Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ocular Physiological Processes: Biological action and events that support the functions of the EYE and VISION, OCULAR.Orthokeratologic Procedures: An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Myopia, Degenerative: Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Glaucoma, Angle-Closure: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)SingaporePhacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Echo-Planar Imaging: A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Endotamponade: A method of stopping internal bleeding or blood flow, or the closure of a wound or body cavity, achieved by applying pressure or introducing an absorbent liquid, gel, or tampon.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Retinal DiseasesChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Echovirus 9: A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
... is the length of the eye (mm). The SRK II formula adjusts the A constant utilized depending on the axial length: increasing the ... The axial length (AL) is the distance between the anterior surface of the cornea and the fovea and usually measured by A-scan ... These echoes allow us to calculate the distance between the probe and various structures in the eye. Ultrasonography does not ... Eye's axial length (AL) Corneal power (K) Postoperative IOL position within the eye known as estimated lens position (ELP) The ...
It is an A-mode that provides data on the length of the eye, which is a major determinant in common sight disorders. B-scan ... white for a strong echo, black for a weak echo, and varying shades of grey for everything in between.) When all the echoes are ... such as the anterior chamber of the eye. Older technology transducers focused their beam with physical lenses. Newer technology ... Deeper structures such as liver and kidney are imaged at a lower frequency 1-6 MHz with lower axial and lateral resolution but ...
Fercher, A. F.; Mengedoht, K.; Werner, W. (1988). "Eye-length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light". ... OCT as an echo technique is similar to ultrasound imaging. Other medical imaging techniques such as computerized axial ... Garg, A. (2014). Anterior & Posterior Segment OCT: Current Technology & Future Applications, 1st edition. Schmitt, J.M. (1999 ... It is also important to note that the laser output from the instruments is low - eye-safe near-infrared light is used - and no ...
For example, the fruit fly's compound eye is made of hundreds of small lensed structures (ommatidia); the human eye has a blind ... For example, in the gastropods, the snail-type shell is always built as a tube that grows both in length and in diameter; ... In the early embryo, the bicoid and hunchback genes are at high concentration near the anterior end, and give pattern to the ... A recapitulation theory of evolutionary development was proposed by Étienne Serres in 1824-26, echoing the 1808 ideas of Johann ...
Originates on the surface of the upper eight ribs at the side of the chest and inserts along the entire anterior length of the ... General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, superficial anatomy of ... Variability with reduced or intensified[34] echo has also been found in healthy tendons. Bilateral comparison is very helpful ... serratus anterior (prime mover), pectoralis minor and major Scapular elevation [12] The scapula is raised in a shrugging motion ...
It is an A-mode that provides data on the length of the eye, which is a major determinant in common sight disorders, especially ... white for a strong echo, black for a weak echo, and varying shades of grey for everything in between.) When all the echoes are ... such as the anterior chamber of the eye.[20] Older technology transducers focused their beam with physical lenses. Newer ... Deeper structures such as liver and kidney are imaged at a lower frequency 1-6 MHz with lower axial and lateral resolution as a ...
One eye had phthisis bulbi without a visible vitreous cavity. All of the 34 eyes had short echo-times on axial length ... 4 eyes, 10%), posterior embryotoxon (2 eyes, 5%), and normal anterior segment (3 eyes, 7.5%). The lens was visible in 27 eyes, ... Shallow to flat anterior chamber (29 eyes, 72.5%) along with posterior synechia (29 eyes, 72.5%) were the most common anterior ... Some of the eyes in our series had near normal anterior segments(Table 1) and it seems that the posterior segment involvement ...
What is applaud to the echo? Meaning of applaud to the echo medical term. What does applaud to the echo mean? ... Looking for online definition of applaud to the echo in the Medical Dictionary? applaud to the echo explanation free. ... The technique is used to make biometric measurements such as the axial length of the eye, the depth of the anterior chamber, ... See biometry of the eye; axial length of the eye.. Fig. U1 Histogram of ultrasound reflections (or echoes) in the eye. Echoes ...
Eye Cubed™ Ultrasound features real-time imaging, advanced movie mode, real-time image enhancement and a range of self- ... Delivers ultra-precise axial length measurement with faster, easier image acquisition in real-time movie mode. ... 40 MHz UBM Wide-Field Anterior Segment B-Scan Probe. Delivers accurate measurement and evaluation of the iris, angle and ... Produces the subtlest vitreous echoes, offering unparalleled distinction between the retina, choroid and sclera, as well as the ...
The axial length of the eye was measured by A-scan ultrasonography (11 MHz; Optikon Hiscan A/B). During the axial measurement, ... Developmental changes in length of the anterior segment. (A) Effect of ML (530 nm, ▵), BL (○), and transfer from ML to BL at ... A valid measurement was confirmed when echoes of the various intraocular surfaces were clear (Zhou et al., 2006). The axial ... Our study of developing guinea pigs indicated that ML promoted axial eye growth and led to myopia and that SL slowed axial eye ...
... is the length of the eye (mm). The SRK II formula adjusts the A constant utilized depending on the axial length: increasing the ... The axial length (AL) is the distance between the anterior surface of the cornea and the fovea and usually measured by A-scan ... These echoes allow us to calculate the distance between the probe and various structures in the eye. Ultrasonography does not ... Eyes axial length (AL) Corneal power (K) Postoperative IOL position within the eye known as estimated lens position (ELP) The ...
Changes in axial lengths of treated (black boxes) and control (gray boxes) eyes. Change in axial length was significantly ... 61 Referred to hereafter as axial length, it represents the sum of anterior chamber, lens, and vitreous chamber axial ... T2-weighted images were acquired using a spin-echo multislice imaging sequence. The resolution of the system was 100 μm, slice ... Changes in axial lengths of treated (black boxes) and control (gray boxes) eyes. Change in axial length was significantly ...
Because the eye is a superficial fluid filled structure, ultrasound is an easy to use modality for visualization of ocular ... Eye length in the axial dimension can also be obtained by measuring the distance between specific spikes. ... and absent echoes appear black (anechoic). It is especially useful in imaging of tumors of the anterior orbit, myositis with ... 1) Close and cover the eye with gel 2) Axial plane: apply the transducer gently on the eye with your fourth and fifth fingers ...
... and Axial globe length (19.60±0.452,19.50±0.592 mm) respectively. No significant differences were observed when comparing left ... Anterior chamber depth (2.99±0.242, 2.78±0.285 mm), Lens thickness (6.62±0.364,7.02±0.612 mm), Vitreous chamber depth (8.81± ... Transcorneal and transpalpebral ultrasonographic scanning of left and right eyes of dogs were performed using with a 12 MHZ ... and right eyes of dogs in both methods within the same group and comparing between two groups (p,0.05).Conclusion and Clinical ...
In one eye extracapsular cataract surgery combined with trabeculectomy. Mean axial length was 18.42±0.13 mm. Mean intraocular ... 1 eye), anterior synechia (3 eyes). Except one eye, intraocular pressure decreased to normal levels in all eyes. Conclusions: ... Echo B showed a complete posterior vitreous detachment in 3 cases. Results: Vitrectomy was performed 0.5 to 36 months after ... On average 1.35 treatment per eye. 38 eyes (67,8%) needed only 1 treatment 16 eyes (28,6%) needed 2 treatments, 2 eyes (3.5%) ...
Exotropia was −28° and hypotropia 6°. In both eyes (axial length right eye 28.8, left eye 24.0 mm) the MR was shifted downwards ... sparing the anterior segment with the insertion site. It is well known that the anterior scleral ring, into which the recti ... Coronal magnetic resonance image (T1 weighted, spin echo) of the right and left orbit of a characteristic subject (RG) in group ... We examined 35 patients with unilateral or bilateral high axial myopia-that is, axial length of the globe averaging 29.5 mm ( ...
The cornea, anterior chamber, lens, vitreous chamber, and axial globe length increased with age in the Saanen breed of goats. ... The transducer was placed in a longitudinal position until optimal B scan images, according to echoes of A mode images, were ... The cornea, anterior and posterior lens capsule, sclera, and iris appeared hyperechoic and generated peaks on the A mode. ... Ultrasonographic and echobiometric findings in the eyes of Saanen goats of different ages. Author(s): *Ribeiro, Alexandre P. ...
The degree of tilting relative to beam location on the pupil may vary with the axial length, refractive error, and shape of the ... The pre-LP SD-OCT shows massive disc elevation in both eyes with anterior displacement of the RPE/BM layer toward the vitreous ... the echo delay of the nasal retina is shorter than the temporal retina, causing the image to tilt. The degree of tilting ... We found that the difference [(contoured length − straight grid length)/straight grid length], on average, was less than 1% ( ...
Relationship between central corneal thickness, refractive error, corneal curvature, anterior chamber depth and axial length. J ... Compared to emmetropic eye, myopic eye is longer and hyperopic eye is shorter. All the known possible changes in most of the ... The transducer sends ultrasound rays through the probe to the cornea and receives echoes from the cornea. Width of transducer ... This work also revealed that axial length elongation or shortening does not influence CCT. Similarly CCT did not show any ...
N. Saka, K. Ohno-Matsui, N. Shimada et al., "Long-term changes in axial length in adult eyes with pathologic myopia," American ... in the right anterior jugular vein (AJV) with abnormal reflux (. ) in the anterior jugular (AJV) and facial veins (AFV) of the ... The related echo-color Doppler study of the neck veins, performed in November 2014, showed an atypical left jugular ... the severity of this condition is associated with increased axial length and increased age [1]. Likewise, the prevalence ...
DTI was performed at 2-mm isotropic resolution by using a single-shot axial echo-planar acquisition with TR/TE = 17 seconds/ ... ventral lateral anterior. VLp. ventral lateral posterior. The neurodegenerative movement disorders Parkinson disease (PD), ... Standard space masking to remove neck and eye tissue was then performed and followed by skull stripping by using the Brain ... For each subject, the length of the displacement vector at each point on the surface mesh was computed. Finally, the resulting ...
High myope with a long eye. Note the poor quality of the retinal spike on the A-scan. The axial length from the anterior ... Simply place calipers on the vertex of the epithelial corneal echo and on the macula to measure the axial length at average ... The average axial eye length is 23.5 mm, with a range of 22.0-24.5 mm. [2] In general, the smaller the eye, the more hyperopic ... High myope with a long eye. Note the poor quality of the retinal spike on the A-scan. The axial length from the anterior ...
... axial length and intraocular lens power are same as that of an adult eye but implantation of IOL in growing eyes needs under- ... The growing eyes of children necessitate tha pediatric ophthalmologists acquire sufficient knowledge of the basics of pediatric ... A good quality A scan should have anterior lens echo which is 90% or more of maximum height. A posterior lens echo which is ... they had longer axial length compared to eyes with bilateral cataract. Axial lengths of unilateral cataractous eyes were ...
The focused flow passes through a narrow focal zone with lateral and axial focal lengths of 6-8 μm and 15-20 μm, respectively. ... a fluid drainage tissue in the anterior eye. A promising treatment involves delivery of stem cells to the TM to restore tissue ... Second harmonic imaging (SHI) provides many advantages over the conventional pulse-echo USI, such as enhanced axial and lateral ... system was used for imaging lamina cribrosa of an ex vivo porcine eye. Extrinsic contrast agent was used to perfuse the eye via ...
It provided essential information about the anterior and posterior segments in eyes with opaque media. It allowed for accurate ... the most common indication for intraocular echography continues to be for the measurement of the ocular axial length as an ... This produces a series of echoes that are processed like pixels on a computer screen to generate an image. Higher frequency B- ... In the eyes in which drusen were not found it was assumed that these were anamolous optic nerve heads based on the absence of ...
Oblique axial turbo spin-echo image in a patient with sarcoid shows high signal intensity (circle) in the apical part of the ... Using the area/length method and the Simpson rule, the ejection fraction is calculated as 50-53%. Earlier in the course of the ... Once the right anterior oblique equivalent and long-axis 4-chamber equivalents are acquired, they can be used to set up short- ... They include the presence of a pacemaker or other implanted electrical stimulator, ferromagnetic material in the eye, or ...
Vision depends on the brain as well as on the eyes. Almost all information from the eyes travels to a brain region called the ... fMRI data were acquired using a gradient-echo T2* echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm resolution, ... anterior-posterior and posterior-anterior reversal), so that six sets of each direction were collected. Alternating phase- ... we limited the streamline length to 100 steps, with step length of 0.5 mm. The value of each voxel represented the total number ...
After orienting the axial slices in the anterior-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane functional images were acquired using a T2 ... weighted echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a repetition time (TR) of 2200 ms, an echo time (TE) of 30 ms, and a flip ... The length of each stimulus was electronically set to 4 sec. with a max. deviation of 0.05 sec. For each condition (1-3) four ... All conditions were performed with eyes closed. ... effects of utterance length and complexity," Brain and Language ...
Axial slices (fig. 1b) were chosen by eye at the level of the inferior border of the maxilla, with anatomical parameters of ... a) Combined retropalatal and retroglossal pharyngeal length, b) retropalatal length and c) retroglossal length in healthy ... 2D axial and sagittal spin echo sequences). Participants were asked to lie supine with their head secured in a neutral ... sella to hyoid and anterior-posterior distance from supramentale to hyoid using established methods (fig. 1c) [23]. Volumetric ...
... echo-train length, 12). The inversion pulses with the GM sequences were timed so as to reduce the signal intensity of white ... the sum of the clinical stages of both eyes. stage L. the clinical stage of the left eye of a patient with POAG. stage R. the ... The following sequences were acquired: an axial 3D BRAVO sequence (TR/TE/TI, 6.8/3.5/380 ms; section thickness, 1 mm without ... This diagnosis was made on a clinical basis through assessment of the open anterior chamber angle, identification of visual ...
Biometric A-scan for measuring axial eye length.. Standardized A-scan is used for the detection and differentiation of abnormal ... UBM imaging of the anterior segment is indicated where direct visualization with slit lamp is not feasible. For example, ... quantitative and kinetic properties of the echo amplitudes and patterns. ...
  • 12 , 13 We recently reported 14 that some patients with papilledema will exhibit inward angulation of the peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium-basement membrane (RPE/BM) layer imaged on the horizontal axial 5-line raster taken through the optic nerve head. (arvojournals.org)
  • The silicone probe, which rests on the eye, is separated from the transducer by a water column to segregate the noise from the transducer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The unique amplifier and probe design of Eye Cubed™ provides for the industry's highest signal-to-noise ratio. (clarionmedical.com)
  • The echoes received back into the probe from each of these interfaces are converted by the biometer to spikes arising from baseline. (medscape.com)
  • Spike height is not only affected by the difference in density as it travels through the eye but also by the angle of incidence, which is determined by the probe orientation to the visual axis. (medscape.com)
  • Because sound waves can be reflected and refracted the same as light rays, if the probe is held in a nonparallel manner, part of the echo is diverted at an angle away from the probe tip, and, therefore, is not received by the machine. (medscape.com)
  • A prospective observational interventional study included 40 eyes of 40 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery. (who.int)
  • Eye Cubed™ incorporates a number of features designed to accelerate practice workflow, including improved export and import functionality and expanded measurement options. (clarionmedical.com)
  • Delivers ultra-precise axial length measurement with faster, easier image acquisition in real-time movie mode. (clarionmedical.com)
  • The AL is the most important factor in IOL calculation: A 1-mm error in AL measurement results in a refractive error of approximately 2.88 D or about 3.0-3.5 D error of IOL power in an average eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • So major concepts are measurement regarding keratometry and axial length, choices of IOL, IOL power calculation formulae, and what target refraction to be set, and long-term issues one has to consider about visual axis opacification and obscuration, and myopic shift. (cybersight.org)
  • We report here on some initial experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of echo planar proton detected (13)C imaging using CYCLCROP based upon the PRAWN module, including the application of the technique to the measurement of transport and accumulation of (13)C-labelled sucrose in a castor bean seedling. (jove.com)
  • The development of better instrumentation for measuring the eye's axial length (AL) and the use of more precise mathematical formulas to perform the appropriate calculations have significantly improved the accuracy with which the surgeon determines the IOL power. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mean shortening of 0.25-0.33mm has been reported between applanation and immersion axial length measurements, which can translate into an error of IOL power by approximately 1 D. In general, immersion biometry has been shown to be more accurate than contact applanation biometry in several studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ocular measurements between the right and left eyes, as well as between male and female goats were not significantly different among subjects of the same age (P = 1.00). (unesp.br)
  • The growing eyes of children necessitate tha pediatric ophthalmologists acquire sufficient knowledge of the basics of pediatric ocular biometry and IOL power calculations. (cybersight.org)
  • I'm Dr. Neelam Pawar from Aravind Eye Hospital, and I'm going to be talking about pediatric ocular biometry and IOL power calculations. (cybersight.org)
  • Ah, so that's it: the equatorial sclera is the thickest in the nanopthalmic eyes. (blogspot.com)
  • Thick equatorial sclera chokes off blood circulation through the vortex veins (each eye has 4 or 6 of these). (blogspot.com)
  • Comprising this network are regions on the dorsolateral surface of the frontal lobes (along the inferior frontal sulcus/middle frontal gyrus), parts of the insular cortex, regions along the precentral gyrus, presupplementary and supplementary motor area (preSMA, SMA), parts of the anterior/mid cingulate, and regions in and around the intraparietal sulcus. (pnas.org)
  • Eye Cubed's advanced movie technology greatly improves the diagnostic capability and speed of each exam, allowing you to capture up to 20-second movies. (clarionmedical.com)
  • THI improves axial resolution and boundary detection by suppression of scattering signals from tissue interfaces, especially for obese patients. (nysora.com)
  • The estimated prevalence of axial spondyloarthritis in the United States is 0.9 to 1.4% of the adult population, similar to that of rheumatoid arthritis. (docplayer.net)
  • Three groups of subjects were compared: 30 normals, 20 with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), and 25 with papilledema and intracranial hypertension. (arvojournals.org)
  • Diffusion parameters are dynamic in acute and isolated optic neuritis, with an initial acute decrease in axial diffusivity. (neurology.org)
  • Optic coherence tomography (OCT) is a technology introduced by Huang and associates [ 1 ] that became the prevailing technology for noninvasive assessment of the anterior and posterior segments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, vascular pulsations can be visualized as small oscillations of a spiking pattern, which are useful to note in cases of choroidal lesions such as melanoma [I, B, G]. Eye length in the axial dimension can also be obtained by measuring the distance between specific spikes. (aao.org)
  • Subsequently (January 2013) metamorphopsia in the left eye revealed macular degeneration with choroidal neovascularization. (hindawi.com)
  • AIMS To develop appropriate methods of eye muscle surgery in highly myopic patients with esotropia and hypotropia, with respect to the pathological findings in high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (bmj.com)
  • For instance, even if there were a region with highly specialized and intermingled populations of neurons that separately encode various effectors (e.g., eye vs hand) or their movement parameters (e.g., left vs right), the coarse spatial resolution of fMRI may fail to reveal overall signal amplitude differences. (jneurosci.org)
  • The first commercially available OCT machine was the OCT 1000 marketed in 1996 by Carl Zeiss Meditec (Dublin, CA). The conventional TD-OCT system used moving reference mirror, which causes a physical constraint, provides imaging rate limited to approximately 400 A-scans per second, with an axial resolution of 10 μm . (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • Better axial resolution [13-and increased scanning speed [16-are the two main advancements. (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • The advent of Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) eliminated the need for the axial movement of the scanning mirror required in TD-OCT, yielding improved resolution and speed. (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • They have poor axial resolution. (docplayer.net)
  • The combination of CYCLCROP with echo planar imaging (EPI) for spatial encoding of the proton detected carbon signal allows efficient use of the available signal to be made, permitting a significant improvement in the temporal resolution of any study. (jove.com)
  • the contrast resolution between anterior scalene muscle and surrounding adipose tissue is increased in comparison with conventional imaging. (nysora.com)
  • 6 Another researcher suggested that "a considerable delay in diagnosis and treatment of more than 10 percent of eyes containing advanced melanomas may result from an inability to visualize the tumor. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
  • 2 This review is intended to enhance awareness and understanding of axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis and the relationship between the two in order to facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. (docplayer.net)
  • two groups received a sub-Tenon's capsule injection of either hydrogel or buffer (sham surgery) at the posterior pole of the eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • During follow-up, 3 eyes (20 %) developed posterior capsule opacification requiring a neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy. (escrs.org)
  • These smaller individuals lie within or are associated with a cuticular capsule, the largest about 2 mm in length, with a gape through which the appendages emerged. (pnas.org)
  • However, LGGs are infiltrating tumors that do not have distinct borders, which cannot be easily differentiated from periphral normal brain tissue with the naked eye. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The decrease in axial diffusivity at onset correlated with visual contrast sensitivity 1 month ( r = 0.59) and 3 months later ( r = 0.65). (neurology.org)
  • As in several other trinucleotide-repeat disorders, there is a strong association between repeat length and age at disease onset, with higher repeat length leading to earlier onset. (bmj.com)
  • The eye will be aided by mid maturity-onset diabetes, myxoedema. (vmwaredevotee.com)
  • B and A mode ultrasonography was performed in 55 healthy Saanen goats (110 eyes) of ages 45 (n = 15), 180 (n = 20), and 549 days (n = 20).ProceduresTranscorneal ultrasonography was performed after instillation of a topical anesthetic and application of acoustic transmission gel on the 20-MHz linear transducer tip. (unesp.br)
  • 1 It currently stands as the principal diagnostic tool for a number of conditions within the eye and as a supplement to the radiologic imaging capabilities of MRI and CT scanning within the orbit. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
  • During the past decade, ankylosing spondylitis has come to be considered as a subset of the broader and more prevalent diagnostic entity referred to as axial spondyloarthritis. (docplayer.net)
  • Notice the nanophthalmic eyes all have very high hyperopia which in fact is one of the diagnostic indices. (blogspot.com)
  • We selected the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) as seed due to its important role as nexus of the executive control and default mode network. (springer.com)
  • The "ball" of the joint is the rounded, medial anterior surface of the humerus and the "socket" is formed by the glenoid cavity, the dish-shaped portion of the lateral scapula. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to pre-programmed velocities for phakic, aphakic and 4 types of pseudo-phakic eyes, Eye Cubed™ enables you to adjust for all particular cases and program velocities accordingly. (eyecenters.com)
  • These features include the ethnic background of the patient, the involvement of the facio-bucco-lingual and cervical district by the movement disorder, the co-occurrence of cerebellar features and seizures, the presence of peculiar gait patterns and eye movement abnormalities, and an atypical progression of illness. (bmj.com)
  • senile cataracts and in preoperatively evaluating the I . Full ophthalmic examination including : Visual potential risks of performing phacoemulsification in acuity using Snellen visual acuity chart which was these eyes. (who.int)
  • The related echo-color Doppler study of the neck veins, performed in November 2014, showed an atypical left jugular insufficiency associated with homolateral hypertension of the superior ophthalmic veins. (hindawi.com)