Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.LizardsMetagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Pacific OceanBahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Atlantic OceanClimate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Carnivory: The consumption of animal flesh.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Ethnology: The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.EcuadorPaleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.WyomingRadiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).PanamaCluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.South AmericaHerbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Jackals: Medium-sized terrestrial carnivores, in the genus Canis, family CANIDAE. Three species are recognized, two found only in Africa and one found in Africa, Europe, and Asia.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)BrazilDNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Prochlorococcus: A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)BelizeTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Kelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Ocular Physiological Processes: Biological action and events that support the functions of the EYE and VISION, OCULAR.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.MuseumsHuman Activities: Activities performed by humans.Coprophagia: Eating of excrement by animal species.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Impatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.North AmericaDesulfurococcales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA comprised of irregular coccoid to disc-shaped, hyperthermophiles, and found in submarine hydrothermal systems and solfataric hot springs.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Tertiary Healthcare: Care of a highly technical and specialized nature, provided in a medical center, usually one affiliated with a university, for patients with unusually severe, complex, or uncommon health problems.Lynx: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising felines with long legs, ear tufts, and a short tail.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Mediterranean SeaForaminifera: An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Central America

Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. (1/2152)

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. (2/2152)

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis. (3/2152)

A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans.  (+info)

Suppression of giardiasis during the intestinal phase of trichinosis in the mouse. (4/2152)

The interaction of the intestinal phases of Giardia muris and Trichinella spiralis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Intraoesophageal inoculation of G. muris cysts seven days before, or seven days after, similar inoculation of T. spiralis larvae resulted in significant reduction in the numbers of Giardia trophozoites in small bowel and Giardia cysts in stools. This effect was not observed when G. muris cysts were administered after resolution of the intestinal phase of trichinosis. Giardiasis had no effect on trichinosis as assessed by numbers of adult worms in small bowel and larvae in skeletal muscles. Studies of small bowel morphology showed that the intestinal phase of trichinosis was associated with increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, a significant increase in Paneth cells in crypts, and a marked reduction in the villus:crypt ratio of jejunum. These observations suggest that the intestinal phase of trichinosis induced environmental changes in small bowel, perhaps related to inflammation, which resulted in suppression of proliferation of Giardia trophozoites.  (+info)

Protective effect of breastfeeding: an ecologic study of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis and breastfeeding in a Swedish population. (5/2152)

BACKGROUND: In Orebro County, Sweden, a 2.5-fold increase in the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae (HI) meningitis was found between 1970 and 1980. In a case-control study of possible risk factors for invasive HI infection conducted in the same area, 1987-1992, breastfeeding was found to be a strong protective factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to study the relation between incidence rates of HI meningitis between 1956-1992 and breastfeeding rates in the population an ecologic study was performed. RESULTS: A strong (negative) correlation between breastfeeding and incidence of HI infection 5 to 10 years later (rho(xy) (s) approximately -0.6) was seen, whereas no relation seems to exist for the time lag 15 years and beyond. The correlation for contemporary data was intermediate. There were similar results for the breastfeeding proportions at 2, 4 as well as 6 months of age. DISCUSSION: Our ecologic data are consistent with results from our case-control study. The time-lag for the delayed effect on the population level could be estimated although sparse data make the estimates vulnerable to sampling fluctuations. Limitations with ecologic studies are discussed. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between high breastfeeding rate in the population and a reduced incidence of HI meningitis 5 to 10 years later. These results do have implications on strategies for breastfeeding promotion, especially in countries where Hib vaccination is too costly and not yet implemented.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (6/2152)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

A theoretical and empirical investigation of the invasion dynamics of colicinogeny. (7/2152)

A mathematical model describing the dynamics of a colicinogenic and a colicin-sensitive population propagated under serial transfer culture conditions was formulated. In addition, a series of in vitro invasion experiments using six representatives of the E colicin group was undertaken, together with the estimation of the growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics of the strains. Growth rates among the strains varied by up to 44%. There were 14-fold differences among strains in their lysis rates and there were up to 10-fold differences in the amount of colicin produced per lysed cell. The in vitro serial transfer invasion experiments revealed that regardless of initial frequency all colicinogenic strains succeeded in displacing the sensitive cell populations. The amount of time required for the colicin-sensitive cell population to be displaced declined as the initial frequency of the colicinogenic population increased and strains producing higher titres of colicin tended to displace the sensitive strain more rapidly. Overall, the observed dynamics of the invasion of colicinogenic strains was adequately described by the theoretical model. However, despite there being substantial differences among the strains in their growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics there were relatively few differences, observed or predicted, in the invasion dynamics of the six colicinogenic strains. These results suggest that the characteristics of different colicinogenic strains cannot be used to explain the extensive variation in the relative abundance of different colicins in natural populations of bacteria.  (+info)

Selected phenolic compounds in cultivated plants: ecologic functions, health implications, and modulation by pesticides. (8/2152)

Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant tissues may contain up to several grams per kilogram. External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors induce their synthesis. The phenolic compounds resveratrol, flavonoids, and furanocoumarins have many ecologic functions and affect human health. Ecologic functions include defense against microbial pathogens and herbivorous animals. Phenolic compounds may have both beneficial and toxic effects on human health. Effects on low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets are beneficial because they reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Mutagenic, cancerogenic, and phototoxic effects are risk factors of human health. The synthesis of phenolic compounds in plants can be modulated by the application of herbicides and, to a lesser extent, insecticides and fungicides. The effects on ecosystem functioning and human health are complex and cannot be predicted with great certainty. The consequences of the combined natural and pesticide-induced modulating effects for ecologic functions and human health should be further evaluated.  (+info)

  • In the context of an evolving information society , the term information ecology marks a connection between ecological ideas with the dynamics and properties of the increasingly dense, complex and important digital informational environment and has been gaining acceptance in a growing number of disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration , which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded , damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restoration ecology is the academic study of the process, whereas ecological restoration is the actual project or process by restoration practitioners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historical Ecology Studies synthesize diverse historical data to enhance understanding of the ecological, hydrological, and geomorphic conditions of a particular region prior to major Euro-American modification. (csun.edu)
  • The purpose of the National Park Service, Alaska Fire Ecology Program is to understand the ecological effects of fire on the landscape. (nps.gov)
  • The group's research strengths center around its capabilities in water resource evaluation and ecological restoration, which includes long-term evaluations of field sites, the use of an 8,000 square foot Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, and the creation of unique, national aquatic resource geospatial databases and modeling tools. (ornl.gov)
  • One of the main issues at the interface between theoretical and applied ecology is how to combine spatially-explicit ecological models with economic and social impact models. (esa.org)
  • The Arava Bird-watching and Ecology Center (A.B.E.C) connects the fields of ecological research, environmental education and ecotourism, and builds upon the ties between many entities working in these fields in the region. (idealist.org)
  • Media ecology-as an intellectual tradition in understanding the symbiotic relationships among culture, communication, and technology-evolved into being from a multitude of academic disciplines since the beginning of the ecological movement in the 1800s. (peterlang.com)
  • The Theoretical Ecology Section is one of the most rapidly growing organizations within the Ecological Society of America. (esa.org)
  • As the oldest ecological learned society in the world, the British Ecological Society's vision is to advance ecology and make it count. (apple.com)
  • Road Ecology links ecological theories and concepts with transportation planning, engineering, and travel behavior. (islandpress.org)
  • Railroad ecology is a term used to refer to the study of the ecological community growing along railroad or railway tracks and the effects of railroads on natural ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the twentieth century, ecology evolved to include all major fields of biology and became a cause célèbre for environmentalists, who co-opted the term in the wake of Rachel Carson 's Silent Spring (1962). (encyclopedia.com)
  • High school direct entry to Biochemistry, Cellular, Molecular and Microbial Biology, Ecology, Plant Biology, and Zoology are all in the Honours stream. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The EBE program is greatly enriched by its affiliation with faculty from the Center for Ecology & Conservation Biology , the Marine Program , and the Departments of Earth & Environment and Anthropology . (bu.edu)
  • The study of ecology is a branch of biology which deals with the understanding of complex relationships and roles of individual organisms and elements. (excite.com)
  • For an individual aspiring to pursue a career in ecology, an undergraduate degree with a focus in this particular b ranch of biology is a good place to start. (excite.com)
  • Note that there are many possible paths through the Biology major for students interested in ecology and marine biology. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Examples come from real situations in pest management, forestry, wildlife biology, plant protection, and environmental studies, as well as from classical ecology. (worldcat.org)
  • Ecology at York covers the fundamentals of evolution, population and community structures, and applications in conservation and environmental biology. (york.ac.uk)
  • Our Biology Department features a computer lab and teaching labs that will introduce you to the state-of-the-art analysis tools used in ecology research. (concordia.ca)
  • As an Ecology student, you'll follow the Biology core curriculum and additional courses focused on Ecology. (concordia.ca)
  • Calculus 1 and Calculus 2 and Linear Algebra - Mechanics, Electricity and Magnetism and Wave, Optics and Modern Physics - General Chemistry and Chemistry of Solutions - General Biology OR Natural Science DEC OR DEC intégré en sciences, lettres et arts. (concordia.ca)
  • Chemical ecology is also all-inclusive at the organismal level and relates to all taxa, ranging from bacteria to humans, and therefore is of great importance to all of biology. (unine.ch)
  • Whereas most existing research in the discipline has tended to focus on studying the roles and impacts of communication media as they pertain to content, representation, economics or ownership, and the like, media ecology is a theoretical perspective on understanding media as physical, sensorial, perceptual, and symbolic environments or structures within which people's sense-making experience manifests itself through and in communication. (peterlang.com)
  • Bonnie Nardi and Vicki O'Day in their book "Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart," ( Nardi & O'Day 1999 ) apply the ecology metaphor to local environments, such as libraries and schools, in preference to the more common metaphors for technology as tool, text, or system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stepp (1999) published a prospectus for the anthropological study of information ecology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research areas offered by the EEB group are designed to understand major concepts in ecology, evolution, behavior, and phylogenetic relatedness of the species that populate the earth. (uwm.edu)
  • Foremost among the critics of descriptivist ecology was Rob Peters , a leading Canadian ecologist, wrote a book in 1991 called A critique for ecology , in which he proposes that the principal problem with the science of ecology in the modern day is the obsession with problems of solely theoretical interest. (everything2.com)
  • Qualify to become a Certified Wildland Fire Ecologist through the Association for Fire Ecology. (uidaho.edu)
  • The study of these interactions is called ecology. (factmonster.com)
  • Designed to be used primarily in media and communication courses, the book's goal is to hone insight into the role of media in society and to extend the understanding of the themes, processes, and interactions of media ecology to an ever-broader intellectual community. (peterlang.com)
  • Chemical ecology is a highly interdisciplinary field that concerns chemically mediated interactions. (unine.ch)
  • The Miami University REU program in Ecology and Environment is a summer research program supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). (google.com)
  • There was also an academic research project at DSTC called Information ecology , concerned with distributed information systems and online communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Read the stories behind the papers in Nature Ecology & Evolution and other journals on the Nature Research Ecology & Evolution Community. (nature.com)
  • Molecular Ecology concentrates on primary research articles (i.e. (wiley.com)
  • Julia's research experience encompasses landscape ecology, urban ecology, and climate adaptation planning. (washington.edu)
  • The area of research in this investigation is lake ecology. (merlot.org)
  • Due to extensive research and laboratory work necessary with these courses, there are no exclusively online ecology programs available. (excite.com)
  • Welcome to the homepage of the Forest Ecology Research Group at the School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences, UCC. (ucc.ie)
  • Here, researchers from a range of disciplines come together to conduct contemorary forest ecology research. (ucc.ie)
  • This journal synthesizes the most significant developments in current landscape ecology research, highlighting both important areas of consensus, and important areas of current debate to underline major findings and delineate the edges of the discipline. (springer.com)
  • The award is open to graduate or undergraduate student members of the ESA who, as sole or first author, present a talk or poster at the ESA Annual Meeting on original research in theoretical ecology.  Prizes are awarded on the basis of merit, originality, and clarity of presentation. (esa.org)
  • Drawing on real-world examples taken from actual research, "Tropical Ecology" is the best textbook on the subject for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. (worldcat.org)
  • The Invasion Ecology section promotes research, teaching, communication, and collaboration on the ecology of biological invasions. (esa.org)
  • In the last thirty years, research on biological invasions has become a central theme in ecology. (esa.org)
  • The Journal of Animal Ecology app keeps you up to date with all the latest research in your area of animal ecology. (apple.com)
  • The Centre of Competence in Chemical Ecology (C 3 E) was created as a follow-up of the National Centre of Competence in Research Plant Survival (2001-2013), in which research in chemical ecology played a dominant role. (unine.ch)
  • Together with partners at other Swiss universities we strive to conduct internationally recognized research and provide education in chemical ecology at the highest possible level. (unine.ch)
  • The Theoretical Ecology Section awards the Alfred J. Lotka and Vito Volterra prizes for the best presentations given by students during the Annual Meeting of the ESA. (esa.org)
  • At the 2013 ESA Annual Meeting, the Theoretical Ecology Section is not sponsoring a symposium. (esa.org)
  • The study of ecology involves investigations of specific organisms and environments and the development of general conclusions about how the natural world works. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ecology is the study of the interaction between organisms and their environments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. (wikimedia.org)
  • Information ecology was used as book title by Thomas H. Davenport and Laurence Prusak ( Davenport & Prusak 1997 ), with a focus on the organization dimensions of information ecology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unexpected Harmonies: Self-Organization in Liberal Modernity and Ecology (PDF) The Trumpeter, Journal of Ecosophy, 10:1, Winter 1993 This is my initial paper exploring how what I term 'evolutionary liberal' thought can be an important means by which society and nature can be brought into greater harmony. The other Trumpeter papers build on it. (beliefnet.com)
  • The scope of ecology contains a wide array of interacting levels of organization spanning micro-level (e.g., cells) to a planetary scale (e.g., biosphere) phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually all aspects of ecology are of interest to theoretical ecologists. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the 1920s and 1930s ecologists Alfred Lotka and Vito Voltera developed some of the first theoretical models of ecology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It explains why the world's tropical rain forests are so universally rich in species, what factors may contribute to high species richness, how nutrient cycles affect rain forest ecology, and how ecologists investigate the complex interrelationships among flora and fauna. (worldcat.org)
  • The book brings together fourteen leading ecologists and transportation experts to articulate state-of-the-science road ecology principles, and presents specific examples that demonstrate the application of those principles. (islandpress.org)
  • Metapopulation , in ecology , a regional group of connected populations of a species . (britannica.com)
  • Ecology scholars ask questions such as: Why does New Brunswick have twice as many tree species as Alberta? (ucalgary.ca)
  • Recognizing that this small amount of land left over was not nearly enough to sustain the majority of the species on our planet, Dr. Michael Rosenzweig developed the idea of reconciliation ecology. (tolweb.org)
  • In his own words, 'reconciliation ecology is the science of inventing, establishing and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work and play. (tolweb.org)
  • Win-win Ecology: How Earth's Species Can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise. (tolweb.org)
  • From the analysis of specific examples of the nature and physiology are determined 10 axioms and laws of information ecology, which serves as the basis for creating information strategies and tactics in social, economic, political and other spheres that affect human health and human communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late nineteenth century, two German botanists, Oscar Drude (1852-1933) and Andreas Schimper (1856-1901), with their Danish colleague Eugenius Warming (1841-1924), shaped the future of ecology by applying their laboratory training in physiology to studies of biogeography and plant adaptations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nevertheless, to presume to illustrate and integrate plant physiology and ecology using examples from a single genus was to presume much. (springer.com)
  • Liberal thought and deep ecology are usually regarded as mutually exclusive. (beliefnet.com)
  • Criticisms of Bookchin from both the deep ecology and evolutionary liberal perspective complement one another, pointing the way towards a better understanding of how modernity relates to the environment.The paper as a whole offers an early discussion of issues that are more clearly addressed in later papers, particularly Deep Ecology and Liberalism (1996) and the three Trumpeter articles in 1997, 1996, and 1993. (beliefnet.com)
  • Nature Ecology & Evolution will provide a place where all researchers and policymakers interested in all aspects of life's diversity can come together to learn about the most accomplished and significant advances in the field and to discuss topical issues. (nature.com)
  • It identifies the key themes, processes, and figures in media ecology that have coalesced over the last few decades and presents an elegant schema with which to engage future exploration of the role of media in shaping culture and consciousness. (peterlang.com)
  • Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12: 491-497. (washington.edu)
  • Ecology examines the relationship that living organism have with their environment. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Industrial Ecology aims at a sustainable co-existence of the technosphere and the environment. (tudelft.nl)
  • Ecology - The science of the relationships between living things and their environment . (everything2.com)
  • Today on World Environment Day, the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA), in association with Bash Creations, will announce the launch of an Arts & Ecology Day in 2009. (thersa.org)
  • This website describes over 34 years of data collected by Dr. Arthur Shapiro, professor of Evolution and Ecology at the University of California, Davis, in his continuing effort to regularly monitor butterfly population trends on a transect across central California. (tolweb.org)
  • The Aquatic Ecology group strives to provide scientific knowledge and technical innovation to address highly complex and multi-faceted water-energy resource challenges. (ornl.gov)
  • The first set is background information on the biological principles underlying lake ecology and is found under the heading Understanding. (merlot.org)
  • The word "ecology" ("Ökologie") was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel. (wikipedia.org)
  • This assignment focuses on lake ecology and the use of data sets to define the ecology of a selected lake. (merlot.org)
  • 3. View video on pond/lake ecology. (merlot.org)
  • This video will serve as an introduction to lake ecology and the problems that humans cause. (merlot.org)
  • Understanding Lake Ecology Exit is just one part of an online training site called Water on the Web (see below) provided by the University of Minnesota Duluth and Lake Superior College. (epa.gov)
  • The lake ecology training includes six lectures (consisting of several PPT slides), a computer lab (Word document) and appendices. (epa.gov)
  • Understanding Lake Ecology is part of its Water Science Curriculum, which offers a two-semester water resource management curriculum for second year technical students or undergraduates in water resource management, water science, or environmental resource management programs. (epa.gov)
  • CURRENT SUBSCRIBERS to Journal of Animal Ecology can "pair" their device with their personal or institutional subscription to enjoy full access in this iPad edition. (apple.com)
  • Journal of Animal Ecology subscriptions automatically renew within 24 hours of the end of your subscription period for $199.99 (US) unless auto-renew is turned off at least 24 hours before the end of the subscription period. (apple.com)
  • It draws lessons from the system's perspective provided by industrial ecology, a new field resolutely focused on the flows of material, energy, and water through systems at different scales, from products to factories to countries and regions. (un.org)
  • 2 Embedded utility is central to industrial ecology: if a product is landfilled, these resources are lost. (un.org)
  • The master of science in Industrial Ecology (IE) offers talented students from around the world the opportunity to enhance their expertise and work on current challenges faced by the world today. (tudelft.nl)
  • Industrial Ecology is an emergent scientific discipline that promotes a systemic approach to human problems, integrating technical, environmental and social aspects. (tudelft.nl)
  • Industrial Ecology is a cooperation between TU Delft En Leiden University. (tudelft.nl)
  • Please note that for the MSc Industrial Ecology you will have to register at Leiden University, not at the TU Delft. (tudelft.nl)
  • After being accepted, you will automatically be registered for the MSc Industrial Ecology at the TU Delft. (tudelft.nl)
  • Ecology Coatings is a world leader in the development of nano-engineered, ultra-violet curable coatings that drive efficiencies and clean processes in manufacturing. (prweb.com)
  • the greek 'oikos', where ecology is derived from, means 'the home', the place where we live. (designboom.com)
  • Until now, the academic foundations of media ecology have been passed down primarily in the form of edited volumes, often by students of Neil Postman, or are limited to a focus on Marshall McLuhan and/or Postman or some other individual important to the field. (peterlang.com)
  • Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecology was largely a descriptive science from the late 19th century until the middle of the 20th (with the notable exceptions of Vito Volterra , Alfred J. Lotka and Frederick E. Clements), when a couple of luminaries brought mathematical rigour to the field. (everything2.com)
  • Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • For students interested in the field of ecology, degrees are offered at the bachelor's, graduate certificate, graduate, and doctoral levels. (excite.com)
  • Ecology is a dynamic, challenging, and rewarding field of study. (excite.com)
  • Both universities are at the forefront of the field of Indus-trial Ecology. (tudelft.nl)
  • Note that if you study abroad on a field ecology program (e.g. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Covering a wide range of disciplines, this book explains the formulae, techniques, and methods used in field ecology. (worldcat.org)
  • When you study Ecology, your field of view opens to reveal the intricate relationships among all living things. (concordia.ca)
  • Diverse theories, concepts, and models in the new field of road ecology are integrated to establish a coherent framework for transportation policy, planning, and projects. (islandpress.org)
  • NYU Law School Conference Towards a Free Information Ecology and a lecture series on Information ecology at Duke University Law School's Center for the Study of the Public Domain . (wikipedia.org)
  • Why Study Ecology? (excite.com)
  • Offering an accessible introduction, and written from the perspective of a «second generation» scholar, this single-authored work provides a unified, systematic framework for the study of media ecology. (peterlang.com)
  • The Miami University Ecology REU program is interested in outstanding students in the biological sciences with diverse backgrounds and a strong interest in Ecology. (google.com)