The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The physical measurements of a body.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Organisms that live in water.
The consumption of animal flesh.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.
A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Medium-sized terrestrial carnivores, in the genus Canis, family CANIDAE. Three species are recognized, two found only in Africa and one found in Africa, Europe, and Asia.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.
The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.
A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
Biological action and events that support the functions of the EYE and VISION, OCULAR.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Activities performed by humans.
Eating of excrement by animal species.
Sexual activities of animals.
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA comprised of irregular coccoid to disc-shaped, hyperthermophiles, and found in submarine hydrothermal systems and solfataric hot springs.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Care of a highly technical and specialized nature, provided in a medical center, usually one affiliated with a university, for patients with unusually severe, complex, or uncommon health problems.
A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising felines with long legs, ear tufts, and a short tail.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. (1/2152)

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. (2/2152)

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis. (3/2152)

A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans.  (+info)

Suppression of giardiasis during the intestinal phase of trichinosis in the mouse. (4/2152)

The interaction of the intestinal phases of Giardia muris and Trichinella spiralis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Intraoesophageal inoculation of G. muris cysts seven days before, or seven days after, similar inoculation of T. spiralis larvae resulted in significant reduction in the numbers of Giardia trophozoites in small bowel and Giardia cysts in stools. This effect was not observed when G. muris cysts were administered after resolution of the intestinal phase of trichinosis. Giardiasis had no effect on trichinosis as assessed by numbers of adult worms in small bowel and larvae in skeletal muscles. Studies of small bowel morphology showed that the intestinal phase of trichinosis was associated with increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, a significant increase in Paneth cells in crypts, and a marked reduction in the villus:crypt ratio of jejunum. These observations suggest that the intestinal phase of trichinosis induced environmental changes in small bowel, perhaps related to inflammation, which resulted in suppression of proliferation of Giardia trophozoites.  (+info)

Protective effect of breastfeeding: an ecologic study of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis and breastfeeding in a Swedish population. (5/2152)

BACKGROUND: In Orebro County, Sweden, a 2.5-fold increase in the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae (HI) meningitis was found between 1970 and 1980. In a case-control study of possible risk factors for invasive HI infection conducted in the same area, 1987-1992, breastfeeding was found to be a strong protective factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to study the relation between incidence rates of HI meningitis between 1956-1992 and breastfeeding rates in the population an ecologic study was performed. RESULTS: A strong (negative) correlation between breastfeeding and incidence of HI infection 5 to 10 years later (rho(xy) (s) approximately -0.6) was seen, whereas no relation seems to exist for the time lag 15 years and beyond. The correlation for contemporary data was intermediate. There were similar results for the breastfeeding proportions at 2, 4 as well as 6 months of age. DISCUSSION: Our ecologic data are consistent with results from our case-control study. The time-lag for the delayed effect on the population level could be estimated although sparse data make the estimates vulnerable to sampling fluctuations. Limitations with ecologic studies are discussed. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between high breastfeeding rate in the population and a reduced incidence of HI meningitis 5 to 10 years later. These results do have implications on strategies for breastfeeding promotion, especially in countries where Hib vaccination is too costly and not yet implemented.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (6/2152)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

A theoretical and empirical investigation of the invasion dynamics of colicinogeny. (7/2152)

A mathematical model describing the dynamics of a colicinogenic and a colicin-sensitive population propagated under serial transfer culture conditions was formulated. In addition, a series of in vitro invasion experiments using six representatives of the E colicin group was undertaken, together with the estimation of the growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics of the strains. Growth rates among the strains varied by up to 44%. There were 14-fold differences among strains in their lysis rates and there were up to 10-fold differences in the amount of colicin produced per lysed cell. The in vitro serial transfer invasion experiments revealed that regardless of initial frequency all colicinogenic strains succeeded in displacing the sensitive cell populations. The amount of time required for the colicin-sensitive cell population to be displaced declined as the initial frequency of the colicinogenic population increased and strains producing higher titres of colicin tended to displace the sensitive strain more rapidly. Overall, the observed dynamics of the invasion of colicinogenic strains was adequately described by the theoretical model. However, despite there being substantial differences among the strains in their growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics there were relatively few differences, observed or predicted, in the invasion dynamics of the six colicinogenic strains. These results suggest that the characteristics of different colicinogenic strains cannot be used to explain the extensive variation in the relative abundance of different colicins in natural populations of bacteria.  (+info)

Selected phenolic compounds in cultivated plants: ecologic functions, health implications, and modulation by pesticides. (8/2152)

Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant tissues may contain up to several grams per kilogram. External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors induce their synthesis. The phenolic compounds resveratrol, flavonoids, and furanocoumarins have many ecologic functions and affect human health. Ecologic functions include defense against microbial pathogens and herbivorous animals. Phenolic compounds may have both beneficial and toxic effects on human health. Effects on low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets are beneficial because they reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Mutagenic, cancerogenic, and phototoxic effects are risk factors of human health. The synthesis of phenolic compounds in plants can be modulated by the application of herbicides and, to a lesser extent, insecticides and fungicides. The effects on ecosystem functioning and human health are complex and cannot be predicted with great certainty. The consequences of the combined natural and pesticide-induced modulating effects for ecologic functions and human health should be further evaluated.  (+info)

Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Examples of Zoonoses

Some common examples of zoonoses include:

1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.

Transmission of Zoonoses

Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:

1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.

Prevention of Zoonoses

Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:

1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.


Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.

Examples of Bird Diseases:

1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.

In birds, the virus can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and nervous system disorders. It is transmitted through contact with infected birds or contaminated feces or water. Wild birds and domestic poultry are susceptible to influenza infection. The H5N1 subtype of the virus has caused widespread outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, leading to significant economic losses and public health concerns.

Prevention methods include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and surveillance programs. Vaccines are available for chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other domesticated birds, but the effectiveness of these vaccines can be limited in protecting against certain subtypes of the virus. Biosecurity measures such as sanitation, isolation, and disinfection can help prevent the spread of the disease in poultry flocks. Surveillance programs monitor the presence of the virus in wild and domestic bird populations to detect outbreaks early and prevent the spread of the disease.

The impact of avian influenza on human health is generally minimal, but it can be severe in certain cases. Direct transmission of the virus from birds to humans is rare, but it can occur through close contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces. Indirect transmission may occur through the handling of contaminated poultry products. People with weakened immune systems, such as young children, the elderly, and those with chronic diseases, are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms from avian influenza.

Overall, avian influenza is an important disease in birds that can have significant economic and public health implications. Prevention and control measures are essential to minimize the impact of the disease on both bird populations and human health.

Examples of emerging communicable diseases include SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), West Nile virus, and HIV/AIDS. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose and treat, and they can spread rapidly due to increased travel and trade, as well as the high level of interconnectedness in today's world.

Emerging communicable diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as environmental changes, genetic mutations, or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans. These diseases can also be spread through various routes, including airborne transmission, contact with infected bodily fluids, and vector-borne transmission (such as through mosquitoes or ticks).

To prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, it is important to have strong surveillance systems in place to detect and monitor outbreaks, as well as effective public health measures such as vaccination programs, quarantine, and contact tracing. Additionally, research into the causes and transmission mechanisms of these diseases is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies.

Overall, emerging communicable diseases pose a significant threat to global health security, and it is important for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the general public to be aware of these diseases and take steps to prevent their spread.

... ecology Information ecology Landscape ecology Natural resource Normative science Philosophy of ecology Political ecology ... Human ecology is an interdisciplinary investigation into the ecology of our species. "Human ecology may be defined: (1) from a ... Ecology portal Biology portal Carrying capacity Chemical ecology Climate justice Circles of Sustainability Cultural ecology ... The main subdisciplines of ecology, population (or community) ecology and ecosystem ecology, exhibit a difference not only in ...
... or railway ecology is a term used to refer to the study of the ecological community growing along railroad or ... Ecology portal Ecotope Kušta, T., Ježek, M., & Keken, Z. (2011) Mortality of large mammals on railway lines. Scientia ... C. Sargent, D. W. Shimwell (reviewer). "Britain's Railway Vegetation" Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 599-600 ( ... 1985) Borda-de-Água, L., Barrientos, R., Beja, P. & Pereira, H.M. (eds). (2017) Railway Ecology. Springer International ...
In addition to using sensory ecology as a tool to inform conservation strategies, scientists have also used sensory ecology ... Sensory Ecology. New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-2333-6 Barth, F.G. and A. Schmid, eds. (2001). Ecology of Sensing, Ch.1. ... Sensory ecology can thus be used as a tool to understand (1) why different species may react to anthropogenic and environmental ... In addition, sensory ecology has been employed as a tool to shape management strategies for the control and eradication for ...
The European version of media ecology rejects the North American notion that ecology means environment. Ecology in this context ... Explorations in Media Ecology. 5 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1386/eme.5.1.5_1. Postman, Neil. "What is Media Ecology?". Media Ecology ... Media Ecology Association Media Ecology reading list on the MEA website A First Look at Communication Theory, see McLuhan ... "What is Media Ecology." Media Ecology Association. 2009. Web. 29 Sept 2014. Postman, Neil. "Teaching as a conserving activity ...
... is the study of the interactions between temperature and organisms. Such interactions include the effects of ... While it is not known exactly when thermal ecology began being recognized as a new branch of science, in 1969, the Savanna ... van der Kooi, Casper J.; Kevan, Peter G.; Koski, Matthew H. (2019-10-18). "The thermal ecology of flowers". Annals of Botany. ... Due to recent global climate change, thermal ecology has become a topic of interest for scientists concerning ecological ...
Against Political Ecology, Human Ecology 27(1): 167-179. Walker, Peter A. 2005. Political ecology: where is the ecology? ... Feminist political ecology Green nationalism Human behavioral ecology List of ecology topics Political economy Social ecology ... Political ecology, Ecology, Anthropology, Political geography, Ecology terminology, Environmental policy). ... Political Ecology and Environmental Management in the Loess Plateau, China, Human Ecology 21(4): 327-353. Martinez-Alier, Joan ...
Migration, in ecology, is the large-scale movement of members of a species to a different environment. Migration is a natural ... p. 2. (CS1 maint: others, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Ecology, Animal migration, Broad ...
Community ecology. Williams, S.E.; Hero, J.M. (1998). "Rainforest frogs of the Australian wet tropics: Guild classification and ... This concept arises in several related contexts, such as the metabolic theory of ecology, the scaling pattern of occupancy, and ... Simberloff, D.; Dayan, T. (1991). "The guild concept and the structure of ecological communities". Annual Review of Ecology and ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from January 2022, Community ecology, ...
... may refer to: Social ecology (academic field), the study of relationships between people and their environment, ... often the interdependence of people, collectives and institutions Social ecology (Bookchin), a theory about the relationship ... are influenced by an organism's environment This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Social ecology. ...
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25:137-144. Bakus, Gerald J.; Targett, Nancy M.; Schulte, Bruce (1986). "Chemical ecology of ... Chemical ecology = chemistry + ecology! Pure and Applied Chemistry 79:2305-2323. Fraenkel, G. S. 1959. The Raison d'Être of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chemical ecology. International Society of Chemical Ecology (Articles with short ... Müller, Caroline; Riederer, Markus (2005). "Plant Surface Properties in Chemical Ecology". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31 (11 ...
A refuge is a concept in ecology, in which an organism obtains protection from predation by hiding in an area where it is ... Issues in Ecosystem Ecology: 2011 Edition. Scholarly Editions. 2012. pp. 464-465. ISBN 978-1-4649-6482-4. Priede, Imants G. ( ... Natural reservoir Productivity (ecology) Refugium (population biology) Source-sink dynamics Sih, Andrew (1987). "Prey refuges ... Berryman, Alan A.; Hawkins, Bradford A.; Hawkins, Bradford A. (2006). "The refuge as an integrating concept in ecology and ...
... researchers speak in terms of "mapping" the ecology. This term may be misleading as it could appear to ... The concept of communicative ecology is derived from Altheide's "ecology of communication" (1994;1995). Altheide developed this ... an ecology is seen to be anchored in a geographical area of human settlement. In the case of a communicative ecology, while the ... work on genre ecologies to suggest a communicative ecology can be identified by the types and frequencies of communicative ...
... is the study of interactions between both biotic and abiotic components of desert environments. A desert ... Desert ecology is characterized by dry, alkaline soils, low net production and opportunistic feeding patterns by herbivores and ... Whitford, Walter G. (2002). Ecology of Desert Systems. San Diego, California: Elsevier Science Ltd. pp. 128, 132. ISBN 978- ... "World Deserts". Mojave National Preserve: Desert Ecology. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-02-22. Noy-Meir, Imanuel (1973- ...
"Competitive Ecology" at "Competitive Ecology" at IMDb (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead ... "Competitive Ecology" is the third episode of the third season of the American television series Community and the 52nd episode ... "Competitive Ecology" , Ology". Archived from the original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2011-10-07. " ...
... is a sub-field within ecology that considers the application of the science of ecology to real-world (usually ... Institute for Applied Ecology (USA) Kazakh Agency of Applied Ecology Öko-Institut (Institute for Applied Ecology) (in Germany) ... Skelly, David K.; Freidenburg, L. Kealoha (23 May 2012). "Applied Ecology". Ecology. doi:10.1093/OBO/9780199830060-0039. ISBN ... Ecology portal Earth sciences portal Environment portal Biology portal Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Applied ecology ...
... provided the best empirical example of the "Red Queen Hypothesis" in nature. Any organism that produces a ... "Resurrection ecology" is an evolutionary biology technique whereby researchers hatch dormant eggs from lake sediments to study ... Kerfoot, W. Charles; Weider, Lawrence J. (2004). "Experimental paleoecology (resurrection ecology): Chasing Van Valen's Red ... ABC News article about Resurrection Ecology (Evolutionary biology). ...
The term peace ecology has been used by Christos Kyrou of American University to describe a proposed theoretical framework that ... "Peace Ecology: An Emerging Paradigm in Peace Studies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies ... "Peace Ecology: An Emerging Paradigm" in Peace Studies In The International Journal of Peace Studies, Volume 12 #2, 2007 ( ... It was later published in its completed form in an article with the title Peace Ecology: An Emerging Paradigm In Peace Studies ...
... is a branch of ecology that focuses on the roles, or functions, that species play in the community or ... However, reverse ecology and genomic ecology face several hurdles before they can be accepted as rigorous and mainstream ... This kind of genomic study is referred to as genomic ecology or ecogenomics. Genomic ecology can classify traits on cellular ... The scientific journal Functional Ecology is published by the British Ecological Society since 1986 Ecology portal Biology ...
... also makes a connection to the concept of collective intelligence and knowledge ecology (Pór 2000). Eddy et ... "Information Ecology". Casagrande, D.G., & C. Peters. 2013. Ecomyopia meets the longue durée: An information ecology of the ... An information ecology approach to science-policy integration in adaptive management of social-ecological systems. Ecology and ... Stepp (1999) published a prospectus for the anthropological study of information ecology. Information ecology was used as book ...
Cultural ecology Ecosystem Ethnobiology Human ecology Landscape Restoration ecology Time geography Crumley, C. L. (1987). ... Historical Ecology:a Multidimensional Ecological Orientation. In Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes ... The perception of the landscape in historical ecology differs from other disciplines, such as landscape ecology. Landscape ... Balée, W. (1998). "Historical ecology: Premises and postulates". In W. Balée (Ed.), Advances in Historical Ecology, (pp 13-29 ...
... JAMA 268:3465-3467, 1992. Terr AI. Clinical ecology in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Medicine 31:257 ... Fort Collins, CO: Clinical Ecology Publications. ISBN 0-943771-00-5. In 1965, Randolph founded the Society for Clinical Ecology ... Clinical ecology was the name given by proponents in the 1960s to a claim that exposure to low levels of certain chemical ... The society's name was changed from the Society for Clinical Ecology, according to its opponents, in order to flee from its bad ...
"About Us". Balanced Ecology Inc. January 16, 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2010. "Balanced Ecology". Balanced Ecology Inc. January 3, ... Leave No Trace "Balanced Ecology". Balanced Ecology Inc. January 16, 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2010. " ... Balanced Ecology, Inc. (BEI) is a 501(c)(3), non-profit organization dedicated to the use of science and education to increase ... Balanced Ecology was founded in 2007 by Dr. Oranit (Orie) Gilad, a Conservation Ecologist. Dr. Gilad has spent over 15 years ...
... (French: Génération écologie) is one of the four green parties in France, along with Europe Ecology - The ... On 2 May 2018, former minister of Ecology Delphine Batho left the Socialist Party and joined Ecology Generation. She was ... when he was excluded from the party and founded the Ecology-Solidarity Convergence, which later joined The Greens. Unlike many ...
... is a sub-discipline of ecology concerned with the mechanisms, patterns, and effects of host-pathogen ... Lafferty, Kevin D. (2009). "The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases". Ecology. 90 (4): 888-900. doi:10.1890/08- ... Bradley, Catherine A.; Altizer, Sonia (2007). "Urbanization and the ecology of wildlife diseases". Trends in Ecology & ... Constant host-parasite interactions make disease ecology critical in conservation ecology. Ecological factors that can ...
Ecology portal Business action on climate change Sorkin, Andrew Ross (20 March 2008). "At island retreat, Branson and friends ... Richard Branson came up with the concept of the Ecology Summit to bring together moguls of the corporate world to address the ...
Ecology portal Cultural ecology Deep ecology Ecopsychology Ecospirituality Religion and environmentalism Resacralization of ... "Spiritual Ecology". Spiritual Ecology. Retrieved 2015-08-28. "Home". Working with Oneness. Retrieved 2015-08-28. Also see the ... The difference between this spiritually-oriented ecology and a religious approach to ecology can be seen as analogous to how ... John Grim, "Recovering Religious Ecology with Indigenous Traditions", available online at: Indigenous Traditions and Ecology, ...
... soundscape ecology is also informed by sensory ecology. Sensory ecology focuses on understanding the sensory systems of ... The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, published by the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology Leonardo Soundscape and Acoustic Ecology ... For instance, acoustic ecology is also concerned with the study of multiple sound sources. However, acoustic ecology, which ... Soundscape ecology also borrows heavily from some concepts in landscape ecology, which focuses on ecological patterns and ...
... is philosophically and historically rooted in terrestrial ecology. The ecosystem concept has evolved rapidly ... Restoration ecology and ecosystem management are closely associated with ecosystem ecology. Restoring highly degraded resources ... Environment portal Ecology portal Earth sciences portal Biogeochemistry Community ecology Earth system science Holon ( ... The ecosystem is the principal unit of study in ecosystem ecology. Population, community, and physiological ecology provide ...
Community ecology, Habitats, Ecology terminology, Habitat, All stub articles, Ecology stubs). ... In phytosociology and community ecology an association is a type of ecological community with a predictable species composition ... Terrestrial Plant Ecology (Third ed.). Addison Wesley Longman. Willner, Wolfgang (2006). "The association concept revisited". ...
There are several global centers for the study of road ecology: 1) The Road Ecology Center at the University of California, ... Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 24 (12): 659-669. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.06.009. PMID 19748151. "Road Ecology Center (REC)". ... Road ecology is the study of the ecological effects (both positive and negative) of roads and highways (public roads). These ... Road ecology is practiced as a field of inquiry by a variety of ecologists, biologists, hydrologists, engineers, and other ...
Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity Ruth E Ley 1 , Peter J Turnbaugh, Samuel Klein, Jeffrey I Gordon ... Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity Ruth E Ley et al. Nature. 2006. . ...
Favorable environmental conditions such as mild winters and summer rainfall may cause dramatic increases in rodent populations. More rodents become infected under crowded conditions. Deer mice may enter human structures in rural areas. Humans may become infected when they inhale airborne virus or come into direct contact with infected rodents or their urine, feces, or nests. Other mammal species (cats, dogs, coyotes) may be infected through contact with rodent hosts, but they are not known to transmit the virus.. ...
"Soil Ecology Section". Ecological Society of America. Retrieved 2016-05-02.. *Yahoo! Soil Ecology Directory. Url last accessed ... Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil organisms, and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil ... Adl, M.S. (2003). Adl, S. M (ed.). The Ecology of Soil Decomposition. CABI, UK. doi:10.1079/9780851996615.0000. ISBN 978- ... Wall, Diana H. (14 June 2012). Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services. ISBN 978-0-19-957592-3. .. ...
The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is to discover how the environment affects people in order to promote healthier lives.
Juan Downey: Cybernetics, Ecology, and an Ontology of Becoming will present key aspects of Juan Downeys work, focusing on the ... Reweaving Ourselves: Contemporary Ecology through the Ideas of Juan Downey is the second online conference organized by the ... Art and Ecology in Contemporary Latin America. Beginning in 2020 and continuing through 2023, the Cisneros Institute will ... Her most recent is book Earth Beings: Ecologies of Practice Across Andean Worlds (2015), for which she worked with Mariano and ...
... ecology and design to teach young ones about the scientific model known as Earths Tree of Life. With a stunning, accessible ...
1995 - What Can Theoretical Ecology Do For Applied Ecology?. *1994 - Ecological Economics: Building A New Paradigm For ... 1998 - Seeking generality in ecology: current approaches. *1997 - Building Empirically-Based Theory for Spatial Ecology: Tales ... Symposia supported by the Theoretical Ecology Section:. *2013 - None.. *2012 - The Two Cultures of Statistics In Ecology: ... In the past, the Theoretical Ecology Section sponsored symposia at the annual meetings of the Ecological Society of America. ...
Home Biographies sciences ecology PEOPLE KNOWN FOR: ecology. View All Categories * arts, visual ... Emma Lucy Braun, American botanist and ecologist best known for her pioneering work in plant ecology and for her advocacy of ... Charles Elton, English biologist credited with framing the basic principles of modern animal ecology. Elton was educated first ... Karl P. Schmidt, U.S. zoologist whose international reputation derived from the principles of animal ecology he established ...
Ecology Disrupted * Highways Block Bighorn Sheep * Learning Goals and Standards * Lesson Plans * The Bighorn Sheep and Their ... Ecology Disrupted: Unexpected Consequences Of Human Daily Life On Abiotic and Biotic Ecosystem Components Part of the Ecology ... Ecology Disrupted: Unexpected Consequences Of Human Daily Life On Abiotic and Biotic Ecosystem Components Part of the Ecology ... Ecology Disrupted: Unexpected Consequences of Human Daily Life On Habitat and Populations * Populations Live in Habitats ...
... N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 28;344(26):2021-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200106283442611. ...
THE 13th ANNUAL SOUTHEASTERN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION CONFERENCE WILL BE HELD AT FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY IN TALLAHASSEE, FL MARCH ... THE 13th ANNUAL SOUTHEASTERN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION CONFERENCE. Contributed by wdahl2002 on Dec 29, 2015 - 09:30 AM ... IRES: Molecular Ecology and Evolution of Marine Photosynthetic Organisms - Station Biologique de Roscoff, France. Contributed ...
K. D. Johnson, ONeal, M. E., Ragsdale, D. W., Difonzo, C. D., Swinton, S. M., Dixon, P. M., Potter, B. D., Hodgson, E. W., and Costamagna, A. C., "Probability of cost-effective management of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in North America", Journal of economic entomology, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 2101-2108, 2009. ...
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Nature Ecology & Evolution volume 1, Article number: 0168 (2017) Cite this article ... The statistical inevitability of stability-diversity relationships in community ecology. Am. Nat. 151, 264-276 (1998). ...
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... what ecology is, for it seems to be an umbrella term, like sexism or racism, which covers a variety of… ... Does ecology need Marx? I wonder, at this point, ... Does ecology need Marx? I wonder, at this point, what ecology ... Marxist contributions to ecology that, despite their importance and timeliness, are today largely the concern of academics will ... Marxian Ecology, Dialectics, and the Hierarchy of Needs by John Bellamy Foster ...
Publications are organized into four broad sub-disciplines-Population Ecology, Nutritional Ecology, Behavioral Ecology, and ... especially movement ecology (Mysterud et al., 2011), sociality and mating systems (Bowyer et al., 2020), the role of individual ... have been at the forefront of important discoveries in ecology (McCullough, 1979;Bleich et al., 1997), evolution (Boyce, 1988 ... Keywords: population ecology, behavioral ecology, nutritional ecology, conservation, life-histories. Citation: Bowyer RT, ...
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o Ecology - The study of the abundance and distribution of organisms and of the relationships between organisms and their ... ECOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Release Date: November 16, 1999 RFA: TW-00-002 Fogarty International Center National Institute ... This Request for Applications (RFA), Ecology of Infectious Diseases, is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential ... This RFA calls for the development of interdisciplinary research programs on the ecology of infectious diseases in the context ...
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This blog is the second in a series that aims to bring political ecologys insights into anti-corruption efforts and ... Political Ecology in Anti-Corruption Efforts and Practice. Part II: Implementing a Political Ecology Approach. By Jennifer ... Political ecology has much to gain from this exchange. Political ecologys critical stance often prevents this approach from ... Political ecology is well suited to study corruption and environmental crime. Political ecology is a multidisciplinary academic ...
Molecular Ecology Laboratory. Molecular ecology is the study of the earth and its ecosystems through genetic methods. The ... Q&A: The Molecular Ecology Lab at the USGS Alaska Science Center The Molecular Ecology Lab at the USGS Alaska Science Center ... The Molecular Ecology Lab at the USGS Alaska Science Center provides genetic information on the health and status of biological ... Ecosystems Mission Area, Land Management Research Program, Alaska Science Center, Molecular Ecology Laboratory ...
meet-an-ecology-phd-student-lorenz-haenchen.html - meet-an-ecology-phd-student-lorenz-haenchen.html Meet an Ecology-PhD student ... and became a member of the Biometeorology working group at the Institute of Ecology as a PhD student. I am lucky to have the ...
Department of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University ... Department of Ecology and EvolutionColloquium and Events. ... 03/22/2023 Steven Handel, Dept of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University. Title: An ecologist in the ...
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On 14 February 2018 and 16 February 2018, the World Trade Organization (WTO) conducted a Trade Policy Review (TPR) of Malaysia. All members of the WTO are subject to review under the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM). The TPRM takes… Continue Reading →. ...
  • This journal merged with BMC Ecology and Evolution in 2021. (
  • Publications are organized into four broad sub-disciplines- Population Ecology, Nutritional Ecology, Behavioral Ecology, and Conservation that integrate them, with some venturing into a more general ecological context such as climate change. (
  • Efforts to promote health through improved diet require an understanding of the intersections that comprise global nutritional ecology, including agriculture, food systems, health, disease, and a changing environment across the life span. (
  • A partir del 2020 y a lo largo del 2023, el Instituto Cisneros está llevando a cabo una investigación sobre las relaciones entre arte y medio ambiente en la América Latina contemporánea. (
  • This RFA calls for the development of interdisciplinary research programs on the ecology of infectious diseases in the context of anthropogenic environmental changes such as biodiversity loss, habitat transformation, environmental contamination, climate change and other influences. (
  • This Request for Applications (RFA), Ecology of Infectious Diseases, is related to one or more of the priority areas. (
  • Finally, "Ecology, Sustainability, and Activism" focuses on artists who confront ecological crisis directly, whether by using advanced technology, condemning the commodification of natural resources, or explicitly engaging with local activist communities. (
  • In the past, the Theoretical Ecology Section sponsored symposia at the annual meetings of the Ecological Society of America. (
  • A careful reading of Marx and Engels' work leads to the realization that their political economy, firmly grounded on materialist premises, contains important theoretical categories and methodological guidelines for the theoretical analysis of the determinants of the current ecological predicament, and for the development of a Marxist ecology based on ecological principles central to Marxist theory. (
  • Emma Lucy Braun, American botanist and ecologist best known for her pioneering work in plant ecology and for her advocacy of natural area conservation. (
  • Political ecology poses new questions, brings different perspectives, and offers unconventional solutions to anti-corruption efforts and conservation programming by focusing on how power relations impact the distribution of the costs and benefits of environmental change. (
  • It builds on an overview resource defining political ecology as well as a webinar in which Jennifer Devine presented her research on "narco-deforestation" in Guatemala to discuss how political ecology helps deepen understanding of corruption and conservation crime. (
  • Expertise from conservation practice can orient political ecology approaches by pointing to key questions and using language that policy makers hear. (
  • In this second post, we offer several ways a political ecology approach can be implemented in conservation practice. (
  • Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil organisms , and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil environment. (
  • Political ecology is well suited to study corruption and environmental crime. (
  • Molecular ecology is the study of the earth and its ecosystems through genetic methods. (
  • Plant establishment, competitiveness, and growth is governed largely by the ecology below-ground, so understanding this system is an essential component of plant sciences and terrestrial ecology. (
  • Marxist contributions to ecology that, despite their importance and timeliness, are today largely the concern of academics will at that time become even more relevant. (
  • Greenergy is a contemporary WordPress Theme for ecology, environment protection, alternative energy company and business including wind and solar energy, recycling business and similar. (
  • Three aspects of a political ecology perspective provide starting points for practitioners to examine and respond to the impact of corruption on natural resource outcomes. (
  • provide practical guidelines for research on ungulates, especially those used in population ecology. (
  • The Molecular Ecology Lab research portfolio currently includes. (
  • I wonder, at this point, what ecology is, for it seems to be an umbrella term, like sexism or racism, which covers a variety of macrolevel and microlevel phenomena produced by different causes and lends itself to the development of a wide variety of conflicting ideologies and theoretical frameworks. (
  • THE SCIENCE AND ECOLOGY OF EARLY DEVELOPMENT (SEED) RELEASE DATE: June 18, 2004 PA NUMBER: PA-04-113 December 13, 2006 - The R01 portion of this funding opportunity has been replaced by PA-07-149 , which now uses the electronic SF424 (R&R) application for February 5, 2007 submission dates and beyond. (
  • This PA extends the Science and Ecology of Early Development (SEED) initiative. (
  • The Molecular Ecology Lab at the USGS Alaska Science Center provides genetic information on the health and status of biological resources for diverse local, state, and federal partners. (
  • In 2019, I joined the interdisciplinary team of AgroClim Huaraz ( and became a member of the Biometeorology working group at the Institute of Ecology as a PhD student. (
  • This July, the Ecology Center, along with an array of cosponsors, will be hosting Plastic-Free July, a series of events for community members to learn, take action, get tips on reducing plastic waste, and connect with others who are concerned about the global problem of plastic pollution. (
  • How can political ecology be applied in anti-corruption and natural resource management programs to lead to more effective outcomes? (
  • Nature from a political ecology perspective is not just a resource that produces economic value, but is also a site of belonging, identity formation, and the reproduction of life and livelihoods (Rocheleau et al. (
  • Penned by science writer and children's book author Isabel Thomas and illustrated by Sara Gillingham, Full of Life: Exploring Earth's Biodiversity merges art, ecology and design to teach young ones about the scientific model known as Earth's Tree of Life. (
  • Political ecology is a multidisciplinary academic field that studies how politics, economics, and culture shape environmental change, and vice versa. (
  • El primero, "Lo vernáculo, lo telúrico y lo ritual", estudia el modo en que los artistas contemporáneos utilizan los materiales como evidencia de un patrimonio natural, y se vuelcan hacia las artesanías tradicionales y los sistemas de creencias de las culturas originarias como una manera de conectar con la naturaleza y la vida en general de formas no destructivas. (
  • A political ecology approach integrates social and natural sciences, which requires bridging knowledge, sciences, and methods that are usually separated. (
  • Efforts to promote health through improved diet require an understanding of the intersections that comprise global nutritional ecology, including agriculture, food systems, health, disease, and a changing environment across the life span. (