Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Echocardiography, Four-Dimensional: Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Mitral Valve Prolapse: Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Myxoma: A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Atrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Diatrizoate Meglumine: A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Pulmonary Valve: A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Septal Occluder Device: A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Cineradiography: Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Cor Triatriatum: A malformation of the heart in which the embryonic common PULMONARY VEIN was not incorporated into the LEFT ATRIUM leaving behind a perforated fibromuscular membrane bisecting the left atrium, a three-atrium heart. The opening between the two left atrium sections determines the degree of obstruction to pulmonary venous return, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Fibroma: A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Embolism, Paradoxical: Blockage of an artery due to passage of a clot (THROMBUS) from a systemic vein to a systemic artery without its passing through the lung which acts as a filter to remove blood clots from entering the arterial circulation. Paradoxical embolism occurs when there is a defect that allows a clot to cross directly from the right to the left side of the heart as in the cases of ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS or open FORAMEN OVALE. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block an artery, and cause a STROKE.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Heart Rupture: Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Atrial Septum: The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Mitral Valve Annuloplasty: A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Microbubbles: Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Ventricular Septum: The muscular structure separating the right and the left lower chambers (HEART VENTRICLES) of the heart. The ventricular septum consists of a very small membranous portion just beneath the AORTIC VALVE, and a large thick muscular portion consisting of three sections including the inlet septum, the trabecular septum, and the outlet septum.Radionuclide Angiography: The measurement of visualization by radiation of any organ after a radionuclide has been injected into its blood supply. It is used to diagnose heart, liver, lung, and other diseases and to measure the function of those organs, except renography, for which RADIOISOTOPE RENOGRAPHY is available.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Pericarditis, Constrictive: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Aortic Coarctation: A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the PULMONARY ARTERY into the RIGHT VENTRICLE due to imperfect closure of the PULMONARY VALVE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gated Blood-Pool Imaging: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Thermodilution: Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

Cardiac sympathetic activity estimated by 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy after beta-blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. (1/9635)

Impaired cardiac sympathetic activity can be evaluated by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging. METHODS: We studied the significance of MIBG imaging for 24 patients (age 58+/-12 y) with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We compared 12 patients (group A) treated with metoprolol (dose from 30-60 mg/d) with 12 patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients were studied before treatment, after 5 mo of treatment (only in group A) and after 1 y of treatment. Cardiac MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) and total defect score (TDS) from anterior planar and SPECT MIBG images, which were acquired in 4 h after tracer injection. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) calculated by echocardiography were also assessed. RESULTS: TDS decreased in both groups (in group A, from 30+/-7 through 23+/-9 to 18+/-10; P < 0.01, in group B, from 30+/-6 to 24+/-8; P < 0.01) and H/M was increased in both groups (in group A, from 1.87+/-0.31 through 2.03+/-0.28 to 2.14+/-0.29; P < 0.01, in group B, from 1.82+/-0.28 to 1.94+/-0.26; P < 0.05). But TDS and H/M were more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). LVEF was significantly increased in only group A (from 38+/-6 through 43+/-8 to 49%+/-9%; P < 0.01). NYHA improved in both groups (in group A, from mean 2.5 through 2.1 to 1.8; P < 0.01, in group B, from mean 2.6 to 2.1; P < 0.05) but was more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cardiac function, symptom and cardiac sympathetic activity evaluated by MIBG images improved after the beta-blocker therapy more than with the treatment that used ACE inhibitors.  (+info)

Sympathetic nerve alterations assessed with 123I-MIBG in the failing human heart. (2/9635)

Norepinephrine (NE) reuptake function is impaired in heart failure and this may participate in myocyte hyperstimulation by the neurotransmitter. This alteration can be assessed by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. METHODS: To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake. RESULTS: In controls, neither cardiac MIBG uptake and release nor circulating NE concentration changed after the 1-mo metoprolol intake. Conversely, after a 6-mo therapy with metoprolol, patients showed increased cardiac MIBG uptake (129%+/-10% versus 138%+/-17%; P = 0.009), unchanged cardiac MIBG release and decreased plasma NE concentration (0.930+/-412 versus 0.721+/-0.370 ng/mL; P = 0.02). In parallel, patients showed improved New York Heart Association class (2.44+/-0.51 versus 2.05+/-0.23; P = 0.004) and increased LVEF (20%+/-8% versus 27%+/-8%; P = 0.0005), whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Thus, a parallel improvement of myocardial NE reuptake and of hemodynamics was observed after a 6-mo metoprolol therapy, suggesting that such agents may be beneficial in heart failure by directly protecting the myocardium against excessive NE stimulation.  (+info)

Effect of coronary occlusion on left ventricular function with and without collateral supply during beating heart coronary artery surgery. (3/9635)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of coronary occlusion and collateral supply on left ventricular (LV) function during beating heart coronary artery surgery. DESIGN: Prospective intraoperative study, performed at baseline, during wall stabilisation, coronary artery occlusion, and 2 and 10 minutes after reperfusion. Transoesophageal M mode echocardiograms, simultaneous high fidelity LV pressure, and thermodilution cardiac output were measured. LV anterior wall thickening, thinning velocities, thickening fraction, regional work, and power production were derived. Asynchrony during the isovolumic periods was quantified as cycle efficiency. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with stable angina, mean (SD) age 62 (7) years, undergoing left anterior descending artery grafting using the "Octopus" device. RESULTS: Collaterals were absent in nine patients and present in five. Epicardial stabilisation did not affect LV function. Results are expressed as mean (SD). Coronary occlusion (15.6 (2) minutes) depressed anterior wall thickening (1.4 (0.6) v 2.6 (0.6) cm/s) and thinning velocities (1.4 (0.5) v 3.0 (0.6) cm/s), regional work (2.2 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.6) mJ/cm2), and power (21 (4) v 33 (5) mW/cm2) in patients without collaterals (p < 0.05 for all), but only wall thinning (3.5 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) cm/s, p < 0.05) in patients with collaterals. All returned to baseline within 10 minutes of reperfusion. Cycle efficiency and regional work were impaired at baseline and fell during occlusion, regardless of collaterals. Within 10 minutes of reperfusion both had increased above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary occlusion for up to 15 minutes during beating heart coronary artery surgery depressed standard measurements of systolic and diastolic anterior wall function in patients without collaterals, but only those of diastolic function in patients with collaterals. Regional synchrony decreased in both groups. All disturbances regressed within 10 minutes of reperfusion.  (+info)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma atrial and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus. (4/9635)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were investigated for 1 month in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Post-operative left ventricular end-diastolic dimention and fractional shortening decreased in all cases. Pre-operatively increased plasma ANP concentrations reduced dramatically after the operation. Peri-operative changes in plasma BNP levels had slightly S-shaped curves in all cases. These observations suggest that post-operative responsiveness of ANP and cardiac function are rapid in comparison with cardiac morphological changes, and BNP has a different pathophysiological significance from ANP in dogs with PDA.  (+info)

Hemodialysis with high-calcium dialysate impairs cardiac relaxation. (5/9635)

BACKGROUND: During hemodialysis (HD), serum ionized calcium is directly related to the dialysate calcium concentration. We have recently shown an acute induction of hypercalcemia to impair left ventricular (LV) relaxation. In the current study we sought to establish whether changes in serum Ca++ also affect LV function during HD. METHODS: We echocardiographically examined the LV relaxation and systolic function of 12 patients with end-stage renal disease before and after three HD treatments with dialysate Ca++ concentrations of 1.25 mmol/liter (dCa++1.25), 1.5 mmol/liter (dCa++1.50), and 1.75 mmol/liter (dCa++1.75), respectively. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also examined echocardiographically. RESULTS: The LV posterior wall thickness and the interventricular septum thickness, and the LV end-diastolic dimension and the end-systolic dimensions were significantly greater in the patients when compared with the controls, and the LV fractional shortening, the ratio of peak early to peak late diastolic velocities (E/Amax), and the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) showed impairment of LV relaxation and systolic function in the patients. Serum ionized calcium increased significantly during the dCa++1.5 HD (1.24 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.34 +/- 0.06 mmol/liter, P = 0. 004) and dCa++1.75 HD (1.19 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.47 +/- 0.06 mmol/liter, P = 0.002), and plasma intact parathyroid hormone decreased significantly during the dCa++1.75 HD (medians 8.2 vs. 2.7 pmol/liter, P = 0.002). LV systolic function was not altered during any of the treatments. The changes in E/Amax and IVRT suggested impairment of relaxation during all sessions, but only during the dCa++1.75 HD was the impairment statistically significant (E/Amax 1. 153 +/- 0.437 vs. 0.943 +/- 0.352, P < 0.05; IVRT 147 +/- 29 vs. 175 +/- 50 msecond, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HD with high-calcium (dCa++1. 75 mmol/liter) dialysate impairs LV relaxation when compared with lower calcium dialysate (dCa++1.25 and dCa++1.5 mmol/liter) treatments.  (+info)

Studies on structural changes of the carotid arteries and the heart in asymptomatic renal transplant recipients. (6/9635)

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to characterize early structural changes of large arteries in renal transplant recipients with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and normal blood pressure values, and to analyse the relationship between arterial alterations and those of the heart. METHODS: Intima media thickness and atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries as well as left ventricular geometry and function were examined in 35 asymtomatic renal transplant recipients and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by high resolution B-mode ultrasound and by echocardiography. RESULTS: Intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients (1.21+/-0.08 mm) than in healthy controls (0.74+/-0.04 mm) (P<0.001). Atherosclerotic plaques were found in the majority of renal transplant recipients (71% vs 14% in healthy controls, P<0.001). Left ventricular mass index was significantly increased in the group of renal transplant recipients (264+/-13 g, 146+/-7 g/m2) when compared with healthy controls (155+/-8 g, 83+/-4 g/m2) (P<0.001). Multiple regression analysis in renal transplant recipients showed that intima media thickness of the carotid arteries was significantly related to left ventricular mass index (P<0.02), but not to age, blood pressure, body mass index, serum creatinine, cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) levels. In the group of healthy controls, intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was related to age (P<0.002), but not to left ventricular mass index or the other independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents pronounced intima-media thickening in asymptomatic renal transplant recipients. Atherosclerotic lesions are present in most renal transplant recipients with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. We observed a parallelism between arterial wall thickening and left ventricular hypertrophy, although blood pressure levels were normal during haemodialysis therapy and after renal transplantation.  (+info)

Regulation of myocardial blood flow by oxygen consumption is maintained in the failing heart during exercise. (7/9635)

The hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohumoral activation that accompany congestive heart failure (CHF) might be expected to impair the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during exercise. This study was performed to determine the effects of CHF on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow during exercise. Coronary blood flow was measured in chronically instrumented dogs at rest, during 2 stages of graded treadmill exercise under control conditions (n=10), and after the development of CHF produced by 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (n=9). In the normal dogs, coronary blood flow increased during exercise in proportion to the increase in the heart rate x the left ventricular systolic blood pressure product (RPP). After the development of CHF, resting myocardial blood flow was 25% lower than normal (P<0.05). Myocardial blood flow increased during the first stage of exercise, but then failed to increase further during the second stage of exercise despite an additional increase in the RPP. Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly lower in animals with CHF and paralleled coronary flow. Despite the lower values for coronary blood flow in animals with CHF, there was no evidence for myocardial ischemia. Thus, even during the second level of exercise when coronary flow failed to increase, myocardial lactate consumption continued and coronary venous pH did not fall. In addition, the failure of coronary flow to increase as the exercise level was increased from stage 1 to stage 2 was not associated with a further increase in myocardial oxygen extraction. Thus, cardiac failure was associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and failure of oxygen consumption to increase with an increase in the level of exercise. This abnormality did not appear to result from inadequate oxygen availability, but more likely represented a reduction of myocardial oxygen usage with a secondary decrease in metabolic coronary vasodilation.  (+info)

Increased renal resistive index in patients with essential hypertension: a marker of target organ damage. (8/9635)

BACKGROUND: Increased renal resistance detected by ultrasound (US) Doppler has been reported in severe essential hypertension (EH) and recently was shown to correlate with the degree of renal impairment in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. However, the pathophysiological significance of this finding is still controversial. METHODS: In a group of 211 untreated patients with EH, we evaluated renal resistive index (RI) by US Doppler of interlobar arteries and early signs of target organ damage (TOD). Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in three non-consecutive first morning urine samples. Left ventricular mass was evaluated by M-B mode echocardiography, and carotid wall thickness (IMT) by high resolution US scan. RESULTS: RI was positively correlated with age (r=0.25, P=0.003) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=0.2, P=0.02) and with signs of early TOD, namely ACR (r=0.22, P=0.01) and IMT (r=0.17, P<0.05), and inversely correlated with renal volume (r=-0.22, P=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.23, P=0.006). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, gender, ACR and SBP independently influence RI and together account for approximately 20% of its variations (F=8.153, P<0.0001). When clinical data were analysed according to the degree of RI, the patients in the top quartile were found to be older (P<0.05) and with higher SBP (P<0.05) as well as early signs of TOD, namely increased ACR (P<0.002) and IMT (P<0.005 by ANOVA), despite similar body mass index, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and duration of hypertension. Furthermore, patients with higher RI showed a significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (13 vs 12 vs 3 vs 33% chi2=11.72, P=0.008) and left ventricular hypertrophy (40 vs 43 vs 32 vs 60%, chi2=9.25, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased RI is associated with early signs of TOD in EH and could be a marker of intrarenal atherosclerosis.  (+info)

OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent inaccuracies in measuring the end diastolic diameter of the left ventricle, the interventricular septum, and the posterior wall, by M mode echocardiography influence the left ventricular mass calculated by the Devereuxs formula. DESIGN: Mathematical model. RESULTS: Relatively small measurement inaccuracies such as 5%, which are known to be inherent in the echocardiographic method, will result in "changes" of left ventricular mass in the range of 8% to 15%. This is equivalent to expected changes in left ventricular mass seen during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Devereuxs formula to calculate left ventricular mass is limited by measurement inaccuracies in individual patients.. ...
How is short-axis views of two-dimensional echocardiograms abbreviated? SA-2DE stands for short-axis views of two-dimensional echocardiograms. SA-2DE is defined as short-axis views of two-dimensional echocardiograms rarely.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Noninvasive visualization of the left main coronary artery by cross sectional echocardiography. AU - Weyman, A. E.. AU - Feigenbaum, Harvey. AU - Dillon, J. C.. AU - Johnston, K. W.. AU - Eggleton, R. C.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - Real time cross sectional echocardiographic studies of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) were performed in 15 normal patients, 15 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease but normal left main coronary segments, three patients with greater than 75% obstruction of the left main coronary artery, and one patient with a large aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. In normal subjects the LMCA evaginates from the inferolateral wall of the aorta. The artery appears as two dominant parallel linear echoes separated by a clear space representing the lumen of the vessel. The LMCA courses beneath the right ventricular outflow tract and can generally be followed to its expected point of bifurcation. Confirmation that this structure was in ...
This investigation was designed to determine the role of echocardiography in the assessment of left ventricular function in patients with significant coronary arterial disease. Satisfactory echocardiograms were obtained in 43 patients with coronary arterial disease. The ventriculographic ejection fraction was determined by the area length method. The echocardiographic left ventricular end-diastolic dimension was increased to more than 5-4 cm in 17 patients. Fifteen of these patients had an ejection fraction of 0-45 or less. Three patients had a normal left ventricular end-diastolic dimension but an ejection fraction of less than 0-45. Twenty-three patients had an ejection fraction of more than 0-45 and a normal left ventricular end-diastolic dimension. The left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index was increased (greater than 3 cm/m2) in 15 patients, all of whom had ejection fraction of less than 0-45. Three patients had a normal left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index and an ejection ...
To test the feasibility of imaging the left main coronary artery (LMCA) noninvasively as a means of detecting left main coronary artery disease, we studied 73 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization and cross-sectional echocardiography. Fifty-two had a normal LMCA (controls) and 21 had significant obstruction (greater than or equal to 50% luminal reduction). The apical, tomographic, cross-sectional, phased-array, echocardiographic approach was used, and the LMCA was imaged in 52 of 73 patients (71%). In 34 of 36 controls (94%) the LMCA was correctly judged as having no luminal obstruction. In the other two, and asymmetric, high-intensity echo in one wall of the artery suggested atherosclerotic disease, but coronary angiography revealed no obstruction. In 12 of 16 patients (75%) in whom significant LMCA disease was imaged, obstruction was predicted by echocardiographic criteria of either luminal irregularity or an asymmetric, high-intensity echo in the arterial wall. This preliminary study ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of left ventricular structure and function in patients with liver cirrhosis and their correlation with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. METHODS: A total of 89 cirrhotic patients admitted between June, 2012 and June, 2014 and 30 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. According to MELD score, the cirrhotic patients were divided into 3 groups with MELD scores ≤9, between 10 and 19, and ≥20. The parameters of the left ventricle in resting state were measured using Doppler echocardiography, including left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), left atrial diameter (LAD), ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), mitral flow velocity, and E wave deceleration time (DT), and evaluated their relationship with MELD score ...
A method for generating a synthesis echocardiographic image comprises first obtaining, for a plurality of pathologically similar reference hearts, a reference echocardiographic image of each reference heart at end-systole and at end-diastole. Next, the coupled epicardial and endocardial borders are identified in each echocardiographic image. An epicardial/endocardial border pair is then modeled from the identified borders. The method then locates a plurality of predetermined features in the reference echocardiographic images. The predetermined features are then located in the subject echocardiographic image from the location of the predetermined features in the reference echocardiographic images. The modeled epicardial/endocardial border pair is then mapped onto the subject echocardiographic image relative to the location of the predetermined features in the subject echocardiographic image. The apparatus generally comprises an echocardiographic machine for obtaining the echocardiographic images that are
Overall cardiac function assessment was assessed by tests (echocardiogram,cardiac catheterization (optional),electrocardiogram,B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]), clinical symptoms (subjective symptoms) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) cardiac functional classification.Overall assessment of cardiac function was assessed based on the evaluation items including interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, clinical function tests and clinical symptoms. A subject was considered to be Improved: if Improved in 2 items or more, Unchanged: Improved in one item and unchanged in 2 items or unchanged in all 3 items, Aggravated: Aggravated in one item or more ...
The Echocardiography Department conducts over 2,000 studies annually. Including over 1500 Transthoracic Echocardiograms, 150 Dobutamine Stress Echocardiograms, 100 Treadmill Stress Echocardiograms, 200 Transesophageal Echocardiograms. Services provided include diagnostic M-Mode/2-Dimensional Echocardiograms, 3-dimensional Echocardiograms, Continuous Wave Doppler, Pulsed Wave Doppler, Color Flow Doppler, and Contrast Echocardiography.. Kern Medical is dedicated to quality. All practices conform to the guidelines for Diagnostic Echocardiography as prescribed by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and the American Society of Echocardiography. Our department is under the leadership of Dr. Justin Pearlman. Furthermore all of our cardiac sonographers are highly trained and supervised by our onsite physician.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms.. AU - Schiller, N. B.. AU - Shah, P. M.. AU - Crawford, M.. AU - DeMaria, A.. AU - Devereux, R.. AU - Feigenbaum, H.. AU - Gutgesell, H.. AU - Reichek, N.. AU - Sahn, David. AU - Schnittger, I.. PY - 1989/9. Y1 - 1989/9. N2 - We have presented recommendations for the optimum acquisition of quantitative two-dimensional data in the current echocardiographic environment. It is likely that advances in imaging may enhance or supplement these approaches. For example, three-dimensional reconstruction methods may greatly augment the accuracy of volume determination if they become more efficient. The development of three-dimensional methods will depend in turn on vastly improved transthoracic resolution similar to that now obtainable by transesophageal echocardiography. ...
Vol 22: A Comparison of Different Techniques of Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Strain Measurements of Right Ventricular Systolic Function in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.. This article is from Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, volume 22.AbstractBackground: Speckle-tracking echocardiograp. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Quantification of myocardial blood flow reserve in patients with CAD using real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE) has been demonstrated to further improve accuracy over the analysis of wall motion and qualitative analysis of myocardial perfusion.. Conventional stress echocardiography compares wall motion during rest and stress. The FDA has approved a contrast agent for use in patients with suboptimal echocardiograms, which accounts for up to 20% of resting echo studies. A "suboptimal image" is one in which at least two of six myocardial segments of the left ventricle cannot be visualized in the apical views. Contrast is used to opacify the LV chamber and to improve the delineation of the left ventricular endocardial border. Patient with suboptimal echoes include technically difficult patients, such as obese patients; patients undergoing mechanical ventilation; or patients with pulmonary hypertension.. Thomas R. Porter, MD, Chair of Cardiology at the University of Nebraska Medical ...
Currently, there is a paucity of investigations that have assessed the effects of RT on LV morphology and systolic function in healthy older individuals. We recently assessed the effects of 16 weeks of upper and lower extremity RT, in previously sedentary healthy older males (mean age: 68 years), on LV morphology, end-systolic meridional wall stress and LV systolic function (26). Resting two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of moderate (60% one repetition maximum, 1RM) to high (80% 1RM) intensity upper and lower extremity RT. The major finding of this investigation was that 16 weeks of RT was a sufficient stimulus to increase upper (+16%) and lower (+29%) extremity maximal muscular strength but was insufficient of a stimulus to alter LV posterior wall thickness, ventricular septal wall thickness, systolic or diastolic cavity dimensions, relative wall thickness and estimated LV mass (26). In addition, this form of training was not associated with an ...
Fifty consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for isolated aortic regurgitation were studied prospectively by echocardiography, electrocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Good quality echocardiograms were obtained in 49 of the 50 patients. Left ventricular (LV) dilatation was present in all 49 patients. LV systolic function, as assessed by echocardiographic percent fractional shortening, was normal in many patients but was moderately to severely reduced (less than 25%) in 14 patients (29%). Echocardiographic studies 6 months postoperatively revealed significant reductions in LV end-diastolic dimension (73.8 mm vs 58.7 mm; p less than 0.01), and serial echocardiographic studies early and late after operation revealed that the decrease in LV size had occurred by the time of the early study (8-22 days postoperatively), with little additional change thereafter. Operative deaths occurred in three of the 49 patients (6%). Eight of the 49 patients (16%) died of congestive heart ...
Background: There is conflicting information on the effects of oestrogen on the heart in women, especially those using postmenopausal hormone therapy. Whilst some studies reported a beneficial effect, others showed adverse outcomes. The interplay of lifestyle factors and type/timing of therapy remains to be clarified.. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lifestyle and hormone therapy on heart function and structure in postmenopausal women.. Method: As part of a large longitudinal study of women randomly recruited from an urban population, the study assessed 410 suitable women by echocardiography in Year 1 and Year 5 of the study by two independent cardiologists.. Results: In lifestyle characteristics, the difference in age and body mass (as markers of cardiovascular risk) was in favour of never-users versus hormone therapy-users. Using an arbitrary cut-off ≥15% change for an effect, we found lifestyle factors had minimal effect on the two measured parameters - ejection ...
Echocardiography with its multiple modalities plays a central role in the evaluation of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, starting from the differential diagnosis of the patient presenting with acute chest pain. In the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction (raised troponins) whether it is with ST-segment elevation or without, echocardiography is the first imaging modality used in order to ascertain the presence and extent of LV dysfunction and the presence of complications. In the absence of myocardial infarction (negative troponins), echocardiography will play an important diagnostic role in identifying the presence of reversible myocardial ischaemia. Stress echocardiography in many institutions is now the preferred stress modality associated with imaging as it is cost-effective and does not use ionizing radiation. Finally, echocardiography plays a pivotal role in the assessment of myocardial viability since the presence and extent of viable myocardium may ...
Non-invasiveness and instantaneous diagnostic capability are prominent features of the use of echocardiography in critical care. Sepsis and septic shock represent complex situations where early hemodynamic assessment and support are among the keys to therapeutic success. In this review, we discuss the range of applications of echocardiography in the management of the septic patient, and propose an echocardiography-based goal-oriented hemodynamic approach to septic shock. Echocardiography can play a key role in the critical septic patient management, by excluding cardiac causes for sepsis, and mostly by guiding hemodynamic management of those patients in whom sepsis reaches such a severity to jeopardize cardiovascular function. In recent years, there have been both increasing evidence and diffusion of the use of echocardiography as monitoring tool in the patients with hemodynamic compromise. Also thanks to echocardiography, the features of the well-known sepsis-related myocardial dysfunction have been
© 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background Three-dimensional fusion echocardiography (3DFE) is a novel postprocessing approach that utilizes imaging data acquired from multiple 3D acquisitions. We assessed image quality, endocardial border definition, and cardiac wall motion in patients using 3DFE compared to standard 3D images (3D) and results obtained with contrast echocardiography (2DC). Methods Twenty-four patients (mean age 66.9 ± 13 years, 17 males, 7 females) undergoing 2DC had three, noncontrast, 3D apical volumes acquired at rest. Images were fused using an automated image fusion approach. Quality of the 3DFE was compared to both 3D and 2DC based on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and endocardial border definition. We then compared clinical wall-motion score index (WMSI) calculated from 3DFE and 3D to those obtained from 2DC images. Results Fused 3D volumes had significantly improved CNR (8.92 ± 1.35 vs. 6.59 ± 1.19, P | 0.0005) and segmental image quality (2.42 ± 0.99 vs. 1.93 ± 1.18, P
TY - JOUR. T1 - Left ventricular global systolic function assessment by echocardiography. AU - Chengode, Suresh. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - The left ventricle, with its thickened myocardial walls, unlike the right ventricle has no measurable geometric shape. It has a conical apex and its function quantification, needs intensive, 2D, 3D and M mode transesophageal echocardiography, which is described in this review.. AB - The left ventricle, with its thickened myocardial walls, unlike the right ventricle has no measurable geometric shape. It has a conical apex and its function quantification, needs intensive, 2D, 3D and M mode transesophageal echocardiography, which is described in this review.. KW - Echocardiography. KW - Intraoperative or intensive care setting. KW - Left ventricular global systolic function. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84993953630&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84993953630&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incremental cost-effectiveness of exercise echocardiography vs. SPECT imaging for the evaluation of stable chest pain. AU - Shaw, Leslee J.. AU - Marwick, Thomas H.. AU - Berman, Daniel S.. AU - Sawada, Stephen. AU - Heller, Gary V.. AU - Vasey, Charles. AU - Miller, D. Douglas. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Aims: Technological advances in cardiac imaging have led to dramatic increases in test utilization and consumption of a growing proportion of cardiovascular healthcare costs. The opportunity costs of strategies favouring exercise echocardiography or SPECT imaging have been incompletely evaluated. Methods and results: We examined prognosis and cost-effectiveness of exercise echocardiography (n = 4884) vs. SPECT (n = 4637) imaging in stable, intermediate risk, chest pain patients. Ischaemia extent was defined as the number of vascular territories with echocardiographic wall motion or SPECT perfusion abnormalities. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to assess time ...
Introduction: Large number of patients with heart failure (HF) have left bundle branch block (LBBB). Most precise method for identification of intraventricular dyssynchrony is tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Purpose of this research was to compare left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony in LBBB patients with and without HF and to compare various methods of LV systolic dyssynchrony assessment by TDI. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with a diagnosis of LBBB were included in the study. All patients underwent conventional two-dimensional echocardiography for global LV function assessment. LV systolic dyssynchrony was measured by opposing wall delay, maximum delay, and Yu index. LBBB patients were grouped into four classes according to their LV function and the presence or absence of HF, normal LV function without HF (Group A), normal LV function with HF (Group B), LV dysfunction with HF (Group C), and LV dysfunction without HF (Group D). Results: LV systolic dyssynchrony ...
Bengaluru: Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru in collaboration with Philips India today launched an echocardiography training centre, focused to help doctors learn more about echocardiography.. After ECG, ultrasound based echocardiography is the second most widely used test for investigating heart diseases. With increasing incidents of heart diseases in India, echocardiography as an easily available and affordable test needs to be better utilized in various patient scenarios. Physicians are in need of such trainings to better manage their patients and to also upgrade their skills in the latest methods of TBC.. Fortis Hospitals through F.A.M.E (Fortis Academy of Medical Education) has always been at the forefront when it comes to academics and education. The echocardiography training centre, which focuses on cardiology and diagnostics is a demonstration of Fortis and Philips commitment to upskill the healthcare professionals.. This specialized learning and training centre co-supported by Philips India, ...
Hot Tip - Transitioning From the Parasternal to Apical Window: Gulfcoast Ultrasound Institute instructor Dennis Atherton, RDCS, RCS, RRT, FASE, demonstrates how to transition from the parasternal cardiac window to the apical window using your parasternal image to guide you. Learn how perform Transitioning From the Parasternal to Apical Window as well as many other tips and tricks in the Introduction to Adult Echocardiography course (July 17-21, 2017). Introduction to Adult Echocardiography course (July 17-21, 2017) is designed to provide a strong foundation to perform and/or interpret adult cardiac ultrasound examinations. The Introduction to Adult Echocardiography course is taught by leading echocardiography experts, and includes comprehensive lectures, interactive case studies using an audience response system, and extensive hands on scanning featuring a 3:1 hands-on ratio using live models for the most hands on scan time.. ...
The spectrum of anomalies in hearts having a univentricular atrioventricular (AV) connection was examined by two-dimensional echocardiography in 183 patients and the anatomic findings were compared with angiography. The mode of AV connection was found to be of three types: 1) double inletvia two A V valves; 2) singleinlet via one AV valve with absence of the other (left or right AV valve atresia); and 3) common inletvia a common AV valve. Identification of an accessory chamber by two-dimensional echocardiography was possible with 90% sensitivity, but it was limited compared with angiography in patients with severely hypoplastic anterior Chambers and pulmonary valve atresia. All patients with subaortic outlet foramen obstruction were detected. Great artery position and the presence of obstruction to pulmonary flow were correctly predicted in all but one patient. Two-dimensional echocardiography was superior to angiography for the detection of AV valve abnormalities which were present in 27% and ...
Using the Vevo 2100 and ultrasound pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler imaging, Caralynn Wilczewski from Dr. Frank L Conlons lab has developed a reliable method for performing non-invasive in utero embryonic echocardiography on early gestation mouse embryos. Read more.
INTRODUCTION. Exercise echocardiography (EE) has advanced significantly from the diagnostic point of view, and several recent studies (most carried out at the same center) have shown that the extent of resting or exercise- induced ventricular dysfunction is a robust predictor of cardiac death and myocardial infarction.1-10. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number and location of diseased territories during the exercise peak, as well as the type of response to exercise (ischemia, necrosis or remote ischemia) influenced risk stratification more than clinical, stress test, and resting echocardiography variables in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We also investigated whether EE supplemented resting echocardiography in patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as recorded in the medical history.. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Patients. We studied 2479 patients who had undergone treadmill EE at our institution during a 4.2-year period ...
Nardi F. Echocardiographic methods integrated in the context of multimodality imaging. Minerva Cardioangiol 2017;65:577-8. DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4725.17.04481-4 ...
This Echocardiography Course serves as an introduction to use of ultrasound imaging in the cardiac evaluation. The lab and didactic portions are correlated in the teaching of normal echocardiography anatomy, techniques, and instrumentation pertaining to heart study. Specific knowledge/skill transfer processes are accomplished with "2D imaging," "MMode," and an introduction to "Spectral & Color Flow." At NAUTC, the program is designed to provide the student/ participant with the skills and knowledge necessary to prepare the program graduate to apply for an entry‐level echocardiography job. A certificate is awarded to the student upon successful completion of all graduation requirements listed in the student catalog.. Topics. The following broad topics will be covered in Adult Echocardiography course but not limited to:. ...
Enlargement and hypertrophy are basic processes of LV remodeling, whether the initial disease is volume overload or dysfunction of the LV [1, 2, 4, 34, 40]. However, this compensatory response that allows cardiac output to be maintained is not innocuous and may lead to increased wall stress [41]and progression of LV dysfunction [2, 3, 8], which can be reversed by promptly decreasing the size of the LV [7, 30]. Therefore, monitoring LV size is a major goal of cardiac imaging. Many formulas have been developed to estimate volume based on dimensions measured by M-mode echocardiography, but have been limited by their geometric assumptions [42, 43]. Although limited pilot data indicate an excellent correlation between LV diameter obtained by M-mode echocardiography and angiographic volume measurements [44], this correlation was not optimal for enlarged LVs [45]. In the present study, the correlation between simultaneously measured LV diameters and volumes was good overall, suggesting that diameter ...
Read "Evolution of echocardiography in subclinical detection of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction, Echocardiography" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
This page is dedicated to teaching basic echocardiography for non-cardiac surgery. The goal of this is to come away with a qualitative understanding of echocardiography which you can use for hemodynamic assessment and goal directed therapy. It consists of brief lectures, handouts associated with the lecture topic, and real life examples with over-reading. Lectures and examples will be continually uploaded. Please direct any questions to Byron Fergerson.. Basic Echocardiography Lecture Series. Each lecture is 10-20 minutes long. Although some lectures consist of a detailed account of a topic, most are brief introductions to a concept with TEE and TTE examples. These lectures alone will not suffice to become proficient at basic echocardiography, but they will get you started and act as short reviews as you practice.. ...
ECHOCARDIOGR-J CARD, Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.), Echocardiography -Mount Kisco-, Echocardiography : a journal of cardiovascular ultrasound and allied techniques, Medline Abbreviated Title: Echocardiography ...
Liste de publication , ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF DISSECTING ANEURYSM OF THE ASCENDING AORTA BY M MODE AND BIDIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY ...
Doppler echocardiography is a fundamental instrument to understand heart damage during essential arterial hypertension. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may also be conveniently studied in its morphological and functional aspects by ultrasound application. Echocardiography can also provide important morphological and functional information in hypertensive patients for therapeutic management and prognostic stratification. In recent years, echocardiography has been enriched by very refined techniques that are capable of studying the physiopathological intramyocardial phenomena: (i) tissue Doppler (which studies intramyocardial velocities and time intervals and allows the analysis of strain and strain rate); (ii) integrated backscatter (which analyzes variations of myocardial reflectivity in decibels); (iii) transthoracic Doppler derived coronary flow reserve (which quantifies the vasodilator response of coronary velocities to a hyperaemic stimulation); (iv) myocardial echo-contrast- ...
Intracardiac Echocardiography Industry Analysis by Future Market Insights: Covering dominant region, Intracardiac Echocardiography Market growth, competition analysis, & future prospects
Imaging coroanry artery is generally in the domain of interventional cardiologists. MDCT has helped us to change that. The humble echocardiography can identify the origin* of coronary arteries in most persons. The resolution power of modern day echocardiography is 2mm and the left main ostium is |3.5mm in 99% of population .…
These results find that calcium seen by echocardiography identifies patients at increased risk of death or myocardial infarction. However, the practical relevance of this remains unclear. What should we do with this information? Are there any treatment options that alter outcomes in these patients? We simply do not know. This may be similar to coronary computed tomography calcification, which has been associated with increased risk of adverse events in many large studies. Nevertheless, we have failed to demonstrate convincing evidence that targeted therapy of patients with elevated coronary calcification alters outcomes. Calcification noted on echocardiography may be in a similar situation; until we have data demonstrating that treatment changes outcomes, it is hard to know what to do with these findings. ...
This rotation is designed to maximize each Cardiology Fellows knowledge and understanding of all aspects of the echocardiographic examination and interpretation. The Echocardiography Rotation is split between UH (AM) and BVAMC (PM). Cardiology Fellows are required to perform and/or interpret an average of at least 5 exams per day, Monday through Friday, of which 4 will be transthoracic echocardiographic studies. Additional responsibilities during the echo rotation will include the presentation of cases or special topics during Echocardiography Grand Rounds ...
The technology of both modalities is rapidly evolving, and although CMR is becoming more widely available, the availability of miniaturized systems has made echocardiography ubiquitous. As is always the case, both viewpoints in this iForum are correct. We should not lose sight of the fact that the main burden of HF is in the community. The primary goal of the initial test is, therefore, to categorize patients according to whether they have HF with impaired or preserved function; this information determines therapy and is probably the reason that imaging has been shown to have an effect on outcome (7) and hemodynamics. Echocardiography is unmatched in its ability to assess cardiac physiology in the clinical setting. It is the only widely available technique that allows accurate noninvasive estimation of left atrial and pulmonary arterial pressures. Both tests are able to evaluate complications of HF such as intracardiac thrombus, LV aneurysm, and valve dysfunction. Echocardiography remains the ...
We compared the diagnostic utility of MRI with that of CT and selected echocardiographic measures, for the first time, in a large unselected group of patients with CTD and suspected PAH. We have demonstrated that both MRI and echocardiographic indices have a good correlation with mPAP and PVR at the time of RHC and performed well in predicting the presence of PAH in a high-risk population. In addition, measures of volume and mass derived from MRI predicted outcome. In contrast, CT indices correlated only moderately with invasive measures of pulmonary hemodynamics and had poorer diagnostic utility for PAH.. Several studies have investigated the role of echocardiography in the assessment of PH and have shown strong correlation with mPAP and PVR at RHC, and our results are in agreement with previous reports23,24,25,26. Echocardiography is established in routine clinical practice for screening for PAH in SSc. The TG calculated from the peak tricuspid velocity is the most commonly used measure, with ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Review of new techniques in echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging as applied to patients with congenital heart disease. AU - Sahn, David. AU - Vick, G. W.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The technology for both ultrasound and MRI is evolving rapidly. Cardiac ultrasound in the next few years will partition examinations between those examinations which are real time three dimensional based and performed on high end systems, and the vast majority of what we presently do in two dimensional echo which will be done with hand held or desk top systems. We have spent extra efforts in this review to detail in more depth the major advances in MRI for cardiology since the readership of this supplement is likely be less familiar with those. The speed and resolution of MRI now makes it competitive for cardiac imaging in some ways superior. The issue for cardiologists and echocardiographers is the training in basic MRI physics and applications that will qualify them to participate ...
Press Release issued Oct 16, 2013: The team at Studycast cloud PACS is excited to announce that they will be at the 2013 World Summit on Echocardiography. This years World Summit on Echocardiography is to be held next weekend (Oct 25-27, 2013) at the Leela Kempinski Hotel in New Delhi, India.
The echocardiogram is an extremely useful technique that gives all relevant information on morphology and function of the heart in a wide range of clinical situations. The very first step in echo is how to achieve the images needed for the cardiac evaluation. This chapter covers the basics of echo imaging acquisition including patient positioning and the pivotal concepts of echocardiographic window and view. The two-dimensional echo planes are carefully explained with a detailed description of the cardiac structures that can be studied in every view. The clinical scenarios where a specific imaging mode or orientation could be especially useful are also detailed. Finally M-mode imaging is covered, including detailed explanations of the habitual findings in normal studies.
IAC Echocardiography will present a live webinar (followed by a Q&A session) entitled Simulation Echocardiography for Quality Control and Education . This webinar is a joint presentation of IAC and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE). In addition, registered participants will...
INTRODUCTION The use of a contrast agent during echocardiography was first reported in 1968 by Gramiak and Shah at the University of Rochester [1]. The uses and applications of contrast echocardiography are still expanding, since numerous studies have shown its efficacy and safety. The committee on contrast echocardiography for the American Society of Echocardiography found only 32 cases of possible (always transient) toxicity out of 13,946 examinations surveyed [2]. Meltzer et al. [3] and Armstrong et al. Acting essentially as harmonic oscillators, gaseous bubbles pulsate strongly in the liquid medium at the resonant frequency, and greatly potentiate ultrasonic scattering and absorption cross sections, as compared to expectations based strictly on the actual bubble size. Small bubbles, on the order of 5 micron or less, resonate in the medical imaging band of 110 MHz, and such bubbles are also capable of unhindered microcirculatory passage. Unfortunately, as already reviewed, such bubbles ...
The |i|Journal of Electronic Imaging|/i| (JEI), copublished bimonthly with the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, publishes peer-reviewed papers that cover research and applications in all areas of electronic imaging science and technology.
Read more information about echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound. Echocardiography is a type of heart test that uses high-pitched sound waves that are sent through a device called a transducer.
Figure 2. Transthoracic echocardiography, short parasternal view demonstrates moderate systolic flattening of the septum; the ventricle was moderately to markedly dilated with moderately to markedly reduced systolic function ...
Echocardiography[edit]. Echocardiography is used to provide an assessment of the heart's function. Amyloidosis presents with ... Echocardiography, can be used to help physicians with diagnosis, however, it can only be used for the suggesting of the disease ... Worse outcomes have been seen when echocardiography shows left ventricular wall thickness, poor systolic function and severe ...
Echocardiography is an essential tool in cardiology, to diagnose e.g. dilatation of parts of the heart and function of heart ... Uses include: Doppler echocardiography, the use of Doppler ultrasonography to examine the heart. An echocardiogram can, within ... Page 161 (part II > Two-dimensional Echocardiography) in: Reves, J. G.; Estafanous, Fawzy G.; Barash, Paul G. (2001). Cardiac ... This contrast medical imaging modality is clinically used throughout the world, in particular for echocardiography in the ...
Echocardiography. 21 (8): 673-9. doi:10.1111/j.0742-2822.2004.03174.x. PMID 15546367. Table 30-1 in: Trudie A Goers; Washington ...
Echocardiography. 25 (5): 526-8. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8175.2007.00617.x. PMID 18177380. Matsumoto N, Sato Y, Kusama J, Matsuo S, ...
... confirmation by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography". Echocardiography. 20 (3): 283-7. doi:10.1046/j.1540-8175.2003 ...
Echocardiography. 31 (10): 1283-92. doi:10.1111/echo.12559. Serrano, S.M.T. (2013). "The long road of research on snake venom ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-6321-9. Yale atlas of echocardiography Archived November 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Hutcheson JD, Aikawa ... Echocardiography. 28 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8175.2010.01256.x. PMID 20678125. Nathaniel S, Saligram S, Innasimuthu AL ( ...
"Eustachian valve thrombus:critical factor in outcome of venous thromboembolism". Echocardiography. 20 (1): 71-3. January 2003. ...
EF is commonly measured by echocardiography and serves as a general measure of a person's cardiac function. It is typically ... William F. Armstrong; Thomas Ryan; Harvey Feigenbaum (2010). Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN ... Ejection fraction is commonly measured by echocardiography, in which the volumes of the heart's chambers are measured during ...
Echocardiography can be conducted by a probe on the chest ("transthoracic") or by a probe in the esophagus ("transoesophageal ... Several imaging methods can be used to assess the anatomy and function of the heart, including ultrasound (echocardiography), ... Armstrong, William F.; Ryan, Thomas; Feigenbaum, Harvey (2010). Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ... "). A typical echocardiography report will include information about the width of the valves noting any stenosis, whether there ...
If a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is suspected, an examination by echocardiography may be performed to diagnose the defect. In ... "Imaging Studies - Echocardiography". Patent Foramen Ovale Workup. Medscape. Retrieved 19 February 2017. Brunicardi, F. ...
Speckle tracking echocardiography is based on grey scale echocardiography (B-mode), and the fact that the reflected echo from ... Echocardiography 1998,15(8 part 2):S40. Abstract. Urheim S, Edvardsen T, Torp H, Angelsen B, Smiseth OA. Myocardial strain by ... It has been shown to be at least as accurate as B-mode echocardiography. Deformation imaging has also been shown to be useful ... In stress echocardiography (see Cardiac stress test), the regional dysfunction due to ischemia will become evident when the ...
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Libman-Sacks endocarditis (often misspelled Libmann-Sachs) is a form of nonbacterial ...
American Society of Echocardiography; American Psychosomatic Society; European Association of Echocardiography Iuliu Hatieganu ...
Part 1: aortic and pulmonary regurgitation (native valve disease)" (PDF). European Journal of Echocardiography. 11 (3): 223-244 ... "The Emerging Role of Exercise Testing and Stress Echocardiography in Valvular Heart Disease". Journal of the American College ... "European Association of Echocardiography recommendations for the assessment of valvular regurgitation. ... of the diagnosis of aortic regurgitation a common test for the evaluation of the severity is transthoracic echocardiography, ...
Cardiac stress tests, including stress echocardiography and nuclear stress tests, are used to detect a block in blood flow to ... Echocardiography; American Society of Nuclear, Cardiology; North American Society for Cardiovascular, Imaging; Society for ... the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for ...
... is recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Echocardiography. The values for ... European Journal of Echocardiography. 7 (2): 79-108. doi:10.1016/j.euje.2005.12.014. PMID 16458610. Retrieved 2012-08-26. ...
American Society of Echocardiography; Brown, K. A.; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; Calkins, H.; Heart Rhythm, E.; ... American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force (2008). "Use of Carotid Ultrasound to Identify ... A Consensus Statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force Endorsed by the ... Society for Vascular Medicine". Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 21 (2): 93-111; quiz 189-90. PMID 18261694 ...
Echocardiography (including stress echocardiography) Coronary angiography Intravascular ultrasound Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... The use of echocardiography, stress cardiac imaging, and/or advanced non-invasive imaging is not recommended on individuals who ... American Society of Echocardiography. "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question". Choosing Wisely: an initiative of ... American Society of Echocardiography. Archived from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013. , citing ...
Imaging tests such as stress radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging or stress echocardiography can confirm a diagnosis when ... American Society of Echocardiography; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging ...
Gillam, Linda D.; Otto, Catherine M. (2011). Advanced Approaches in Echocardiography. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 224. ISBN ...
Endowed Chair in Echocardiography and served as Acting Chief of Cardiology at Baylor. In 2004 after an administrative split ... In 1989 he became the Associate Director of the Echocardiography Laboratory at Houston Methodist and served as its Director ... He undertook advanced training in echocardiography under the mentorship of Dr. Miguel Quinones.[citation needed] William Zoghbi ... "Awards, Grants, and Scholarships , American Society of Echocardiography". asecho.org. Retrieved 8 October 2017. "William Zoghbi ...
European Journal of Echocardiography. 10 (2): 165-193. doi:10.1093/ejechocard/jep007. ISSN 1525-2167. "Ejection Fraction , ... speckle tracking echocardiography". Circulation. 112 (20): 3149-3156. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.531558. ISSN 1524-4539. ... "Recommendations for the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function by Echocardiography". ...
Transesophageal Echocardiography at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) American Society of ... Such organizations further recommend that doctors and patients should avoid seeking transesophageal echocardiography only for ... American Society of Echocardiography, retrieved February 27, 2013 , which cites Douglas, P. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Haines, D. E.; ... American Society of Echocardiography; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; Heart Failure Society of America; Society for ...
A stress test may be accompanied by echocardiography. The echocardiography is performed both before and after the exercise so ... American Society of Echocardiography; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; Heart Failure Society of America; Society for ... American Society of Echocardiography; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging ... "ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography". Journal of the American ...
Mitral valve prolapse in children: a problem defined by real-time cross-sectional echocardiography. Circulation. 1976 Apr;53(4 ... Mitral valve prolapse in children : a problem defined by real-time cross-sectional echocardiography. / Sahn, David; Allen, H. D ... Real-time two-dimensional echocardiography uniformly disclosed maximum mitral arching and the superior-posterior prolapse. ... title = "Mitral valve prolapse in children: a problem defined by real-time cross-sectional echocardiography.", ...
Diagnosis of a very rare variant of cor triatriatum dexter by contrast echocardiography: A case report. Echocardiography. 2009 ... Diagnosis of a very rare variant of cor triatriatum dexter by contrast echocardiography : A case report. In: Echocardiography. ... Diagnosis of a very rare variant of cor triatriatum dexter by contrast echocardiography: A case report. Echocardiography, 26(2 ... Diagnosis of a very rare variant of cor triatriatum dexter by contrast echocardiography: A case report, Echocardiography, vol ...
Echocardiography. *Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the.... Heart magnetic ... American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm ...
Fetal echocardiography is the name of the test used to diagnose cardiac conditions in the fetal stage. Cardiac defects are ... Indications for fetal echocardiography high referral, low yield? Davey BT, Seubert DE, Phoon CK. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2009 Jun; ... 4. ISUOG Fetal Echocardiography Task Force. ISUOG consensus statement: what constitutes a fetal echocardiogram?Lee W, Allan L, ... The critical role of echocardiography in prenatal diagnosis is evident, and both the accuracy and safety of the test are now ...
... which is not included in other echocardiography texts ... Clinical Echocardiography. Michael Y. Henein,Mary Sheppard,John ... Echocardiography.html?id=lMMT4Jk40l4C&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareClinical Echocardiography. ... 17 Echocardiography in the Management of Atrial Septal Defect ASD and Patent Foramen Ovale PFO ... Includes clinical comments on patient management, which is not included in other echocardiography texts ...
Stress Echocardiography - Its Role in the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease - Second Edition by Thomas ... Stress Echocardiography - Its Role in the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease - Second Edition by Thomas ... Comparison of stress echocardiography and other stress-imaging techniques for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease ... Stress Echocardiography. Its Role in the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease. ...
Echocardiography, diagnostic technique that uses ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) to produce an image of the internal ... The term echocardiography refers to a group of tests that use ultrasound (sound waves above frequencies audible to humans) to ... Echocardiography, diagnostic technique that uses ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) to produce an image of the internal ... M-mode echocardiography records the amplitude and the rate of motion of moving… ...
A new position statement provides guidance regarding the role of echocardiography in monitoring hyperprolactinemia patients ... Repeat transthoracic echocardiography should then be performed at 5 years after starting cabergoline in patients taking a total ... If there has been no change on the 5-year scan, repeat echocardiography could continue at 5-yearly intervals. If a patient is ... All patients should undergo echocardiography before commencing DA therapy. 2.. Patients taking a dose of cabergoline of ≤ 2mg/ ...
Myocardial-tissue-Doppler-echocardiography-and-N-terminal-B-type-natriuretic-peptide-(NT-proBNP)-in-1476-7120-6-45-S1.ogv 2.4 s ... Myocardial-tissue-Doppler-echocardiography-and-N-terminal-B-type-natriuretic-peptide-(NT-proBNP)-in-1476-7120-6-45-S2.ogv 2.5 s ... Early-Doppler-echocardiography-evaluation-of-Carpentier-Edwards-Standard-and-Carpentier-Edwards-1476-7120-9-37-S1.ogv 25 s, 720 ... Early-Doppler-echocardiography-evaluation-of-Carpentier-Edwards-Standard-and-Carpentier-Edwards-1476-7120-9-37-S2.ogv 22 s, 720 ...
Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to evaluate the babys heart for problems before birth. ... Fetal echocardiography is a test that is done while the baby is still in the womb. It is most often done during the second ... Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to evaluate the babys heart for problems before birth. ... Some heart defects cannot be seen before birth, even with fetal echocardiography. These include small holes in the heart or ...
Stress echocardiography is a test that uses ultrasound imaging to show how well your heart muscle is working to pump blood to ... Echocardiography stress test; Stress test - echocardiography; CAD - stress echocardiography; Coronary artery disease - stress ... stress echocardiography; Angina - stress echocardiography; Heart disease - stress echocardiography ... Stress echocardiography is a test that uses ultrasound imaging to show how well your heart muscle is working to pump blood to ...
... The Journal of Echocardiography, the official journal of the Japanese Society of ... The Journal of Echocardiography provides the best of up-to-date information from around the world, presenting readers with high ... Echocardiography, publishes work that contributes to progress in the field and articles in clinical research as well, seeking ...
anatomy cardiology congenital heart disease diagnosis echocardiography heart hospital lung management physiology surgery ... Echocardiography in Adult Congenital Heart Disease provides the cardiologist with access to the considerable wealth of imaging ...
Definition of transesophageal echocardiography. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ... transesophageal echocardiography. Definition: recording of the echocardiogram from a transducer swallowed by the patient to ...
The American Heart Association explains that Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a test that produces pictures of your ... What is transesophageal echocardiography?. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a test that produces pictures of your ...
echocardiography An echocardiography is a diagnostic method in which a handheld device is placed on the chest and high- ...
... recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography Council for intraoperative echocardiography and the Society of ... Use of transesophageal echocardiography to guide cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: ... Transesophageal Echocardiography. Clinical Indications and Applications. Gail E. Peterson, M. Elizabeth Brickner, Sharon C. ... Transesophageal echocardiography and unexplained cerebral ischemia: a multicenter follow-up study. Am Heart J. 1999; 137: 1092- ...
University Health Network►Peter Munk Cardiac Centre►Health Care Professionals►Referrals►Echocardiography Lab - Referrals ...
... ,The iE33 is a 3D quantitative echo system that will change the way echo exams are performed. ... ACUSON Sequoia C512 Echocardiography System. 2. A Practical Approach to Transesophageal Echocardiography. 3. Silicone Oil ... iE33 Echocardiography System. Features. *S5-1 transducer with exclusive PureWave crystal technology provides striking 2D ... The iE33 systems interface brings innovative methods to echocardiography. For the first time, wireless voice recognition ...
American Society of Echocardiography British Society of Echocardiography An interactive learning site for 3D Echocardiography ... Three-dimensional echocardiography (also known as four-dimensional echocardiography when the picture is moving) is now possible ... Echocardiography was also the first ultrasound subspecialty to use intravenous contrast. Echocardiography is performed by ... Adult Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) and Congenital Heart Disease Echocardiography (CHD). In the UK, accreditation is ...
Purchase Principles of Echocardiography and Intracardiac Echocardiography - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Principles of Echocardiography and Intracardiac Echocardiography 1st Edition. Expert Consult - Online and Print. ... Principles of Echocardiography and Intracardiac Echocardiography has everything you need to successfully obtain and interpret ... 17 Echocardiography and Its Role in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. 18 Stress, Strain, Speckle and Tissue Doppler Imaging: ...
What is stress echocardiography?. A stress echocardiography, also called an echocardiography stress test or stress echo, is a ... How do I prepare for a stress echocardiography?. This test usually occurs in an echocardiography laboratory, or echo lab, but ... What happens during a stress echocardiography?. Resting echocardiography. Your doctor needs to see how your heart functions ... Stress Echocardiography. Medically reviewed by Debra Sullivan, PhD, MSN, RN, CNE, COI - Written by Tricia Kinman - Updated on ...
In 1997, I wrote an invited review on myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) entitled "Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography ... Contrast echocardiography in acute myocardial ischemia, I: in-vivo determination of total left ventricular "area at risk." J Am ... Contrast echocardiography in acute myocardial ischemia, III: an in-vivo comparison of the extent of abnormal wall motion with ... Real-time dobutamine stress myocardial perfusion echocardiography predicts outcome in the elderly. Eur Heart J. 2008; 29: 377- ...
Stress echocardiography in the assessment of native valve disease Rajdeep S Khattar, Roxy Senior ... 10 A simple method to improve the reliability of echocardiography in patients with atrial fibrillation Karina Bunting, Michael ... 87 Do we always need advanced imaging to assess myocardial viability or is resting echocardiography enough in most cases? ...
p, Echocardiography continues to play a vital role in managing cardiovascular diseases, along with physical examination and ... In this book titled Echocardiography, we aim to provide a practical and scholarly overview of the contemporary state of ... echocardiography. We hope to provide not only the current state of art echocardiographic techniques but also the ... Echocardiography in Heart Failure and Cardiac Electrophysiology. Edited by Umashankar Lakshmanadoss. Echocardiography in Heart ...
  • In each patient the physical findings of the mitral valve click-murmur syndrome were present and mitral valve prolapse had been diagnosed previously by conventional single crystal echocardiography. (elsevier.com)
  • Real-time two-dimensional echocardiography uniformly disclosed maximum mitral arching and the superior-posterior prolapse. (elsevier.com)
  • Echocardiography has unearthed links among morbid pediatric obesity, sleep disorders, and potentially fatal pulmonary hypertension, according to a study presented at the 2006 American Society of Echocardiography meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • This study was conducted as part of the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) Foundation's Valvular Assessment Leading to Unexplored Echocardiographic Stratagems (VALUES) program, a four-day teaching and research event held at the Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences in Bangalore, India, August 11-14, 2014. (medindia.net)
  • A poster based on the results of the study will be displayed in the Poster and Exhibit Hall from Saturday June 13 through Monday June 15 at the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) 26th Annual Scientific Sessions at the Hynes Convention Center, Boston. (medindia.net)
  • As the largest global organization for cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) is the leader and advocate, setting practice standards and guidelines. (medindia.net)
  • As a result of the studies documenting an increased risk of valulopathy in PD patients, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) recommended that physicians in the United Kingdom should request baseline echocardiography to exclude valvular heart disease in all patients before starting cabergoline or bromocriptine, followed by a second echocardiogram performed 3-6 months after commencement and then at 6-12-month intervals while continuing on the medication. (medscape.com)
  • Health societies recommend the use of echocardiography for initial diagnosis when a change in the patient's clinical status occurs and when new data from an echocardiogram would result in the physician changing the patient's care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Echocardiography in Adult Congenital Heart Disease provides the cardiologist with access to the considerable wealth of imaging data from Royal Brompton Hospital and National Heart and Lung Institute in London, UK. (springer.com)
  • Effectively evaluate congenital heart disorders with Echocardiography in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease ! (ecampus.com)
  • ACC/AHA/ASE 2003 guideline for the clinical application of echocardiography www.acc.org/qualityandscience/clinical/statements.htm (Accessed on August 24, 2006). (uptodate.com)
  • The numerous modalities within echocardiography furnish the scanning sonographer or physician with a wide array of technologies for complete assessment of cardiac morphology and function. (hindawi.com)
  • Echocardiography highlights the clinical utility of these evolving modalities that are now crucial to the renaissance of echocardiography, and it provides a thorough clinical review of this most revealing and adaptable methods of imaging a patient. (buecher.de)
  • A follow-up or limited echo study, 93308 Echocardiography, transthoracic, real-time with image documentation (2D), includes M-mode recording, when performed, follow-up or limited study does not evaluate (or document the attempt to evaluate) all the structures that comprise the complete echocardiographic exam, as outlined in the CPT® criteria, above. (aapc.com)
  • The iE33 systems interface brings innovative methods to echocardiography. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Echocardiography Experienced cardiologists performed preoperative TTE examinations in all patients scheduled for CABG by using IE33 echocardiography system (Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) at last one month before surgery. (scribd.com)
  • The curriculum map for the Echocardiography Degree Completion program can be found on the catalog web page on the Oregon Tech website, www.oit.edu/catalog . (oit.edu)
  • This certificate is granted to those students who successfully complete the career curriculum that is Echocardiography. (dacc.edu)