The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.
The economic aspects of health care, its planning, and delivery. It includes government agencies and organizations in the private sector.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
Economic aspects of the nursing profession.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
Instructional materials used in teaching.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

Psychosocial and economic problems of parents of children with epilepsy. (1/433)

The parents of children with epilepsy (PCE) face multiple psychosocial and economic problems that are often neglected. We undertook this study to ascertain these problems among the patients attending a tertiary referral center for epilepsy in India. A structured questionnaire was administrated to parents of 50 children aged between 5-10 years and having epilepsy for more than 1 year's duration. Some 52% of the children had partial epilepsy whilst the remaining had generalized epilepsy. The median seizure frequency was one per 6 months. The majority of the patients (86%) were living in villages. The family income was less than 1000 Rs per month (1 USD = 42 INR) for 66% of the patients. A decline in social activities, after the onset of epilepsy in their children, was reported by 80% of the parents. Daily routines were significantly affected in over 75% of the parents. Parents had been experiencing frustration (52%) and hopelessness (76%), whilst 60% were in financial difficulties. The most important item of expenditure was cost of drugs or cost of travel to hospital for 54% and 36% parents respectively. Impaired emotional status and poor social adaptation were co-related with the severity of epilepsy (frequent seizures/generalized seizures/attention disorder) and low economic status of the parents. These observations need to be borne in mind while organizing rehabilitation programs for epilepsy.  (+info)

The health impact of economic sanctions. (2/433)

Embargoes and sanctions are tools of foreign policy. They can induce a decline in economic activity in addition to reducing imports and untoward health effects can supervene, especially among older persons and those with chronic illnesses. Often, violations of the rights of life, health, social services, and protection of human dignity occur among innocent civilians in embargoed nations. This paper examines the effects of embargoes and sanctions against several nations, and calls for studies to determine ways in which economic warfare might be guided by the rule of humanitarian international law, to reduce the effects on civilians. It suggests that the ability to trade in exempted goods and services should be improved, perhaps by establishing uniform criteria and definitions for exemptions, operational criteria under which sanctions committees might function, and methods for monitoring the impact of sanctions on civilian populations in targeted states, particularly with regard to water purity, food availability, and infectious-disease control. Prospective studies are advocated, to generate the data needed to provide better information and monitoring capacity than presently exists.  (+info)

Rapid economic growth and 'the four Ds' of disruption, deprivation, disease and death: public health lessons from nineteenth-century Britain for twenty-first-century China? (3/433)

Rapid economic growth has always entailed serious disruption: environmental, ideological, and political. As a result the relationship between economic growth and public health is complex since such disruption always threatens to spill over into deprivation, disease and death. The populations of most current high-income, high-life expectancy countries of 'the West' endured several decades of severely compromised health when they first experienced industrialization in the last century Although health technologies have moved on, the social, administrative and political disruption accompanying economic growth can still impede the delivery of health improvements. The case history of 19th-century laissez-faire Britain is explored in some detail to demonstrate the importance of these social and political forces, particularly the relative vigour and participatory nature of local government, linking to recent work on the importance of social capital in development. For a country like China today, paradoxically, there is nothing that needs such careful planning as a 'free market' economy.  (+info)

The challenge for Cuba. (4/433)

The restrictions of a U.S. trade embargo and the collapse of the Soviet Union marked the beginning of a period of extreme economic hardship in Cuba. Economic adversity has had tremendous effects, both positive and negative, on all aspects of life on the Island, including environmental and public health.  (+info)

Life expectancy in Central and Eastern European countries and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union: changes by gender. (5/433)

AIM: To examine changes in life expectancy at birth for countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS) for the period 1989-1996. Differences in the change by gender were examined and several factors which likely bear on the changes were discussed. Methods. Data from the WHO Health for All European Data Base were used to determine changes in life expectancy and selected economic factors for CEE and NIS countries. RESULTS: Changes in life expectancy varied by gender in both CEE and the NIS, with the difference increasing for the two groups during the period with the largest increase occurring in the NIS. Both male and female life expectancy declined, with male life expectancy dropping at a more rapid rate. In 1994, the year in which most, but not all countries, reached a low point, life expectancy for males had declined below 60 years for two countries. CONCLUSIONS: The most striking point about the decline in life expectancies was the short period in which the declines occurred, especially in the NIS. It is not possible to determine the exact cause for the changes, but there are likely multiple reasons. It is not completely clear why the decline in life expectancy was greater for males, although the linkage between economic and behavioral and lifestyle factors appear to have some association. Further research is necessary to determine why effects by gender vary so greatly and whether the negative outcomes are a short-term anomaly or will persist.  (+info)

Health insurance and productivity. (6/433)

AIM: To provide a conceptual understanding of the basic relationship between health insurance and overall economic productivity, and to look at the human development index as a proxy for the quality of human capital. METHODS: Economic data and data related to human development in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Croatia, were compared to the European Union (EU) average. Data were selected out of databases provided by the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations. Income and growth rates were related to the EU averages. The human development index was used to compare the level of the average achievements in the longevity of life, knowledge, and quality of living in CEE countries. RESULTS: Relative to the EU-average, human development is lagging behind in CEE countries. Considering the world as a benchmark regarding human development, 8 out of 13 CEE countries exceed the world. However, all CEE countries have 3-28% lower human development than the industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS: The specific challenge for transition countries is how to adopt strategies to translate economic progress into health and social gains through reliable institutions, among them social health insurance bodies. The institutions and the provision of social health insurance are particularly challenged at a turning point when transition in terms of macroeconomic stabilization, along with the consolidated organization and financing of social and health insurance schemes, is accommodated to a business cycle-driven market economy.  (+info)

The world economic crisis. Part 1: Repercussions on health. (7/433)

The widespread economic crisis has resulted in a fall in living standards in the western hemisphere of over 9% (1981-83) and in Sub-Saharan Africa they have fallen to the level of 1970. Food production in the African countries most seriously affected by drought dropped by 15% between 1981 and 1983. Living standards also fell in some countries in Europe and in some of the poorest countries of Asia. The high cost of fuel, the heavy burden of interest payments and unfavourable terms of trade in Africa and Latin America led to serious unemployment, devaluation of national currencies and formidable austerity policies. While some countries have succeeded in protecting their health services from cuts in public expenditure, in many others cuts in health budgets have been substantial. The effects of the crisis in some countries have amounted to the virtual disintegration of rural health services. There are limited data available to show what has been happening to levels of expenditure on health, but those presented here demonstrate that levels of health expenditure per head have fallen in many countries. The cumulative effects on health of increased poverty, unemployment, underemployment and famine, and the reduced capacity of health services to respond to health problems can be documented with facts for a number of countries in Latin America and Africa. Malnutrition has increased and improvements in infant mortality have been checked or reversed. The economic crisis has placed at risk the health of the most vulnerable.  (+info)

Fish and mammals in the economy of an ancient Peruvian kingdom. (8/433)

Fish and mammal bones from the coastal site of Cerro Azul, Peru shed light on economic specialization just before the Inca conquest of A. D. 1470. The site devoted itself to procuring anchovies and sardines in quantity for shipment to agricultural communities. These small fish were dried, stored, and eventually transported inland via caravans of pack llamas. Cerro Azul itself did not raise llamas but obtained charqui (or dried meat) as well as occasional whole adult animals from the caravans. Guinea pigs were locally raised. Some 20 species of larger fish were caught by using nets; the more prestigious varieties of these show up mainly in residential compounds occupied by elite families.  (+info)

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PRC Sanctions on a Former U.S. Official. STATEMENT BY SECRETARY ANTONY J. BLINKEN. May 27, 2021. The United States condemns the Peoples Republic of Chinas (PRC) sanctions on a former U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) commissioner. These sanctions follow the PRCs March retaliatory sanctions against two USCIRF commissioners as well as Canadian, UK, and European officials, academics, and organizations. Those were implemented immediately after parallel sanctions announcements from the United States, Canada, UK, and the EU in response to serious human rights abuses against members of ethnic and religious minority groups in Xinjiang.. Beijings attempts to intimidate and silence those speaking out for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of religion or belief, only draw additional international attention and scrutiny to its egregious abuses. This includes the ongoing crimes against humanity and genocide in Xinjiang, as well as its repression of ...
This chapter works out the total value added in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors based largely on the estimates already set out in the book. The result is an estimate of GDP for c. 1595 at 25,058.51 million dāms, with the primary sector accounting for 52.4 per cent, secondary 18.2 per cent, and tertiary 29.4 per cent. The per capita income in terms of wheat works out as 14.69 maunds, compared to 14.51 maunds in 1901-10. The significant feature of GDP in c. 1595 was the large secondary sector (18.18 per cent against 11.20 per cent in 1901-10), which suggests that de-industrialization during the nineteenth century was indeed a significant phenomenon.
The haute-couture fashion era started in October 1773, when Rose Bertin (1747 - 1813), an unmarried twenty-four-year-old woman from Picardy, set up a little shop exotically named Le Grand Mogol on Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris. In the large shop windows she displayed her one-of-a-kind ensembles, covered from neckline to hemline in luscious frippery. However, her calling card to the French court was the innovate headdress called the pouf, that she invented. Soon, Rose was introduced to the Queen Marie Antoinette and eventually became her couturière, confidante and friend - Minister of Fashion as her detractors used to call her. The Queens mourning dress, after the execution of the Louis XVI, would also be tailored by Bertin.. Bertins creations became a great success and haute couture orders started to arrive from London, Sankt Petersburg, Vienna, Venice and Constantinople. Thus, France made its first step towards turning into a centre of the fashion industry.. ...
Examples of simple economic theory models are analyzed as restrictions on the Cointegrated VAR (CVAR). This establishes a correspondence between basic economic concepts and the econometric concepts of the CVAR: The economic relations correspond to cointegrating vectors and exogeneity in the economic model is related to econometric concepts of exogeneity. The economic equilibrium corresponds to the so-called long-run value (Johansen 2005), the long-run impact matrix, C; captures the comparative statics and the exogenous variables are the common trends. The adjustment parameters of the CVAR are related to expectations formation, market clearing, nominal rigidities, etc. Finally, the general-partial equilibrium distinction is analyzed. ...
First published in 1904, this important economic work explores some of the leading principles underlining the development of international trade. Hobson offered a departure from the conventional treatment of international trade in economic theory,…
My title is intended to suggest that the community of scientists is organized in a way which resembles certain features of a body politic and works according to economic principles similar to those by which the production of material goods is regulated. Much of what I will have to say will be common knowledge among scientists, but I believe that it will recast the subject from a novel point of view which can both profit from and have a lesson for political and economic theory. For in the free cooperation of independent scientists we shall find a highly simplified model of a free society, which presents in isolation certain basic features of it that are more difficult to identify within the comprehensive functions of a national body.. The first thing to make clear is that scientists, freely making their own choice of problems and pursuing them in the light of their own personal judgment, are in fact co-operating as members of a closely knit organization. The point can be settled by considering ...
Information about Stefan Stykolt Scholarship in Economic Theory. You can also locate similiar scholarships, awards, prizes and bursaries in Canada.
Our organizations mission statement and core values were developed from the ground-up.. In 2015, employees were asked for their feedback on working for the City of Courtenay - including their level of job satisfaction, what they thought our organization did well, and where they thought we could improve.. An organization-wide employee survey, plus individual interviews and a focus group helped identify the City of Courtenays employee culture and priorities.. This information was used to develop the five core values you see above. These core values were unveiled at a launch event in March 2016 for all staff. A second, smaller launch was held in June 2016 for employees that werent able to attend the first one, including new and seasonal staff.. Following the first launch, team meetings were held with every City of Courtenay department. Staff from each department volunteered as champions to represent their team and coordinate suggestions on how the core values can be embedded throughout our ...
As a widely used tool of foreign policy, economic sanctions take many forms. They include mandating trade restrictions (for example, limiting imports from or exports to a sanctioned nation), freezing bank accounts, limiting international travel to and from an area, imposing additional tariffs, and exerting other pressures that are intended to slow key economic activities. Since the end of the Cold War, as the global market has expanded, many countries and the United Nations have increasingly used economic sanctions instead of military intervention to compel nations to end civil or extraterritorial war or to reduce abuse of human rights. Similarly, the United States has attempted to influence international governments domestic policies by using other economic means, such as relating most favored nation trading status to a countrys human rights record or prohibiting the import of goods from countries in which illegal child labor is widespread. ...
In interview with The Weekend Australian, the prime minister says Iran, for the first time, is beginning to bend under sanctions and under threat of sanctions on central bank.
The U.S. Department of the Treasury expanded the sanction for the export of medical devices on Thursday to ensure the longstanding sanctions on Iran do not hinder the import of humanitarian aid.
Contrary to popular beliefs across the world, poverty in Africa is not a product of laziness, inferior mind, genetic inferiority or curse from the Gods. Africans are among the most hardworking, industrious, intelligent and productive in the world. Evidence from documentaries on IMF and World Bank operations and lessons from the current publicly announced sanctions on Russia over Crimea, have led me to believe strongly that:. 1. There is a conspiracy within the corridors of power of America and Europe to keep Africa permanently dependent on them in return for cheap supply of commodities to fuel their economic growth, prosperity and world dominance. The conspiracy has left Africa consistently debt trapped and led by corrupt regimes; poverty continues to affect the lives of millions despite abundant resources; and multinationals continue to operate unchecked as they rain havoc on the environment and peoples rights.. 2. The goal of the conspiracy is executed and sustained from three angles:. o ...
Some unemployed youths have said they are unmoved by threats of sanctions on unvaccinated people saying they have no access to formal spaces even before the imp
White House said that the move included the expulsion of 10 Russian diplomats from the US and sanctions on several organisations and individuals...reports Asian Lite News The US has launched diplomatic and financial offensives against Russian officials and businesses in retaliation for election-meddling and Moscow-linked hacking that compromised major federal agencies.The move included the...
Attached is the text of a letter from the President to the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the House and Senate Committees on Armed Services and the Judiciary, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Committee on Ways and Means, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the Senate Committees on Foreign Relations and Finance, and the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence regarding sanctions on foreign narcotics kingpins.. ...
The UN Security Council has unanimously approved tough new sanctions on North Korea in response to the latest launch of a ballistic missile that Pyongyang says is capable of reaching anywhere on the US mainland.
The U.S. Treasury Department has slapped sanctions on Irans main intelligence organization, accusing it of supporting terrorist groups, committing human rights abuses, and backing the Syrian governments lethal crackdown on its citizens.
Gordon Brown was last night fighting to salvage Britains policy on Zimbabwe after moves to impose sanctions on Robert Mugabes regime collapsed.
Purpose of the article is based on the economic theory of price, value - application of the price as an economic tool for its fuller application in the criteria for evaluation of tenders in public procurement and not the application of these criteria only the lowest price category and its application to other criteria to evaluate offers. Methodology / methods the methodology of the paper processing is based on the goal of the paper, its main reason, economic theory, valid legislation, public procurement. The contribution structure is created in accordance with the requirements for scientific requirements (introduction, goal, results, discussion and conclusion). As part of the processing of this paper we used commonly available scientific methods, e.g. analysis, synthesis, comparison as well as standard statistical methods. Scientific aim the scientific contribution of the paper is based on the economic theory of the price category, the value of applying the price as an economic tool for its fuller
This study contains data on the political, social, economic, religious, ecological, and demographic characteristics of 32 Black African nations in the late 1950s and 1960s. Data are provided on political regime characteristics, such as the existence and nature of political parties, elections, the nature of the judicial system, the extent of government influence, and the occurrence of riots, civil violence, terrorist activities, civil wars, irredentist movements, and coup detats. Economic variables provide information on government revenues, government expenditures, gross domestic capital formation, public investment as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), defense budgets, energy, investment, labor, number of wage earners as a percentage of active population, industrial production, electricity production, per capita energy consumption, educational expenditures, economic welfare, consumer price index, international economic aid, total international ...
This study contains data on the political, social, economic, religious, ecological, and demographic characteristics of 32 Black African nations in the late 1950s and 1960s. Data are provided on political regime characteristics, such as the existence and nature of political parties, elections, the nature of the judicial system, the extent of government influence, and the occurrence of riots, civil violence, terrorist activities, civil wars, irredentist movements, and coup detats. Economic variables provide information on government revenues, government expenditures, gross domestic capital formation, public investment as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), defense budgets, energy, investment, labor, number of wage earners as a percentage of active population, industrial production, electricity production, per capita energy consumption, educational expenditures, economic welfare, consumer price index, international economic aid, total international ...
The Economics minor provides students with a foundation in economic theory and analysis with courses in Macroeconomics and Microeconomics. Students build on that foundation by learning to apply concepts, techniques and analysis in courses such as Environmental Economics, Ecological Economics, Economic Development of the United States, Health Economics, Money Credit and Banking, International Trade and Finance, Evolution of Modern Economic Theory, and International Political Economy.. ...
With the aim of raising awareness of the mechanisms for preferring local content, the authority held more than 120 workshops with the public and private sectors, and communicated with 400 government agencies to ensure that local content requirements are included in its competitions, and dealt with more than 6,000 inquiries and answers from the public and private sectors. Achieving these gains comes through 4 local content mechanisms that the authority has included in the new competition system, one of which is the mandatory list of national products that government contractors must purchase as national products.. 3 Mandatory lists in construction, medicine and medical preparations. The authority issued 3 mandatory lists of national products in the sectors of building and construction, medicine and medical preparations, and medical supplies. The first list included 114 products in the building and construction sector, the second 100 products in the pharmaceutical and medical preparations sector, ...
Seminal papers of Solow (1957) and Swan (1956) stimulated debate among economists on the role of technical change in productivity improvements and for that matter economic growth. The consensus is that technological change accounts for a significant proportion of gross national product (GNP) growth in industrialised economies. In the case of Australia, the aggregate productivity performance was poor in the 1970s and 1980s, but picked up very strongly by the 1990s, and was above the OECD average growth level for the first time in its productivity growth history. However, this high productivity growth rate could not be sustained and Australia started to experience a slowdown in productivity growth since 2000. This study empirically measures the performance of productivity in Australias economy for the period 1950-2005, using an econometric approach. Time-series data are used to develop econometric models that capture the dynamic interactions between GDP, fixed capital, labour units, human ...
Three Core Values of Development Economics Three core values serve as standards of development. Sustenance. This refers to the capacity to meet basic necessities such as food, clothing, and shelter. Lack of even one of these means that a...
Information for calculation of Producer price indices in industry is received on the bases of monthly surveys on producer prices of industrial products, sold on the domestic market and on industrial products sold on non-domestic market. The aim of Producer price surveys is: (1) To be compared prices of specific products with equal quality in the two surveyed time periods; (2) In the case of quality change of the surveyed specific products this quality change to be taken into account.. Data collection is based on a representative sample of products (specifications).. Producer price indexes on domestic market: According to the methodology the sampling method used for domestic producer price index compilation involves a three stage sampling process: first PRODCOM groups are selected, as a second step - reporting units are selected and then specific products (specifications) are selected. The sample method used is probability proportional to size.. On the base of the annual survey on production and ...
Information for calculation of Producer price indices in industry is received on the bases of monthly surveys on producer prices of industrial products, sold on the domestic market and on industrial products sold on non-domestic market. The aim of Producer price surveys is: (1) To be compared prices of specific products with equal quality in the two surveyed time periods; (2) In the case of quality change of the surveyed specific products this quality change to be taken into account.. Data collection is based on a representative sample of products (specifications).. Producer price indexes on domestic market: According to the methodology the sampling method used for domestic producer price index compilation involves a three stage sampling process: first PRODCOM groups are selected, as a second step - reporting units are selected and then specific products (specifications) are selected. The sample method used is probability proportional to size.. On the base of the annual survey on production and ...
Agriculture, farming, and fishing form the primary sector of industry of the Japanese economy, together with the Japanese mining industry, but together they account for only 1.3% of gross national product. Only 20% of Japans land is suitable for cultivation, and the agricultural economy is highly subsidized.. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominated the Japanese economy until the 1940s, but thereafter declined into relative unimportance. In the late 19th century (Meiji period), these sectors had accounted for more than 80% of employment. Employment in agriculture declined in the prewar period, but the sector was still the largest employer (about 50% of the work force) by the end of World War II. It was further declined to 23.5% in 1965, 11.9% in 1977, and to 7.2% in 1988. The importance of agriculture in the national economy later continued its rapid decline, with the share of net agricultural production in GNP finally reduced between 1975 and 1989 from 4.1% to 3% In the late 1980s, 85.5% ...
If national economic improvements lead to greater expenditure on tobacco but not on food, then the benefit of the economic growth will be erased. Increased spending power is not sufficient to guarantee improvements in well being, particularly where tobacco companies advertise their products freely to an uneducated public. In Bangladesh, where tobacco prices remained low and advertising proliferated, the most significant spending change over the years was in more money going to cigarettes, rather than food. In that situation, reducing taxes on tobacco products may be regressive, as it provides an incentive for more poor people to use tobacco and to spend more of their income on tobacco.12 13 As others have also observed, since the poor are more responsive to price and thus more likely to reduce usage or quit when prices increase, they may actually save money when taxes increase.14-16 UNICEF estimates that Bangladesh loses the equivalent of more than 5% of its gross national product in lost lives, ...
Let me say this about that. Oh, Tiger, Tiger, Tiger. You have really shat-in-your-hat this time. Word has it that your D-I-V-O-R-C-E is final and, as part of the settlement, you have agreed to pay your ex-wife a whopping $700,000,000 dollars!! Im no economist, but I believe that amount exceeds the gross national product of Bolivia. That dollar […]. ...
The second and third ancillary value judgments do not spring directly from the world view. Instead, they make the paradigm based thereon operational. The separation of means and ends is not strictly required by the world view itself, but is an operational requirement, without which the paradigm could generate no meaningful research or study. If means and ends were not mutually exclusive, then neo-classical economics would be nothing more than a simple statement that humans do what they do because they wish to do it. There could be, for example, no inquiry into how satisfaction is maximized by choosing among various alternatives. If some activity (e.g., production or consumption) could be both means and end then one could not determine which part is which. This results in the value judgment that consumption is the end or `good to be achieved. In so doing, any good inherent in the process or means for obtaining higher consumption is ignored. For example, if the production activity of human labor ...
This is the latest in a string of blunders, mishaps and falsehoods that have evidently crept into IPCC AR4, touted as THE most well-researched and vetted scientific publication in human history. Just yesterday it came out that the IPCC AR4 report used exaggerated and actually completely unfounded numbers, when describing the Netherlands as being susceptible to both sea-level rise and river flooding because 55% of its territory is below sea level where 60% of its population lives and 65% of its Gross National Product (GNP) is produced. In actual fact, only 20% of our damp corner lies below sea level, which represents 19% GNP ...
How Per Capita Income is calculated? The Numerator (Gross National Product) is divided by Denominator (Population) to calculate this figure. You must be wondering why am I trying to teach you basic mathematics? I have no such intention. The reference to the above came up when I was having a discussion with a friend few months ago. The topic turned to Indian history and he suddenly retorted that the per capita income of India during Akbars regime, around year 1600 AD, was far larger than France, Germany, America and Japan. In the same year the British established East India Company which later plundered India. I told him that I have no doubt about the fact that British looted our wealth but just tell me how the GDP was arrived at? How the GNP was calculated and how did they people decide the denominator (population) ? He had no clue and hence I had to tell him that the first ever census of India was conducted in 1901 and there is no way to know what was the population in 1556 to 1605 when Akbar ...
1.1 BACKGROUND. Even though a country may be naturally endowed with diverse kinds of resources, the gestures of such country lies in her ability to manage her resources properly. Public sector, in a nutshell, is the sector that manages the resources of the government in other to ensure effective and efficient allocation of these resources for satisfaction of the citizenry concerned. The sector is used in implementing government policies. It is the tool for accelerating development in the entire economy. For instance, it accounts for approximately two-third of gross national products (GNPs) in Nigeria. Pubic sector includes all government ministries and departments, extra-ministerial department, parastatals agencies, commissions and public enterprises. Being a service-oriented sector, it is usually budget financed.. Essentially, funds, in the public sector, refers to the sum of money or other resources segregated for the purpose of carrying out specific activities in accordance with special ...
Make things for your home. Invest in tools. Make your yard beautiful. If you have done those things, weatherize your home. Invest in deeper attic insulation. Replace all your light bulbs with energy efficient ones. Buy a good bicycle and use it. You will cut your transportation costs and regain physical fitness, while reducing your health care costs as well. And if you have done all those things, pay down debt. You will be expected to use your windfall to jack up oil company profits. But with some care and planning you can crank your own life up to a higher level of comfort, security, and personal satisfaction. The consequence whether intended or not will be that you will live in greater harmony with family, community and the environment. If you listen to the Bush line and Bush fears, you might feel guilty about failing to sustain the growth of our Gross National Product. That might make sense if our GNP werent so gross in the first place. Our transition from helpless consumers to hands-on ...
The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality, and concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor. Combined with the effects of a slowdown in the global economy in 1970, the electorate was moved to change government, electing the PNP (Peoples National Party) in 1972. Despite efforts to create more socially equitable policies in education and health, Jamaica continued to lag economically. By 1980, its gross national product had declined to some 25% below the 1972 level. Due to rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, the government sought International Monetary Fund (IMF) financing from the United States and others. The international bankers imposed IMF austerity measures (with a greater than 25% interest rate per year). ...
The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) is a measure developed by sociologist Morris David Morris in the 1970s, based on basic literacy, infant mortality, and life expectancy. Although not as complex as other measures, and now essentially replaced by the Human Development Index, the PQLI is notable for Morriss attempt to show a less fatalistic pessimistic picture by focusing on three areas where global quality of life was generally improving at the time and ignoring gross national product and other possible indicators that were not improving.[14] The Happy Planet Index, introduced in 2006, is unique among quality of life measures in that, in addition to standard determinants of well-being, it uses each countrys ecological footprint as an indicator. As a result, European and North American nations do not dominate this measure. The 2012 list is instead topped by Costa Rica, Vietnam and Colombia.[15] Gallup researchers trying to find the worlds happiest countries found Denmark to be at the ...
According to the most recent evidence, the United States has 313 billionaires now. The total wealth of these people would be enough to buy the gross national products of many, many countries. To be quite honest, I think that there is something extremely distasteful in one person owning so much that a whole struggling nation could be lifted up from poverty with the same amount of money. Any argument that relies on the deserved fruits from the effort of the single individual leaves me cold as for it to apply Id need to assume that one person could actually be worthier than a whole nation. I also cant see what kind of pleasure one could get from earning another billion on top of a big pile of them: we can only eat and drink and wear so much, and its not possible to live in more houses than one at the same time. In short, successive dollars are worth less to you the richer you are ...
Besides the graphical and mathematical representation of who eats whom and at what rate, ENA performs calculus focusing both on single-compartment and whole-system levels.. TST and AMI are basal indices advocating a systemic approach.. The total amount of flows occurring in the system is called TST, and for Cone Spring is equal to 42 445 kcalm _2yr_1:. TST defines ecosystem activity (size) and it conceptually corresponds to what in economy is known as gross national product (GDP), an indicator of economic community size.. Ecosystem development is connected to flow organization and it increases when uncertainty is diminishing. Mathematically, uncertainty (H), related to a distribution of probability over n categories (with scalar constant K), is equivalent to. System flow disorganization is measured by uncertainty and its amount can be distinguished into output H(a) and input H(b) contributions:. With completely independent events, total system uncertainty becomes H(a) + H(b). However, inputs ...
Interactive Design Process, Collaborative Design Approach, Integrated Project Delivery, BIM, 3P, and Lean production process … so many new terms in the world of design and construction. What does it all mean? How will it affect and change my business that Ive been practicing for the past too many years to mention? I recently discussed these changes with an expert in the field of transition and innovation. We started our discussion talking about change that happens over the course of 100 years-from farming to the industrial age-then talked about change that happens over the course of a generation-from horses to trains to automobiles-then talking about change that occurs over the course of modern innovation-from the first cell phone shaped like a brick to my new smart phone that only a 13-year-old can program! Stop and consider how our own industry is changing. The influences of healthcare reform; cost of healthcare at 18-19% of our gross national product; interactive and BIM software; and ...
Affordable Health Care Policies in the United States, exhibits that about 17.1% of its gross national product is spent on offering health care companies. Great
Taipei, June 7 (CNA) Taiwans current financial situation would make it difficult to reach the governments target of allocating 3 percent of the gross national product (GDP) to national defense, Premier Lin Chuan (林全) said Tuesday.
Welding, the simple and excellent process joining of two similar and dissimilar metals of plates and other structure.50% of gross national product of the country is related to welding .Almost everything is made of metal is welded. Welding process includes arc welding, gas welding, and resistance welding (40 total process of welding exist).The most important factor of welding operation is tensile strength of welding joint under variable environmental and working conditions. .So by the experimental and analytical testing is done by the study of overlap length size and gap size are to be selected to evaluate the welded joint of tensile strength. The range of parameters is selected from the literature. For greater accuracy and test of specimen by making of holding device which will the specimen by UTM machine.The result is obtained by experimentation compare with result is evaluated by simulation. By the simulation and experimental observation to fix the length of overlap size is 25mm for 5mm thick ...
Sometime soon, its entirely possible that Pfizer will buy AstraZeneca for a price that would exceed the gross national product of all but about 50 countri
One serious attempt to remedy the shortcomings of using gross national product to address the quality of life was made by Japanese scholars who in the late
Stress represents a significant problem for Western societies inducing costs as high as 3-4 % of the European gross national products, a burden that is continually increasing (WHO Briefing, EUR/04/5047810/B6). The classical stress response system is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which acts to restore homeostasis after disturbances. Two major components within the HPA axis system are the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Cortisol, released from the adrenal glands at the end of the HPA axis, binds to MRs and with a 10 fold lower affinity to GRs. Both, impairment of the HPA axis and an imbalance in the MR/GR ratio enhances the risk for infection, inflammation and stress related psychiatric disorders. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterised by a variety of symptoms, however, one of the most consistent findings is the hyperactivity of the HPA axis. This may be the result of lower numbers or reduced activity of GRs and MRs. The GR gene ...
Mar Racionero is Associate Professor, ANU Research School of Economics, and Associate Dean (HDR), ANU College of Business and Economics. She is a member of the association of Spanish Researchers in Australia-Pacific. Dr. Racionero obtained the First National Prize, awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Education, upon completion of her undergraduate studies. She pursued her doctoral studies at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, within the IDEA program (International Doctorate in Economic Analysis), where she obtained both a Master and a Ph D degrees in Economics. From 1997 she benefited from a TMR European Community grant to conduct research at CORE (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium). Her main field of research is public economic theory, with particular interest in optimal taxation theory, and her work has been published in refereed international journals (Canadian Journal of Economics, European Economic Review, European Journal of Political Economy, Journal of Public Economic Theory, ...
... List of economics films List of economics awards Socioeconomics Glossary of economics Index of economics articles JEL ... energy economics, cultural economics, family economics and institutional economics. Law and economics, or economic analysis of ... education economics, safety and security economics, health economics, war economics, and of course, production, distribution ... constitutional economics, institutional economics, evolutionary economics, dependency theory, structuralist economics, world ...
Economics journals, Open access journals, English-language journals, Quarterly journals, All stub articles, Economics journal ... The Economics Bulletin is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal that publishes concise notes, comments, and preliminary ... results in all areas of economics. The journal does not accept appeals and new versions of previously declined manuscripts. The ...
Injections in economics are introductions of income into circular flow from sources outside households and businesses, such as ...
... was once distinct from resource economics. Natural resource economics as a subfield began when the main ... Environmental economics is distinguished from ecological economics in that ecological economics emphasizes the economy as a ... Environmental economics is viewed as more idealistic in a price system; ecological economics as more realistic in its attempts ... Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics concerned with environmental issues. It has become a widely studied subject ...
... food and nutrition economics, and environmental and natural resource economics. Since the 1970s, agricultural economics has ... development economics, and environmental economics. Agricultural economics influences food policy, agricultural policy, and ... Agricultural economics began as a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage. It focused on maximizing the ... Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the ...
"The Economics of Education in Developing Countries: An Assessment of the State of the Art," Economics of Education Review, 15(4 ... Education economics or the economics of education is the study of economic issues relating to education, including the demand ... "Where Are We Now in the Economics of Education?" Economics of Education Review, 4(1), pp. 17-28. Abstract. Clive R. Belfield, ... ed., 2006.Modern Classics In The Economics Of Education, Elgar. Description. Eric A. Hanushek, 1986. "The economics of ...
... economics) Real estate appraisal Social metabolism Portals: Business and economics Ecology Environment "Land - economics". ... Environmental economics, Urban economics, Factors of production, Georgism, Land value taxation, Natural resources, Production ... Economics of Land Degradation Initiative Factors of production Land consumption Land monopoly Land reform Land value tax Means ... While the particular role of land in the economy was extensively debated in classical economics it played a minor role in the ...
In economics, it is frequently used to imply the remaining value after accounting for a specific, commonly understood deduction ...
... economics`. Most of Islamic economics consists of theology on economic matters." Another (M.N. Siddiqi) notes Islamic economics ... Islamic economics (Arabic: الاقتصاد الإسلامي) refers to the knowledge of economics or economic activities and processes in ... A number of economists have lamented that while Islamic Finance was originally a "subset" of Islamic Economics, economics and ... Methodology of Economics: Secular versus Islamic Islamic Economics booklist (Webarchive template wayback links, Wikipedia ...
As a service Deliverable Good (economics) Intangible good List of economics topics Product (economics) Services marketing ... 2009). Economics. Principles, Problems and Policies (PDF) (18th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-337569-4. Archived ... Downton, Steve; Rustema, Hilbrand; van Veen, Jan (1 August 2010). Service Economics: Profitable Growth with a Brand Driven ... ISBN 978-9963-9838-0-3. Media related to Services (economics) at Wikimedia Commons (Articles with short description, Short ...
... is a scholarly peer-reviewed journal of economics that publishes concise communications (letters) that ... "Economics Letters: editorial board". Elsevier. Retrieved 16 February 2016. "Economics Letters". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. ... Economics journals, Elsevier academic journals, Publications established in 1978, English-language journals, Monthly journals, ...
See also Institutional economics. [Gridlock. Oxford University Press. Retrieve May 3, 2011]. [Heath, Joseph (1999). ... This is an extended usage of word gridlock specifically in economics to describe the common situation that occurs in the ... In the book Institutional Economics an introduction, professor John Groenewegen, Antoon Spithoven and Annette van den Berg ... Normative economics, Chapter 2, Section 3. Retrieved on March 19, 2007]. (Articles with topics of unclear notability from ...
... offers five types of services: Workshops & Trainings: Earth Economics offers hands-on workshops, trainings, and ... Deep ecology Ecological economics Ecological values of mangrove Environmental economics Green accounting Natural capital ... "Mission and Vision". Earth Economics. Retrieved 2017-09-18. "What We Do". Earth Economics. Retrieved 2017-09-18. "Study puts ... Earth Economics evolved into an autonomous organization and received IRS 501(c)(3) tax exempt, public charity status in March ...
"What is 'behavioral economics'?". "Behavioral Economics: Past, Present, Future". Advances in behavioral economics. Princeton ... In the tradition of the Columbia School of Household Economics, also known as the New Home Economics, commercial consumption ... Journal of Socio-Economics. 31 (6): 609-645. doi:10.1016/S1053-5357(02)00138-5. "Consumption in economics". HiSoUR - Hi So You ... Behavioural economics also adopts and explains several human behavioural traits within the constraint of the standard economic ...
... is an approach to economics that emphasizes the importance of taking into account structural features ( ... The strategy combines ideas from both neoclassical economics and structural economics. Dependency theory Singer-Prebisch thesis ... New structural economics is an economic development strategy developed by World Bank Chief Economist Justin Yifu Lin. ... "New Structural Economics A Framework for Rethinking Development and Policy" (PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved March 7, 2015. ( ...
Overheating of an economy occurs when its productive capacity is unable to keep pace with growing aggregate demand. It is generally characterised by a below-average rate of economic growth, where growth is occurring at an unsustainable rate. Boom periods are often characterised by overheating in the economy. An economy is said to be overheated when inflation increases due to prolonged good growth rate and the producers produce in excess thereby creating excess production capacity. The main reason behind overheating is insufficient supply allocation because of excess spending by the people due to increase in consumer wealth. High levels of aggregate demand tend to be the cause of overheating. If short run aggregate demand exceeds long run aggregate supply, then the excess demand for goods must be met via the over-employment of resources. This may be achieved by employing workers for extra shifts or using machinery beyond their recommended working hours. This type of production is considered ...
1898 "Why is Economics Not an Evolutionary Science", The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 12. Berle (1967) p. xxiii Galbraith ( ... Behavioral economics is another hallmark of institutional economics based on what is known about psychology and cognitive ... Davis, John B. (2007). "The Nature of Heterodox Economics," Post-autistic Economics Review, issue no. 40.[1] _____, "Why Is ... David Hamilton, "Why is Institutional economics not institutional?" The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. Vol. 21. ...
"Naked Economics [Main Page]". Archived from the original on 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2007-01-27. Wheelan, Charles. Naked Economics ... Economics books, 2002 non-fiction books, W. W. Norton & Company books, All stub articles, Economics and finance book stubs). ... Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science is a book by Charles Wheelan that seeks to translate basic economic issues into ... a format that can be easily read by people with little or no previous knowledge of economics. The Chicago Tribune described the ...
Constitutional economics Cultural economics Economics of religion Economic sociology Family economics Law and economics Public ... "science, economics of," in S.N. Durlauf and L.E. Blume, ed., The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd edition, Abstract ... "religion, economics of," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition, v. 7, pp. 82-90. Abstract and Table of Contents ... "Economics as a Moral Science," American Economic Review, 59(1), p. 8, pp 1-12. • Ben Fine, 2000. " Economics Imperialism and ...
Steiner, Rudolf Economics - The World As One Economy Lamb, Gary. Associative Economics: spiritual activity for the common good ... socialist economics). Some of the themes central to/addressed by associative economics include the following: how the three ... Review of Radical Economics 38/4 (Fall 2006) Associate! a monthly digest by the Centre for Associative Economics (Webarchive ... Associative economics is a term used variously by different people around the world. For some of these the work of Austrian ...
eds.). The Law and Economics of Competition Policy. Vancouver, B.C.: The Fraser Institute. ISBN 0-88975-121-8. Unilateral ... ISBN 978-0-275-95604-2. Shepherd, William (1990). The Economics of Industrial Organisation. NJ: Englewood Cliffs. pp. 273=0. ... Department of Economics". Retrieved 2022-05-02. "Market Dominance: How Firms Gain, Hold, or Lose It and ...
An asset in economic theory is a durable good which can only be partially consumed (like a portable music player) or input as a factor of production (like a cement mixer) which can only be partially used up in production. The necessary quality for an asset is that value remains after the period of analysis so it can be used as a store of value. As such, financial instruments like corporate bonds and common stocks are assets because they store value for the next period. If the good or factor is used up before the next period, there would be nothing upon which to place a value. As a result of this definition, assets only have positive futures prices. This is analogous to the distinction between consumer durables and non-durables. Durables last more than one year. A classic durable is an automobile. A classic non-durable is an apple, which is eaten and lasts less than one year. Assets are that category of output which economic theory places prices upon. In a simple Walrasian equilibrium model, ...
However, in contrast with Theoretical Economics, models in Artificial Economics are implemented in a programming language so ... Like in Theoretical Economics, the approach followed in Artificial Economics to gain understanding of socioeconomic processes ... (Webarchive template wayback links, Economic methods, Computational economics). ... Artificial Economics can be defined as ″a research field that aims at improving our understanding of socioeconomic processes ...
... is the study of the market for robots. Robot markets function through the interaction of robot makers and robot ... Another part of robot economics considers the effects of the introduction of robots on the markets for those other factors and ... Yeung, Christina; Dinh, Tuan; Lee, Joseph (2014-07-24). "The Health Economics of Bladder Cancer: An Updated Review of the ... 1] [2] Economic of Collaborative Robotics A Roadmap for US Robotics From Internet to Robotics "Robot Economics - TCS Daily". ...
Economics education #Curriculum Australia portal Business and economics portal Education portal New South Wales portal Society ... each covering the current 2009 Economics syllabus for the HSC programme: Year 12 Economics, Tim Riley (Tim Riley Publications) ... The Higher School Certificate (HSC) Economics course is a 2-unit elective course undertaken by students in New South Wales ... In 2012, 5,262 students sat the HSC Economics external examination, with 12.5% receiving the top performance indicator of a ...
Transferability refers to the costs involved in moving goods from one place to another. These include the costs of transportation, the costs of making the goods compliant with the regulations of the shipping destination, and the costs associated with tariffs or duties. t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y = c o n s t a n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n + r e g u l a t i o n s + t a r i f f s {\displaystyle transferability={\frac {constant}{transportation+regulations+tariffs}}} Marsh, Meredith; Alagona, Peter (2014). AP Human Geography (5th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. p. 22. ISBN 9781438092607. v t e (Traffic management, All stub articles, Economic terminology stubs ...
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Book I is broken down into six chapters that begin to define economics. The text starts by describing that economics and ... The Economics (Greek: Οἰκονομικά; Latin: Oeconomica) is a work ascribed to Aristotle. Most modern scholars attribute it to a ... These are called the subject matter of economics. The duties of a wife are the next important topic. A wife should be treated ... In a broad sense the household is the beginning to economics as a whole. The natural, everyday activities of maintaining a ...
The first issue of Chiropractic Economics was published in 1954 as the Digest of Chiropractic Economics by William L. Luckey ... Chiropractic Economics is an American magazine published 20 times a year in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. The magazine provides ... Chiropractic Economics started a website in 1996, billing itself as the "Online Chiropractic Community". The site now features ... According to the 2015 BPA Worldwide audit of Chiropractic Economics subscriber list, total qualified circulation is 29,174 ...
MIT Department of Economics and National Bureau of Economic Research. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) ... Review of Economics and Statistics. 89 (1): 118-133. CiteSeerX doi:10.1162/rest.89.1.118. S2CID 27727245. ... the phenomenon of wage and labor skill polarization is as old as economics. More recently economic polarization has been ...
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The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Economics Program works with partners in industry, labor, ...
Movements and lifestyle choices related to stopping overconsumption include: anti-consumerism, freeganism, green economics, ... Todorova, Tamara (2020) : Diminishing marginal utility and the teaching of economics: A note, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre ... ecological economics, degrowth, frugality, downshifting, simple living, minimalism, the slow movement, and thrifting. ... also central tenets of the recent Economics of Biodiversity review (Dasgupta, 2021). Therein, the dynamic socio-ecological ...
The Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC) increases understanding of development policies and programs by providing ... The Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC) increases understanding of development policies and programs by providing ... Located within the Development Economics Vice Presidency, the Global Indicators Group produces primary data and analysis on ... Located within the Development Economics Vice Presidency, the Development Research Group is the World Banks principal research ...
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Economics is a social science examining how consumers and producers make choices, and how these affect the supply and demand ... Many of our economics graduates go on to pursue a range of careers in both the private and public sectors. All economics ... Economics and Mathematics BSc. * Economics and Mathematics BSc (Hons) - 4 years with professional placement or study abroad ... Economics with Politics BSc. * Economics with Politics BSc (Hons) - 4 years with professional placement or study abroad ...
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The July 4, 1789, tariff was the first substantive legislation passed by the new American government. But in addition to the new duties, it reduced by 10 percent or more the tariff paid for goods arriving in American craft. It also required domestic construction for American ship registry. Navigation acts in the same decade stipulated that foreign-built and foreign-owned vessels were taxed 50 cents per ton when entering U.S. ports, while U.S.-built and -owned ones paid only six cents per ton. Furthermore, the U.S. ones paid annually, while foreign ones paid upon every entry.. This effectively blocked off U.S. coastal trade to all but vessels built and owned in the United States. The navigation act of 1817 made it official, providing that no goods, wares, or merchandise shall be imported under penalty of forfeiture thereof, from one port in the United States to another port in the United States, in a vessel belonging wholly or in part to a subject of any foreign power.. The point of all this ...
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  • Certification by an economics faculty member that the requirement has been met is required. (
  • Along with faculty, economics students have participated in summer research and grant-funded projects on theoretical projects ("Dynamic Human Development Index Analysis and Website") to site and community-based projects such as "Social Development and Women's Empowerment in Mysuru India" and "Gentrification and Economic Development in Cincinnati. (
  • Our faculty is involved locally and beyond from studying Richmond's Blight Elimination Program to collaborating on a Great Lakes Colleges Association collaborative project which tracks economics, socio-communal and foreign policy issues in India. (
  • Fourteen of the 64 Nobel Prizes earned by MIT faculty and alumni were for economics. (
  • As MIT faculty and students developed the quantitative framework for economic analy-sis, the department also worked to keep economics education germane to current issues. (
  • Campus Economics provides college and university administrators, trustees, and faculty with an essential understanding of how college finances actually work. (
  • Campus Economics helps faculty, administrators, trustees, and government policymakers engage in constructive dialogue that can lead to decisions that align finite resources with the pursuit of the institutional mission. (
  • I will be handing out copies of Campus Economics in my next senior faculty meeting. (
  • Campus Economics should be required for all administrators, faculty, trustees, and anyone else who has an interest in understanding and contributing to the fiscal well-being of their campus. (
  • He holds a BSc from the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences of Fatih University in Istanbul, and an MSc and PhD from the Department of Economics of Selcuk University (Turkey). (
  • He holds a BSc from the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences and a PhD from the Department of Economics at the Atatürk Unversity of Erzurum. (
  • Our International Economics MSc looks at economic interactions between countries, focused on international trade and finance. (
  • This will demonstrate familiarity with a particular area of international economics. (
  • Importantly, our research in each of these areas includes the domains of macroeconomics, microeconomics and international economics. (
  • The Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE) is an independent nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to strengthening prosperity and human welfare in the global economy through expert analysis and practical policy solutions. (
  • Our widely recognized specialists on international economics bring their expertise to bear on a vast and diverse range of topics and regions. (
  • So he introduced undergraduate economics studies to MIT-the first required economics course at a U.S. institution of higher learning. (
  • MTSU offers two undergraduate degrees with a major in Economics: a Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.) and a Bachelor of Science (B.S.). The B.B.A. is offered by the Jones College of Business. (
  • We offer a wide range of specialized programs in business and economics across undergraduate, graduate and professional education. (
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily , Unemployment rates up across the board in 2001 at (visited February 08, 2023 ). (
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily , Extended mass layoffs in second quarter 2005 at (visited January 29, 2023 ). (
  • The Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC) increases understanding of development policies and programs by providing intellectual leadership and analytical services to the Bank and the development community. (
  • The curriculum allows for you to pursue a broad set of interests ranging from international trade, public finance, environment, health, labor, monetary policy and development economics. (
  • Development Economics, Political Economy. (
  • Recent economics majors have completed graduate degrees in public policy at Duke, data sciences at UNC, as well as in economics at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, among others. (
  • Many of our students combine economics with other majors and join us in research and pursuing fellowship opportunities. (
  • Economics majors frequently combine economics with politics, data science, philosophy, global management and more. (
  • Economics Majors and Medials who plan to attend the BISC or go on exchange should do so before their fourth year. (
  • Economics majors are encouraged to enroll in Honors sections of 2410 and 2420. (
  • Jérôme Adda is a Lecturer in the Department of Economics at University College, London, and a Research Associate at the Institute of Fiscal Studies. (
  • Russell Cooper is Professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Texas, Austin. (
  • The quantitative economics major meets the Department of Immigration Services standards as a STEM major and thus confers a three-year period of Optional Practical Training (OPT). (
  • The Economics Department at Queen's has a long tradition as one of Canada's leading teaching and research centres in economics. (
  • The Department provides several options for students studying other subjects who wish to take one or more courses in economics. (
  • At MIT's 140th commencement exercises in 2006, Ben Bernanke, PhD '79, 14th chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve, outlined how the Institute's influential economics department took shape after those early years. (
  • Given the emphasis on quantitative reasoning at MIT," Bernanke said, "it makes perfect sense that the economics department here was in the vanguard of those using mathematics as a framework for organizing economic thought. (
  • These developments laid the foundation for economics as a discipline in the second half of the 20th century, and the department quickly rose to the top of national rankings. (
  • One of the hallmarks of this department is the combination of theoretical rigor and practical relevance," says James Poterba, Mitsui Professor of Economics and department head. (
  • Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania ," Working Papers 694, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. (
  • The Department of Economics specialises in applied policy relevant academic research and teaching. (
  • Dr. Fujino is a lecturer in the Department of Economics, Reitaku University, and a special researcher at its Business Ethics and Compliance Research Center. (
  • The Department of Economics and Finance also offers a Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.) degree in Finance with concentrations in Finance , Risk Management and Insurance , and Real Estate . (
  • Graduate students have a number of options in the Department of Economics and Finance. (
  • He is Assistant Professor in the Economics Department at Yıldırım Beyazıt University in Ankara. (
  • He is Assistant Professor in the Economics Department at the University of Bayburt (Turkey). (
  • Advising appointments facilitate student success in the Department of Economics at Western Michigan University by creating an on-going partnership between students and advisors. (
  • Experts from Warwick Business School and the Department of Economics have commented on what has led to this situation, and what this says about the future of our energy supplies. (
  • Trickle down' is not a phrase I've heard uttered in my 3 years within the economics department. (
  • Dr. Niyati Ahuja joined the department in 2009 after earning a Ph.D. in Economics from New York University. (
  • Our department was consistently ranked between 1st and 4th globally amongst all agricultural and applied economics programs. (
  • Similarly, our activities in the domain of macroeconomics are wide ranging and includes public sector economics, monetary policy and inflation, economic crises, history of economic thought, institutional economics, tax policy and political economy. (
  • Students who major in Economics can seek work in the field of microeconomics, which focuses on individual firms and consumers, and macroeconomics, which analyzes national income and growth. (
  • She teaches Monetary and Financial Economics and Principles courses in Micro and Macroeconomics. (
  • Part II is devoted to the application of dynamic programming to specific areas of applied economics, including the study of business cycles, consumption, and investment behavior. (
  • Our graduates have gone on to careers in business and government, graduate training in economics, professional training in business, law and public administration. (
  • A number of themes characterise our research, including Business Behaviour, Blockchain, International Trade and Development and Placemaking Economics. (
  • Key areas of focus include crypto-economics, business strategy and adaptation to blockchain technologies, mapping the blockchain economy, and identifying the public policy challenges that will hold back or accelerate this economic revolution. (
  • This is a scale business with scale economics. (
  • Those who pursue a concentration in economics or applied economics will take courses in advanced economic analysis, statistical techniques, the historical background of today's economies, and the application of economic theory to public finance, international relations, natural resources and the environment, business cycles, labour markets, and the economic systems of other countries. (
  • Our recent graduates have pursued graduate studies in economics and professional programs such as finance, business administration, public administration, law, industrial relations, information technology, and resource management, and they have embarked on careers in the private sector, with non-governmental organizations and with the public sector in key positions of responsibility at all three levels of government. (
  • MIT economics graduates are leaders in business and government and currently head the central banks of the United States, Chile, Israel, Italy, and Cyprus. (
  • Creative thinkers eager to understand the world around them can use an Economics degree to open doors to a variety of sectors - from business and government to education and nonprofits. (
  • He graduated from Kyoto University School of Economics, completed the Kyoto University Business Administration School (M.B.A.), and earned his Ph.D. at Reitaku University Graduate School. (
  • Develop strong skills in economics, business writing, big data analysis, and visual analytics to help solve some of today's most pressing business and social problems. (
  • The Gordon S. Lang School of Business and Economics at the University of Guelph is committed to developing leaders with a social conscience, an environmental sensibility and a commitment to their communities. (
  • Prerequisites: Business or Economics major with Senior standing. (
  • She is an assistant professor of Economics and the Director of KSOM's Women's Business Center. (
  • He studied mathematics, economics and business. (
  • The Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation is a joint initiative of the Faculties of Business and Nursing, Midwifery and Health at the University of Technology, Sydney, in collaboration w. (
  • Campante F., Durante R., Tesei A. (2022) "Media and Social Capital", Annual Review of Economics. (
  • Many of our economics graduates go on to pursue a range of careers in both the private and public sectors. (
  • Economics B.B.A. graduates have an average starting salary of $60,000. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Economics Program works with partners in industry, labor, trade associations, professional organizations, and academia. (
  • Staff within the economics discipline have a long tradition of applying microeconomics tools to a wide range of areas including: health and well-being, environmental and energy economics, economics of risk and uncertainty, program evaluation, behavioural economics, cultural economics and sports economics. (
  • This course discusses some of the principal themes in health economics. (
  • The Institute of Health Economics has been chosen as one of the Health Innovation Platform Partnerships (HIPP) funded by Alberta Innovates. (
  • The health economics and health care financing programme works to promote the use of economic principles in advancing health and enhancing social protection in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (
  • The programme also works with ministries of health, economics, welfare, planning and finance, along with social security and social health insurance organizations and academia, to build national capacities in generating, supporting and promoting knowledge for evidence-based health financing policies. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Health and economics. (
  • Health economics : efficiency, quality, and equity / Steven R. Eastaugh. (
  • The application of rapid rehabilitation model of multidisciplinary cooperation in cesarean section and the evaluation of health economics]. (
  • The control group was treated with traditional rehabilitation mode, and the experimental group was treated with MDT-ERAS intervention to compare the difference of rehabilitation index and health economics index between the two groups, and to evaluate the application value and health economics benefit of MDT-ERAS. (
  • The PanVax tool was developed by the Immunization Services Division (ISD) and the Health Economics and Modeling Unit. (
  • This entry was posted in Equity , Universal health coverage and tagged Child , Economics , Gender , Health Financing , India , Mexico , Vulnerable Populations by Editor Equity/Equidad . (
  • The Health Economics Unit works to improve the performance of health systems through informing health policy and enhancing technical and managerial capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • The Health Economics Research Unit (HERU) is part of the Institute of Applied Health Sciences within the College of Life Sciences and Medicine of the University of Aberdeen. (
  • HERC performs applied and methodological research in health economics. (
  • The Stockholm School of Economics is an academic hub for ambitious students and researchers from all over the world. (
  • With an advanced economics degree from the University of Nottingham, you will graduate with all the knowledge, practical skills and confidence you need to stand out to employers and progress as a professional economist or academic researcher. (
  • The economics major at Earlham prepared me extremely well for my graduate coursework in economics. (
  • At the Graduate Economics Association Fall Barbecue, associate professor Ivan Werning (left) benefits from the cooking skills of GEA cochairs Michael Powell and Tatyana Deryugina. (
  • In terms of how economics needs to change in light of the crisis, where I would put my emphasis is not so much in behavioural economics, though I have no problem with it - it's a very interesting area and it's producing really important insights - but I think it's more about engaging with the world, and the institutions of the world as it is. (
  • That's not to write off behavioural economics - but it's just not true that behavioural economics was the single thing that was missing, that if only we'd had it, there would have been no crisis. (
  • Andrea Tesei is a Reader (Associate Professor) in the School of Economics and Finance at Queen Mary University of London. (
  • The economics specialization is designed for students who want strong analytical and communication skills that will allow them to enter a variety of fields, including banking, insurance, entry-level management, and a variety of other areas. (
  • At Earlham, we approach economics as a supremely social science that also uses rigorous analytical tools to understand economic institutions and life. (
  • Economics students at Queen's acquire a diverse portfolio of analytical, quantitative, computational, and communications skills that provide excellent preparation for a wide range of post-graduation education and career opportunities. (
  • Schools of economic thought outside of mainstream economics-called heterodox economics -are more skeptical of the role of the government and the rationality of actors. (
  • He noted that the modern era of -mathematics-based economics began when Paul -Samuelson arrived at MIT in 1940, shortly before the PhD program was launched. (
  • Prospective undergraduates have a choice of a BA in Economics or combining economics with other subjects such as finance, mathematics, marketing and more. (
  • The Economics degree program has a core set of economics courses but also includes 27 free elective hours (9 courses) that allow students to minor in another field or create a personal set of courses supporting a particular area of interest (e.g. data analytics, journalism, public policy, mathematics, etc. (
  • Christopher "Kitt" Carpenter is the E. Bronson Ingram Chair and Professor of Economics at Vanderbilt University, where he also holds courtesy appointments in the schools of law and medicine. (
  • Sandy Baum is a nonresident senior fellow at the Center on Education Data and Policy at the Urban Institute and professor emerita of economics at Skidmore College. (
  • The Blockchain Innovation Hub consists of an interdisciplinary team of researchers in economics, political-economy, organisational theory, law, sociology, politics and communications. (
  • Note that first year calculus is a corequisite for ECON 212 Microeconomic Theory I , ECON 222 Macroeconomic Theory I , and ECON 250 Introduction to Statistics and a prerequisite for ECON 255 Introduction to Mathematical Economics and all third- and fourth-year economics courses. (
  • At Earlham you can major in economics or choose the quantitative economics major. (
  • All economics courses have the option of a professional placement and/or study abroad experience. (
  • More than 500 undergraduates either major, minor, or concentrate in economics, and some 2,100 enroll in economics courses annually. (
  • It is intended to complement traditional Principles of Economics (Econ 101) courses. (
  • Mainstream economics refers to the orthodox or neoclassical tradition of economics, in which markets are moved by an invisible hand and all actors are rational. (
  • Mainstream economics is not a branch of economics itself, but is used to describe theories often considered part of the neoclassical economics tradition. (
  • Most of modern, mainstream economics based on neoclassical assumptions. (
  • The London School of Economics has a report on a study of academic refereeing (PDF) that looked at the effect of incentives on referee behavior. (
  • After graduating from the University of the Bosporus with a degree in economics, she continued her studies in the United States, where she. (
  • EHERO is based in Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR). (
  • Caselli F., Tesei A. (2016) "Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability", The Review of Economics and Statistics. (
  • We do this by introducing you to both the established and latest scholarship in different aspects of economics and to cultivate their ability to undertake research in their areas of interest. (
  • Applied Economics, Economic Theory and Econometrics are key strengths of RMIT economists. (
  • In fact, an entirely new field of study, known as behavioral economics , has emerged for this discipline. (
  • The economics program introduces you to the discipline of economic thinking and equips you with the skills to understand contemporary economic problems in a variety of national and international markets. (
  • The Economics Discipline at RMIT has a strong commitment to producing high-quality research which has influence in the academic community, as well as is of practical relevance to industry. (
  • When Obamacare was debated, we free-market advocates insisted that no matter what the president promised, the laws of economics cannot be repealed. (
  • The laws of economics have struck back. (
  • In other words: "We have repealed the basic laws of economics. (
  • 1 But the laws of economics are just fundamentally different in a barter economy vs. a money economy vs. a banking economy vs. a fiat money economy vs. a credit economy etc. etc. (
  • Conversely, once you get beyond supply and demand, many of the laws of economics actually change as the nature of the economy changes. (
  • We provide channels for knowledge exchange through which applied economics research isare disseminated directly to users. (
  • Kevin Carver (opens in new window) , who graduated with a BA in Economics in 1977, is senior marketing analytics manager at PMA Research (opens in new window) in Campbell, California. (
  • His research has been published in The American Economic Review , Econometrica , and The Review of Economics and Statistics and it has been featured in major media, including the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Financial Times and the Guardian. (
  • What Is Mainstream Economics? (
  • Mainstream economics is a term used to describe schools of economic thought considered to be orthodox. (
  • Many of the underpinning models and beliefs of mainstream economics are based on concepts that involve economic scarcity, the role of governmental regulation or other action that affects an actor's decision, the concept of utility , and the idea that people are rational actors who will make decisions that are based purely on available information and not emotion. (
  • The origins of mainstream economics lie in the thinkings of Adam Smith. (
  • Because they do not take the actual, irrational nature of markets and individuals into consideration, mainstream economics theories are increasingly being replaced by emerging fields of study. (
  • Mainstream economics follows rational choice theory , which assumes that individuals make decisions that will maximize their own utility, and uses statistics and mathematical models to demonstrate theories and evaluate various economic developments. (
  • Many of the underlying categories and concepts central to mainstream economics are readily taught at universities. (
  • Mainstream economics, the study of rational actors in a world of trade-offs, has faced several challenges. (
  • The main criticism of mainstream economics is the absence of considerations relating to external factors. (
  • There is no place for moral concerns or altruism in mainstream economics and the invisible hand is expected to move markets without fear or favor. (
  • Mainstream economics also does not focus on economic concerns gaining momentum, such as sustainability and pollution. (
  • Early theories relating to the development of economics as a field of study are part of mainstream economics. (
  • For example, the invisible hand theory that is responsible for moving markets is part of mainstream economics. (
  • reflect on any work experience, responsibilities, or non-academic interests or achievements that are relevant to economics or demonstrate appropriate skills or qualities. (
  • LG14) Demonstrate knowledge of economics sufficient to pass the GACE economics examination. (
  • Bruckner M., Ciccone A., Tesei A. (2012) "Oil Price Shocks, Income and Democracy", The Review of Economics and Statistics. (
  • The original contribution of Dynamic Economics: Quantitative Methods and Applications lies in the integrated approach to the empirical application of dynamic optimization programming models. (
  • We seek to help you put economic issues in a wider social, political and historical context by balancing the emphasis we place on the theoretical, empirical and real-world aspects of the study of economics. (
  • Several controversies in empirical economics are used to illustrate how and how not to behave when replicating others' work. (
  • There are approximately 40 economists working within the School of Economics, Finance and Marketing. (
  • if you've undertaken an economics-related project, Extended Project Qualification (EPQ) or summer school, reflect on any insights this has given you. (
  • Functional law and economics, which draws its influence from the public choice school of economic thought, stands as a bridge between the strictly positivist and normative approaches to law and economics. (
  • While the positive school emphasizes the inherent efficiency of legal rules and the normative school often views law as a solution to market failure and distributional inequality, functional law and economics recognizes the possibility for both market and legal failure. (
  • This mechanism design or functional approach to law and economics focuses on ex ante social welfare maximization, rejecting both the ex post corrective function of law assumed by the normative school of thought and the naturally evolving efficient system view espoused by the positive school. (
  • Topics in noncooperative and cooperative game theory are covered, along with a selection of applications to economics in areas such as industrial organization, international trade, public finance, and general equilibrium. (
  • And the changes in the financial sector over the past few decades - which are part cause and part effect of the globalization and computerization of finance - have cumulatively produced enough quantitative change in the structure of the economy that it's finally become a qualitative change, one that I'm not sure the economics profession has entirely grasped yet. (
  • Topics range from mineral reserves and exploration to the economics of mineral projects, taxation issues, and marketing and finance. (
  • This blend places MIT-trained economists in high demand for the analysis of complex policy issues in monetary economics and other fields. (
  • Again, environmental economics is a separate field that studies incentives and policymaking specifically geared toward promoting sustainable practices and businesses. (
  • From opportunity cost to sticker prices, Sandy Baum and Michael McPherson's concise book renders the sometimes inscrutable economics of higher education both comprehensible and compelling. (
  • or Economics of Education. (
  • Promoting safety through economics education. (