E(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. You are authorized and directed to transmit this determination and certification to the appropriate committees of the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal ...
Tom Palley has published a new book - The Economic Crisis: Notes from the Underground. I recommend it unread, having learned a lot from his excellent recent book, From Financial Crisis to Stagnation.. The back cover description follows. The book can be ordered - for just $9.99 - from. This book provides a collection of short essays detailing the causes of the economic crisis and the failure of the economics profession to foresee and explain it. An old adage is “The winners get to write history†and that is proving true in the current moment. Open any major newspaper and the op-ed page contains articles by the same economists and policymakers as before the financial crash of 2008.. One myth the winners are looking to promulgate is the crisis was not predicted and not predictable. This claim has a purpose as it excuses the economics profession from its catastrophic intellectual failure. The book challenges this “winners’ version of ...
President Muhammadu Buhari says Nigerias practical key out of economic recession still lies in monies made from the countrys oil and gas sector.. Speaking at the launch of the ministry of petroleum #7BigWins initiative in Abuja on Thursday, Buhari said oil proceeds are needed to lay a solid foundation for a diversified economy.. The Petroleum industry remains critical to the Nigerian economy of today and the future, despite our current challenges, Buhari said.. The golden era of high oil prices may not be here now, but Oil and Gas resources still remain the most immediate and practical keys out of our present economic crisis.. Oil and Gas still remain a critical enabler for the successful implementation of our budget as well as the source of funds for laying a strong foundation for a new and more diversified economy.. He said as important as it is to ensure that Agriculture, Solid minerals and other critical sectors of the economy are, the country still needs a virile and efficient oil ...
US sanctions against Venezuela are a blunt tool for regime change and are holding an entire population hostage, said UN special rapporteur Idriss Jazairy.
ISTANBUL - Turkey will freeze the assets of two U.S. officials in retaliation for U.S. sanctions against Turkeys justice and interior ministers over the…
Madrid, March 16, 2021.- The 2008 global financial crisis lasted more than 10 years and fulfilled the characteristics of other crises of the past. The COVID-19 economic recession is unprecedented, unique, without antecedents, without manuals, without standard solutions. Therefore, its effects may extend for more than a decade. I have selected experts from the USA, Europe…
PAPAIL, Jean and ROBLES-SOTELO, Fermina. Womens employment in Mexico in time of economic recession: The years 2005-2012. Pap. poblac [online]. 2014, vol.20, n.82, pp.57-80. ISSN 2448-7147.. In the course of time, and by a combination of various factors, the womens participation in paid activities increased, while family responsibilities increased too. In the years of economic crisis, such as the 2008-2010, the losses of male employment in various sectors were more than offset by a sharp increase of female labor, particularly in the independent activities. A small fraction of international remittances contributed to the increase of the independent womens activities. However, when analyzing the trajectories of the micro-businesses in the course of time from the data in the ENOE survey data 2005-2012 from the INEGI, these independent womens activities perish much more fragile and fleeting that the independent mens activities.. Keywords : Mexico; female labor; investments; remittances; ...
Whilst a tighter interest rate stance can have an effect on the present growth momentum of money supply this is likely to have a minor effect on the emerging economic slowdown, which we suggest is predominately driven by past money supply. There is no doubt that if sanctions were to become effective they are going to hurt economic activity in general i.e. both bubble and non-bubble activities. On this one needs to exercise some caution given the possibility that major world economies are heading toward a slower growth phase. Hence from this perspective, regardless of sanctions the pace of the demand for the Russian exports is likely to ease. We hold that it is quite likely that the Euro-zone, an important Russian trading partner, is unlikely to enforce sanctions in order to cushion the effect of the possible emerging economic slowdown in the Euro-zone. (Sanctions are likely to have a disruptive economic effect not only on Russia but also on the Euro-zone). Observe that Russias export to the ...
Economic Recession: Obasanjo names solution to current Nigeria s economic crisis - Politics and Government - Naijacrux information Interactive Learning Educating Global Online Forum
The book examines economic incentives for food safety in the private marketplace and how public actions have helped shape those incentives. The unique application of economic theory to food safety decision making makes it a key resource for food safety professionals and consumer groups.
Joe Biden is returning to the White House to lead the United States in the midst of an economic crisis after beating President Donald Trump in Tuesdays election, a turn of events likely to conjure an eerie sense of deja vu for the Democratic former vice president. Unlike in 2008, when the country elected Democrat Barack Obama and his running mate Biden as the global economy teetered from the sub-prime mortgage crisis and collapse of the Lehman Brothers investment bank, the worst of the current economic downturn may have passed already, economists and analysts say. We were still falling into the abyss, recalls Donald Kohn, who was the Federal Reserves vice chair during the 2007-2009 Great Recession, which stood as the worst U.S. downturn since the Great Depression until it was eclipsed by the current crisis.
Joe Biden is returning to the White House to lead the United States in the midst of an economic crisis after beating President Donald Trump in Tuesdays election, a turn of events likely to conjure an eerie sense of deja vu for the Democratic former vice president. Unlike in 2008, when the country elected Democrat Barack Obama and his running mate Biden as the global economy teetered from the sub-prime mortgage crisis and collapse of the Lehman Brothers investment bank, the worst of the current economic downturn may have passed already, economists and analysts say. We were still falling into the abyss, recalls Donald Kohn, who was the Federal Reserves vice chair during the 2007-2009 Great Recession, which stood as the worst U.S. downturn since the Great Depression until it was eclipsed by the current crisis.
Joe Biden is returning to the White House to lead the United States in the midst of an economic crisis after beating President Donald Trump in Tuesdays election, a turn of events likely to conjure an eerie sense of deja vu for the Democratic former vice president. Unlike in 2008, when the country elected Democrat Barack Obama and his running mate Biden as the global economy teetered from the sub-prime mortgage crisis and collapse of the Lehman Brothers investment bank, the worst of the current economic downturn may have passed already, economists and analysts say. We were still falling into the abyss, recalls Donald Kohn, who was the Federal Reserves vice chair during the 2007-2009 Great Recession, which stood as the worst U.S. downturn since the Great Depression until it was eclipsed by the current crisis.
In neoclassical economics, the value of an object or service is often seen as nothing but the price it would bring in an open and competitive market. This is determined primarily by the demand for the object relative to supply in a perfectly competitive market. Many neoclassical economic theories equate the value of a commodity with its price, whether the market is competitive or not. As such, everything is seen as a commodity and if there is no market to set a price then there is no economic value. In classical economics, the value of an object or condition is the amount of discomfort/labor saved through the consumption or use of an object or condition (Labor Theory of Value). Though exchange value is recognized, economic value is not, in theory, dependent on the existence of a market and price and value are not seen as equal. This is complicated, however, by the efforts of classical economists to connect price and labor value. Karl Marx, for one, saw exchange value as the form of appearance ...
The academic literature on the construction of regional house price indexes usually uses geographic areas whose boundaries are administratively drawn. However such administrative regions might not be optimal for the construction of regional price indexes. When producing housing price indexes, we often encounter problems with insufficient number of observations. One way to remedy this problem is to estimate a quarterly index instead of a monthly index. Another possible way to mitigate the thin markets problem is to construct indexes for geographically aggregated regions. However, the literature that discusses methods of dealing with the problem of thin markets and especially geographical aggregation is very rare. The goal of this paper is to construct a housing price index for a major part of Sweden, and to construct price index series for a number of regions. The number of regions, and how their boundaries should be created in order to construct reliable regional price indexes, is however an ...
"Economics , Anandaram Dhekial Phookan". Retrieved 4 July 2017. Saikia, Arupjyoti (12 August 2015). A Century ... the first Head and the founder of the Department of Economics of the same college, a politician, a Marxist economist, a writer ...
Economics". Economics Discussion. SALVATORE, DOMINICK. (2019). INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS. JOHN WILEY. ISBN 978-1-119-55492-9. ... Dosi, Giovanni, 1953- (1990). The economics of technical change and international trade. Pavitt, Keith., Soete, Luc. New York: ...
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ASB-1300: CORE Economics (20) or. ACB-1300: Economeg CORE (20). Semester 2. *ASB-1114: Business Analytics or. ADB-1114: Dulliau ... BA Economics/Italian. These are the modules currently offered on this course in the 2020-21 academic year. ...
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Insurance Economics (Versicherungsökonomik) In view of the corona pandemic and its impact on university life, regularly check ... Basics of insurance economics. *Choice under uncertainty (expected utility theory and rational decision under risk, measure for ... The lecture is designed for Bachelor and Master students of Economathematics, Mathematics, Economics or Finance that ...
ASB-1300: CORE Economics (20) neu. ACB-1300: Economeg CORE (20). Semester 2. *ASB-1114: Business Analytics neu. ADB-1114: ... ASB-1300: CORE Economics neu. ACB-1300: Economeg CORE. 40 credyd allan o:. *LZS-1001: Advanced Spanish 1 (20) (Semester 1) ...
Mathematics with Economics Major page for Mathematics Department at Updated Tue Jul 06 10:10:28 EDT 2021. ... Mathematics with Economics Major. The mathematics with economics (SME) major, formerly called the quantitative economics (SQE) ... The curriculum consists of an equal number of advanced courses in mathematics and economics. The mathematics with economics ... and economics major administer. ed by the mathematics department. The goal of this major is to produce graduates who are adept ...
ASB-1300: CORE Economics (20) or. ACB-1300: Economeg CORE (20). Semester 2. *SXU-1006: Social Divisions (20) or. SCU-1006: ... BA Sociology/Economics. This is a provisional list of modules to be offered on this course in the 2021-22 academic year. ...
The economics of this product cry out for a platform. Incumbent grocery stores and restaurants have all the competitive ... The economics all suggest this should be a platform, and that incumbent grocery stores and restaurants have the competitive ... But I think the economics of it wont work in the long run. ...
Keynesian economics was later redeveloped as New Keynesian economics, becoming part of the contemporary new neoclassical ... 凱恩斯經濟學(英語:Keynesian economics),或凯恩斯主义(英語:Keynesianism),凱恩斯理論(英語:Keynesian theory),是根据英國經濟學家约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯的著作《就业、利息和货币通论》的思想基础上的经济理论 ... 凱恩斯經濟學(英語:Keynesian economics),或凯恩斯主义(英語:Keynesianism),凱恩
Discover how the debate in macroeconomics between Keynesian economics and monetarist economics, the control of money vs ... Keynesian Economics, Simplified The terminology of demand-side economics is synonymous with Keynesian economics. Keynesian ... Monetarist economics is Milton Friedmans direct criticism of Keynesian economics theory, formulated by John Maynard Keynes. ... Monetarist Economics Made Easy Monetarists are certain the money supply is what controls the economy, as their name implies. ...
Zillionaire venture capitalist Nick Hanauer says his marginal propensity to consume is lower than mine: Since 1980, the share of the nations income for fat cats like me in the top 0.1 percent has increased a shocking 400 percent, while the share for the bottom 50 percent of Americans has declined 33 percent. At the […] .header ...
"The Bankers New Clothes: Whats Wrong with Banking and What to Do about It," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, ... "Incentive pay and bank risk-taking: Evidence from Austrian, German, and Swiss banks," Journal of International Economics, ... "A Theory of Debt Based on the Inalienability of Human Capital," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, ... "A Theory of Debt Based on the Inalienability of Human Capital," STICERD - Theoretical Economics Paper Series 233, Suntory and ...
The Hsiao Memorial Economics Scholarship was established in honor of Liang-Lin Hsiao who was a professor of economics at ... Preference is given to students pursuing a career in economics and also to research/study topics that benefit Asians or Asian ... college or university in the coming fall who is pursuing a graduate degree in the social sciences and economics. ...
Though economics has come to mean the study of monetary wealth, it is rooted in care of the home-a pursuit that can bring us ... In Sacred Economics (Evolver Editions, 2011), Eisenstein offers both a glimpse of a life-serving economy based on gift and ... Towards a Joyful Economics. Posted on May 28, 2017 by Helen Zuman - ... Filed Under: All Blog Posts, Communities Articles, Community Where You Are, Economics, Finding Community, Issue 175 ...
... Rarely has doing nothing prompted such a big market reaction. Investors had convinced ... Unless otherwise stated, any views, forecasts, or estimates are solely those of the RBS Groups Group Economics Department, as ...
  • My main fields of interest are health economics, applied microeconomics, and industrial organization. (
  • Welfare economics begins with the application of utility theory in microeconomics. (
  • My interests are in Industrial Organization, Applied Microeconomics and Experimental Economics. (
  • This means you should have achieved a good standard in undergraduate courses in microeconomics, macroeconomics and econometrics/ economics statistics at an intermediate level. (
  • Keynesian economics is the approach to macroeconomics that grew out of John Maynard Keynes ' s work, especially his The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936) written during the Great Depression . (
  • Specialise by choosing from a range of optional modules, such as in international business, the economics of development, the economics of financial markets, advanced macroeconomics and finance, and the economics of public policy. (
  • Fitoussi's pluralistic approach has shaped modern macroeconomics, political economy, economics of inequality and, more recently, the economics of sustainability. (
  • The Department of Economics has designed six tracks of study, each of which focus on a specific field of interest: financial economics, international economic policy, public policy, economic analysis, mathematics economics, and law and economics. (
  • This textbook is an elementary introduction to the key topics in mathematical finance and financial economics - two realms of ideas that substantially overlap but are often treated separately from each other. (
  • provides an analysis of the major building blocks of the modern theory of financial economics and their implications for decision-making. (
  • Students in the MA concentration in Financial Economics graduate equipped with the analytical, presentation and communication skills necessary for developing economic policies and assessing investment decisions for corporations, governments, central banks and financial institutions. (
  • The MA concentration in Financial Economics requires the completion of 20 credits. (
  • He was formerly Director of the Securities Industry Programme at City University Business School, Research Fellow at both the London Business School and the London School of Economics and Professor of Financial Economics at Birkbeck College, University of London. (
  • is an intermediate course in international economics. (
  • The International Economics Directorate of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) collects and analyzes data on U.S. direct investment abroad (USDIA), foreign direct investment in the United States (FDIUS), and U.S. international services transactions. (
  • The Office of Health Economics (OHE) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (registered number 09848965) and its registered office is at 7th Floor Southside, 105 Victoria Street, London, SW1E 6QT. (
  • For the journal, see Health Economics . (
  • Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare . (
  • Health economics is important in determining how to improve health outcomes and lifestyle patterns through interactions between individuals, healthcare providers and clinical settings. (
  • A seminal 1963 article by Kenneth Arrow is often credited with giving rise to health economics as a discipline. (
  • [3] Factors that distinguish health economics from other areas include extensive government intervention , intractable uncertainty in several dimensions, asymmetric information , barriers to entry , externality and the presence of a third-party agent. (
  • The above description gives three roles of persons in health economics. (
  • On the Health Economics and Policy online certificate course, you'll use economic principles and how they relate to healthcare to explore the challenges facing the industry. (
  • Certification by an economics faculty member that the requirement has been met is required. (
  • When it comes to studying economics, Elon faculty know that students must do more than memorize theories and concepts. (
  • This approach to learning means you will engage not only in your own research, but also work one-on-one with economics faculty in their scholarly endeavors. (
  • As an economics major, you will learn from and work with dynamic faculty who bring academic and professional experience as well as creativity and enthusiasm to the classroom. (
  • The economics faculty create such a positive and warm learning environment. (
  • This form will be signed by the faculty member and submitted to the Chair of the Economics Department. (
  • The above requirements apply to the Faculty of Arts minor in Economics. (
  • This Third edition for Cambridge International AS and A Level Economics syllabus (9708) is thoroughly updated for first examination from 2016. (
  • Written by experienced authors in an engaging and accessible style, this Coursebook provides comprehensive coverage of the syllabus and rigorous and relevant content for AS and A Level Economics students. (
  • A series of models, including the IS-LM and later the aggregate demand - aggregate supply (AD-AS) models, were developed to produce what has come to be called the neoclassical synthesis approach to Keynesian economics . (
  • The volume editors provide a comprehensive introduction which contextualises Fitoussi's work and discusses his interpretations of Keynesian economics and the financial crises, as well as a broad outline of his ideas. (
  • Economics is a study of man in the ordinary business of life. (
  • Browse the highest-impact research which addresses the challenges of sustainability in Economics and Business. (
  • Students completing the economics specialization must complete University , general degree , admission core , and business core requirements for the BSBA degree, including admission to the BSBA program . (
  • At Elon, economics courses are designed to help you develop economic reasoning, a particular way of looking at the world that is valuable in government service, business and law, among many other fields. (
  • The Department of Economics, part of Elon's renowned Martha and Spencer Love School of Business, offers a flexible curriculum that allows you to pursue a double major, enhancing your education and career options. (
  • Exceptional high school students planning to major in economics, accounting or business administration are encouraged to consider Elon's Business Fellows program, which offers study abroad grants, hands-on consulting experience, special courses and a guaranteed paid internship at a major company among other opportunities. (
  • Savanna Van Dyk is a UWEC graduate with a degree in business economics and a minor in mathematics. (
  • Depression , in economics , major downswing in the business cycle that is characterized by sharply reduced industrial production, widespread unemployment , serious declines or cessations of growth in construction activity, and great reductions in international trade and capital movements. (
  • The Stockholm School of Economics (SSE) or Handelshögskolan i Stockholm is one of Northern Europe's leading business schools. (
  • The Economics major pairs a strong grounding in business with economics. (
  • The MSc Economics aims to prepare you for work in government, international organisations, business, banking or economic research (including PhD studies). (
  • Dr. DAVID BLAKE is Professor of Pension Economics and Director of the Pensions Institute at Cass Business School, London, and Chairman of Square Mile Consultants, a training and research consultancy. (
  • There are some fundamental laws of software economics that should drive executive-level decisions about business and product strategies. (
  • You will learn the fundamentals of economics within a business context. (
  • This hands-on, friendly guide helps you make sense of complex business concepts and explains to you in plain English how Managerial Economics enhances analytical skills, assists in rational configuration, and aids in problem-solving. (
  • Managerial Economics For Dummies gives you a better understanding of all the major concepts you'll encounter in the classroom: supply and demand, elasticity, decision-making, quantitative analysis of business situations, risk analysis, production analysis, pricing analysis, capital budgeting, critical thinking skills, and much more. (
  • If you're enrolled in business courses looking for a supplemental guide to aid your understand of the complex theories associated with this difficult topic, or a manager already in the corporate world looking for a refresher, Managerial Economics For Dummies has you covered. (
  • Students in the School of Business are not permitted to apply ECON 281 to the Economics minor if it has been taken as part of the major requirements of their Business program. (
  • Claudia Goldin, the Henry Lee Professor of Economics at Harvard University and a past president of the American. (
  • Professor Markus Poschke was selected as the recipient of this year's Bank of Canada Governor's Award .As their press release states,"Professor Poschke is an increasingly prominent member of the Canadian economics community. (
  • Walter E. Williams, Ph.D., is the John M. Olin Distinguished Professor of Economics at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va. He holds a Doctor of Humane Letters from Virginia Union University and Grove City College, Doctor of Laws from Washington and Jefferson College and Doctor Honoris Causa en Ciencias Sociales from Universidad Francisco Marroquin, in Guatemala, where he is also Professor Honorario. (
  • Prof. Sonia Laszlo is Associate Professor of Economics. (
  • Dr. Carrie Colla is Assistant Professor at The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice at Dartmouth Medical School and an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Economics. (
  • Our work with clients is guided by an emerging discipline known as behavioral economics. (
  • But behavioral economics isn't just a theory on paper. (
  • According to our analysis, companies that apply the principles of behavioral economics outperform their peers by 85% in sales growth and more than 25% in gross margin. (
  • Connect with a Gallup expert to learn more about applying behavioral economics to maximize growth. (
  • Unlike normative economics, positive economics focuses on causes and effects, behavioral relationships, and facts involved in the evolution and development of economic theories. (
  • The relatively new field of behavioral economics-a blending of psychology and economics-helps makes sense of these clashing views. (
  • The program also funds conferences and interdisciplinary research that strengthens links among economics and the other social and behavioral sciences as well as mathematics and statistics. (
  • Much of the theory in labor economics over the past twenty years has been in personnel economics, which is the application of economic theory and principles to the human resources problems of the firm. (
  • IZA Discussion Papers 1324, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA). (
  • After gaining hands-on experience through individual and team projects, economics majors are encouraged to showcase their findings at Elon's annual Spring Undergraduate Research Forum (SURF). (
  • Economics majors showcase their research and gain experience as scholars by contributing to Issues in Political Economy , an undergraduate research journal co-edited by students at Elon and the University of Mary Washington. (
  • Economics majors are also well-suited for graduate programs including MBA and MPA programs, and law schools. (
  • In addition, double majors with other degree programs or minors in Economics are encouraged as methods to understand disciplines more deeply. (
  • All majors in economics must complete a research experience by selecting a 400- or 500-level course (except Econ 415) in which they will write and present a research paper. (
  • Geography with Economics), a course outside the department means a course taught in any department other than the two named in the title of your degree. (
  • The professors in the economics department will teach you to think critically and analytically, help you understand systems as diverse as banking and healthcare, and prepare you to enter careers across a wide range of occupations. (
  • Collaborative research is a cornerstone of our economics department. (
  • Economics is a global topic, and our department offers many opportunities for students to study abroad. (
  • Please contact the Economics Department directly for questions unrelated to admissions. (
  • In the Department of Economics, we take undergraduate teaching seriously. (
  • Potterian Economics ," Working Papers 2017-03, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics. (
  • Working Papers 103, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies. (
  • Explicit Evidence of an Implicit Contract ," Working Papers 2013-06, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics. (
  • If you are interested in declaring economics as your major or minor, or if you are considering switching your current major, please see your academic advisor or contact the economics department chair at [email protected] (
  • For the current list of advisers in Economics and their advising times, see the Department of Economics' website. (
  • The Department of Economics working papers are published at REPEC . (
  • For information about how to obtain U.S. Department of Commerce's other press releases, please contact the Economics and Statistics Administration at (202) 482-1986. (
  • Learn more about the latest news, stories, and events from the Department of Economics. (
  • From sharing economies to the economics of sustainable development, explore the relationship between resources and the environment. (
  • Willamette's economics program challenges students to explore how these important social issues are shaped by the activities of private interests, public institutions and interest groups. (
  • Another SEA economics study relies on a choice experiment survey in northern New Mexico to explore the benefits of source water protection as an attribute of forest restoration treatments to lower high-intensity fire risk. (
  • Explore a preview version of Managerial Economics For Dummies right now. (
  • Within this discipline, environmental and natural resource economics is the application of the principles of economics to the study of how environmental and natural resources are developed and managed. (
  • Natural resource economics deals with the supply, demand, and allocation of the Earth's natural resources. (
  • One main objective of natural resource economics is to better understand the role of natural resources in the economy in order to develop more sustainable methods of managing those resources to ensure their availability to future generations. (
  • The Economics Department's annual newsletter recaps noteworthy news and events that takes place during the academic year. (
  • Here you will find The Economizer, the Economics Department's quarterly newsletter. (
  • Positive economics stands in contrast to normative economics , which uses value judgments. (
  • On the other hand, normative economics is referred to as "what should be" or "what ought to be" economics. (
  • The differences between positive economics and normative economics are the basis for wise policy making. (
  • Positive economics and normative economics, when considered together, provide a clear understanding of public policies because they highlight both factual statements and analysis based on opinions driving market behavior. (
  • The main focus of this course will be on Ecological Economics concepts such as low and high entropy, biotic and abiotic goods and services, stock-flow resources, carrying capacity, throughput, co-evolution, sustainable scale, use value, and their applications in a problem-solving context. (
  • In addition, economics students have secured some of Elon's most prestigious research grants, including t he Lumen Prize and the Rawls Fellowship for Undergraduate Research. (
  • Cecchetti holds an undergraduate degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a doctorate from the University of California Berkeley, and an honorary doctorate in economics from the University of Basel. (
  • The Dartmouth Society of Investment and Economics (DSIE) is an undergraduate organization committed to promoting understanding of finance, economics, investment, and related areas on campus. (
  • Economics honours student Ziheng Qin's paper examining the relationship between treaties and deforestation was selected as one of the top 12 papers present at the Canadian Economics Association - Bank of Canada (CEA-BOA) Undergraduate Student Paper Award poster session last month. (
  • This textbook covers: Principles of Economics The Market System Introducing Supply and Demand Economic Surplus Consumer Choice and Utility Elasticity and its Implications Market Failure: Externalities Market Failure: Public Goods and Common Resources Production Monopoly Monopolistic Competition Oligopoly Inputs to Production: Labor, Natural Resources, and Technology Challenges to Efficient Outcomes Taxes and Public. (
  • These and other Ricardian theories were restated by Mill in Principles of Political Economy (1848), a treatise that marked the culmination of classical economics. (
  • Welfare economics seeks to evaluate the costs and benefits of changes to the economy and guide public policy toward increasing the total good of society, using tools such as cost-benefit analysis and social welfare functions. (
  • While no country's economy has ever been totally predictable, Palgrave Macmillan has provided a very stable and acclaimed list of academic research that has covered all the history and developments in the world's economics. (
  • When you take up the study of economics, you'll gain a better understanding of the complexity of the economy and how you fit in. (
  • The Economics program supports research designed to improve the understanding of the processes and institutions of the U.S. economy and of the world system of which it is a part. (
  • Real Time Economics offers exclusive news, analysis and commentary on the U.S. and global economy, central bank policy and economics. (
  • Ecological economics differs from conventional economics in attempting to value goods and services in ways that are not only based on their usefulness to humans, that is, in a non-anthropocentric fashion. (
  • This means that ecological economics attempts to take into account the many environmental and social costs associated with the depletion of natural resources, as well as the degradation of ecological systems through pollution, extinction, and other environmental damages. (
  • Ecological economics attempts to find ways to consider and account for the real costs of environmental damage. (
  • Unlike conventional economics, ecological economics also considers other types of ecological resources to be important, even though they may not have direct usefulness to humans, and they are not valuated in dollars. (
  • You will gain the fundamental tools of a professional economist and undergo rigorous training on the MSc Economics. (
  • Our MSc will appeal to you if you have a strong background in the subject and wish to gain advanced and rigorous training in modern economics, as preparation for a career as a professional economist or analyst. (
  • He has previously served as chief economist at the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and chief economist at the Federal Reserve of New York, and is currently affiliated with the National Bureau of Economic Research and coauthors a blog on finance and economics. (
  • On these pages you will find Springer's journals, books and eBooks in all areas of Economics, serving researchers, professionals, lecturers and students. (
  • The objective of this course is to prepare students for basic empirical work in economics. (
  • The economics specialization is designed for students who want strong analytical and communication skills that will allow them to enter a variety of fields, including banking, insurance, entry-level management, and a variety of other areas. (
  • All students with an economics specialization must satisfy a written and oral communication requirement in economics. (
  • Students also are encouraged to participate in Omicron Delta Epsilon, the economics honor society. (
  • The Master of Science in Economics teaches students the skills needed to analyse economic issues and problems thoroughly, understand and apply the relevant academic theory, and use the correct formal and empirical methods. (
  • The MSc Economics is a quantitative degree and students will need to be competent in several areas of mathematics. (
  • Five awesome Economics alumni will be on campus to share their paths and professional lives with students to help them think beyond Wall Street when it comes to careers. (
  • This major is restricted to students in the College of Education and Human Sciences: Education Studies: Option B and leads to licensure to teach Economics in Early Adolescence through Adolescence classrooms. (
  • The Cambridge International AS & A Level Economics Revision Guide helps students apply their knowledge, understanding and skills to succeed in their course. (
  • This endorsed Cambridge International AS and A Level Economics Revision Guide has been designed to further develop students' skills for their Cambridge International AS and A Level Economics course. (
  • Our graduate programs provide an outstanding and supportive environment for students looking to pursue further studies in economics. (
  • Economics students learn about accounting, finance and management while discovering how to forecast general economic conditions, estimate trends, analyze data, and use economic theory to help their organization operate more efficiently. (
  • An outspoken advocate for students, economics student Colin Fowler has certainly left an impression. (
  • This notion became central to classical economics, as did Ricardo's theory of distribution , which divided national product between three social classes: wages for labourers, profits for owners of capital, and rents for landlords. (
  • Our MSc Economics course provides dedicated teaching in the advanced core areas of macroeconomic and microeconomic theory, econometrics and research methods with an interesting portfolio of optional modules. (
  • the theory of imperfect competition, theory of factor pricing under various market structures, general equilibrium and welfare economics. (
  • - While not attempting to train readers as professional economists, this book aims to provide a secure grounding in the theory and practice of economics insofar as it deals with pension matters. (
  • Anytime you empty out your bins, visit the doctor's office or take the bus you are seeing how public economics affects our daily lives. (
  • Public economics is an area of economics focused on the public sector - how the government uses economic principles to provide services for its citizens. (
  • You are normally required to have obtained a first or upper second class honours degree (or equivalent from a university outside the UK) in economics, or in a joint degree in which economics accounted for around half or more of the programme. (
  • The SFU WUSC Student Refugee Program opened many doors for economics honours student William Raphael-it provided him a university education and now he's heading off to one of Canada's top graduate programs. (
  • It was economics that first attained the status of an exclusive area of speculation and study among the social sciences. (
  • First or upper-second class honours degree specialising mainly in economics. (
  • Follow the link below to see a sample degree plan for the economics teaching major. (
  • To be awarded an Honours degree, a student must obtain a 3.00 GPA in the required/core courses, a 3.00 average in the required and complementary credits in Economics, and a CGPA of 3.00. (
  • For a First Class Honours degree, the minimum requirements are a 3.50 program GPA in the required courses, a 3.50 average in the required and complementary credits in Economics, and a CGPA of 3.50. (
  • By David Pennock, Principal Researcher and Assistant Managing Director The 18th ACM Conference on Economics and Computation (EC'17) starts today at MIT in Cambridge, MA, featuring some of the latest research findings at the interdisciplinary boundary between economics and computer science. (
  • Research in the Algorithmic Economics group at Microsoft Research NYC spans a wide variety of topics at the interface of economics and computation. (
  • Application areas include: auctions & mechanism design, crowdsourcing & human computation, information aggregation & elicitation, machine learning in economics, polling & prediction markets, and online advertising. (
  • We are part of the MSR-wide economics and computation research area. (
  • Potterian Economics ," Working Papers 002-17 JEL Codes: A13, A1, International School of Economics at TSU, Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. (
  • Explicit Evidence of an Implicit Contract ," Working Papers 001-13, International School of Economics at TSU, Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. (
  • Potterian Economics ," Working Paper series 17-03, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis. (
  • Economics courses are designated by ECON. (
  • A tentative list of upcoming Economics course offerings can be found at . (
  • consists of 30 specified credits of Honours courses and a further 12 credits of approved Economics courses. (
  • Continuation in the Honours program from one year to the next requires a minimum grade of B- in ECON 250 and a minimum B- average in required and complementary Honours economics courses. (
  • The Economics Departments requires a brief (1-2 pages) personal statement in which applicants should discuss their preparation, motivation, and goals for their proposed courses of study. (
  • Research on digital economics examines whether and how digital technology changes economic activity. (
  • Economics is a social science that examines the allocation of scarce resources among various potential uses that are in competition with each other and attempts to predict and understand the patterns of consumption of goods and services by individuals and society. (
  • The Honours Economics program (B.A. and B.Com. (
  • Abstract-This paper summarizes the current state of the art and recent trends in software engineering economics. (
  • To reflect that modern finance is a branch of economics, emphasis will be on how general economic principles and analytical techniques can be applied across all finance sub-fields. (
  • They leave well-positioned to pursue careers in investment banking, asset management, central banking, public policy and other areas where economics and finance intersect. (
  • Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. (
  • Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. (
  • Your studies take you, in a systematic way, from micro-principles of economic behaviour to macro-outcomes of national and global importance, combining methodological, theoretical and applied issues of prime relevance to the study and practice of economics and economic policy. (
  • Lionel Robbins (1932) developed implications of what has been termed "[p]erhaps the most commonly accepted current definition of the subject": Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. (
  • Our researchers combine expertise in computer science and economics to bridge the gap between modeling human behavior and engineering web-scale systems. (
  • This article provides an overview of the economics of environmental policy, including the setting of goals and targets, notably the Kaldor-Hicks criterion and the related method of assessment known as benefit-cost analysis. (
  • From the environmental perspective, the most important problem with conventional economics has been that the marketplace has not recognized the value of important ecological goods and services. (
  • Positive economics is the study of economics based on objective analysis. (
  • RAND Journal of Economics , 43, 78-109. (
  • Key terms to highlight definitions of economics terminology for quick reference. (
  • Philosophy and Economics) or is a major/minor combination (e.g. (
  • Investigators are encouraged to submit proposals of joint interest to the Economics Program and other NSF programs and NSF initiative areas. (
  • Your training incorporates interactive learning, for example in the application of software to research in the core areas of economics. (
  • The Economics Bulletin is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal that publishes concise notes, comments, and preliminary results in all areas of economics. (
  • Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods ," Papers 71, Quebec a Montreal - Recherche en gestion. (