Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.
A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.
The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.
A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.
A malformation of the heart in which the embryonic common PULMONARY VEIN was not incorporated into the LEFT ATRIUM leaving behind a perforated fibromuscular membrane bisecting the left atrium, a three-atrium heart. The opening between the two left atrium sections determines the degree of obstruction to pulmonary venous return, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.
A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
Blockage of an artery due to passage of a clot (THROMBUS) from a systemic vein to a systemic artery without its passing through the lung which acts as a filter to remove blood clots from entering the arterial circulation. Paradoxical embolism occurs when there is a defect that allows a clot to cross directly from the right to the left side of the heart as in the cases of ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS or open FORAMEN OVALE. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block an artery, and cause a STROKE.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The period during a surgical operation.
A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
The muscular structure separating the right and the left lower chambers (HEART VENTRICLES) of the heart. The ventricular septum consists of a very small membranous portion just beneath the AORTIC VALVE, and a large thick muscular portion consisting of three sections including the inlet septum, the trabecular septum, and the outlet septum.
The measurement of visualization by radiation of any organ after a radionuclide has been injected into its blood supply. It is used to diagnose heart, liver, lung, and other diseases and to measure the function of those organs, except renography, for which RADIOISOTOPE RENOGRAPHY is available.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.
Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
Backflow of blood from the PULMONARY ARTERY into the RIGHT VENTRICLE due to imperfect closure of the PULMONARY VALVE.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
Act of listening for sounds within the heart.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.

Cardiac sympathetic activity estimated by 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy after beta-blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. (1/9635)

Impaired cardiac sympathetic activity can be evaluated by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging. METHODS: We studied the significance of MIBG imaging for 24 patients (age 58+/-12 y) with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We compared 12 patients (group A) treated with metoprolol (dose from 30-60 mg/d) with 12 patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients were studied before treatment, after 5 mo of treatment (only in group A) and after 1 y of treatment. Cardiac MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) and total defect score (TDS) from anterior planar and SPECT MIBG images, which were acquired in 4 h after tracer injection. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) calculated by echocardiography were also assessed. RESULTS: TDS decreased in both groups (in group A, from 30+/-7 through 23+/-9 to 18+/-10; P < 0.01, in group B, from 30+/-6 to 24+/-8; P < 0.01) and H/M was increased in both groups (in group A, from 1.87+/-0.31 through 2.03+/-0.28 to 2.14+/-0.29; P < 0.01, in group B, from 1.82+/-0.28 to 1.94+/-0.26; P < 0.05). But TDS and H/M were more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). LVEF was significantly increased in only group A (from 38+/-6 through 43+/-8 to 49%+/-9%; P < 0.01). NYHA improved in both groups (in group A, from mean 2.5 through 2.1 to 1.8; P < 0.01, in group B, from mean 2.6 to 2.1; P < 0.05) but was more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cardiac function, symptom and cardiac sympathetic activity evaluated by MIBG images improved after the beta-blocker therapy more than with the treatment that used ACE inhibitors.  (+info)

Sympathetic nerve alterations assessed with 123I-MIBG in the failing human heart. (2/9635)

Norepinephrine (NE) reuptake function is impaired in heart failure and this may participate in myocyte hyperstimulation by the neurotransmitter. This alteration can be assessed by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. METHODS: To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake. RESULTS: In controls, neither cardiac MIBG uptake and release nor circulating NE concentration changed after the 1-mo metoprolol intake. Conversely, after a 6-mo therapy with metoprolol, patients showed increased cardiac MIBG uptake (129%+/-10% versus 138%+/-17%; P = 0.009), unchanged cardiac MIBG release and decreased plasma NE concentration (0.930+/-412 versus 0.721+/-0.370 ng/mL; P = 0.02). In parallel, patients showed improved New York Heart Association class (2.44+/-0.51 versus 2.05+/-0.23; P = 0.004) and increased LVEF (20%+/-8% versus 27%+/-8%; P = 0.0005), whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Thus, a parallel improvement of myocardial NE reuptake and of hemodynamics was observed after a 6-mo metoprolol therapy, suggesting that such agents may be beneficial in heart failure by directly protecting the myocardium against excessive NE stimulation.  (+info)

Effect of coronary occlusion on left ventricular function with and without collateral supply during beating heart coronary artery surgery. (3/9635)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of coronary occlusion and collateral supply on left ventricular (LV) function during beating heart coronary artery surgery. DESIGN: Prospective intraoperative study, performed at baseline, during wall stabilisation, coronary artery occlusion, and 2 and 10 minutes after reperfusion. Transoesophageal M mode echocardiograms, simultaneous high fidelity LV pressure, and thermodilution cardiac output were measured. LV anterior wall thickening, thinning velocities, thickening fraction, regional work, and power production were derived. Asynchrony during the isovolumic periods was quantified as cycle efficiency. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with stable angina, mean (SD) age 62 (7) years, undergoing left anterior descending artery grafting using the "Octopus" device. RESULTS: Collaterals were absent in nine patients and present in five. Epicardial stabilisation did not affect LV function. Results are expressed as mean (SD). Coronary occlusion (15.6 (2) minutes) depressed anterior wall thickening (1.4 (0.6) v 2.6 (0.6) cm/s) and thinning velocities (1.4 (0.5) v 3.0 (0.6) cm/s), regional work (2.2 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.6) mJ/cm2), and power (21 (4) v 33 (5) mW/cm2) in patients without collaterals (p < 0.05 for all), but only wall thinning (3.5 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) cm/s, p < 0.05) in patients with collaterals. All returned to baseline within 10 minutes of reperfusion. Cycle efficiency and regional work were impaired at baseline and fell during occlusion, regardless of collaterals. Within 10 minutes of reperfusion both had increased above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary occlusion for up to 15 minutes during beating heart coronary artery surgery depressed standard measurements of systolic and diastolic anterior wall function in patients without collaterals, but only those of diastolic function in patients with collaterals. Regional synchrony decreased in both groups. All disturbances regressed within 10 minutes of reperfusion.  (+info)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma atrial and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus. (4/9635)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were investigated for 1 month in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Post-operative left ventricular end-diastolic dimention and fractional shortening decreased in all cases. Pre-operatively increased plasma ANP concentrations reduced dramatically after the operation. Peri-operative changes in plasma BNP levels had slightly S-shaped curves in all cases. These observations suggest that post-operative responsiveness of ANP and cardiac function are rapid in comparison with cardiac morphological changes, and BNP has a different pathophysiological significance from ANP in dogs with PDA.  (+info)

Hemodialysis with high-calcium dialysate impairs cardiac relaxation. (5/9635)

BACKGROUND: During hemodialysis (HD), serum ionized calcium is directly related to the dialysate calcium concentration. We have recently shown an acute induction of hypercalcemia to impair left ventricular (LV) relaxation. In the current study we sought to establish whether changes in serum Ca++ also affect LV function during HD. METHODS: We echocardiographically examined the LV relaxation and systolic function of 12 patients with end-stage renal disease before and after three HD treatments with dialysate Ca++ concentrations of 1.25 mmol/liter (dCa++1.25), 1.5 mmol/liter (dCa++1.50), and 1.75 mmol/liter (dCa++1.75), respectively. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also examined echocardiographically. RESULTS: The LV posterior wall thickness and the interventricular septum thickness, and the LV end-diastolic dimension and the end-systolic dimensions were significantly greater in the patients when compared with the controls, and the LV fractional shortening, the ratio of peak early to peak late diastolic velocities (E/Amax), and the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) showed impairment of LV relaxation and systolic function in the patients. Serum ionized calcium increased significantly during the dCa++1.5 HD (1.24 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.34 +/- 0.06 mmol/liter, P = 0. 004) and dCa++1.75 HD (1.19 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.47 +/- 0.06 mmol/liter, P = 0.002), and plasma intact parathyroid hormone decreased significantly during the dCa++1.75 HD (medians 8.2 vs. 2.7 pmol/liter, P = 0.002). LV systolic function was not altered during any of the treatments. The changes in E/Amax and IVRT suggested impairment of relaxation during all sessions, but only during the dCa++1.75 HD was the impairment statistically significant (E/Amax 1. 153 +/- 0.437 vs. 0.943 +/- 0.352, P < 0.05; IVRT 147 +/- 29 vs. 175 +/- 50 msecond, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HD with high-calcium (dCa++1. 75 mmol/liter) dialysate impairs LV relaxation when compared with lower calcium dialysate (dCa++1.25 and dCa++1.5 mmol/liter) treatments.  (+info)

Studies on structural changes of the carotid arteries and the heart in asymptomatic renal transplant recipients. (6/9635)

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to characterize early structural changes of large arteries in renal transplant recipients with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and normal blood pressure values, and to analyse the relationship between arterial alterations and those of the heart. METHODS: Intima media thickness and atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries as well as left ventricular geometry and function were examined in 35 asymtomatic renal transplant recipients and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by high resolution B-mode ultrasound and by echocardiography. RESULTS: Intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients (1.21+/-0.08 mm) than in healthy controls (0.74+/-0.04 mm) (P<0.001). Atherosclerotic plaques were found in the majority of renal transplant recipients (71% vs 14% in healthy controls, P<0.001). Left ventricular mass index was significantly increased in the group of renal transplant recipients (264+/-13 g, 146+/-7 g/m2) when compared with healthy controls (155+/-8 g, 83+/-4 g/m2) (P<0.001). Multiple regression analysis in renal transplant recipients showed that intima media thickness of the carotid arteries was significantly related to left ventricular mass index (P<0.02), but not to age, blood pressure, body mass index, serum creatinine, cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) levels. In the group of healthy controls, intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was related to age (P<0.002), but not to left ventricular mass index or the other independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents pronounced intima-media thickening in asymptomatic renal transplant recipients. Atherosclerotic lesions are present in most renal transplant recipients with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. We observed a parallelism between arterial wall thickening and left ventricular hypertrophy, although blood pressure levels were normal during haemodialysis therapy and after renal transplantation.  (+info)

Regulation of myocardial blood flow by oxygen consumption is maintained in the failing heart during exercise. (7/9635)

The hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohumoral activation that accompany congestive heart failure (CHF) might be expected to impair the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during exercise. This study was performed to determine the effects of CHF on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow during exercise. Coronary blood flow was measured in chronically instrumented dogs at rest, during 2 stages of graded treadmill exercise under control conditions (n=10), and after the development of CHF produced by 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (n=9). In the normal dogs, coronary blood flow increased during exercise in proportion to the increase in the heart rate x the left ventricular systolic blood pressure product (RPP). After the development of CHF, resting myocardial blood flow was 25% lower than normal (P<0.05). Myocardial blood flow increased during the first stage of exercise, but then failed to increase further during the second stage of exercise despite an additional increase in the RPP. Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly lower in animals with CHF and paralleled coronary flow. Despite the lower values for coronary blood flow in animals with CHF, there was no evidence for myocardial ischemia. Thus, even during the second level of exercise when coronary flow failed to increase, myocardial lactate consumption continued and coronary venous pH did not fall. In addition, the failure of coronary flow to increase as the exercise level was increased from stage 1 to stage 2 was not associated with a further increase in myocardial oxygen extraction. Thus, cardiac failure was associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and failure of oxygen consumption to increase with an increase in the level of exercise. This abnormality did not appear to result from inadequate oxygen availability, but more likely represented a reduction of myocardial oxygen usage with a secondary decrease in metabolic coronary vasodilation.  (+info)

Increased renal resistive index in patients with essential hypertension: a marker of target organ damage. (8/9635)

BACKGROUND: Increased renal resistance detected by ultrasound (US) Doppler has been reported in severe essential hypertension (EH) and recently was shown to correlate with the degree of renal impairment in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. However, the pathophysiological significance of this finding is still controversial. METHODS: In a group of 211 untreated patients with EH, we evaluated renal resistive index (RI) by US Doppler of interlobar arteries and early signs of target organ damage (TOD). Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in three non-consecutive first morning urine samples. Left ventricular mass was evaluated by M-B mode echocardiography, and carotid wall thickness (IMT) by high resolution US scan. RESULTS: RI was positively correlated with age (r=0.25, P=0.003) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=0.2, P=0.02) and with signs of early TOD, namely ACR (r=0.22, P=0.01) and IMT (r=0.17, P<0.05), and inversely correlated with renal volume (r=-0.22, P=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.23, P=0.006). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, gender, ACR and SBP independently influence RI and together account for approximately 20% of its variations (F=8.153, P<0.0001). When clinical data were analysed according to the degree of RI, the patients in the top quartile were found to be older (P<0.05) and with higher SBP (P<0.05) as well as early signs of TOD, namely increased ACR (P<0.002) and IMT (P<0.005 by ANOVA), despite similar body mass index, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and duration of hypertension. Furthermore, patients with higher RI showed a significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (13 vs 12 vs 3 vs 33% chi2=11.72, P=0.008) and left ventricular hypertrophy (40 vs 43 vs 32 vs 60%, chi2=9.25, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased RI is associated with early signs of TOD in EH and could be a marker of intrarenal atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a type of cardiac ultrasound that uses advanced technologies to create a real-time, detailed 3D image of the heart. This imaging technique provides a more comprehensive view of the heart's structure and function compared to traditional 2D echocardiography. By visualizing the heart from multiple angles, 3DE can help physicians better assess complex cardiac conditions, plan treatments, and monitor their effectiveness.

In a 3DE examination, a transducer (a handheld device that emits and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest to capture ultrasound data. This data is then processed by specialized software to create a 3D model of the heart. The procedure is non-invasive and typically takes less than an hour to complete.

Three-dimensional echocardiography has several clinical applications, including:

1. Evaluation of cardiac morphology and function in congenital heart disease
2. Assessment of valvular structure and function, such as mitral or aortic valve regurgitation or stenosis
3. Guidance during interventional procedures like transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
4. Quantification of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass
5. Assessment of right ventricular size and function
6. Detection and monitoring of cardiac tumors or other masses
7. Pre-surgical planning for complex heart surgeries

Overall, 3DE offers a more accurate and detailed view of the heart, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and improve outcomes.

Doppler echocardiography is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It measures the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. This helps to evaluate various conditions such as valve problems, congenital heart defects, and heart muscle diseases.

In Doppler echocardiography, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the chest, which emits sound waves that bounce off the heart and blood vessels. The transducer then picks up the returning echoes, which are processed by a computer to create moving images of the heart.

The Doppler effect is used to measure the speed and direction of blood flow. This occurs when the frequency of the sound waves changes as they bounce off moving objects, such as red blood cells. By analyzing these changes, the ultrasound machine can calculate the velocity and direction of blood flow in different parts of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography is a non-invasive test that does not require any needles or dyes. It is generally safe and painless, although patients may experience some discomfort from the pressure applied by the transducer on the chest. The test usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

Stress echocardiography is a medical test that uses ultrasound imaging to assess how well your heart muscles are pumping blood and how well they respond to stress. It can help diagnose and evaluate coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and other cardiac conditions.

During the test, you will be asked to exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike while your heart rate and blood pressure are monitored. At peak exercise, a healthcare professional will take ultrasound images of your heart to evaluate its structure and function. If you are unable to exercise, medication may be given to simulate the effects of exercise on your heart.

The test can help identify areas of your heart that aren't receiving enough oxygen-rich blood due to blocked or narrowed arteries. It can also assess how well your heart valves are functioning and whether there are any structural abnormalities in your heart. Your healthcare provider will use the results of the test to develop a treatment plan tailored to your individual needs.

Echocardiography, Doppler, color is a type of ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create detailed moving images of the heart and its blood vessels. In this technique, color Doppler is used to visualize the direction and speed of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. The movement of the red blood cells causes a change in frequency of the reflected sound waves (Doppler shift), which can be used to calculate the velocity and direction of the blood flow. By adding color to the Doppler image, it becomes easier for the interpreting physician to understand the complex three-dimensional motion of blood through the heart. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including valve disorders, congenital heart defects, and cardiac muscle diseases.

Echocardiography, Doppler, pulsed is a type of diagnostic medical test that uses ultrasound to create detailed images of the heart's structures and assess their function. In this technique, high-frequency sound waves are directed at the heart using a handheld device called a transducer, which is placed on the chest wall. The sound waves bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then sends the information to a computer that converts it into images.

Pulsed Doppler echocardiography is a specific type of Doppler ultrasound that allows for the measurement of blood flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. In this technique, the transducer emits short bursts or "pulses" of sound waves and then measures the time it takes for the echoes to return. By analyzing the frequency shifts of the returning echoes, the velocity and direction of blood flow can be determined. This information is particularly useful in evaluating valvular function, assessing the severity of valvular lesions, and identifying areas of turbulent or abnormal blood flow.

Overall, echocardiography, Doppler, pulsed is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of cardiovascular conditions, including heart valve disorders, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathies, and pericardial diseases.

Dobutamine is a synthetic catecholamine used in medical treatment, specifically as a positive inotrope and vasodilator. It works by stimulating the beta-1 adrenergic receptors of the heart, thereby increasing its contractility and stroke volume. This results in an improved cardiac output, making dobutamine beneficial in treating heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and other conditions where heart function is compromised.

It's important to note that dobutamine should be administered under strict medical supervision due to its potential to cause adverse effects such as arrhythmias, hypotension, or hypertension. The dosage, frequency, and duration of administration are determined by the patient's specific condition and response to treatment.

Left ventricular function refers to the ability of the left ventricle (the heart's lower-left chamber) to contract and relax, thereby filling with and ejecting blood. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Its function is evaluated by measuring several parameters, including:

1. Ejection fraction (EF): This is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle with each heartbeat. A normal ejection fraction ranges from 55% to 70%.
2. Stroke volume (SV): The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one contraction. A typical SV is about 70 mL/beat.
3. Cardiac output (CO): The total volume of blood that the left ventricle pumps per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Normal CO ranges from 4 to 8 L/minute.

Assessment of left ventricular function is crucial in diagnosing and monitoring various cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathies.

Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is a condition characterized by the impaired ability of the left ventricle of the heart to pump blood efficiently during contraction. The left ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

LVD can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or hypertension. These conditions can lead to structural changes in the left ventricle, including remodeling, hypertrophy, and dilation, which ultimately impair its contractile function.

The severity of LVD is often assessed by measuring the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A normal EF ranges from 55% to 70%, while an EF below 40% is indicative of LVD.

LVD can lead to various symptoms, such as shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid retention, and decreased exercise tolerance. It can also increase the risk of complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. Treatment for LVD typically involves managing the underlying cause, along with medications to improve contractility, reduce fluid buildup, and control heart rate. In severe cases, devices such as implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) or left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be required.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

The heart ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it to the lungs or the rest of the body. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Both ventricles have thick, muscular walls to generate the pressure necessary to pump blood through the circulatory system.

Stroke volume is a term used in cardiovascular physiology and medicine. It refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction (systole). Specifically, it is the difference between the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (when the ventricle is filled with blood) and the volume at the end of systole (when the ventricle has contracted and ejected its contents into the aorta).

Stroke volume is an important measure of heart function, as it reflects the ability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. A low stroke volume may indicate that the heart is not pumping efficiently, while a high stroke volume may suggest that the heart is working too hard. Stroke volume can be affected by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and physical fitness level.

The formula for calculating stroke volume is:

Stroke Volume = End-Diastolic Volume - End-Systolic Volume

Where end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, and end-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

Mitral valve insufficiency, also known as mitral regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the mitral valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle. This leads to an increased volume load on the left heart chamber and can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The condition can be caused by various factors including valve damage due to degenerative changes, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or trauma. Treatment options include medication, mitral valve repair, or replacement surgery depending on the severity and underlying cause of the insufficiency.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

Diastole is the phase of the cardiac cycle during which the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers of the heart fill with blood. It follows systole, the phase in which the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood out to the body. In a normal resting adult, diastole lasts for approximately 0.4-0.5 seconds during each heartbeat. The period of diastole is divided into two phases: early diastole and late diastole. During early diastole, the ventricles fill with blood due to the pressure difference between the atria and ventricles. During late diastole, the atrioventricular valves close, and the ventricles continue to fill with blood due to the relaxation of the ventricular muscle and the compliance of the ventricular walls. The duration and pressure changes during diastole are important for maintaining adequate cardiac output and blood flow to the body.

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Systole is the phase of the cardiac cycle during which the heart muscle contracts to pump blood out of the heart. Specifically, it refers to the contraction of the ventricles, the lower chambers of the heart. This is driven by the action of the electrical conduction system of the heart, starting with the sinoatrial node and passing through the atrioventricular node and bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers.

During systole, the pressure within the ventricles increases as they contract, causing the aortic and pulmonary valves to open and allowing blood to be ejected into the systemic and pulmonary circulations, respectively. The duration of systole is typically shorter than that of diastole, the phase during which the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers fill with blood.

In clinical settings, the terms "systolic" and "diastolic" are often used to describe blood pressure measurements, with the former referring to the pressure exerted on the artery walls when the ventricles contract and eject blood, and the latter referring to the pressure when the ventricles are relaxed and filling with blood.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Heart neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the heart tissue. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as myxomas and rhabdomyomas, are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, but they can still cause serious complications if they obstruct blood flow or damage heart valves. Malignant tumors, such as angiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, are fast-growing and have a higher risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Symptoms of heart neoplasms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Cardiotonic agents are a type of medication that have a positive inotropic effect on the heart, meaning they help to improve the contractility and strength of heart muscle contractions. These medications are often used to treat heart failure, as they can help to improve the efficiency of the heart's pumping ability and increase cardiac output.

Cardiotonic agents work by increasing the levels of calcium ions inside heart muscle cells during each heartbeat, which in turn enhances the force of contraction. Some common examples of cardiotonic agents include digitalis glycosides (such as digoxin), which are derived from the foxglove plant, and synthetic medications such as dobutamine and milrinone.

While cardiotonic agents can be effective in improving heart function, they can also have potentially serious side effects, including arrhythmias, electrolyte imbalances, and digestive symptoms. As a result, they are typically used under close medical supervision and their dosages may need to be carefully monitored to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

The fetal heart is the cardiovascular organ that develops in the growing fetus during pregnancy. It starts to form around 22 days after conception and continues to develop throughout the first trimester. By the end of the eighth week of gestation, the fetal heart has developed enough to pump blood throughout the body.

The fetal heart is similar in structure to the adult heart but has some differences. It is smaller and more compact, with a four-chambered structure that includes two atria and two ventricles. The fetal heart also has unique features such as the foramen ovale, which is a hole between the right and left atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta and diverts blood away from the lungs.

The fetal heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the placenta to the rest of the body and returning deoxygenated blood back to the placenta for re-oxygenation. The rate of the fetal heartbeat is faster than that of an adult, typically ranging from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a common method used during pregnancy and childbirth to assess the health and well-being of the developing fetus.

Four-dimensional echocardiography (4D echo) is a type of ultrasound imaging that captures the movement and function of the heart in three dimensions over time. It uses advanced software to create a real-time 3D image of the heart, allowing cardiologists to visualize and analyze its structure and motion from various angles. This technique provides detailed information about the size, shape, and function of the heart chambers, valves, and surrounding structures, which can help in the diagnosis and management of various heart conditions.

In 4D echo, the fourth dimension refers to time, as it allows for the analysis of motion and change over time. This technique provides more comprehensive information compared to traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, which only captures a single plane of the heart at a time. Four-dimensional echocardiography is a valuable tool in the field of cardiology, as it can help clinicians make more informed decisions about patient care and treatment planning.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a medical condition in which the left ventricle of the heart undergoes an enlargement or thickening of its muscle wall. The left ventricle is the main pumping chamber of the heart that supplies oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

In response to increased workload, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), aortic valve stenosis, or athletic training, the left ventricular muscle may thicken and enlarge. This process is called "hypertrophy." While some degree of hypertrophy can be adaptive in athletes, significant or excessive hypertrophy can lead to impaired relaxation and filling of the left ventricle during diastole, reduced pumping capacity, and decreased compliance of the chamber.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is often asymptomatic initially but can increase the risk of various cardiovascular complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and sudden cardiac death over time. It is typically diagnosed through imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac MRI and confirmed by measuring the thickness of the left ventricular wall.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Coronary circulation refers to the circulation of blood in the coronary vessels, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) and drain deoxygenated blood from it. The coronary circulation system includes two main coronary arteries - the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery - that branch off from the aorta just above the aortic valve. These arteries further divide into smaller branches, which supply blood to different regions of the heart muscle.

The left main coronary artery divides into two branches: the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and the left circumflex (LCx) artery. The LAD supplies blood to the front and sides of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the back and sides of the heart. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the lower part of the heart, including the right ventricle and the bottom portion of the left ventricle.

The veins that drain the heart muscle include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, and the small cardiac vein, which merge to form the coronary sinus. The coronary sinus empties into the right atrium, allowing deoxygenated blood to enter the right side of the heart and be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

Coronary circulation is essential for maintaining the health and function of the heart muscle, as it provides the necessary oxygen and nutrients required for proper contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Any disruption or blockage in the coronary circulation system can lead to serious consequences, such as angina, heart attack, or even death.

A heart valve prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted in the heart to replace a damaged or malfunctioning heart valve. The prosthetic valve can be made of biological tissue (such as from a pig or cow) or artificial materials (such as carbon or polyester). Its function is to allow for the proper directional flow of blood through the heart, opening and closing with each heartbeat to prevent backflow of blood.

There are several types of heart valve prostheses, including:

1. Mechanical valves: These are made entirely of artificial materials and have a longer lifespan than biological valves. However, they require the patient to take blood-thinning medication for the rest of their life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve.
2. Bioprosthetic valves: These are made of biological tissue and typically last 10-15 years before needing replacement. They do not require the patient to take blood-thinning medication, but there is a higher risk of reoperation due to degeneration of the tissue over time.
3. Homografts or allografts: These are human heart valves that have been donated and preserved for transplantation. They have similar longevity to bioprosthetic valves and do not require blood-thinning medication.
4. Autografts: In this case, the patient's own pulmonary valve is removed and used to replace the damaged aortic valve. This procedure is called the Ross procedure and has excellent long-term results, but it requires advanced surgical skills and is not widely available.

The choice of heart valve prosthesis depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.

Tricuspid valve insufficiency, also known as tricuspid regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart does not close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the right atrium during contraction of the right ventricle. This results in a portion of the blood being pumped inefficiently, which can lead to volume overload of the right side of the heart and potentially result in symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with common causes including dilated cardiomyopathy, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and trauma.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Aortic valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the aortic valve, which separates the left ventricle (the heart's main pumping chamber) from the aorta (the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body). This narrowing or stiffening prevents the aortic valve from opening fully, resulting in reduced blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and the rest of the body.

The narrowing can be caused by several factors, including congenital heart defects, calcification (hardening) of the aortic valve due to aging, or scarring of the valve due to rheumatic fever or other inflammatory conditions. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve, which can lead to thickening and enlargement of the left ventricular muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy).

Symptoms of aortic valve stenosis may include chest pain or tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness or fainting, and heart palpitations. Severe aortic valve stenosis can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even sudden cardiac death. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgical intervention such as aortic valve replacement.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart condition where the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart, doesn't function properly. In MVP, one or both of the mitral valve flaps (known as leaflets) bulge or billow into the left atrium during the contraction of the left ventricle. This prolapse can cause a leakage of blood back into the atrium, known as mitral regurgitation. In many cases, MVP is asymptomatic and doesn't require treatment, but in some instances, it may lead to complications such as infective endocarditis or arrhythmias. The exact causes of MVP are not fully understood, but it can be associated with certain genetic factors, connective tissue disorders, and mitral valve abnormalities present at birth.

Cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle, leading to mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines cardiomyopathies as "a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not always) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and frequently lead to heart failure."

There are several types of cardiomyopathies, including:

1. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM): This is the most common type of cardiomyopathy, characterized by an enlarged left ventricle and impaired systolic function, leading to heart failure.
2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): In this type, there is abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly in the septum between the two ventricles, which can obstruct blood flow and increase the risk of arrhythmias.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM): This is a rare form of cardiomyopathy characterized by stiffness of the heart muscle, impaired relaxation, and diastolic dysfunction, leading to reduced filling of the ventricles and heart failure.
4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC): In this type, there is replacement of the normal heart muscle with fatty or fibrous tissue, primarily affecting the right ventricle, which can lead to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
5. Unclassified cardiomyopathies: These are conditions that do not fit into any of the above categories but still significantly affect the heart muscle and function.

Cardiomyopathies can be caused by genetic factors, acquired conditions (e.g., infections, toxins, or autoimmune disorders), or a combination of both. The diagnosis typically involves a comprehensive evaluation, including medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sometimes genetic testing. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition but may include medications, lifestyle modifications, implantable devices, or even heart transplantation in severe cases.

Mitral valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve, one of the four heart valves that regulate blood flow through the heart. This narrowing prevents the mitral valve from fully opening during diastole (relaxation phase of the heart cycle), leading to restricted flow of oxygenated blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

The narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve can be caused by various factors, such as rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, aging, or calcium deposits on the valve leaflets. As a result, the left atrium has to work harder to pump blood into the left ventricle, causing increased pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins. This can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing, and heart palpitations.

Mitral valve stenosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as mitral valve repair or replacement to alleviate the stenosis and improve heart function.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Left atrial function refers to the role and performance of the left atrium in the heart. The left atrium is the upper chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and then contracts to help pump it into the left ventricle, which is the lower chamber that pumps blood out to the rest of the body.

The main functions of the left atrium include:

1. Receiving oxygen-rich blood from the lungs: The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins and acts as a reservoir for this blood before it is pumped into the left ventricle.
2. Contracting to help pump blood into the left ventricle: During atrial contraction, also known as atrial kick, the left atrium contracts and helps push blood into the left ventricle, increasing the amount of blood that can be ejected with each heartbeat.
3. Relaxing to receive more blood: Between heartbeats, the left atrium relaxes and fills up with more oxygenated blood from the lungs.
4. Contributing to heart rate regulation: The left atrium contains specialized cells called pacemaker cells that can help regulate the heart rate by initiating electrical impulses that trigger heart contractions.

Left atrial function is crucial for maintaining efficient cardiac output and overall cardiovascular health. Various conditions, such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension, can negatively impact left atrial function and contribute to the development of complications like stroke and reduced exercise tolerance.

Dipyridamole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antiplatelet agents. It works by preventing platelets in your blood from sticking together to form clots. Dipyridamole is often used in combination with aspirin to prevent stroke and other complications in people who have had a heart valve replacement or a type of irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation.

Dipyridamole can also be used as a stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging studies, which are tests used to evaluate blood flow to the heart. When used for this purpose, dipyridamole is given intravenously and works by dilating the blood vessels in the heart, allowing more blood to flow through them and making it easier to detect areas of reduced blood flow.

The most common side effects of dipyridamole include headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. In rare cases, dipyridamole can cause more serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, abnormal heart rhythms, or low blood pressure. It is important to take dipyridamole exactly as directed by your healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Cardiac volume refers to the amount of blood contained within the heart chambers at any given point in time. It is a measure of the volume of blood that is being moved by the heart during each cardiac cycle, which includes both systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) phases.

There are several types of cardiac volumes that are commonly measured or estimated using medical imaging techniques such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These include:

1. End-diastolic volume (EDV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of diastole, when the heart chambers are fully filled with blood.
2. End-systolic volume (ESV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of systole, when the heart chambers have contracted and ejected most of the blood.
3. Stroke volume (SV): This is the difference between the EDV and ESV, and represents the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat.
4. Cardiac output (CO): This is the product of the stroke volume and heart rate, and represents the total amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute.

Abnormalities in cardiac volumes can indicate various heart conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy.

Ventricular remodeling is a structural adaptation process of the heart in response to stress or injury, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or pressure overload. This process involves changes in size, shape, and function of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart).

In ventricular remodeling, the heart muscle may thicken, enlarge, or become more stiff, leading to alterations in the pumping ability of the heart. These changes can ultimately result in cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, and an increased risk of arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms).

Ventricular remodeling is often classified into two types:

1. Concentric remodeling: This occurs when the ventricular wall thickens (hypertrophy) without a significant increase in chamber size, leading to a decrease in the cavity volume and an increase in the thickness of the ventricular wall.
2. Eccentric remodeling: This involves an increase in both the ventricular chamber size and wall thickness due to the addition of new muscle cells (hyperplasia) or enlargement of existing muscle cells (hypertrophy). As a result, the overall shape of the ventricle becomes more spherical and less elliptical.

Both types of remodeling can negatively impact heart function and contribute to the development of heart failure. Close monitoring and appropriate treatment are essential for managing ventricular remodeling and preventing further complications.

Myocardial ischemia is a condition in which the blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is reduced or blocked, leading to insufficient oxygen delivery and potential damage to the heart tissue. This reduction in blood flow typically results from the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, in the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood. The plaques can rupture or become unstable, causing the formation of blood clots that obstruct the artery and limit blood flow.

Myocardial ischemia may manifest as chest pain (angina pectoris), shortness of breath, fatigue, or irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). In severe cases, it can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) if the oxygen supply is significantly reduced or cut off completely, causing permanent damage or death of the heart muscle. Early diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia are crucial for preventing further complications and improving patient outcomes.

Right Ventricular Function refers to the ability of the right ventricle (RV) of the heart to receive and eject blood during the cardiac cycle. The right ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs for re-oxygenation.

Right ventricular function can be assessed by measuring various parameters such as:

1. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction (RVEF): It is the percentage of blood that is ejected from the right ventricle during each heartbeat. A normal RVEF ranges from 45-75%.
2. Right Ventricular Systolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to contract and eject blood during systole (contraction phase). This can be assessed by measuring the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) or tissue Doppler imaging.
3. Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to relax and fill with blood during diastole (relaxation phase). This can be assessed by measuring the right ventricular inflow pattern, tricuspid valve E/A ratio, or deceleration time.
4. Right Ventricular Afterload: It refers to the pressure that the right ventricle must overcome to eject blood into the pulmonary artery. Increased afterload can impair right ventricular function.

Abnormalities in right ventricular function can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, which is the potential space between the two layers of the pericardium - the fibrous and serous layers. The pericardium is a sac that surrounds the heart to provide protection and lubrication for the heart's movement during each heartbeat. Normally, there is only a small amount of fluid (5-15 mL) in this space to ensure smooth motion of the heart. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause increased pressure on the heart, leading to various complications such as decreased cardiac output and even cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Pericardial effusion may result from several causes, including infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal), inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or cancer), trauma, heart surgery, kidney failure, or iatrogenic causes. The symptoms of pericardial effusion can vary depending on the rate and amount of fluid accumulation. Slowly developing effusions may not cause any symptoms, while rapid accumulations can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, palpitations, or even hypotension (low blood pressure). Diagnosis is usually confirmed through imaging techniques such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the effusion, ranging from close monitoring to drainage procedures or medications to address the root cause.

Right ventricular dysfunction is a condition characterized by the impaired ability of the right ventricle (one of the two pumping chambers in the heart) to fill with blood during the diastolic phase or eject blood during the systolic phase. This results in reduced cardiac output from the right ventricle, which can lead to various complications such as fluid accumulation in the body, particularly in the abdomen and lower extremities, and ultimately congestive heart failure if left untreated.

Right ventricular dysfunction can be caused by various factors, including damage to the heart muscle due to a heart attack, high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), chronic lung diseases, congenital heart defects, viral infections, and certain medications. Symptoms of right ventricular dysfunction may include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen, and a decreased tolerance for physical activity.

Diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or CT scan, and other diagnostic procedures such as electrocardiogram (ECG) or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include medications to reduce fluid buildup, improve heart function, and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle modifications such as reducing salt intake and increasing physical activity levels. In severe cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices like pacemakers or ventricular assist devices may be necessary.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder characterized by the thickening of the heart muscle, specifically the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood out to the body). This thickening can make it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively, which can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, HCM can also cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death.

The thickening of the heart muscle in HCM is caused by an overgrowth of the cells that make up the heart muscle, known as cardiomyocytes. This overgrowth can be caused by mutations in any one of several genes that encode proteins involved in the structure and function of the heart muscle. These genetic mutations are usually inherited from a parent, but they can also occur spontaneously in an individual with no family history of the disorder.

HCM is typically diagnosed using echocardiography (a type of ultrasound that uses sound waves to create images of the heart) and other diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for HCM may include medications to help manage symptoms, lifestyle modifications, and in some cases, surgical procedures or implantable devices to help prevent or treat arrhythmias.

A heart murmur is an abnormal sound heard during a heartbeat, which is caused by turbulent blood flow through the heart. It is often described as a blowing, whooshing, or rasping noise. Heart murmurs can be innocent (harmless and not associated with any heart disease) or pathological (indicating an underlying heart condition). They are typically detected during routine physical examinations using a stethoscope. The classification of heart murmurs includes systolic, diastolic, continuous, and functional murmurs, based on the timing and auscultatory location. Various heart conditions, such as valvular disorders, congenital heart defects, or infections, can cause pathological heart murmurs. Further evaluation with diagnostic tests like echocardiography is often required to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves a hole in the wall separating the two lower chambers of the heart, the ventricles. This defect allows oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to mix with deoxygenated blood in the right ventricle, leading to inefficient oxygenation of the body's tissues. The size and location of the hole can vary, and symptoms may range from none to severe, depending on the size of the defect and the amount of blood that is able to shunt between the ventricles. Small VSDs may close on their own over time, while larger defects usually require medical intervention, such as medication or surgery, to prevent complications like pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.

A myxoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the heart, specifically in the heart's chambers or valves. It is the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults and typically affects the left atrium. Myxomas are composed of gelatinous, mucoid material and may have a stalk-like attachment to the endocardium (the inner lining of the heart).

Myxomas can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, coughing, and fever. These symptoms are due to obstruction of blood flow within the heart or embolization (detachment and travel) of tumor fragments to other parts of the body. Surgical removal is usually required to treat myxomas, as they can lead to serious complications if left untreated.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy characterized by the enlargement and weakened contraction of the heart's main pumping chamber (the left ventricle). This enlargement and weakness can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. DCM can be caused by various factors including genetics, viral infections, alcohol and drug abuse, and other medical conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes. It is important to note that this condition can lead to heart failure if left untreated.

An embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a substance, such as a blood clot or an air bubble, blocks a blood vessel. This can happen in any part of the body, but it is particularly dangerous when it affects the brain (causing a stroke) or the lungs (causing a pulmonary embolism). Embolisms can cause serious harm by preventing oxygen and nutrients from reaching the tissues and organs that need them. They are often the result of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease or deep vein thrombosis, and may require immediate medical attention to prevent further complications.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

The atrial appendage, also known as the left atrial appendage (LAA), is a small, ear-shaped structure that is located on the upper left chamber of the heart (left atrium). It has a unique muscular structure and plays a role in the normal functioning of the heart. However, it is best known for its association with atrial fibrillation, a common type of irregular heart rhythm. In people with atrial fibrillation, blood clots can form in the LAA, which can then travel to other parts of the body and cause strokes. For this reason, one treatment option for atrial fibrillation is to close off or remove the LAA to reduce the risk of stroke.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fluorocarbons" are not typically associated with medical definitions. Fluorocarbons are chemical compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to fluorine atoms. They are often used in a variety of applications including refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and in the manufacturing of Teflon and other non-stick coatings.

If you have any medical terms or concepts you'd like me to define or explain, please let me know!

Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. This results in higher than normal pressures in the pulmonary circulation and can lead to various symptoms and complications.

Pulmonary hypertension is typically defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) greater than or equal to 25 mmHg at rest, as measured by right heart catheterization. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into five groups based on the underlying cause:

1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): This group includes idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, drug-induced PAH, and associated PAH due to conditions such as connective tissue diseases, HIV infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, and schistosomiasis.
2. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease: This group includes conditions that cause elevated left atrial pressure, such as left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction, valvular heart disease, and congenital cardiovascular shunts.
3. Pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia: This group includes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, sleep-disordered breathing, alveolar hypoventilation disorders, and high altitude exposure.
4. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): This group includes persistent obstruction of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi or emboli.
5. Pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms: This group includes hematologic disorders, systemic disorders, metabolic disorders, and other conditions that can cause pulmonary hypertension but do not fit into the previous groups.

Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, lightheadedness, and syncope (fainting). Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and invasive testing such as right heart catheterization. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include medications, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Heart function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that are used to evaluate the structure and functioning of the heart. These tests help doctors assess the pumping efficiency of the heart, the flow of blood through the heart, the presence of any heart damage, and the overall effectiveness of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

Some common heart function tests include:

1. Echocardiogram (Echo): This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and functioning. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or sac surrounding the heart.
2. Nuclear Stress Test: This test involves injecting a small amount of radioactive substance into the patient's bloodstream and taking images of the heart while it is at rest and during exercise. The test helps evaluate blood flow to the heart and detect any areas of reduced blood flow, which could indicate coronary artery disease.
3. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or other structures of the heart.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of the heart and helps detect any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or conduction system.
5. Exercise Stress Test: This test involves walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG readings. It helps evaluate exercise capacity and detect any signs of coronary artery disease.
6. Cardiac Catheterization: This is an invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter into the heart to measure pressures and take samples of blood from different parts of the heart. It can help diagnose various heart conditions, including heart valve problems, congenital heart defects, and coronary artery disease.

Overall, heart function tests play an essential role in diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, helping doctors provide appropriate treatment and improve patient outcomes.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart chambers and heart valves, called the endocardium. This inflammation typically results from a bacterial or, less commonly, fungal infection that travels through the bloodstream and attaches to damaged areas of the heart.

There are two main types of endocarditis:

1. Acute Endocarditis: Develops quickly and can be severe, causing fever, chills, shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart murmurs. It may lead to serious complications like heart failure, embolism (blood clots that travel to other parts of the body), and damage to heart valves.

2. Subacute Endocarditis: Develops more slowly, often causing milder symptoms that can be mistaken for a cold or flu. Symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, weight loss, joint pain, and heart murmurs. Subacute endocarditis is more likely to affect people with previously damaged heart valves or congenital heart conditions.

Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics or antifungal medications, depending on the cause of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be required to repair or replace damaged heart valves. Preventive measures include good oral hygiene and prompt treatment of infections, especially in individuals at a higher risk for endocarditis, such as those with congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, or previous history of endocarditis.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is a medical condition where the foramen ovale, an opening between the left and right atria of the heart in a fetus, does not close completely after birth. This results in a small flap-like opening that allows blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium. While this condition is typically harmless in itself, it can potentially allow blood clots to pass from the right side of the heart to the left, which could then travel to the brain and cause a stroke. Patent Foramen Ovale is usually an incidental finding during tests for other conditions.

Emission-Computed Tomography, Single-Photon (SPECT) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure that generates detailed, three-dimensional images of the distribution of radioactive pharmaceuticals within the body. It uses gamma rays emitted by a radiopharmaceutical that is introduced into the patient's body, and a specialized gamma camera to detect these gamma rays and create tomographic images. The data obtained from the SPECT imaging can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, evaluate organ function, and guide treatment decisions. It is commonly used to image the heart, brain, and bones, among other organs and systems.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Myocardial stunning is a condition in cardiovascular medicine where the heart muscle (myocardium) temporarily loses its ability to contract effectively after being exposed to a brief, severe episode of ischemia (restriction of blood supply) or reperfusion injury (damage that occurs when blood flow is restored to an organ or tissue after a period of ischemia). This results in a reduction in the heart's pumping function, which can be detected using imaging techniques such as echocardiography.

The stunning phenomenon is believed to be caused by complex biochemical and cellular processes that occur during ischemia-reperfusion injury, including the generation of free radicals, calcium overload, inflammation, and activation of various signaling pathways. These changes can lead to the dysfunction of contractile proteins, mitochondrial damage, and altered gene expression in cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells).

Myocardial stunning is often observed following procedures such as coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery, where blood flow is temporarily interrupted and then restored to the heart. It can also occur during episodes of unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest. Although the stunning itself is usually reversible within a few days to several weeks, it may contribute to short-term hemodynamic instability and increased risk of adverse events such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even death.

Management of myocardial stunning typically involves supportive care, optimizing hemodynamics, and addressing any underlying conditions that may have contributed to the ischemic episode. In some cases, medications like inotropes or vasopressors might be used to support cardiac function temporarily. Preventive strategies, such as maintaining adequate blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygenation during procedures, can help reduce the risk of myocardial stunning.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Ventricular dysfunction is a term that refers to the impaired ability of the ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart, to fill with blood or pump it efficiently to the rest of the body. This condition can lead to reduced cardiac output and may cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention.

There are two types of ventricular dysfunction:

1. Systolic dysfunction: This occurs when the ventricles cannot contract forcefully enough to eject an adequate amount of blood out of the heart during each beat. This is often due to damage to the heart muscle, such as that caused by a heart attack or cardiomyopathy.
2. Diastolic dysfunction: This happens when the ventricles are unable to relax and fill properly with blood between beats. This can be caused by stiffening of the heart muscle, often due to aging, high blood pressure, or diabetes.

Both types of ventricular dysfunction can lead to heart failure, a serious condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively to meet the body's needs. Treatment for ventricular dysfunction may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, medical procedures or surgery.

Phonocardiography is a non-invasive medical procedure that involves the graphical representation and analysis of sounds produced by the heart. It uses a device called a phonocardiograph to record these sounds, which are then displayed as waveforms on a screen. The procedure is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic techniques, such as electrocardiography (ECG), to help diagnose various heart conditions, including valvular heart disease and heart murmurs.

During the procedure, a specialized microphone called a phonendoscope is placed on the chest wall over the area of the heart. The microphone picks up the sounds generated by the heart's movements, such as the closing and opening of the heart valves, and transmits them to the phonocardiograph. The phonocardiograph then converts these sounds into a visual representation, which can be analyzed for any abnormalities or irregularities in the heart's function.

Phonocardiography is a valuable tool for healthcare professionals, as it can provide important insights into the health and functioning of the heart. By analyzing the waveforms produced during phonocardiography, doctors can identify any potential issues with the heart's valves or other structures, which may require further investigation or treatment. Overall, phonocardiography is an essential component of modern cardiac diagnostics, helping to ensure that patients receive accurate and timely diagnoses for their heart conditions.

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is a type of natriuretic peptide that is primarily produced in the heart, particularly in the ventricles. Although it was initially identified in the brain, hence its name, it is now known that the cardiac ventricles are the main source of BNP in the body.

BNP is released into the bloodstream in response to increased stretching or distension of the heart muscle cells due to conditions such as heart failure, hypertension, and myocardial infarction (heart attack). Once released, BNP binds to specific receptors in the kidneys, causing an increase in urine production and excretion of sodium, which helps reduce fluid volume and decrease the workload on the heart.

BNP also acts as a hormone that regulates various physiological functions, including blood pressure, cardiac remodeling, and inflammation. Measuring BNP levels in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting and monitoring heart failure, as higher levels of BNP are associated with more severe heart dysfunction.

The chordae tendineae are cord-like tendons that attach the heart's papillary muscles to the tricuspid and mitral valves in the heart. They play a crucial role in preventing the backflow of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction. The chordae tendineae ensure that the cusps of the atrioventricular valves close properly and maintain their shape during the cardiac cycle. Damage to these tendons can result in heart conditions such as mitral or tricuspid valve regurgitation.

Tissue survival, in the context of medical and surgical sciences, refers to the ability of tissues to maintain their structural and functional integrity after being subjected to various stressors such as injury, surgery, ischemia (restriction in blood supply), or disease. The maintenance of tissue survival is crucial for ensuring proper healing, reducing the risk of complications, and preserving organ function.

Factors that contribute to tissue survival include adequate blood flow, sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply, removal of waste products, maintenance of a healthy cellular environment (pH, temperature, etc.), and minimal exposure to harmful substances or damaging agents. In some cases, therapeutic interventions such as hypothermia, pharmacological treatments, or tissue engineering strategies may be employed to enhance tissue survival in challenging clinical scenarios.

Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bru-la'shun) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. In this condition, the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats don't function properly, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles, which can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. It can be caused by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, age, and genetics. Treatment options include medications, electrical cardioversion, and surgical procedures to restore normal heart rhythm.

Bacterial endocarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and infection of the inner layer of the heart, known as the endocardium. This infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to damaged or abnormal heart valves or other parts of the endocardium. The bacteria can then multiply and cause the formation of vegetations, which are clusters of infected tissue that can further damage the heart valves and lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. Risk factors for developing bacterial endocarditis include pre-existing heart conditions such as congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, previous history of endocarditis, or other conditions that damage the heart valves. Intravenous drug use is also a significant risk factor for this condition.

Symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may include fever, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a new or changing heart murmur. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood cultures, and imaging tests such as echocardiography. Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute. It is defined as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) and heart rate (the number of contractions per minute). Normal cardiac output at rest for an average-sized adult is about 5 to 6 liters per minute. Cardiac output can be increased during exercise or other conditions that require more blood flow, such as during illness or injury. It can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as echocardiography or invasively through a catheter placed in the heart.

Ventricular function, in the context of cardiac medicine, refers to the ability of the heart's ventricles (the lower chambers) to fill with blood during the diastole phase and eject blood during the systole phase. The ventricles are primarily responsible for pumping oxygenated blood out to the body (left ventricle) and deoxygenated blood to the lungs (right ventricle).

There are several ways to assess ventricular function, including:

1. Ejection Fraction (EF): This is the most commonly used measure of ventricular function. It represents the percentage of blood that is ejected from the ventricle during each heartbeat. A normal left ventricular ejection fraction is typically between 55% and 70%.
2. Fractional Shortening (FS): This is another measure of ventricular function, which calculates the change in size of the ventricle during contraction as a percentage of the original size. A normal FS for the left ventricle is typically between 25% and 45%.
3. Stroke Volume (SV): This refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the ventricle with each heartbeat. SV is calculated by multiplying the ejection fraction by the end-diastolic volume (the amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole).
4. Cardiac Output (CO): This is the total amount of blood that the heart pumps in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate.

Impaired ventricular function can lead to various cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. Assessing ventricular function is crucial for diagnosing these conditions, monitoring treatment response, and guiding clinical decision-making.

Computer-assisted image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist healthcare professionals in analyzing and interpreting medical images. These systems use various techniques such as pattern recognition, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to help identify and highlight abnormalities or patterns within imaging data, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound images. The goal is to increase the accuracy, consistency, and efficiency of image interpretation, while also reducing the potential for human error. It's important to note that these systems are intended to assist healthcare professionals in their decision making process and not to replace them.

Cineangiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood flow in the heart and cardiovascular system. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the bloodstream while X-ray images are taken in quick succession, creating a movie-like sequence that shows the movement of the contrast through the blood vessels and chambers of the heart. This technique is often used to diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart defects.

The procedure typically involves threading a catheter through a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guiding it to the heart. Once in place, the contrast agent is injected, and X-ray images are taken using a specialized X-ray machine called a fluoroscope. The images captured during cineangiography can help doctors identify areas of narrowing or blockage in the coronary arteries, abnormalities in heart valves, and other cardiovascular problems.

Cineangiography is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to the contrast agent. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions, and may be recommended when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Pulmonary wedge pressure, also known as pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) or left heart filling pressure, is a measurement obtained during right heart catheterization. It reflects the pressure in the left atrium, which is an estimate of the diastolic pressure in the left ventricle. Normal PCWP ranges from 4 to 12 mmHg. Increased pulmonary wedge pressure can indicate heart failure or other cardiac disorders that affect the left side of the heart.

Cardiac tamponade is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is excessive fluid or blood accumulation in the pericardial sac, which surrounds the heart. This accumulation puts pressure on the heart, preventing it from filling properly and reducing its ability to pump blood effectively. As a result, cardiac output decreases, leading to symptoms such as low blood pressure, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a rapid pulse. If left untreated, cardiac tamponade can be life-threatening, requiring emergency medical intervention to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure on the heart.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Heart valves are specialized structures in the heart that ensure unidirectional flow of blood through its chambers during the cardiac cycle. There are four heart valves: the tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve, located between the atria and ventricles, and the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve and aortic valve, located between the ventricles and the major blood vessels leaving the heart.

The heart valves are composed of thin flaps of tissue called leaflets or cusps, which are supported by a fibrous ring. The aortic and pulmonic valves have three cusps each, while the tricuspid and mitral valves have three and two cusps, respectively.

The heart valves open and close in response to pressure differences across them, allowing blood to flow forward into the ventricles during diastole (filling phase) and preventing backflow of blood into the atria during systole (contraction phase). A properly functioning heart valve ensures efficient pumping of blood by the heart and maintains normal blood circulation throughout the body.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

Ventricular pressure refers to the pressure within the ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart. In the left ventricle, the pressure measures the force that the blood exerts on the walls as it is pumped out to the rest of the body. In the right ventricle, the pressure measures the force of the blood being pumped into the pulmonary artery and ultimately to the lungs for oxygenation.

Normally, the left ventricular pressure ranges from 8-12 mmHg at rest when the heart is relaxed (diastolic pressure) and can increase up to 120-140 mmHg during contraction (systolic pressure). The right ventricular pressure is lower than the left, with a normal diastolic pressure of 0-6 mmHg and a systolic pressure ranging from 15-30 mmHg.

Abnormal ventricular pressures can indicate various heart conditions, such as heart failure, hypertension, or valvular heart disease. Regular monitoring of ventricular pressure is essential in managing these conditions and ensuring proper heart function.

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot, often formed in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis), breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This blockage can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heart rate, and coughing up blood. In severe cases, it can cause life-threatening complications like low oxygen levels, hypotension, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with anticoagulant medications or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Ventricular outflow obstruction is a term used in cardiology to describe a condition where there is an obstruction or narrowing in the flow of blood as it exits the heart's ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This obstruction can occur due to various reasons such as congenital heart defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or calcification of the aortic valve.

In a normal heart, the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the aorta through the aortic valve, and the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery through the pulmonic valve. Any obstruction in these outflow tracts can lead to increased pressure within the ventricles, which can result in various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, or fatigue.

The severity of the obstruction and the resulting symptoms can vary depending on the location and extent of the narrowing. Treatment options may include medications, surgical procedures, or catheter-based interventions to alleviate the obstruction and improve blood flow.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body's internal structures. In MRI, Cine is a specific mode of imaging that allows for the evaluation of moving structures, such as the heart, by acquiring and displaying a series of images in rapid succession. This technique is particularly useful in cardiac imaging, where it can help assess heart function, valve function, and blood flow. The term "Cine" refers to the continuous playback of these images, similar to watching a movie, allowing doctors to evaluate motion and timing within the heart.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is defined as a chronic heart condition caused by damage to the heart valves due to untreated or inadequately treated streptococcal throat infection (strep throat). The immune system's response to this infection can mistakenly attack and damage the heart tissue, leading to inflammation and scarring of the heart valves. This damage can result in narrowing, leakage, or abnormal functioning of the heart valves, which can further lead to complications such as heart failure, stroke, or infective endocarditis.

RHD is a preventable and treatable condition if detected early and managed effectively. It primarily affects children and young adults in developing countries where access to healthcare and antibiotics for strep throat infections may be limited. Long-term management of RHD typically involves medications, regular monitoring, and sometimes surgical intervention to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Diatrizoate Meglumine is a type of contrast medium that is used during X-ray examinations, such as CT scans and angiography. It is a radiopaque substance, which means that it contains atoms that absorb X-rays, making it possible to visualize the internal structures of the body on an X-ray image.

Diatrizoate Meglumine is a salt of diatrizoic acid, which is a type of ionic contrast medium. It works by increasing the contrast between different tissues and organs in the body, making them easier to distinguish on an X-ray image. This can help doctors to diagnose a wide range of medical conditions, including injuries, tumors, and vascular diseases.

Like all medications, Diatrizoate Meglumine can have side effects, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. It is important for patients to discuss any potential risks and benefits with their doctor before undergoing an X-ray examination that involves the use of this contrast medium.

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

Heart injuries, also known as cardiac injuries, refer to any damage or harm caused to the heart muscle, valves, or surrounding structures. This can result from various causes such as blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls), penetrating trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stabbing), or medical conditions like heart attacks (myocardial infarction) and infections (e.g., myocarditis, endocarditis).

Some common types of heart injuries include:

1. Contusions: Bruising of the heart muscle due to blunt trauma.
2. Myocardial infarctions: Damage to the heart muscle caused by insufficient blood supply, often due to blocked coronary arteries.
3. Cardiac rupture: A rare but life-threatening condition where the heart muscle tears or breaks open, usually resulting from severe trauma or complications from a myocardial infarction.
4. Valvular damage: Disruption of the heart valves' function due to injury or infection, leading to leakage (regurgitation) or narrowing (stenosis).
5. Pericardial injuries: Damage to the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, which can result in fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion), inflammation (pericarditis), or tamponade (compression of the heart by excess fluid).
6. Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system.

Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing heart injuries, as they can lead to severe complications or even be fatal if left untreated.

The pulmonary valve, also known as the pulmonic valve, is a semilunar valve located at the exit of the right ventricle of the heart and the beginning of the pulmonary artery. It has three cusps or leaflets that prevent the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood towards the lungs for oxygenation.

Right atrial function refers to the role and performance of the right atrium in the heart. The right atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood from the body via the superior and inferior vena cava. It then contracts to help pump the blood into the right ventricle, which subsequently sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.

Right atrial function can be assessed through various methods, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormalities in right atrial function may indicate underlying heart conditions such as right-sided heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or other cardiovascular diseases. Proper evaluation and monitoring of right atrial function are essential for effective diagnosis, treatment, and management of these conditions.

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is not typically a term used in medical definitions, but it is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas that is heavier than air. It is commonly used in the medical field for its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties.

In MRI, SF6 is used as a contrast agent to improve the visualization of blood vessels and flow. When injected into a patient's bloodstream, the gas displaces oxygen in the blood, causing the blood vessels to appear darker on an MRI scan. This allows doctors to better see any abnormalities or blockages in the blood vessels.

It is important to note that sulfur hexafluoride should only be used under medical supervision and with appropriate precautions, as it can have adverse effects if not handled properly.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Coronary vessels refer to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. The two main coronary arteries are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.

The left main coronary artery branches off into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). The LAD supplies blood to the front of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the side and back of the heart.

The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right lower part of the heart, including the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the back of the heart.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) occurs when these vessels become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

Swan-Ganz catheterization is a medical procedure in which a Swan-Ganz catheter, also known as a pulmonary artery catheter, is inserted into a patient's vein and guided through the heart to the pulmonary artery. The procedure is named after its inventors, Dr. Jeremy Swan and Dr. William Ganz.

The Swan-Ganz catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is equipped with sensors that measure various cardiac functions, such as blood pressure in the heart chambers and lungs, oxygen saturation of the blood, and cardiac output. This information helps doctors evaluate heart function, diagnose heart conditions, and monitor treatment effectiveness.

Swan-Ganz catheterization is typically performed in a hospital setting by trained medical professionals, such as cardiologists or critical care specialists. The procedure may be used to diagnose and manage various heart conditions, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and shock. It may also be used during major surgeries or other medical procedures to monitor the patient's hemodynamic status.

Like any medical procedure, Swan-Ganz catheterization carries some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and damage to blood vessels or heart structures. However, these complications are relatively rare when the procedure is performed by experienced medical professionals.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a medical procedure that involves the use of an artificial device to regulate and stimulate the contraction of the heart muscle. This is often necessary when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart is beating too slowly or irregularly.

The artificial pacemaker consists of a small generator that produces electrical impulses and leads that are positioned in the heart to transmit the impulses. The generator is typically implanted just under the skin in the chest, while the leads are inserted into the heart through a vein.

There are different types of artificial cardiac pacing systems, including single-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate either the right atrium or right ventricle, and dual-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate both chambers of the heart. Some pacemakers also have additional features that allow them to respond to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or sleep.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a safe and effective treatment for many people with abnormal heart rhythms, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaque. Over time, this buildup can cause the arteries to harden and narrow (a process called atherosclerosis), reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

The reduction in blood flow can lead to various symptoms and complications, including:

1. Angina (chest pain or discomfort) - This occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygen-rich blood, causing pain, pressure, or discomfort in the chest, arms, neck, jaw, or back.
2. Shortness of breath - When the heart isn't receiving adequate blood flow, it can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's demands, leading to shortness of breath during physical activities or at rest.
3. Heart attack - If a piece of plaque ruptures or breaks off in a coronary artery, a blood clot can form and block the artery, causing a heart attack (myocardial infarction). This can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle.
4. Heart failure - Chronic reduced blood flow to the heart muscle can weaken it over time, leading to heart failure, a condition in which the heart can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs.
5. Arrhythmias - Reduced blood flow and damage to the heart muscle can lead to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Coronary artery disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and imaging studies like coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Treatment options for CAD include lifestyle modifications, medications, medical procedures, and surgery.

Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi is a radiopharmaceutical compound used in medical imaging, specifically in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled isonitrile chelate that is taken up by mitochondria in cells with high metabolic activity, such as cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells).

Once injected into the patient's body, Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi emits gamma rays, which can be detected by a gamma camera. This allows for the creation of images that reflect the distribution and function of the radiopharmaceutical within the heart muscle. The images can help identify areas of reduced blood flow or ischemia, which may indicate coronary artery disease.

The uptake of Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi in other organs, such as the breast and thyroid, can also be used for imaging purposes, although its primary use remains in cardiac imaging.

Cardiomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlarged heart. It can be caused by various conditions such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, cardiomyopathy, or fluid accumulation around the heart (pericardial effusion). Cardiomegaly can be detected through imaging tests like chest X-rays or echocardiograms. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Image enhancement in the medical context refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of medical images, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound images, to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Image enhancement techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, or sharpness; removing noise or artifacts; or applying specialized algorithms to highlight specific features or structures within the image.

The goal of image enhancement is to provide clinicians with more accurate and detailed information about a patient's anatomy or physiology, which can help inform medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that consists of four components: ventricular septal defect (a hole between the lower chambers of the heart), pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve and outflow tract), overriding aorta (the aorta lies directly over the ventricular septal defect), and right ventricular hypertrophy (thickening of the right ventricular muscle). This condition results in insufficient oxygenation of the blood, leading to cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes) and other symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and poor growth. Treatment typically involves surgical repair, which is usually performed during infancy or early childhood.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Angiocardiography is a medical procedure used to examine the heart and blood vessels, particularly the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It involves injecting a contrast agent into the bloodstream and taking X-ray images as the agent flows through the heart. This allows doctors to visualize any abnormalities such as blockages, narrowing, or leakage in the heart valves or blood vessels.

There are different types of angiocardiography, including:

* Left heart catheterization (LHC): A thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the arm or groin and threaded through to the left side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels.
* Right heart catheterization (RHC): Similar to LHC, but the catheter is threaded through to the right side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels there.
* Selective angiocardiography: A catheter is used to inject the contrast agent into specific blood vessels or chambers of the heart to get a more detailed view.

Angiocardiography can help diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, including congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. It is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to blood vessels or heart tissue. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A septal occluder device is a type of medical implant used to close defects or holes in the heart, specifically within the septum, which is the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. The device typically consists of two disc-shaped components connected by a waist, resembling a button or an umbrella.

The procedure for implanting a septal occluder device involves inserting it through a catheter, which is introduced into a vein in the leg and guided to the heart. Once in position, the discs of the device expand and are pressed against the septum on both sides of the hole, effectively closing it. Over time, tissue grows over the device, permanently sealing the defect.

Septal occluder devices are commonly used to treat atrial septal defects (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), which are two types of congenital heart defects that can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart palpitations. The use of these devices has revolutionized the treatment of these conditions, allowing for less invasive procedures and faster recovery times compared to traditional surgical methods.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Cineradiography is a medical imaging technique that combines fluoroscopy and cinematography to record moving images of the internal structures of a patient's body. It uses a special X-ray machine with a high-speed image intensifier and a movie camera or video recorder to capture real-time, dynamic visualizations of bodily functions such as swallowing, digestion, or muscle movements.

During cineradiography, a continuous X-ray beam is passed through the patient's body while the image intensifier converts the X-rays into visible light, which is then captured by the camera or video recorder. The resulting film or digital recordings can be played back in slow motion or frame by frame to analyze the movement and function of internal organs and structures.

Cineradiography has largely been replaced by newer imaging technologies such as CT and MRI, which offer higher resolution and more detailed images without the use of radiation. However, it is still used in some specialized applications where real-time, dynamic visualization is essential for diagnosis or treatment planning.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

The Sinus of Valsalva are three pouch-like dilations or outpouchings located at the upper part (root) of the aorta, just above the aortic valve. They are named after Antonio Maria Valsalva, an Italian anatomist and physician. These sinuses are divided into three parts:

1. Right Sinus of Valsalva: It is located to the right of the ascending aorta and usually gives rise to the right coronary artery.
2. Left Sinus of Valsalva: It is situated to the left of the ascending aorta and typically gives rise to the left coronary artery.
3. Non-coronary Sinus of Valsalva: This sinus is located in between the right and left coronary sinuses, and it does not give rise to any coronary arteries.

These sinuses play a crucial role during the cardiac cycle, particularly during ventricular contraction (systole). The pressure difference between the aorta and the ventricles causes the aortic valve cusps to be pushed into these sinuses, preventing the backflow of blood from the aorta into the ventricles.

Anatomical variations in the size and shape of the Sinuses of Valsalva can occur, and certain conditions like congenital heart diseases (e.g., aortic valve stenosis or bicuspid aortic valve) may affect their structure and function. Additionally, aneurysms or ruptures of the sinuses can lead to severe complications, such as cardiac tamponade, endocarditis, or stroke.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital heart defect in which the ductus arteriosus, a normal fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery and the aorta, fails to close after birth. The ductus arteriosus allows blood to bypass the lungs while the fetus is still in the womb, but it should close shortly after birth as the newborn begins to breathe and oxygenate their own blood.

If the ductus arteriosus remains open or "patent," it can result in abnormal blood flow between the pulmonary artery and aorta. This can lead to various cardiovascular complications, such as:

1. Pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs)
2. Congestive heart failure
3. Increased risk of respiratory infections

The severity of the symptoms and the need for treatment depend on the size of the PDA and the amount of blood flow that is shunted from the aorta to the pulmonary artery. Small PDAs may close on their own over time, while larger PDAs typically require medical intervention, such as medication or surgical closure.

An aortic aneurysm is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal widening or bulging of the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When the aortic wall weakens, it can stretch and balloon out, forming an aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta but are most commonly found in the abdominal section (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the chest area (thoracic aortic aneurysm). The size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health, determine the risk of rupture and associated complications.

Aneurysms often do not cause symptoms until they become large or rupture. Symptoms may include:

* Pain in the chest, back, or abdomen
* Pulsating sensation in the abdomen
* Difficulty breathing
* Hoarseness
* Coughing or vomiting

Risk factors for aortic aneurysms include age, smoking, high blood pressure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair.

Pathologic dilatation refers to an abnormal and excessive widening or enlargement of a body cavity or organ, which can result from various medical conditions. This abnormal dilation can occur in different parts of the body, including the blood vessels, digestive tract, airways, or heart chambers.

In the context of the cardiovascular system, pathologic dilatation may indicate a weakening or thinning of the heart muscle, leading to an enlarged chamber that can no longer pump blood efficiently. This condition is often associated with various heart diseases, such as cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or long-standing high blood pressure.

In the gastrointestinal tract, pathologic dilatation may occur due to mechanical obstruction, neuromuscular disorders, or inflammatory conditions that affect the normal motility of the intestines. Examples include megacolon in Hirschsprung's disease, toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis, or volvulus (twisting) of the bowel.

Pathologic dilatation can lead to various complications, such as reduced organ function, impaired circulation, and increased risk of infection or perforation. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the root problem and prevent further enlargement.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

Radionuclide ventriculography (RVG), also known as multiple-gated acquisition scan (MUGA) or nuclear ventriculography, is a non-invasive diagnostic test used to evaluate the function and pumping efficiency of the heart's lower chambers (ventricles). The test involves the use of radioactive tracers (radionuclides) that are injected into the patient's bloodstream. A specialized camera then captures images of the distribution of the radionuclide within the heart, which allows for the measurement of ventricular volumes and ejection fraction (EF), an important indicator of cardiac function.

During the test, the patient lies on a table while the camera takes pictures of their heart as it beats. The images are captured in "gates" or intervals, corresponding to different phases of the cardiac cycle. This allows for the calculation of ventricular volumes and EF at each phase of the cycle, providing detailed information about the heart's pumping ability.

RVG is commonly used to assess patients with known or suspected heart disease, including those who have had a heart attack, heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to evaluate changes in cardiac function over time.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Thallium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element thallium (Tl), which decays and emits radiation. Thallium has several radioisotopes, with the most commonly used being thallium-201 (^201Tl). This radioisotope is used in medical imaging, specifically in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, to evaluate blood flow to the heart muscle. It decays by electron capture and emits gamma radiation with a half-life of 73 hours, making it suitable for diagnostic procedures.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their ionizing radiation properties.

Cor triatriatum is a very rare congenital heart defect where the left atrium of the heart is partitioned by a fibromuscular membrane into two chambers. This results in obstruction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle, which can lead to various cardiac complications such as pulmonary hypertension and heart failure if not treated promptly. It is usually diagnosed and managed surgically during infancy or early childhood.

Chest pain is a discomfort or pain that you feel in the chest area. The pain can be sharp, dull, burning, crushing, heaviness, or tightness. It may be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness, or pain that radiates to the arm, neck, jaw, or back.

Chest pain can have many possible causes, including heart-related conditions such as angina or a heart attack, lung conditions such as pneumonia or pleurisy, gastrointestinal problems such as acid reflux or gastritis, musculoskeletal issues such as costochondritis or muscle strain, and anxiety or panic attacks.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience chest pain that is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other concerning symptoms, as it may be a sign of a serious medical condition. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms, perform tests, and provide appropriate treatment.

A fibroma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that consists primarily of fibrous or connective tissue. It can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, and internal organs. The term "fibroma" is often used to describe any benign fibrous growth, but there are specific types of fibromas such as dermatofibroma (found in the skin), oral fibroma (found in the mouth), and benign fibrous histiocytoma (found in soft tissues).

It's important to note that while fibromas are generally harmless, they can cause discomfort or problems depending on their size and location. If a fibroma is causing issues or there's concern about its growth or malignancy, it should be evaluated by a healthcare professional for potential removal or further assessment.

Transposition of the Great Vessels is a congenital heart defect in which the two main vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body are switched in position. Normally, the aorta arises from the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to the body, while the pulmonary artery arises from the right ventricle and carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In transposition of the great vessels, the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle. This results in oxygen-poor blood being pumped to the body and oxygen-rich blood being recirculated back to the lungs, which can lead to serious health problems and is often fatal if not corrected through surgery soon after birth.

Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the heart and blood vessels. It encompasses the study of the normal functioning of the heart, the investigation and diagnosis of heart disease, and the treatment of various cardiovascular conditions through both surgical and non-surgical interventions. Cardiologists are medical professionals who specialize in this field, providing comprehensive care for patients with conditions such as coronary artery disease, congenital heart defects, valvular heart disease, electrophysiology disorders, and hypertension, among others. They work closely with other healthcare providers to manage cardiovascular risk factors, optimize overall cardiovascular health, and improve patients' quality of life.

Paradoxical embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other material (embolus) from a vein passes through an abnormal connection between the right and left sides of the heart and lodges in an artery in the systemic circulation. This is considered "paradoxical" because the embolus originates from the venous system but bypasses the lungs and travels directly to the arterial system.

Under normal circumstances, blood flows from the body's veins into the right atrium of the heart, then through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, where it is pumped through the pulmonary artery into the lungs for oxygenation. The now oxygen-rich blood returns to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins, passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and is then pumped out to the body's arteries.

However, in certain conditions such as a patent foramen ovale (PFO) or an atrial septal defect (ASD), there can be an abnormal communication between the right and left atria. This allows for the possibility of a paradoxical embolism to occur when a clot or other material from the venous system passes through this connection into the arterial system, bypassing filtration and oxygenation in the lungs.

Paradoxical embolism can lead to serious consequences, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or tissue damage in various organs, depending on where the embolus lodges. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the paradoxical embolism and may include anticoagulation therapy, surgical closure of the abnormal connection, or other interventions as necessary.

The pericardium is the double-walled sac that surrounds the heart. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer, which further divides into two parts: the parietal layer lining the fibrous pericardium and the visceral layer (epicardium) closely adhering to the heart surface.

The space between these two layers is filled with a small amount of lubricating serous fluid, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the pericardial cavity. The pericardium provides protection, support, and helps maintain the heart's normal position within the chest while reducing friction during heart contractions.

A heart rupture, also known as cardiac rupture, is a serious and life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear or hole in the muscle wall of the heart. This can happen as a result of a severe injury to the heart, such as from a car accident or a fall, or it can occur as a complication of a heart attack.

During a heart attack, blood flow to a portion of the heart is blocked, causing the heart muscle to become damaged and die. If the damage is extensive, the weakened heart muscle may rupture, leading to bleeding into the pericardial sac (the space surrounding the heart) or into one of the heart chambers.

A heart rupture can cause sudden cardiac arrest and death if not treated immediately. Symptoms of a heart rupture may include chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves emergency surgery to repair or replace the damaged portion of the heart.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

Cardiac imaging techniques are diagnostic methods used to visualize and assess the structure and function of the heart. These techniques can be non-invasive or invasive, and they use various forms of energy such as sound waves, radiation, and magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the heart. Some common cardiac imaging techniques include:

1. Echocardiography: This technique uses ultrasound waves to create images of the heart's structure and function. It can provide information about the size and shape of the heart chambers, the thickness and movement of the heart walls, and the valves' function.
2. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This technique uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can provide information about the size and shape of the heart chambers, the thickness and movement of the heart walls, the valves' function, and the blood flow in the heart.
3. Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography: This technique uses X-rays to create detailed images of the heart's blood vessels. It can provide information about the presence and extent of blockages or narrowing in the coronary arteries.
4. Nuclear Cardiac Imaging: This technique uses small amounts of radioactive substances to produce images of the heart's blood flow. It can provide information about the size and function of the heart chambers, the presence of damaged heart muscle, and the extent of coronary artery disease.
5. Invasive Coronary Angiography: This technique involves inserting a catheter into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guiding it to the heart's coronary arteries. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow in the coronary arteries. This technique can provide detailed information about the presence and extent of blockages or narrowing in the coronary arteries.

Diastolic heart failure, also known as heart failure with normal ejection fraction or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, is a type of heart failure in which the heart's lower chambers, the ventricles, are unable to fill properly with blood during the diastole (relaxation) phase of the heartbeat. This is often due to increased stiffness of the heart muscle, which can be caused by conditions such as hypertension, aging, or diabetes. As a result, the heart cannot pump enough oxygen-rich blood to meet the body's needs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Diastolic dysfunction can be assessed by echocardiography, measuring the E/e' ratio, tissue doppler, and other diagnostics tools.

A bioprosthesis is a type of medical implant that is made from biological materials, such as heart valves or tendons taken from animals (xenografts) or humans (allografts). These materials are processed and sterilized to be used in surgical procedures to replace damaged or diseased tissues in the body.

Bioprosthetic implants are often used in cardiac surgery, such as heart valve replacement, because they are less likely to cause an immune response than synthetic materials. However, they may have a limited lifespan due to calcification and degeneration of the biological tissue over time. Therefore, bioprosthetic implants may need to be replaced after several years.

Bioprostheses can also be used in other types of surgical procedures, such as ligament or tendon repair, where natural tissue is needed to restore function and mobility. These prostheses are designed to mimic the properties of native tissues and provide a more physiological solution than synthetic materials.

Myocardial revascularization is a medical term that refers to the restoration of blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium), typically through a surgical or interventional procedure. This is often performed in patients with coronary artery disease, where the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries restricts blood flow to the heart muscle, causing symptoms such as chest pain (angina) or shortness of breath, and increasing the risk of a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

There are two main types of myocardial revascularization:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed coronary artery, allowing blood to flow more freely to the heart muscle.
2. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as angioplasty and stenting: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a thin catheter is inserted into an artery in the groin or arm and threaded up to the blocked or narrowed coronary artery. A balloon is then inflated to widen the artery, and a stent may be placed to keep it open.

Both procedures aim to improve symptoms, reduce the risk of heart attack, and prolong survival in appropriately selected patients with coronary artery disease.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Mechanical torsion in a medical context refers to the twisting or rotational deformation of a body or structure due to an applied torque or force. This can occur in various biological structures, such as blood vessels, intestines, or muscles, leading to impaired function, pain, or even tissue necrosis if severe or prolonged.

For example, in the case of the gastrointestinal tract, torsion can cause a segment of the bowel to twist around its own axis, cutting off blood flow and causing ischemia or necrosis. This is a surgical emergency that requires prompt intervention to prevent further complications. Similarly, in the eye, torsion can refer to the rotation of the eyeball within the orbit, which can cause double vision or other visual disturbances.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Mitral valve annuloplasty is a surgical procedure that involves repairing and reinforcing the mitral valve in the heart, which helps control blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle. The procedure typically aims to reduce the size of the mitral valve's dilated or stretched opening (annulus) by implanting a prosthetic ring or band around it. This reinforcement helps restore normal valve function, preventing regurgitation or backflow of blood into the atrium during heart contractions.

The procedure is often performed to treat mitral valve regurgitation, which can be caused by various factors such as age-related degenerative changes, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or congenital abnormalities. Mitral valve annuloplasty may be done alone or in combination with other cardiac surgeries like mitral valve replacement or repair of the valve leaflets.

The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It is a thin, smooth membrane that is in contact with the blood within the heart. This layer helps to maintain the heart's internal environment, facilitates the smooth movement of blood through the heart, and provides a protective barrier against infection and other harmful substances. The endocardium is composed of simple squamous epithelial cells called endothelial cells, which are supported by a thin layer of connective tissue.

Microbubbles are tiny gas-filled microspheres, typically made up of a gas core (such as air or perfluorocarbon) encapsulated by a stabilizing shell (often a phospholipid or protein). They range in size from 1 to 10 micrometers in diameter and are used in various medical applications.

In diagnostic imaging, microbubbles serve as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations. When injected into the bloodstream, they enhance the echogenicity of blood, improving visualization of vasculature, tissue perfusion, and detection of abnormalities such as tumors or lesions.

In therapeutic applications, microbubbles can be utilized in targeted drug delivery systems, where they are loaded with drugs or genes and then mechanically destroyed using ultrasound to release their cargo locally at the target site. This approach allows for more precise and controlled drug administration while minimizing systemic side effects.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

The ventricular septum is the thick, muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart. Its main function is to prevent the oxygen-rich blood in the left ventricle from mixing with the oxygen-poor blood in the right ventricle.

A congenital heart defect called a ventricular septal defect (VSD) can occur when there is an abnormal opening or hole in the ventricular septum, allowing blood to flow between the two ventricles. This can result in various symptoms and complications, depending on the size of the defect and the amount of blood that passes through it. VSDs are typically diagnosed and treated by pediatric cardiologists or cardiac surgeons.

Radionuclide angiography (RNA) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure used to evaluate the heart's function, specifically the pumping ability of the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles). It involves the use of radioactive material (radionuclide or radiopharmaceutical) that is injected into the patient's bloodstream. A special camera then captures images of the distribution and accumulation of this radioactive material within the heart, providing information about blood flow, ventricular function, and any potential abnormalities in the heart muscle.

During a RNA procedure, the radiopharmaceutical is usually injected into a vein in the patient's arm. As the tracer circulates through the bloodstream, it accumulates in the heart tissue. The gamma camera captures images of the distribution and accumulation of the radionuclide within the heart at different time points. These images are then used to assess various aspects of heart function, such as ejection fraction (the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the ventricles with each beat), wall motion abnormalities, and any potential areas of reduced blood flow or damage in the heart muscle.

Radionuclide angiography can be used to diagnose and monitor various cardiac conditions, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. It is a non-invasive procedure that does not require catheterization or the use of contrast agents, making it a safer alternative for patients with kidney problems or allergies to contrast materials. However, as with any medical procedure involving radiation exposure, the benefits of RNA must be weighed against the potential risks.

A computer system is a collection of hardware and software components that work together to perform specific tasks. This includes the physical components such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, and input/output devices, as well as the operating system and application software that run on the hardware. Computer systems can range from small, embedded systems found in appliances and devices, to large, complex networks of interconnected computers used for enterprise-level operations.

In a medical context, computer systems are often used for tasks such as storing and retrieving electronic health records (EHRs), managing patient scheduling and billing, performing diagnostic imaging and analysis, and delivering telemedicine services. These systems must adhere to strict regulatory standards, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in the United States, to ensure the privacy and security of sensitive medical information.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Constrictive pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and thickening of the pericardium, which is the sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart. This inflammation leads to scarring and thickening of the pericardium, causing it to become stiff and inflexible. As a result, the heart's ability to fill with blood between beats is restricted, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention.

In contrastive pericarditis, the thickened and scarred pericardium restricts the normal movement of the heart within the chest cavity, leading to a characteristic pattern of hemodynamic abnormalities. These include equalization of diastolic pressures in all cardiac chambers, increased systemic venous pressure, and decreased cardiac output.

The most common causes of constrictive pericarditis include prior infection, radiation therapy, autoimmune disorders, and previous heart surgery. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as echocardiography or MRI, and sometimes invasive testing such as cardiac catheterization. Treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, as well as surgical removal of the pericardium (pericardiectomy) in severe cases.

Coronary vessel anomalies refer to abnormalities in the structure, origin, or course of the coronary arteries or veins. These vessels are responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Some common types of coronary vessel anomalies include:

1. Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Artery (AOCA): This occurs when one or both of the coronary arteries originate from an abnormal location in the aorta. The left coronary artery may arise from the right sinus of Valsalva, while the right coronary artery may arise from the left sinus of Valsalva. This can lead to ischemia (reduced blood flow) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sudden cardiac death.
2. Coronary Artery Fistula: A fistula is an abnormal connection between a coronary artery and another chamber or vessel in the heart. Blood flows directly from the high-pressure coronary artery into a low-pressure chamber, bypassing the capillaries and leading to a steal phenomenon where oxygenated blood is diverted away from the heart muscle.
3. Coronary Artery Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of the coronary artery wall. This can lead to complications such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (blockage caused by a clot that travels to another location), or rupture, which can be life-threatening.
4. Myocardial Bridge: In this condition, a segment of the coronary artery passes between the muscle fibers of the heart, instead of running along its surface. This can cause compression of the artery during systole (contraction) and lead to ischemia.
5. Kawasaki Disease: Although not strictly an anomaly, Kawasaki disease is a pediatric illness that can result in coronary artery aneurysms and other complications if left untreated.

Coronary vessel anomalies may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, or syncope (fainting). Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment depends on the specific anomaly and may involve medications, percutaneous interventions, or surgical correction.

Albumins are a type of protein found in various biological fluids, including blood plasma. The most well-known albumin is serum albumin, which is produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Serum albumin plays several important roles in the body, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (which helps to regulate fluid balance in the body), transporting various substances (such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs), and acting as an antioxidant.

Albumins are soluble in water and have a molecular weight ranging from 65,000 to 69,000 daltons. They are composed of a single polypeptide chain that contains approximately 585 amino acid residues. The structure of albumin is characterized by a high proportion of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, which give it a stable, folded conformation.

In addition to their role in human physiology, albumins are also used as diagnostic markers in medicine. For example, low serum albumin levels may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or inflammation, while high levels may be seen in dehydration or certain types of kidney disease. Albumins may also be used as a replacement therapy in patients with severe protein loss, such as those with nephrotic syndrome or burn injuries.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo syndrome or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a temporary heart condition usually triggered by emotional or physical stress. It's named after the Japanese word for "octopus pot" because of the shape of the left ventricle during the contraction phase, which resembles this pot.

In Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, a part of the heart muscle becomes weakened and doesn't pump well, often following a surge of stress hormones. The condition can be misdiagnosed as a heart attack because it has similar symptoms and test results. However, unlike a heart attack, there's no evidence of blocked heart arteries in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

The symptoms of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy include chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, and sometimes fluid retention. Treatment typically includes medication to manage symptoms and support the heart while it recovers. Most people with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy make a full recovery within a few weeks. However, in rare cases, complications such as heart failure or arrhythmias can occur.

Myocardial reperfusion is the restoration of blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium), usually after a period of ischemia or reduced oxygen supply, such as during a myocardial infarction (heart attack). This can be achieved through various medical interventions, including thrombolytic therapy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The goal of myocardial reperfusion is to salvage the jeopardized myocardium, preserve cardiac function, and reduce the risk of complications like heart failure or arrhythmias. However, it's important to note that while reperfusion is crucial for treating ischemic heart disease, it can also lead to additional injury to the heart muscle, known as reperfusion injury.

Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. This condition usually occurs in the part of the aorta that is just beyond where it arises from the left ventricle and before it divides into the iliac arteries.

In aortic coarctation, the narrowing can vary from mild to severe, and it can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity of the narrowing and the age of the individual. In newborns and infants with severe coarctation, symptoms may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, and weak or absent femoral pulses (located in the groin area). Older children and adults with mild to moderate coarctation may not experience any symptoms until later in life, when high blood pressure, headaches, nosebleeds, leg cramps, or heart failure develop.

Aortic coarctation is typically diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI, and sometimes cardiac catheterization. Treatment options include surgical repair or balloon dilation (also known as balloon angioplasty) to open the narrowed section of the aorta. If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, and rupture or dissection of the aorta.

Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency, also known as Pulmonary Regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the pulmonary valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery does not close properly. This leads to the backward leakage or regurgitation of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during diastole, causing an increased volume load on the right ventricle.

The severity of Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency can vary from mild to severe and may be caused by congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, Marfan syndrome, rheumatic heart disease, or as a result of aging, or following certain cardiac procedures such as pulmonary valvotomy or ventriculostomy.

Mild Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency may not cause any symptoms and may only require periodic monitoring. However, severe Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency can lead to right-sided heart failure, arrhythmias, and other complications if left untreated. Treatment options for Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency include medication, surgical repair or replacement of the pulmonary valve, or a combination of these approaches.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Gated Blood-Pool Imaging (GBPI) is a type of nuclear medicine test that uses radioactive material and a specialized camera to create detailed images of the heart and its function. In this procedure, a small amount of radioactive tracer is injected into the patient's bloodstream, which then accumulates in the heart muscle and the blood pool within the heart chambers.

The term "gated" refers to the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal to synchronize the image acquisition with the heart's contractions. This allows for the visualization of the heart's motion during different phases of the cardiac cycle, providing valuable information about the size, shape, and contraction of the heart chambers, as well as the movement of the walls of the heart.

GBPI is often used to assess patients with known or suspected heart disease, such as valvular abnormalities, cardiomyopathies, or congenital heart defects. It can help diagnose and evaluate the severity of these conditions, guide treatment decisions, and monitor the effectiveness of therapy.

Coronary stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This narrowing is typically caused by the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances, on the inner walls of the arteries. Over time, as the plaque hardens and calcifies, it can cause the artery to become narrowed or blocked, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

Coronary stenosis can lead to various symptoms and complications, including chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias), and heart attacks. Treatment options for coronary stenosis may include lifestyle changes, medications, medical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery, or a combination of these approaches. Regular check-ups and diagnostic tests, such as stress testing or coronary angiography, can help detect and monitor coronary stenosis over time.

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is a cardiac condition where the pulmonary valve, located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, has a narrowed opening. This stenosis (narrowing) can cause obstruction of blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs. The narrowing can be caused by a fusion of the valve leaflets, thickened or calcified valve leaflets, or rarely, a dysplastic valve.

The severity of Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is classified based on the gradient pressure across the valve, which is measured during an echocardiogram. A mild stenosis has a gradient of less than 30 mmHg, moderate stenosis has a gradient between 30-59 mmHg, and severe stenosis has a gradient of 60 mmHg or higher.

Mild Pulmonary Valve Stenosis may not require treatment, while more severe cases may need to be treated with balloon valvuloplasty or surgical valve replacement. If left untreated, Pulmonary Valve Stenosis can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and other complications.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Dyspnea is defined as difficulty or discomfort in breathing, often described as shortness of breath. It can range from mild to severe, and may occur during rest, exercise, or at any time. Dyspnea can be caused by various medical conditions, including heart and lung diseases, anemia, and neuromuscular disorders. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing dyspnea, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Thermodilution is a method used to measure various hemodynamic parameters, such as cardiac output and intracardiac pressures. It is based on the principle that the change in temperature of a fluid can be used to determine its flow rate.

In thermodilution, a known amount of cold or room-temperature saline solution is injected into the right atrium of the heart, while a thermistor-tipped catheter placed in the pulmonary artery measures the change in blood temperature as the cool fluid mixes with the surrounding blood. The degree and duration of the temperature change are then used to calculate the cardiac output, which is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute.

Thermodilution is a widely used and well-established technique for measuring cardiac output and other hemodynamic parameters in clinical settings. However, it does have some limitations, such as the potential for errors due to variations in injection technique or patient factors, and the need for invasive catheterization.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Pulmonary circulation refers to the process of blood flow through the lungs, where blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. This is a vital part of the overall circulatory system, which delivers nutrients and oxygen to the body's cells while removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

In pulmonary circulation, deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation returns to the right atrium of the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood then moves into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and gets pumped into the pulmonary artery when the right ventricle contracts.

The pulmonary artery divides into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further branch into a vast network of tiny capillaries in the lungs. Here, oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into the blood, binding to hemoglobin in red blood cells, while carbon dioxide leaves the blood and is exhaled through the nose or mouth.

The now oxygenated blood collects in venules, which merge to form pulmonary veins. These veins transport the oxygen-rich blood back to the left atrium of the heart, where it enters the systemic circulation once again. This continuous cycle enables the body's cells to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients for proper functioning while disposing of waste products.

The superior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins (also known as the internal jugular and subclavian veins) near the base of the neck. The superior vena cava runs posteriorly to the sternum and enters the upper right portion of the right atrium, just posterior to the opening of the inferior vena cava. It plays a crucial role in the circulatory system by allowing blood returning from the head, neck, upper limbs, and thorax to bypass the liver before entering the heart.

Heart auscultation is a medical procedure in which a healthcare professional uses a stethoscope to listen to the sounds produced by the heart. The process involves placing the stethoscope on various locations of the chest wall to hear different areas of the heart.

The sounds heard during auscultation are typically related to the opening and closing of the heart valves, as well as the turbulence created by blood flow through the heart chambers. These sounds can provide important clues about the structure and function of the heart, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose various cardiovascular conditions such as heart murmurs, valvular disorders, and abnormal heart rhythms.

Heart auscultation is a key component of a physical examination and requires proper training and experience to interpret the findings accurately.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It is typically used when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart rate is too slow or irregular. The pacemaker consists of a small generator that contains a battery and electronic circuits, which are connected to one or more electrodes that are placed in the heart.

The generator sends electrical signals through the electrodes to stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract, thereby maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Artificial pacemakers can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at a specific rate or in response to the body's needs. They are typically implanted in the chest during a surgical procedure and can last for many years before needing to be replaced.

Artificial pacemakers are an effective treatment for various types of bradycardia, which is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by a slow heart rate. Pacemakers can significantly improve symptoms associated with bradycardia, such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fainting spells.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Electric countershock, also known as defibrillation, is a medical procedure that uses an electric current to restore normal heart rhythm in certain types of cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure involves delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the heart through electrodes placed on the chest wall or directly on the heart. This electric current helps to depolarize a large number of cardiac cells simultaneously, which can help to interrupt the abnormal electrical activity in the heart and allow the normal conduction system to regain control and restore a normal rhythm. Electric countershock is typically delivered using an automated external defibrillator (AED) or a manual defibrillator, and it is a critical component of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS).

Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a non-invasive nuclear medicine test used to assess the blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium). It typically involves the injection of a radioactive tracer, such as thallium-201 or technetium-99m sestamibi, into a vein. The tracer is taken up by healthy heart muscle in proportion to blood flow. A special camera then takes images of the distribution of the tracer within the heart, providing information about areas of reduced or blocked blood flow (ischemia) or scarred tissue (infarction). MPI can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the effectiveness of treatments, and determine prognosis.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Cardiovascular abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies in the heart or blood vessels. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life. They can affect the heart's chambers, valves, walls, or blood vessels, leading to various complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Examples of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Septal defects - holes in the walls separating the heart's chambers (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect)
2. Valvular stenosis or insufficiency - narrowing or leakage of the heart valves
3. Patent ductus arteriosus - a persistent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery
4. Coarctation of the aorta - narrowing of the aorta
5. Tetralogy of Fallot - a combination of four heart defects, including ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy

Examples of acquired cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Atherosclerosis - the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockage
2. Cardiomyopathy - disease of the heart muscle, causing it to become enlarged, thickened, or stiffened
3. Hypertension - high blood pressure, which can damage the heart and blood vessels over time
4. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - damage to the heart muscle due to blocked blood supply
5. Infective endocarditis - infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves

These abnormalities can be diagnosed through various tests, such as echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the abnormality and may include medications, medical procedures, or surgery.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by the excessive accumulation and/or altered deposition of extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, in various tissues and organs. This results in the formation of fibrous scar tissue that can impair organ function and structure. Fibrosis can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, tissue injury, or abnormal repair mechanisms, and it is a common feature of many diseases, including liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, heart failure, and kidney disease.

In medical terms, fibrosis is defined as:

"The process of producing scar tissue (consisting of collagen) in response to injury or chronic inflammation in normal connective tissue. This can lead to the thickening and stiffening of affected tissues and organs, impairing their function."

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

Cardiovascular models are simplified representations or simulations of the human cardiovascular system used in medical research, education, and training. These models can be physical, computational, or mathematical and are designed to replicate various aspects of the heart, blood vessels, and blood flow. They can help researchers study the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, test new treatments and interventions, and train healthcare professionals in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

Physical cardiovascular models may include artificial hearts, blood vessels, or circulation systems made from materials such as plastic, rubber, or silicone. These models can be used to study the mechanics of heart valves, the effects of different surgical procedures, or the impact of various medical devices on blood flow.

Computational and mathematical cardiovascular models use algorithms and equations to simulate the behavior of the cardiovascular system. These models may range from simple representations of a single heart chamber to complex simulations of the entire circulatory system. They can be used to study the electrical activity of the heart, the biomechanics of blood flow, or the distribution of drugs in the body.

Overall, cardiovascular models play an essential role in advancing our understanding of the human body and improving patient care.

Body Surface Area (BSA) is a calculated value that is often used in medicine, pharmacology, and physiology to adjust dosages of medications or to estimate parameters based on body size. It is the total area of the exterior surface of the human body. The most widely used formula for estimating BSA in adults is the Mosteller formula:

BSA (m²) = √([height (cm)] x [weight (kg)] / 3600)

This formula uses the person's height and weight to estimate the body surface area. It's important to note that this formula, like all BSA formulas, is an approximation and may not be accurate for every individual. Other more complex formulas exist, such as the DuBois & DuBois formula or the Haycock formula, but the Mosteller formula is considered to be sufficiently accurate for most clinical purposes.

Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium (INVM) is a rare genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by a thickened, spongy appearance of the left ventricular myocardium. This condition results from the failure of myocardial fibers to compact during fetal development, leading to prominent trabeculations and deep recesses in the ventricular wall. INVM can be asymptomatic or present with various symptoms such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and thromboembolic events. It is often diagnosed using echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac catheterization. INVM can be associated with other genetic disorders, but when it occurs in isolation, it is referred to as "isolated" noncompaction.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is a medical treatment for heart failure that involves the use of a specialized device, called a biventricular pacemaker or a cardiac resynchronization therapy device, to help coordinate the timing of contractions between the left and right ventricles of the heart.

In a healthy heart, the ventricles contract in a coordinated manner, with the left ventricle contracting slightly before the right ventricle. However, in some people with heart failure, the electrical signals that control the contraction of the heart become disrupted, causing the ventricles to contract at different times. This is known as ventricular dyssynchrony and can lead to reduced pumping efficiency and further worsening of heart failure symptoms.

CRT works by delivering small electrical impulses to both ventricles simultaneously or in a coordinated manner, which helps restore normal synchrony and improve the efficiency of the heart's pumping function. This can lead to improved symptoms, reduced hospitalizations, and increased survival rates in some people with heart failure.

CRT is typically recommended for people with moderate to severe heart failure who have evidence of ventricular dyssynchrony and a wide QRS complex on an electrocardiogram (ECG). The procedure involves the implantation of a small device under the skin, usually in the upper chest area, which is connected to leads that are placed in the heart through veins.

While CRT can be an effective treatment for some people with heart failure, it is not without risks and potential complications, such as infection, bleeding, or damage to blood vessels or nerves. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the potential benefits and risks of CRT before deciding whether it is appropriate for a particular individual.

Ebstein anomaly is a congenital heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve, which is the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart. In Ebstein anomaly, the tricuspid valve is abnormally formed and positioned, causing it to leak blood back into the right atrium. This can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin). Treatment for Ebstein anomaly may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both. It is important to note that the severity of the condition can vary widely among individuals, and some people with Ebstein anomaly may require more intensive treatment than others.

Papillary muscles are specialized muscle structures located in the heart, specifically in the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). They are attached to the tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets via tendinous cords, also known as chordae tendineae. The main function of papillary muscles is to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction by providing tension to the valve leaflets through these tendinous cords.

There are two sets of papillary muscles in the heart:

1. Anterior and posterior papillary muscles in the left ventricle, which are attached to the mitral (bicuspid) valve.
2. Three smaller papillary muscles in the right ventricle, which are attached to the tricuspid valve.

These muscle structures play a crucial role in maintaining proper blood flow through the heart and ensuring efficient cardiac function.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a type of heart muscle disorder characterized by impaired relaxation and filling of the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles), leading to reduced pump function. This is caused by stiffening or rigidity of the heart muscle, often due to fibrosis or scarring. The stiffness prevents the ventricles from filling properly with blood during the diastolic phase, which can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention.

RCM is a less common form of cardiomyopathy compared to dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. It can be idiopathic (no known cause) or secondary to other conditions like amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, or storage diseases. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, echocardiography, and sometimes cardiac MRI or biopsy. Treatment is focused on managing symptoms and addressing underlying causes when possible.

The term "asymptomatic disease" refers to a medical condition or infection that does not cause any obvious symptoms in an affected individual. Some people with asymptomatic diseases may never develop any signs or symptoms throughout their lives, while others may eventually go on to develop symptoms at a later stage. In some cases, asymptomatic diseases may still be detected through medical testing or screening, even if the person feels completely well. A classic example of an asymptomatic disease is a person who has a positive blood test for a latent viral infection, such as HIV or HSV (herpes simplex virus), but does not have any symptoms related to the infection at that time.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Heart block is a cardiac condition characterized by the interruption of electrical impulse transmission from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This disruption can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, including bradycardia (a slower-than-normal heart rate), and in severe cases, can cause the heart to stop beating altogether. Heart block is typically caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system due to various factors such as aging, heart disease, or certain medications.

There are three types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree (also known as complete heart block). Each type has distinct electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and symptoms. Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include monitoring, medication, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart's electrical activity.

An intracranial embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other foreign material (embolus) forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the blood vessels within the brain. This embolus then blocks the flow of blood in the cerebral arteries, leading to potential damage or death of brain tissue. Common sources of intracranial emboli include heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, or following a heart attack; or from large-vessel atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Symptoms can vary depending on the location and size of the obstruction, but may include sudden weakness or numbness, confusion, difficulty speaking, vision loss, severe headache, or even loss of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and treat intracranial embolism, often involving anticoagulation therapy, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare heart condition characterized by the thickening and scarring (fibrosis) of the inner layer of the heart muscle (endocardium) and the muscular walls of the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This process can restrict the heart's ability to fill properly with blood, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The exact cause of endomyocardial fibrosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve an abnormal immune response or inflammation. It is more commonly found in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Treatment typically involves medications to manage symptoms and improve heart function, as well as potentially surgical interventions to remove the scar tissue and restore normal heart function.

Rhabdomyoma is a rare, benign tumor that arises from the striated muscle tissue, which is the type of muscle that enables movement and action in the body. These tumors most commonly occur in the heart (cardiac rhabdomyomas) or in the head and neck region (extracardiac rhabdomyomas). Cardiac rhabdomyomas are often associated with genetic disorders such as tuberous sclerosis complex, while extracardiac rhabdomyomas can be found in various locations like the skin, tongue, or skeletal muscles.

Cardiac rhabdomyomas typically appear in infancy or early childhood and may not cause any symptoms. However, they can potentially lead to complications such as heart rhythm abnormalities, obstruction of blood flow, or heart failure. Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are usually slow-growing and asymptomatic but can cause issues depending on their size and location. Surgical removal may be necessary if the tumor interferes with vital functions or causes discomfort.

It is essential to note that while rhabdomyomas are generally benign, they can undergo malignant transformation in rare cases, leading to a more aggressive form called rhabdomyosarcoma. Regular follow-ups and monitoring are crucial for early detection and management of any changes in the tumor's behavior.

A dissecting aneurysm is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the artery wall. This can cause the artery to bulge or balloon out, leading to a dissection aneurysm.

Dissecting aneurysms can occur in any artery, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. When a dissecting aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it is often referred to as a "dissecting aortic aneurysm."

Dissecting aneurysms can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), genetic disorders that affect the connective tissue, trauma, or illegal drug use (such as cocaine).

Symptoms of a dissecting aneurysm may include sudden severe chest or back pain, which can feel like ripping or tearing, shortness of breath, sweating, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications, such as rupture of the artery, stroke, or even death.

Treatment for a dissecting aneurysm typically involves surgery or endovascular repair to prevent further damage and reduce the risk of rupture. The specific treatment approach will depend on various factors, including the location and size of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and their medical history.

Balloon valvuloplasty is a medical procedure used to treat heart valve stenosis or narrowing. It involves the use of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon at its tip, which is guided through a blood vessel to the narrowed heart valve. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to stretch and widen the valve opening, improving blood flow. After the valve is widened, the balloon is deflated and the catheter is removed. This procedure can be performed on various heart valves, including the aortic, mitral, and pulmonary valves.

Tricuspid valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the tricuspid valve, which is located between the right atrium and right ventricle in the heart. This narrowing or stiffening restricts the normal flow of blood from the right atrium into the right ventricle, causing increased pressure in the right atrium and reduced blood flow to the lungs.

The tricuspid valve typically has three leaflets or cusps that open and close to regulate the flow of blood between the right atrium and right ventricle. In tricuspid valve stenosis, these leaflets become thickened, calcified, or fused together, leading to a reduced opening size and impaired function.

The most common causes of tricuspid valve stenosis include rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, carcinoid syndrome, and infective endocarditis. Symptoms may include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and abdomen, and irregular heartbeats. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and underlying causes but may involve medications, surgical repair or replacement of the valve, or catheter-based procedures.

Diatrizoate is a type of contrast medium that is used during X-ray examinations, such as CT scans and urography, to help improve the visibility of internal body structures. It is a type of iodinated compound, which means it contains iodine atoms. Diatrizoate works by blocking the absorption of X-rays, causing the areas where it is injected or introduced to appear white on X-ray images. This can help doctors to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including problems with the urinary system and digestive tract.

Like all medications and contrast agents, diatrizoate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. It is important for patients to discuss any potential risks and benefits of using this agent with their healthcare provider before undergoing an X-ray examination.

Point-of-care (POC) systems refer to medical diagnostic tests or tools that are performed at or near the site where a patient receives care, such as in a doctor's office, clinic, or hospital room. These systems provide rapid and convenient results, allowing healthcare professionals to make immediate decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of a patient's condition.

POC systems can include various types of diagnostic tests, such as:

1. Lateral flow assays (LFAs): These are paper-based devices that use capillary action to detect the presence or absence of a target analyte in a sample. Examples include pregnancy tests and rapid strep throat tests.
2. Portable analyzers: These are compact devices used for measuring various parameters, such as blood glucose levels, coagulation status, or electrolytes, using small volumes of samples.
3. Imaging systems: Handheld ultrasound machines and portable X-ray devices fall under this category, providing real-time imaging at the point of care.
4. Monitoring devices: These include continuous glucose monitors, pulse oximeters, and blood pressure cuffs that provide real-time data to help manage patient conditions.

POC systems offer several advantages, such as reduced turnaround time for test results, decreased need for sample transportation, and increased patient satisfaction due to faster decision-making and treatment initiation. However, it is essential to ensure the accuracy and reliability of these tests by following proper testing procedures and interpreting results correctly.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Pulmonary atresia is a congenital heart defect where the pulmonary valve, which controls blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs, doesn't form properly and instead of being open, there is a membranous obstruction or atresia. This results in an absence of communication between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

The right ventricle is often small and underdeveloped due to this condition, and blood flow to the lungs can be severely limited. In some cases, there may be additional heart defects present, such as a ventricular septal defect (a hole between the two lower chambers of the heart) or patent ductus arteriosus (an abnormal connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta).

Pulmonary atresia can range from mild to severe, and treatment options depend on the specific anatomy and physiology of each individual case. Treatment may include medications, catheter-based procedures, or open-heart surgery, and in some cases, a heart transplant may be necessary.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

The Doppler effect, also known as the Doppler shift, is a change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. It was first described by Austrian physicist Christian Doppler in 1842.

In the context of medical ultrasound, the Doppler effect is used to measure the velocity of blood flow in the body. When the ultrasound waves encounter moving red blood cells, the frequency of the reflected waves changes due to the Doppler effect. This change in frequency can be used to calculate the speed and direction of blood flow.

Doppler ultrasound is commonly used in medical imaging to assess conditions such as heart valve function, blood clots, and narrowed or blocked blood vessels. It can also be used to monitor fetal heart rate and blood flow during pregnancy.

Aortic stenosis, subvalvular is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or obstruction of the outflow tract below the aortic valve in the heart. This abnormal narrowing can be caused by various factors such as a congenital heart defect, a tissue growth, or scarring from previous procedures. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed opening, which can lead to thickening of the heart muscle (hypertrophy) and decreased cardiac output. Symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness or fainting spells. Severe subvalvular aortic stenosis can lead to serious complications such as heart failure or even sudden death, and may require surgical intervention to correct the problem.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that the heart pumps in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) by the heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute). Low cardiac output refers to a condition in which the heart is not able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can occur due to various reasons such as heart failure, heart attack, or any other conditions that weaken the heart muscle. Symptoms of low cardiac output may include fatigue, shortness of breath, and decreased mental status. Treatment for low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or medical devices to help support heart function.

A coronary aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of a portion of the wall of a coronary artery, which supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart. It's similar to a bubble or balloon-like structure that forms within the artery wall due to weakness in the arterial wall, leading to abnormal enlargement or widening.

Coronary aneurysms can vary in size and may be classified as true or false aneurysms based on their structure. True aneurysms involve all three layers of the artery wall, while false aneurysms (also known as pseudoaneurysms) only have one or two layers involved, with the remaining layer disrupted.

These aneurysms can lead to complications such as blood clots forming inside the aneurysm sac, which can then dislodge and cause blockages in smaller coronary arteries (embolism). Additionally, coronary aneurysms may rupture, leading to severe internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening situations.

Coronary aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, especially if the aneurysm causes a significant narrowing (stenosis) in the affected artery. They can be diagnosed through imaging techniques like coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as stenting or bypass grafting to repair or reroute the affected artery.

Ambulatory electrocardiography, also known as ambulatory ECG or Holter monitoring, is a non-invasive method of recording the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period of time (typically 24 hours or more) while the patient goes about their daily activities. The device used to record the ECG is called a Holter monitor, which consists of a small, portable recorder that is attached to the patient's chest with electrodes.

The recorded data provides information on any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or electrical activity during different stages of activity and rest, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and evaluate various cardiac conditions such as arrhythmias, ischemia, and infarction. The ability to monitor the heart's activity over an extended period while the patient performs their normal activities provides valuable information that may not be captured during a standard ECG, which only records the heart's electrical activity for a few seconds.

In summary, ambulatory electrocardiography is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and manage various cardiac conditions.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

An air embolism is a medical condition that occurs when one or more air bubbles enter the bloodstream and block or obstruct blood vessels. This can lead to various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the obstruction, including shortness of breath, chest pain, confusion, stroke, or even death.

Air embolisms can occur in a variety of ways, such as during certain medical procedures (e.g., when air is accidentally introduced into a vein or artery), trauma to the lungs or blood vessels, scuba diving, or mountain climbing. Treatment typically involves administering oxygen and supportive care, as well as removing the source of the air bubbles if possible. In severe cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to help reduce the size of the air bubbles and improve outcomes.

Pericardiocentesis is a medical procedure where a needle or a catheter is inserted into the pericardial sac, the thin fluid-filled space surrounding the heart, to remove excess fluids or air that has accumulated. This buildup can put pressure on the heart and impede its function, leading to various cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. The procedure is often guided by echocardiography or fluoroscopy to ensure proper placement and minimize risks. Pericardiocentesis may be performed as an emergency treatment or a scheduled intervention, depending on the patient's condition.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a pulmonary vascular disorder characterized by the abnormal dilatation of the blood vessels in the lungs and intrapulmonary shunting, leading to hypoxemia (low levels of oxygen in the blood). This condition primarily affects individuals with liver diseases, particularly those with cirrhosis.

HPS is defined by the following triad of symptoms:

1. Liver dysfunction or portal hypertension
2. Intrapulmonary vascular dilatations
3. Hypoxemia (PaO2 ≤ 80 mmHg or alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient ≥ 15 mmHg in room air)

The pathophysiology of HPS involves the production and release of vasoactive substances from the liver, which cause dilation of the pulmonary vessels. This results in ventilation-perfusion mismatch and right-to-left shunting, leading to hypoxemia. Clinical manifestations include shortness of breath, platypnea (worsening dyspnea while in the upright position), orthodeoxia (decrease in oxygen saturation when changing from supine to upright position), digital clubbing, and cyanosis.

Diagnosis is confirmed through contrast-enhanced echocardiography or macroaggregated albumin lung scan, which demonstrates intrapulmonary shunting. Treatment of HPS primarily focuses on managing the underlying liver disease and improving hypoxemia with supplemental oxygen or other supportive measures. In some cases, liver transplantation may be considered as a definitive treatment option for both the liver disease and HPS.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Balloon occlusion is a medical procedure that involves the use of a small, deflated balloon at the end of a catheter, which can be inserted into a blood vessel or other tubular structure in the body. Once the balloon is in position, it is inflated with a fluid or gas to create a blockage or obstruction in the vessel. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as:

1. Controlling bleeding: By inflating the balloon in a blood vessel, doctors can temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area, allowing them to treat injuries or abnormalities that are causing excessive bleeding.
2. Vessel narrowing or blockage assessment: Balloon occlusion can be used to assess the severity of narrowing or blockages in blood vessels. By inflating the balloon and measuring the pressure differences upstream and downstream, doctors can determine the extent of the obstruction and plan appropriate treatment.
3. Embolization therapy: In some cases, balloon occlusion is used to deliver embolic agents (such as coils, particles, or glue) that block off blood flow to specific areas. This can be useful in treating conditions like tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms.
4. Temporary vessel occlusion during surgery: During certain surgical procedures, it may be necessary to temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area. Balloon occlusion can be used to achieve this quickly and safely.
5. Assisting in the placement of stents or other devices: Balloon occlusion can help position and deploy stents or other medical devices by providing temporary support or blocking off blood flow during the procedure.

It is important to note that balloon occlusion procedures carry potential risks, such as vessel injury, infection, or embolism (the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign material). These risks should be carefully weighed against the benefits when considering this type of treatment.

Cardiovascular surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the heart and blood vessels to treat or manage various cardiovascular conditions. These surgeries can be open or minimally invasive, and they aim to correct structural abnormalities, improve blood flow, or replace damaged or diseased parts of the cardiovascular system.

Some common types of cardiovascular surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This surgery involves taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and using it to create a detour around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Heart valve repair or replacement: When one or more heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not open or close properly, leading to reduced blood flow or leakage of blood backward through the valve. In these cases, surgeons may repair or replace the affected valve with a mechanical or biological prosthetic valve.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge and potentially rupture, causing severe bleeding. Surgeons can repair an aneurysm by reinforcing the weakened area with a graft or by replacing the affected section of the blood vessel.
4. Heart transplant: In cases where heart failure is irreversible and all other treatment options have been exhausted, a heart transplant may be necessary. This procedure involves removing the damaged heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that can be implanted to help support heart function in patients with advanced heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplants. VADs can help improve blood flow, reduce symptoms, and increase the patient's quality of life.
6. Minimally invasive procedures: Advances in technology have led to the development of several minimally invasive cardiovascular surgical procedures, such as robotic-assisted heart surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). These techniques typically involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open-heart surgeries.

Pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and contains serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever.

The pericardium has two layers: the visceral pericardium, which is tightly adhered to the heart's surface, and the parietal pericardium, which lines the inner surface of the chest cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between these two layers, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the chest cavity.

In pericarditis, the inflammation causes the pericardial layers to become irritated and swollen, leading to an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space. This can result in a condition called pericardial effusion, which can further complicate the situation by putting pressure on the heart and impairing its function.

Pericarditis may be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, heart attacks, trauma, or cancer. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and reducing inflammation with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. In severe cases, pericardiocentesis (removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space) or surgical intervention may be necessary.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Post-infarction heart rupture is a serious and potentially fatal complication that can occur after a myocardial infarction (heart attack). It is defined as the disruption or tearing of the heart muscle (myocardium) in the area that was damaged by the heart attack. This condition typically occurs within 1 to 7 days following a heart attack, and it's more common in elderly patients and those with large infarctions.

There are three main types of post-infarction heart rupture:

1. Ventricular free wall rupture: This is the most common type, where there is a tear in the left ventricular wall, leading to rapid bleeding into the pericardial sac (the space surrounding the heart). This can cause cardiac tamponade, which is a life-threatening situation characterized by increased pressure in the pericardial sac, compromising cardiac filling and reducing cardiac output.

2. Ventricular septal rupture: In this case, there is a tear in the interventricular septum (the wall separating the left and right ventricles), leading to a communication between the two chambers. This results in a shunt of blood from the high-pressure left ventricle to the low-pressure right ventricle, causing a sudden increase in pulmonary congestion and reduced systemic output.

3. Papillary muscle rupture: The papillary muscles are finger-like projections that attach the heart valves (mitral and tricuspid) to the ventricular walls. Rupture of these muscles can lead to severe mitral or tricuspid regurgitation, causing acute pulmonary edema and reduced cardiac output.

Symptoms of post-infarction heart rupture may include chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, hypotension, tachycardia, and signs of cardiogenic shock (such as cold sweats, weak pulse, and altered mental status). Diagnosis is typically made using echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI. Treatment usually involves emergency surgical intervention to repair the rupture and stabilize the patient's hemodynamic condition.

Ventricular Septal Rupture (VSR) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a hole or tear in the ventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricles of the heart. This separation is crucial for maintaining the proper flow of blood through the heart and lungs.

In VSR, blood from the high-pressure left ventricle flows into the low-pressure right ventricle through the abnormal opening, causing a mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. As a result, the body may not receive enough oxygen-rich blood to meet its needs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the lungs and other parts of the body.

Ventricular septal rupture is most commonly seen as a complication of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), where the muscle tissue of the ventricular septum becomes necrotic and weakened, leading to the formation of a hole or tear. Other causes of VSR include congenital heart defects, trauma, and certain infections such as endocarditis.

Treatment for VSR typically involves surgical repair of the defect, often using a patch or other materials to close the opening. In some cases, medication may be used to help manage symptoms and improve cardiac function while awaiting surgery. The prognosis for patients with VSR depends on various factors, including the size and location of the rupture, the patient's overall health and age, and the timeliness and success of treatment.

Exercise tolerance is a term used to describe the ability of an individual to perform physical activity or exercise without experiencing symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or undue fatigue. It is often used as a measure of cardiovascular fitness and can be assessed through various tests, such as a stress test or a six-minute walk test. Exercise intolerance may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease, lung disease, or deconditioning.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

The Valsalva maneuver is a medical procedure that involves forced exhalation against a closed airway, typically by closing one's mouth, pinching the nose shut, and then blowing. This maneuver increases the pressure in the chest and affects the heart's filling and pumping capabilities, as well as the pressures within the ears and eyes.

It is often used during medical examinations to test for conditions such as heart murmurs or to help clear the ears during changes in air pressure (like when scuba diving or flying). It can also be used to help diagnose or monitor conditions related to the autonomic nervous system, such as orthostatic hypotension or dysautonomia.

However, it's important to perform the Valsalva maneuver correctly and under medical supervision, as improper technique or overdoing it can lead to adverse effects like increased heart rate, changes in blood pressure, or even damage to the eardrum.

Angina pectoris is a medical term that describes chest pain or discomfort caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This condition often occurs due to coronary artery disease, where the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaques. These blockages can reduce blood flow to the heart, causing ischemia (lack of oxygen) and leading to angina symptoms.

There are two primary types of angina: stable and unstable. Stable angina is predictable and usually occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress when the heart needs more oxygen-rich blood. The pain typically subsides with rest or after taking prescribed nitroglycerin medication, which helps widen the blood vessels and improve blood flow to the heart.

Unstable angina, on the other hand, is more severe and unpredictable. It can occur at rest, during sleep, or with minimal physical activity and may not be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. Unstable angina is considered a medical emergency, as it could indicate an imminent heart attack.

Symptoms of angina pectoris include chest pain, pressure, tightness, or heaviness that typically radiates to the left arm, neck, jaw, or back. Shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, and fatigue may also accompany angina symptoms. Immediate medical attention is necessary if you experience chest pain or discomfort, especially if it's new, severe, or persistent, as it could be a sign of a more serious condition like a heart attack.

Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a type of computed tomography (CT) scan that uses multiple rows of detectors to acquire several slices of images simultaneously, thereby reducing the total time required for the scan and improving the spatial resolution. This technology allows for faster scanning of moving organs, such as the heart, and provides high-resolution images with detailed information about various body structures, including bones, soft tissues, and blood vessels. MDCT has numerous applications in diagnostic imaging, interventional procedures, and cancer staging and treatment follow-up.

Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a medical condition characterized by an enlargement and thickening (hypertrophy) of the right ventricle of the heart. The right ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart that is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery.

In response to increased workload or pressure overload, such as in chronic lung diseases, pulmonary hypertension, or congenital heart defects, the right ventricle may undergo hypertrophy. This results in an increase in the size and thickness of the right ventricular muscle, which can impair its ability to fill with blood and pump it efficiently to the lungs.

RVH can be diagnosed through various tests, including electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or cardiac catheterization. Treatment of RVH depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, surgery, or other interventions to reduce the workload on the right ventricle and improve its function.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Cardiac myocytes are the muscle cells that make up the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. These specialized cells are responsible for contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner to pump blood throughout the body. They differ from skeletal muscle cells in several ways, including their ability to generate their own electrical impulses, which allows the heart to function as an independent rhythmical pump. Cardiac myocytes contain sarcomeres, the contractile units of the muscle, and are connected to each other by intercalated discs that help coordinate contraction and ensure the synchronous beating of the heart.

Medical Definition of Rest:

1. A state of motionless, inactivity, or repose of the body.
2. A period during which such a state is experienced, usually as a result of sleep or relaxation.
3. The cessation of mental or physical activity; a pause or interval of rest is a period of time in which one does not engage in work or exertion.
4. In medical contexts, rest may also refer to the treatment or management strategy that involves limiting physical activity or exertion in order to allow an injury or illness to heal, reduce pain or prevent further harm. This can include bed rest, where a person is advised to stay in bed for a certain period of time.
5. In physiology, rest refers to the state of the body when it is not engaged in physical activity and the muscles are at their resting length and tension. During rest, the body's systems have an opportunity to recover from the demands placed on them during activity, allowing for optimal functioning and overall health.

An embolectomy is a surgical procedure to remove an embolus, which is a blockage in a blood vessel caused by a clot or air bubble that has traveled from another part of the body. During an embolectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the affected blood vessel and removes the embolus using specialized surgical instruments. This procedure is often performed as an emergency treatment to restore blood flow and prevent tissue damage in the affected area of the body.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Cardiovascular complications in pregnancy refer to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, which can arise during pregnancy, childbirth, or after delivery. These complications can be pre-existing or new-onset and can range from mild to severe, potentially threatening the life of both the mother and the fetus. Some examples of cardiovascular complications in pregnancy include:

1. Hypertension disorders: This includes chronic hypertension (high blood pressure before pregnancy), gestational hypertension (high blood pressure that develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy), and preeclampsia/eclampsia (a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and potential organ damage).

2. Cardiomyopathy: A condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, leading to an enlarged heart and reduced pumping efficiency. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a specific type that occurs during pregnancy or in the months following delivery.

3. Arrhythmias: Irregularities in the heart's rhythm, such as tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) or bradycardia (slow heartbeat), can occur during pregnancy and may require medical intervention.

4. Valvular heart disease: Pre-existing valve disorders, like mitral stenosis or aortic insufficiency, can worsen during pregnancy due to increased blood volume and cardiac output. Additionally, new valve issues might develop during pregnancy.

5. Venous thromboembolism (VTE): Pregnancy increases the risk of developing blood clots in the veins, particularly deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

6. Ischemic heart disease: Although rare, coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome can occur during pregnancy, especially in women with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, or smoking history.

7. Heart failure: Severe cardiac dysfunction leading to fluid accumulation, shortness of breath, and reduced exercise tolerance may develop due to any of the above conditions or other underlying heart diseases.

Early recognition, monitoring, and appropriate management of these cardiovascular complications in pregnancy are crucial for maternal and fetal well-being.

The second trimester of pregnancy is the period between the completion of 12 weeks (the end of the first trimester) and 26 weeks (the beginning of the third trimester) of gestational age. It is often considered the most comfortable period for many pregnant women as the risk of miscarriage decreases significantly, and the symptoms experienced during the first trimester, such as nausea and fatigue, typically improve.

During this time, the uterus expands above the pubic bone, allowing more space for the growing fetus. The fetal development in the second trimester includes significant growth in size and weight, formation of all major organs, and the beginning of movement sensations that the mother can feel. Additionally, the fetus starts to hear, swallow and kick, and the skin is covered with a protective coating called vernix.

Prenatal care during this period typically includes regular prenatal appointments to monitor the mother's health and the baby's growth and development. These appointments may include measurements of the uterus, fetal heart rate monitoring, and screening tests for genetic disorders or other potential issues.

Adrenergic beta-antagonists, also known as beta blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) on beta-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and blood vessels.

Beta blockers work by binding to these receptors and preventing the activation of certain signaling pathways that lead to increased heart rate, force of heart contractions, and relaxation of blood vessels. As a result, beta blockers can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate, and decrease the workload on the heart.

Beta blockers are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), heart failure, irregular heart rhythms, migraines, and certain anxiety disorders. Some common examples of beta blockers include metoprolol, atenolol, propranolol, and bisoprolol.

It is important to note that while beta blockers can have many benefits, they can also cause side effects such as fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Additionally, sudden discontinuation of beta blocker therapy can lead to rebound hypertension or worsening chest pain. Therefore, it is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a healthcare provider carefully when taking these medications.

Coronary balloon angioplasty is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle) and improve blood flow to the heart. This procedure is typically performed in conjunction with the insertion of a stent, a small mesh tube that helps keep the artery open.

During coronary balloon angioplasty, a thin, flexible catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the narrowed or obstructed section of the coronary artery. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to compress the plaque against the artery wall and widen the lumen (the inner space) of the artery. This helps restore blood flow to the heart muscle.

The procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation to minimize discomfort. Coronary balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for many people with coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery (restenosis) can occur in some cases.

Aortic arch syndromes are a group of conditions that affect the aortic arch, which is the curved portion of the aorta that arises from the left ventricle of the heart and gives rise to the major branches of the arterial system. These syndromes are typically caused by congenital abnormalities or degenerative changes in the aorta and can result in various complications, such as obstruction of blood flow, aneurysm formation, and dissection.

There are several types of aortic arch syndromes, including:

1. Coarctation of the Aorta: This is a narrowing of the aorta at the point where it leaves the heart, just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery. It can cause hypertension in the upper extremities and reduced blood flow to the lower extremities.
2. Aortic Arch Aneurysm: This is a localized dilation or bulging of the aorta in the region of the aortic arch. It can lead to dissection, rupture, or embolism.
3. Aortic Arch Dissection: This is a separation of the layers of the aortic wall, which can result from hypertension, trauma, or genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome. It can cause severe chest pain, shortness of breath, and shock.
4. Kommerell's Diverticulum: This is an outpouching or bulge in the aorta at the origin of the ligamentum arteriosum, which is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus. It can cause compression of the airways or esophagus and increase the risk of dissection or rupture.
5. Abernethy Malformation: This is a rare congenital anomaly in which there is an abnormal connection between the portal vein and systemic venous circulation, leading to the bypass of the liver. It can cause various complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, pulmonary hypertension, and liver tumors.

The diagnosis and management of aortic arch syndromes require a multidisciplinary approach involving cardiologists, radiologists, surgeons, and other specialists. Treatment options may include medications, endovascular procedures, or surgical interventions depending on the severity and location of the lesion.

Early diagnosis refers to the identification and detection of a medical condition or disease in its initial stages, before the appearance of significant symptoms or complications. This is typically accomplished through various screening methods, such as medical history reviews, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Early diagnosis can allow for more effective treatment interventions, potentially improving outcomes and quality of life for patients, while also reducing the overall burden on healthcare systems.

Microspheres are tiny, spherical particles that range in size from 1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. They are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polymers, glass, or ceramics. In medical terms, microspheres have various applications, including drug delivery systems, medical imaging, and tissue engineering.

In drug delivery, microspheres can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving the efficacy of the treatment while reducing side effects. They can also be used for targeted drug delivery, where the microspheres are designed to accumulate in specific tissues or organs.

In medical imaging, microspheres can be labeled with radioactive isotopes or magnetic materials and used as contrast agents to enhance the visibility of tissues or organs during imaging procedures such as X-ray, CT, MRI, or PET scans.

In tissue engineering, microspheres can serve as a scaffold for cell growth and differentiation, promoting the regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Overall, microspheres have great potential in various medical applications due to their unique properties and versatility.

Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia that originates in the atria - the upper chambers of the heart. In atrial flutter, the atria beat too quickly, usually between 250 and 350 beats per minute, which is much faster than the normal resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

This rapid beating causes the atria to quiver or "flutter" instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles - the lower chambers of the heart - which can lead to reduced cardiac output and symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, or chest discomfort.

Atrial flutter is often caused by underlying heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, or congenital heart defects. It can also be a complication of cardiac surgery or other medical procedures. In some cases, atrial flutter may occur without any apparent underlying cause, which is known as lone atrial flutter.

Treatment for atrial flutter typically involves medications to control the heart rate and rhythm, electrical cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or catheter ablation to destroy the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that are causing the arrhythmia. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to treat atrial flutter.

Bundle-branch block (BBB) is a type of conduction delay or block in the heart's electrical system that affects the way electrical impulses travel through the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). In BBB, one of the two main bundle branches that conduct electrical impulses to the ventricles is partially or completely blocked, causing a delay in the contraction of one of the ventricles.

There are two types of bundle-branch block: right bundle-branch block (RBBB) and left bundle-branch block (LBBB). In RBBB, the right bundle branch is affected, while in LBBB, the left bundle branch is affected. The symptoms and severity of BBB can vary depending on the underlying cause and the presence of other heart conditions.

In some cases, BBB may not cause any noticeable symptoms and may only be detected during a routine electrocardiogram (ECG). However, if BBB occurs along with other heart conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, or cardiomyopathy, it can increase the risk of serious complications such as arrhythmias, syncope, and even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for bundle-branch block depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in others, medications, pacemakers, or other treatments may be recommended to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Carcinoid heart disease is a rare complication that occurs in some people with carcinoid tumors, which are slow-growing tumors that typically originate in the digestive tract. These tumors can release hormones and other substances into the bloodstream, which can cause various symptoms. In carcinoid heart disease, these substances cause fibrous plaques to form on the heart valves, leading to thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets. This can result in leakage or obstruction of the heart valves, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Carcinoid heart disease is most commonly affects the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, which are located on the right side of the heart. If left untreated, carcinoid heart disease can lead to serious complications, including heart failure. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications to manage symptoms and control the growth of the tumor, as well as surgery to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Atrial function in a medical context refers to the role and performance of the two upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The main functions of the atria are to receive blood from the veins and help pump it into the ventricles, which are the lower pumping chambers of the heart.

The atria contract in response to electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker. This contraction helps to fill the ventricles with blood before they contract and pump blood out to the rest of the body. Atrial function can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as echocardiograms or electrocardiograms (ECGs), which can help identify any abnormalities in atrial structure or electrical activity that may affect heart function.

Vascular resistance is a measure of the opposition to blood flow within a vessel or a group of vessels, typically expressed in units of mmHg/(mL/min) or sometimes as dynes*sec/cm^5. It is determined by the diameter and length of the vessels, as well as the viscosity of the blood flowing through them. In general, a decrease in vessel diameter, an increase in vessel length, or an increase in blood viscosity will result in an increase in vascular resistance, while an increase in vessel diameter, a decrease in vessel length, or a decrease in blood viscosity will result in a decrease in vascular resistance. Vascular resistance is an important concept in the study of circulation and cardiovascular physiology because it plays a key role in determining blood pressure and blood flow within the body.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

Diagnostic errors refer to inaccurate or delayed diagnoses of a patient's medical condition, which can lead to improper or unnecessary treatment and potentially serious harm to the patient. These errors can occur due to various factors such as lack of clinical knowledge, failure to consider all possible diagnoses, inadequate communication between healthcare providers and patients, and problems with testing or interpretation of test results. Diagnostic errors are a significant cause of preventable harm in medical care and have been identified as a priority area for quality improvement efforts.

Thoracic radiography is a type of diagnostic imaging that involves using X-rays to produce images of the chest, including the lungs, heart, bronchi, great vessels, and the bones of the spine and chest wall. It is a commonly used tool in the diagnosis and management of various respiratory, cardiovascular, and thoracic disorders such as pneumonia, lung cancer, heart failure, and rib fractures.

During the procedure, the patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a cassette containing a film or digital detector. The X-ray beam is directed at the chest, and the resulting image is captured on the film or detector. The images produced can help identify any abnormalities in the structure or function of the organs within the chest.

Thoracic radiography may be performed as a routine screening test for certain conditions, such as lung cancer, or it may be ordered when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of a respiratory or cardiovascular disorder. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information to help guide clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

The Ductus Arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk (the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). This vessel allows most of the blood from the right ventricle of the fetal heart to bypass the lungs, as the fetus receives oxygen through the placenta rather than breathing air.

After birth, with the first breaths, the blood oxygen level increases and the pressure in the lungs rises. As a result, the circulation in the newborn's body changes, and the Ductus Arteriosus is no longer needed. Within the first few days or weeks of life, this vessel usually closes spontaneously, turning into a fibrous cord called the Ligamentum Arteriosum.

Persistent Patency of the Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) occurs when the Ductus Arteriosus does not close after birth, which can lead to various complications such as heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. This condition is often seen in premature infants and may require medical intervention or surgical closure of the vessel.

1. Intracranial Embolism: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other particle (embolus) formed elsewhere in the body, travels through the bloodstream and lodges itself in the intracranial blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood to a part of the brain. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, speech difficulties, or even loss of consciousness, depending on the severity and location of the blockage.

2. Intracranial Thrombosis: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms within the intracranial blood vessels. The clot can partially or completely obstruct the flow of blood, leading to various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, or neurological deficits, depending on the severity and location of the thrombosis. Intracranial thrombosis can occur due to various factors including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A vascular fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the artery and vein, which usually results from a surgical procedure to create access for hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. This communication allows blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network and causing high-flow conditions in the affected area. Over time, the increased pressure and flow can lead to various complications such as venous hypertension, stenosis, aneurysm formation, or even heart failure if left untreated. Vascular fistulas may also occur spontaneously due to certain medical conditions like vasculitis, trauma, or infection, although this is less common.

Heart sounds are the noises generated by the beating heart and the movement of blood through it. They are caused by the vibration of the cardiac structures, such as the valves, walls, and blood vessels, during the cardiac cycle.

There are two normal heart sounds, often described as "lub-dub," that can be heard through a stethoscope. The first sound (S1) is caused by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the beginning of systole, when the ventricles contract to pump blood out to the body and lungs. The second sound (S2) is produced by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves at the end of systole, as the ventricles relax and the ventricular pressure decreases, allowing the valves to close.

Abnormal heart sounds, such as murmurs, clicks, or extra sounds (S3 or S4), may indicate cardiac disease or abnormalities in the structure or function of the heart. These sounds can be evaluated through a process called auscultation, which involves listening to the heart with a stethoscope and analyzing the intensity, pitch, quality, and timing of the sounds.

Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome is also known as Kawasaki Disease. It is a type of vasculitis that primarily affects young children, usually those under the age of 5. The disease is named after Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki, who first described it in Japan in 1967.

The condition is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes (mucosa), skin (cutaneous), and lymph nodes. The symptoms typically include fever, rash, red eyes, swollen lips and tongue, strawberry tongue, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In addition, children with Kawasaki disease may also experience joint pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

In severe cases, Kawasaki disease can lead to complications such as coronary artery aneurysms, which can increase the risk of heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems. The exact cause of Kawasaki disease is unknown, but it is thought to be triggered by an infection or other environmental factor in genetically susceptible children. Treatment typically involves administering high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Troponin T is a subunit of the troponin complex, which is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. In particular, Troponin T is responsible for binding the troponin complex to tropomyosin, another protein that helps regulate muscle contraction.

In the context of medical diagnostics, Troponin T is often measured as a biomarker for heart damage. When heart muscle cells are damaged or die, such as in a myocardial infarction (heart attack), troponin T is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the levels of Troponin T in the blood can help diagnose and assess the severity of heart damage.

It's important to note that Troponin T is specific to cardiac muscle cells, which makes it a more reliable biomarker for heart damage than other markers that may also be found in skeletal muscle cells. However, it's worth noting that Troponin T levels can also be elevated in conditions other than heart attacks, such as heart failure, myocarditis, and pulmonary embolism, so clinical context is important when interpreting test results.

Arterial pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries during its flow through them. It is usually measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is expressed as two numbers: systolic and diastolic pressures. Systolic pressure is the higher value, representing the pressure when the heart contracts and pushes blood into the arteries. Diastolic pressure is the lower value, representing the pressure when the heart relaxes and fills with blood. A normal resting blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

First-pass ventriculography is a type of cardiac diagnostic procedure that involves the injection of a contrast material into the heart's chamber (left ventricle) during cardiac catheterization. The term "first-pass" refers to the initial circulation of the contrast agent through the heart and great vessels, allowing for real-time imaging of the left ventricular chamber as it contracts and relaxes. This procedure is used to assess the size, shape, and function of the left ventricle, including its wall motion abnormalities, ejection fraction, and overall contractility. The information obtained from first-pass ventriculography can help in the diagnosis and management of various cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, and myocardial ischemia or infarction.

Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a coronary artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The development of a thrombus can partially or completely obstruct blood flow, leading to insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle. This can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack (myocardial infarction), depending on the severity and duration of the blockage.

Coronary thrombosis often results from the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, a buildup of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining (endothelium) of the coronary artery. The ruptured plaque exposes the underlying tissue to the bloodstream, triggering the coagulation cascade and resulting in the formation of a thrombus.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for managing coronary thrombosis, as timely treatment can help restore blood flow, prevent further damage to the heart muscle, and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias. Treatment options may include medications, such as antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic drugs, or interventional procedures like angioplasty and stenting to open the blocked artery. In some cases, surgical intervention, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), may be necessary.

Troponin I is a protein that is found in the cardiac muscle cells (myocytes) of the heart. It is a component of the troponin complex, which also includes troponin C and troponin T, that regulates the calcium-mediated interaction between actin and myosin filaments during muscle contraction.

Troponin I is specific to the cardiac muscle tissue, making it a useful biomarker for detecting damage to the heart muscle. When there is injury or damage to the heart muscle cells, such as during a heart attack (myocardial infarction), troponin I is released into the bloodstream.

Measurement of cardiac troponin I levels in the blood is used in the diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and other conditions that cause damage to the heart muscle. Elevated levels of troponin I in the blood are indicative of myocardial injury, and the degree of elevation can help determine the severity of the injury.

Atrioventricular (AV) block is a disorder of the electrical conduction system of the heart that causes a delay or interruption in the transmission of electrical signals from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This results in an abnormal heart rhythm, also known as an arrhythmia.

There are three degrees of AV block:

1. First-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, there is a delay in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles, but all signals are eventually conducted. This condition may not cause any symptoms and is often discovered during a routine electrocardiogram (ECG).
2. Second-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, some electrical signals from the atria are not conducted to the ventricles. There are two types of second-degree AV block: Mobitz type I and Mobitz type II. Mobitz type I is characterized by a progressive prolongation of the PR interval (the time between the electrical activation of the atria and ventricles) until a QRS complex (which represents the electrical activation of the ventricles) is dropped. Mobitz type II is characterized by a constant PR interval with occasional non-conducted P waves.
3. Third-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, no electrical signals are conducted from the atria to the ventricles. The atria and ventricles beat independently of each other, resulting in a slow heart rate (bradycardia) and an irregular rhythm. This condition can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The causes of AV block include aging, heart disease, medications, and certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism and Lyme disease. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and may include medication, a pacemaker, or surgery.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

Systemic Scleroderma, also known as Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), is a rare, chronic autoimmune disease that involves the abnormal growth and accumulation of collagen in various connective tissues, blood vessels, and organs throughout the body. This excessive collagen production leads to fibrosis or scarring, which can cause thickening, hardening, and tightening of the skin and damage to internal organs such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.

Systemic Scleroderma is characterized by two main features: small blood vessel abnormalities (Raynaud's phenomenon) and fibrosis. The disease can be further classified into two subsets based on the extent of skin involvement: limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc).

Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis affects the skin distally, typically involving fingers, hands, forearms, feet, lower legs, and face. It is often associated with Raynaud's phenomenon, calcinosis, telangiectasias, and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis involves more extensive skin thickening and fibrosis that spreads proximally to affect the trunk, upper arms, thighs, and face. It is commonly associated with internal organ involvement, such as interstitial lung disease, heart disease, and kidney problems.

The exact cause of Systemic Scleroderma remains unknown; however, it is believed that genetic, environmental, and immunological factors contribute to its development. There is currently no cure for Systemic Scleroderma, but various treatments can help manage symptoms, slow disease progression, and improve quality of life.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Heart valve prolapse, also known as mitral valve prolapse or MVP, is a condition in which the leaflets (flaps) of the heart's valves do not close properly. In heart valve prolapse, one or more of the valve leaflets bulge into the upper chamber of the heart (atrium) when the valve closes. This can cause a backflow of blood, known as regurgitation, which can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Heart valve prolapse is most commonly affects the mitral valve, but it can also affect the other heart valves. The exact cause of heart valve prolapse is not known, but it may be associated with certain factors such as connective tissue disorders, aging, and previous heart conditions. In many cases, heart valve prolapse does not cause any symptoms or complications and may only require regular monitoring by a healthcare professional. However, in some cases, heart valve prolapse can lead to serious complications such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart) or heart failure, so it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or have concerns about your heart health.

Microcirculation is the circulation of blood in the smallest blood vessels, including arterioles, venules, and capillaries. It's responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products. The microcirculation plays a crucial role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and is regulated by various physiological mechanisms such as autonomic nervous system activity, local metabolic factors, and hormones.

Impairment of microcirculation can lead to tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which are common features in several diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, sepsis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of the microcirculation is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

A "torsion abnormality" is not a standard medical term, but I believe you are asking about torsional deformities or abnormalities related to torsion. Torsion refers to a twisting force or movement that can cause structures to rotate around their long axis. In the context of medical definitions:

Torsional abnormality could refer to a congenital or acquired condition where anatomical structures, such as blood vessels, muscles, tendons, or bones, are twisted or rotated in an abnormal way. This can lead to various complications depending on the structure involved and the degree of torsion.

For instance, in congenital torsional deformities of long bones (like tibia or femur), the rotation of the bone axis can cause issues with gait, posture, and joint function. In some cases, this may require surgical intervention to correct the abnormality.

In the context of vascular torsion abnormalities, such as mesenteric torsion, it could lead to bowel ischemia due to the twisting of blood vessels that supply the intestines. This can be a surgical emergency and requires immediate intervention to restore blood flow and prevent further damage.

It's essential to consult with a medical professional for a precise diagnosis and treatment options if you or someone else experiences symptoms related to torsional abnormalities.

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped. This includes the mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, and aorta. The left ventricle is too small or absent, and the aorta is narrowed or poorly formed. As a result, blood cannot be adequately pumped to the body. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs mixes with oxygen-poor blood in the heart, and the body does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. HLHS is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention and often surgical intervention.

Kinetocardiography (often abbreviated as KCG) is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, in general terms, it appears to refer to a method of measuring and recording the motion or vibrations of the chest wall that may be related to cardiac activity. It's possible that this term is used in some specific research or technical contexts, but it does not have a standardized medical definition.

It's important to note that there is another term called "ballistocardiography" (BCG) which is a non-invasive method of measuring the mechanical forces generated by the heart and great vessels during each cardiac cycle. BCG can provide information about various aspects of cardiovascular function, such as stroke volume, contractility, and vascular compliance. However, kinetocardiography does not seem to be synonymous with ballistocardiography or any other established medical technique.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Diagnostic imaging is a medical specialty that uses various technologies to produce visual representations of the internal structures and functioning of the body. These images are used to diagnose injury, disease, or other abnormalities and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Common modalities of diagnostic imaging include:

1. Radiography (X-ray): Uses ionizing radiation to produce detailed images of bones, teeth, and some organs.
2. Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Combines X-ray technology with computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the body.
3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to generate detailed images of soft tissues, organs, and bones.
4. Ultrasound: Employs high-frequency sound waves to produce real-time images of internal structures, often used for obstetrics and gynecology.
5. Nuclear Medicine: Involves the administration of radioactive tracers to assess organ function or detect abnormalities within the body.
6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: Uses a small amount of radioactive material to produce detailed images of metabolic activity in the body, often used for cancer detection and monitoring treatment response.
7. Fluoroscopy: Utilizes continuous X-ray imaging to observe moving structures or processes within the body, such as swallowing studies or angiography.

Diagnostic imaging plays a crucial role in modern medicine, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and treatment plans.

Infarction is the term used in medicine to describe the death of tissue (also known as an "area of necrosis") due to the lack of blood supply. This can occur when a blood vessel that supplies oxygen and nutrients to a particular area of the body becomes blocked or obstructed, leading to the deprivation of oxygen and nutrients necessary for the survival of cells in that region.

The blockage in the blood vessel is usually caused by a clot (thrombus) or an embolus, which is a small particle that travels through the bloodstream and lodges in a smaller vessel. The severity and extent of infarction depend on several factors, including the size and location of the affected blood vessel, the duration of the obstruction, and the presence of collateral circulation (alternative blood vessels that can compensate for the blocked one).

Common examples of infarctions include myocardial infarction (heart attack), cerebral infarction (stroke), and pulmonary infarction (lung tissue death due to obstruction in the lung's blood vessels). Infarctions can lead to various symptoms, depending on the affected organ or tissue, and may require medical intervention to manage complications and prevent further damage.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

Persistent Truncus Arteriosus is a rare congenital heart defect that is characterized by the failure of the truncus arteriosus to divide into the separate pulmonary artery and aorta during fetal development. This results in a single large vessel, the truncus arteriosus, which gives rise to both the systemic and pulmonary circulations.

The truncus arteriosus contains a single semilunar valve, instead of the two separate semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic) found in a normal heart. Additionally, there is often a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, present.

This condition leads to mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the truncus arteriosus, resulting in cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes) and decreased oxygen delivery to the body. Symptoms typically appear soon after birth and may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, rapid heart rate, and failure to thrive.

Persistent truncus arteriosus is usually treated with surgical repair in infancy or early childhood to separate the pulmonary and systemic circulations, close the VSD, and reconstruct the great vessels as needed.

A "crisscross heart" is not a medical term that is used to describe a specific cardiac condition or abnormality in the medical field. It may refer to a rare congenital heart defect called "double-outlet right ventricle with subaortic ventricular septal defect and bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis." This complex heart defect can result in a crisscross pattern on chest X-ray or other imaging studies. However, the term is not commonly used in medical literature or clinical practice. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information regarding any cardiac concerns.

An anterior wall myocardial infarction (AMI) is a type of heart attack that occurs when there is a significant reduction or complete blockage of blood flow to the front wall of the heart muscle, also known as the anterior wall of the left ventricle. This reduction or blockage in blood flow is typically caused by a buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, in the coronary arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.

When a plaque ruptures or breaks open, a blood clot forms around it, which can completely block the flow of blood to the heart muscle. This lack of blood flow causes the heart muscle to start to die, leading to a myocardial infarction or heart attack.

An anterior wall myocardial infarction is often associated with more severe symptoms and a higher risk of complications than other types of heart attacks because it affects a larger area of the heart muscle. Symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and anxiety.

Immediate medical attention is necessary for an anterior wall myocardial infarction to restore blood flow to the heart muscle as quickly as possible and prevent further damage. Treatment options may include medications, such as clot-busting drugs or blood thinners, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

A single-blind method in medical research is a study design where the participants are unaware of the group or intervention they have been assigned to, but the researchers conducting the study know which participant belongs to which group. This is done to prevent bias from the participants' expectations or knowledge of their assignment, while still allowing the researchers to control the study conditions and collect data.

In a single-blind trial, the participants do not know whether they are receiving the active treatment or a placebo (a sham treatment that looks like the real thing but has no therapeutic effect), whereas the researcher knows which participant is receiving which intervention. This design helps to ensure that the participants' responses and outcomes are not influenced by their knowledge of the treatment assignment, while still allowing the researchers to assess the effectiveness or safety of the intervention being studied.

Single-blind methods are commonly used in clinical trials and other medical research studies where it is important to minimize bias and control for confounding variables that could affect the study results.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary period of symptoms similar to those you'd get if you were having a stroke. A TIA doesn't cause permanent damage and is often caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain, which may last as little as five minutes.

Like an ischemic stroke, a TIA occurs when a clot or debris blocks blood flow to part of your nervous system. However, unlike a stroke, a TIA doesn't leave lasting damage because the blockage is temporary.

Symptoms of a TIA can include sudden onset of weakness, numbness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, typically on one side of your body. You could also experience slurred or garbled speech, or difficulty understanding others. Other symptoms can include blindness in one or both eyes, dizziness, or a severe headache with no known cause.

Even though TIAs usually last only a few minutes, they are a serious condition and should not be ignored. If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing a TIA, seek immediate medical attention. TIAs can be a warning sign that a full-blown stroke is imminent.

Thoracic injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the thorax, which is the part of the body that contains the chest cavity. The thorax houses vital organs such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels. Thoracic injuries can range from blunt trauma, caused by impacts or compressions, to penetrating trauma, resulting from stabbing or gunshot wounds. These injuries may cause various complications, including but not limited to:

1. Hemothorax - bleeding into the chest cavity
2. Pneumothorax - collapsed lung due to air accumulation in the chest cavity
3. Tension pneumothorax - a life-threatening condition where trapped air puts pressure on the heart and lungs, impairing their function
4. Cardiac tamponade - compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
5. Rib fractures, which can lead to complications like punctured lungs or internal bleeding
6. Tracheobronchial injuries, causing air leaks and difficulty breathing
7. Great vessel injuries, potentially leading to massive hemorrhage and hemodynamic instability

Immediate medical attention is required for thoracic injuries, as they can quickly become life-threatening due to the vital organs involved. Treatment may include surgery, chest tubes, medications, or supportive care, depending on the severity and type of injury.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is spread through the feces of infected triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"). The disease is named after Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite in 1909.

In Chagas cardiomyopathy, the infection can lead to inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), which can cause damage to the heart over time. This damage can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened and stretched, leading to an enlarged heart chamber and reduced pumping ability.
* Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.
* Heart failure: This is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the body.
* Cardiac arrest: In severe cases, Chagas cardiomyopathy can lead to sudden cardiac arrest, which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is most commonly found in Latin America, where the parasite that causes the disease is endemic. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas cardiomyopathy have been reported in other parts of the world, including the United States. Treatment for Chagas cardiomyopathy typically involves medications to manage symptoms and prevent further complications, as well as lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise modifications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices may be necessary to treat severe complications of the disease.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Impedance cardiography is a non-invasive method to measure cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. It uses low-frequency electrical currents passed through the thorax to measure changes in impedance or resistance to flow during each heartbeat. This allows for the calculation of stroke volume and cardiac output. Impedance cardiography can provide continuous, real-time monitoring of cardiovascular function, making it useful in critical care settings and for tracking changes in patients with heart failure or other cardiovascular conditions.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

An abscess is a localized collection of pus caused by an infection. It is typically characterized by inflammation, redness, warmth, pain, and swelling in the affected area. Abscesses can form in various parts of the body, including the skin, teeth, lungs, brain, and abdominal organs. They are usually treated with antibiotics to eliminate the infection and may require drainage if they are large or located in a critical area. If left untreated, an abscess can lead to serious complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Syncope is a medical term defined as a transient, temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone due to reduced blood flow to the brain. It's often caused by a drop in blood pressure, which can be brought on by various factors such as dehydration, emotional stress, prolonged standing, or certain medical conditions like heart diseases, arrhythmias, or neurological disorders.

During a syncope episode, an individual may experience warning signs such as lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision, or nausea before losing consciousness. These episodes usually last only a few minutes and are followed by a rapid, full recovery. However, if left untreated or undiagnosed, recurrent syncope can lead to severe injuries from falls or even life-threatening conditions related to the underlying cause.

Blood volume refers to the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system at any given time. It is the combined volume of both the plasma (the liquid component of blood) and the formed elements (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the blood. In a healthy adult human, the average blood volume is approximately 5 liters (or about 1 gallon). However, blood volume can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Blood volume plays a critical role in maintaining proper cardiovascular function, as it affects blood pressure, heart rate, and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Changes in blood volume can have significant impacts on an individual's health and may be associated with various medical conditions, such as dehydration, hemorrhage, heart failure, and liver disease. Accurate measurement of blood volume is essential for diagnosing and managing these conditions, as well as for guiding treatment decisions in clinical settings.

Aortic rupture is a medical emergency that refers to the tearing or splitting of the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. An aortic rupture can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding and requires immediate medical attention.

There are two types of aortic ruptures:

1. Aortic dissection: This occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the aorta, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall. This can cause the aorta to bulge or split, leading to a rupture.
2. Thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture: An aneurysm is a weakened and bulging area in the aortic wall. When an aneurysm in the thoracic aorta (the part of the aorta that runs through the chest) ruptures, it can cause severe bleeding and other complications.

Risk factors for aortic rupture include high blood pressure, smoking, aging, family history of aortic disease, and certain genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include sudden severe chest or back pain, difficulty breathing, weakness, sweating, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves emergency surgery to repair the aorta and control bleeding.

Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac, refer to medical procedures used to study the electrical activities and conduction systems of the heart. These techniques involve the insertion of electrode catheters into the heart through blood vessels under fluoroscopic guidance to record and stimulate electrical signals. The information obtained from these studies can help diagnose and evaluate various cardiac arrhythmias, determine the optimal treatment strategy, and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as ablation or implantable devices.

The electrophysiologic study (EPS) is a type of cardiac electrophysiologic technique that involves the measurement of electrical signals from different regions of the heart to evaluate its conduction system's function. The procedure can help identify the location of abnormal electrical pathways responsible for arrhythmias and determine the optimal treatment strategy, such as catheter ablation or medication therapy.

Cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are also used in device implantation procedures, such as pacemaker or defibrillator implantation, to ensure proper placement and function of the devices. These techniques can help program and test the devices to optimize their settings for each patient's needs.

In summary, cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are medical procedures used to study and manipulate the electrical activities of the heart, helping diagnose and treat various arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden, unexpected natural death caused by the cessation of cardiac activity. It is often caused by cardiac arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation, and is often associated with underlying heart disease, although it can occur in people with no known heart condition. SCD is typically defined as a natural death due to cardiac causes that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, or if the individual was last seen alive in a normal state of health, it can be defined as occurring within 24 hours.

It's important to note that sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is different from SCD, although they are related. SCA refers to the sudden cessation of cardiac activity, which if not treated immediately can lead to SCD.

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

Elasticity imaging techniques are non-invasive medical diagnostic methods used to evaluate the stiffness or elasticity of various tissues in the body, such as organs, muscles, and breast tissue. These techniques can help detect and diagnose abnormalities, including tumors, lesions, and other conditions that may affect tissue stiffness.

There are several types of elasticity imaging techniques, including:

1. Ultrasound Elastography: This technique uses ultrasound waves to apply pressure to tissues and measure their deformation or strain. The degree of deformation is then used to calculate the stiffness of the tissue.
2. Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE): MRE uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of tissue elasticity. A mechanical device is used to apply vibrations to the body, and the resulting motion is measured using MRI to determine tissue stiffness.
3. Shear Wave Elastography: This technique uses acoustic radiation force impulses to generate shear waves in tissues. The speed of these waves is then measured to calculate tissue stiffness.
4. Strain Imaging: This technique measures the amount of deformation or strain that occurs in tissues when they are compressed or stretched. It can be used to detect areas of increased stiffness, such as tumors or scar tissue.

Elasticity imaging techniques have several advantages over traditional diagnostic methods, including their non-invasive nature and ability to provide real-time images of tissue elasticity. They are also useful for monitoring changes in tissue stiffness over time, making them valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and monitoring disease progression.

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal tangles of blood vessels that directly connect arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. This results in a high-flow and high-pressure circulation in the affected area. AVMs can occur anywhere in the body but are most common in the brain and spine. They can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, or bleeding in the brain. In some cases, AVMs may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered during imaging tests for other conditions. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, or embolization to reduce the flow of blood through the malformation and prevent complications.

Tricuspid valve prolapse is a cardiac condition where the tricuspid valve, located between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart, doesn't close properly due to one or more of its leaflets (flaps) bulging or billowing into the right atrium during contraction of the right ventricle. This allows the backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium, known as tricuspid regurgitation. In some cases, tricuspid valve prolapse may not cause any symptoms and can be an incidental finding on echocardiography. However, if severe tricuspid regurgitation occurs, it can lead to right-sided heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and other complications. The condition is often associated with mitral valve prolapse or other connective tissue disorders.

Propanolamines are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that contain a propan-2-olamine functional group, which is a secondary amine formed by the replacement of one hydrogen atom in an ammonia molecule with a propan-2-ol group. They are commonly used as decongestants and bronchodilators in medical treatments.

Examples of propanolamines include:

* Phenylephrine: a decongestant used to relieve nasal congestion.
* Pseudoephedrine: a decongestant and stimulant used to treat nasal congestion and sinus pressure.
* Ephedrine: a bronchodilator, decongestant, and stimulant used to treat asthma, nasal congestion, and low blood pressure.

It is important to note that propanolamines can have side effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and insomnia, so they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Warfarin is a anticoagulant medication that works by inhibiting the vitamin K-dependent activation of several coagulation factors (factors II, VII, IX, and X). This results in prolonged clotting times and reduced thrombus formation. It is commonly used to prevent and treat blood clots in conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Warfarin is also known by its brand names Coumadin and Jantoven.

It's important to note that warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic one is small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of the patient's coagulation status through regular blood tests (INR) to ensure that the dosage is appropriate and to minimize the risk of bleeding complications.

Fractional Flow Reserve (Myocardial) is a medical term used to describe the ratio of maximum blood flow through a stenosed (narrowed) coronary artery to the maximum flow that could be achieved if the artery were completely normal. It is a pressure-based index, which is measured during cardiac catheterization using a special wire that can measure pressure differences across a stenosis.

The FFR value ranges from 0 (no flow) to 1 (normal flow). An FFR value less than or equal to 0.80 is generally considered indicative of functionally significant coronary artery disease, which may benefit from revascularization (such as angioplasty or bypass surgery).

FFR is used in clinical practice to help guide decisions regarding the management of patients with coronary artery disease and has been shown to improve patient outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Exercise-induced cardiomegaly is a medical condition characterized by an enlargement of the heart (cardiomegaly) that occurs during or immediately after physical exertion. This condition is typically seen in individuals with underlying heart diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or valvular heart disease. During exercise, the increased workload on the heart can cause the heart muscle to thicken and enlarge, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or palpitations. It is important to note that this condition is different from physiological cardiac remodeling, which is a normal response to regular exercise in healthy individuals. If you suspect that you have exercise-induced cardiomegaly, it is important to seek medical attention and evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), also known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a hormone that is primarily produced and secreted by the atria of the heart in response to stretching of the cardiac muscle cells due to increased blood volume. ANF plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis, blood pressure, and cardiovascular function.

The main physiological action of ANF is to promote sodium and water excretion by the kidneys, which helps lower blood volume and reduce blood pressure. ANF also relaxes vascular smooth muscle, dilates blood vessels, and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), further contributing to its blood pressure-lowering effects.

Defects in ANF production or action have been implicated in several cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease. Therefore, ANF and its analogs are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Pericardiectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of all or part of the pericardium, which is the sac-like membrane surrounding the heart. This surgery is typically performed to treat chronic or recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, or pericardial effusions that do not respond to other treatments. Pericardiectomy can help reduce symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fluid buildup around the heart, improving the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that occurs in people with diabetes. It is characterized by structural and functional changes in the heart muscle (myocardium), which can lead to impaired heart function and, ultimately, heart failure.

The exact mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiomyopathy are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of metabolic abnormalities, inflammation, oxidative stress, and microvascular dysfunction that occur in diabetes. These factors can lead to changes in the heart muscle cells, including increased stiffness, altered contractility, and cell death, as well as interstitial fibrosis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is often asymptomatic in its early stages but can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid retention, and irregular heart rhythms as it progresses. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and other imaging tests, as well as laboratory tests to assess cardiac function and metabolic status.

Treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy typically involves managing underlying diabetes and associated risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, and diuretics may also be used to improve heart function and reduce symptoms. Lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise, smoking cessation, and a healthy diet are also important components of management.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Cardiomyoplasty is a surgical procedure that involves wrapping skeletal muscle around the heart to help it pump more effectively. In this procedure, the surgeon typically uses the latissimus dorsi muscle, which is a large muscle in the back, and connects it to the heart with a special type of suture called a Dacron mesh.

The skeletal muscle used in cardiomyoplasty can be stimulated to contract using an electrical impulse, which helps to augment the contractions of the heart and improve its overall function. This procedure is typically reserved for patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for other forms of treatment, such as a heart transplant.

While cardiomyoplasty has shown promise in some studies, it is still considered an experimental procedure and is not widely performed due to the risks involved and the limited number of patients who may benefit from it. Some of the potential complications of this procedure include infection, bleeding, muscle weakness, and damage to the heart or surrounding tissues.

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of monitoring the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during pregnancy, particularly during labor. It provides visual information about the fetal heart rate pattern and the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions. This helps healthcare providers assess the well-being of the fetus and the progression of labor.

The cardiotocograph records two main traces:

1. Fetal heart rate (FHR): It is recorded using an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. The normal fetal heart rate ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other complications.

2. Uterine contractions: They are recorded using a pressure sensor (toco) placed on the mother's abdomen. The intensity and frequency of uterine contractions can be assessed to evaluate the progression of labor and the effect of contractions on fetal oxygenation.

Cardiotocography is widely used in obstetrics as a non-invasive method for monitoring fetal well-being during pregnancy and labor. However, it should always be interpreted cautiously by healthcare professionals, considering other factors like maternal and fetal conditions, medical history, and clinical presentation. Overinterpretation or misinterpretation of CTG traces can lead to unnecessary interventions or delays in recognizing actual fetal distress.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

The foramen ovale is a fetal cardiovascular structure that usually closes after birth. It's a flap-like opening between the right and left atria (the upper chambers) of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood from the mother to bypass the fetal lungs and go directly to the fetal brain and body.

After birth, when the newborn starts breathing and blood pressure in the lungs increases, the pressure in the left atrium also rises, causing the flap to close and seal the foramen ovale. In about 25% of adults, this flap doesn't close completely, resulting in a condition known as a patent foramen ovale (PFO), which is usually asymptomatic but can rarely lead to complications such as stroke or migraine with aura.

Pulmonary edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitial spaces (the area surrounding the alveoli) within the lungs. This buildup of fluid can lead to impaired gas exchange, resulting in shortness of breath, coughing, and difficulty breathing, especially when lying down. Pulmonary edema is often a complication of heart failure, but it can also be caused by other conditions such as pneumonia, trauma, or exposure to certain toxins.

In the early stages of pulmonary edema, patients may experience mild symptoms such as shortness of breath during physical activity. However, as the condition progresses, symptoms can become more severe and include:

* Severe shortness of breath, even at rest
* Wheezing or coughing up pink, frothy sputum
* Rapid breathing and heart rate
* Anxiety or restlessness
* Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) due to lack of oxygen

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, chest X-ray, and other diagnostic tests such as echocardiography or CT scan. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care such as supplemental oxygen, diuretics to help remove excess fluid from the body, and medications to help reduce anxiety and improve breathing. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support respiratory function.

Pergolide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergoline derivatives. It is primarily used in the management of Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by symptoms such as muscle stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Pergolide works by mimicking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that regulates movement, in the brain.

Specifically, pergolide acts as an agonist at dopamine receptors, particularly D2 and D3 receptors, which helps to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is often used as an adjunct therapy with levodopa, another medication commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

However, it is important to note that pergolide has been associated with serious side effects, including heart valve damage and lung scarring, and its use has been significantly restricted or withdrawn in many countries. Therefore, it should only be prescribed and used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Hypotension is a medical term that refers to abnormally low blood pressure, usually defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic blood pressure less than 60 mm Hg. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood.

Hypotension can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, and fainting, especially when standing up suddenly. In severe cases, hypotension can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiple organ failure due to inadequate blood flow.

Hypotension can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions such as heart disease, endocrine disorders, and dehydration. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypotension, as it can indicate an underlying health issue that requires treatment.

Cardiac-gated single-photon emission computer-assisted tomography (SPECT) is a medical imaging technique used to evaluate the function and perfusion of the heart. This technique combines the principles of cardiac gating, SPECT imaging, and computed tomography (CT) to produce detailed, three-dimensional images of the heart.

In this procedure, a small amount of radioactive tracer is injected into the patient's bloodstream. The tracer accumulates in the heart muscle according to its blood flow, allowing for the assessment of regional myocardial perfusion and function. A specialized gamma camera then captures images of the distribution of this tracer within the heart.

Cardiac gating is a technique that synchronizes image acquisition with the patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, ensuring that data are collected only during specific phases of the cardiac cycle. This allows for the accurate assessment of regional wall motion and thickening, which can help identify areas of the heart affected by ischemia or scarring.

The acquired images are then reconstructed using computer algorithms to create detailed, three-dimensional representations of the heart's structure and function. These images can aid in the diagnosis and management of various cardiac conditions, such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure.

Cardiac-gated imaging techniques are medical diagnostic procedures that involve synchronizing the acquisition of data with the electrical activity of the heart, typically the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG). This allows for the capture of images during specific phases of the cardiac cycle, reducing motion artifacts and improving image quality. These techniques are commonly used in various imaging modalities such as echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine studies like myocardial perfusion imaging. By obtaining images at specific points in the cardiac cycle, these techniques help assess heart function, wall motion abnormalities, valve function, and myocardial perfusion, ultimately aiding in the diagnosis and management of various cardiovascular diseases.

Sinus tachycardia is a type of rapid heart rate, characterized by an abnormally fast sinus rhythm, with a rate greater than 100 beats per minute in adults. The sinoatrial node (SA node), which is the natural pacemaker of the heart, generates these impulses regularly and at an increased rate.

Sinus tachycardia is usually a physiological response to various stimuli or conditions, such as physical exertion, strong emotions, fever, anxiety, pain, or certain medications. It can also be caused by hormonal imbalances, anemia, hyperthyroidism, or other medical disorders.

In most cases, sinus tachycardia is not harmful and resolves once the underlying cause is addressed. However, if it occurs persistently or is associated with symptoms like palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest discomfort, further evaluation by a healthcare professional is recommended to rule out any underlying heart conditions or other medical issues.

Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare heart condition characterized by the thickening and stiffening of the endocardium, which is the inner lining of the heart chambers. This thickening is caused by an overgrowth of fibrous tissue and elastic fibers in the endocardium, particularly affecting the left ventricle and atrium.

EFE can occur as a primary condition or secondary to other heart diseases, infections, or genetic disorders. In some cases, it may be associated with conditions such as congenital heart defects, metabolic disorders, or viral infections like coxsackievirus B.

The symptoms of EFE depend on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. They can include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, failure to thrive, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). In severe cases, EFE can lead to heart failure and require medical intervention such as medications or even a heart transplant.

The exact cause of primary EFE is still unknown, but it is believed to involve genetic factors. Secondary EFE is usually a result of damage to the heart muscle due to various causes, including infections, inflammation, or other underlying conditions. Treatment for EFE focuses on addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms to prevent further complications.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Three-dimensional echocardiography (also known as four-dimensional echocardiography when the picture is moving) is now possible ... Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is specialized form of echocardiography that uses catheters to insert the ultrasound probe ... Echocardiography was also the first ultrasound subspecialty to use intravenous contrast. Echocardiography is performed by ... These modes are common to all types of echocardiography. Amplitude mode is not a mode used in modern echocardiography. ...
... , or Fetal echocardiogram, is the name of the test used to diagnose cardiac conditions in the fetal stage ... The critical role of echocardiography in prenatal diagnosis is evident, and both the accuracy and safety of the test are now ... To improve detection, some propose universal fetal echocardiography. But others cite cost and lack of specialized personnel as ... Davey BT, Seubert DE, Phoon CK (Jun 2009). "Indications for fetal echocardiography high referral, low yield?". Obstet Gynecol ...
Basic ultrasound, echocardiography and Doppler for clinicians Echocardiography Textbook by Bonita Anderson Echocardiography ( ... Medical ultrasonography section: Doppler sonography Echocardiography American Society of Echocardiography Christian Doppler " ... Doppler echocardiography is a procedure that uses Doppler ultrasonography to examine the heart. An echocardiogram uses high ... An advantage of Doppler echocardiography is that it can be used to measure blood flow within the heart without invasive ...
... (TDE) is a medical ultrasound technology, specifically a form of echocardiography that measures ... The technique is the same as for flow Doppler echocardiography measuring flow velocities. Tissue signals, however, have higher ... are usually synonymous with TDE because echocardiography is the main use of tissue Doppler. Like Doppler flow, tissue Doppler ...
In the fields of cardiology and medical imaging, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is an echocardiographic imaging ... Role of tissue Doppler and strain echocardiography in current clinical practice. Circulation 2007;116: 2597-609. D'Hooge J, ... Comparison of two-dimensional speckle and tissue Doppler strain measurement during dobutamine stress echocardiography: an ... New noninvasive method for assessment of left ventricular rotation: speckle tracking echocardiography. Circulation. 2005 Nov 15 ...
... (or FATE) is a type of transthoracic echocardiogram, or sonogram of the heart, ... These are all variations of the original theme [1]. Echocardiography "fate protocol" or "focus assessed transthoracic ... echocardiography" - Search Results - PubMed Official FATE protocol website with downloadable FATE card (Articles needing ...
A mobile app developed by ASE called iASE has been rated as one of the top echocardiography apps ASE joined Choosing Wisely in ... "American Society of Echocardiography and Guidelines". pubmed.gov. Retrieved 21 February 2015. "Saving the heart after cancer ... The American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) is a professional organization of physicians, cardiac sonographers, nurses and ... "Choosing Wisely - American Society of Echocardiography". Choosing Wisely. Retrieved 21 February 2015. v t e (Articles needing ...
Echocardiography uses ultrasound to create real-time anatomic images of the heart and its structures. Doppler echocardiography ... Echocardiography Textbook by Bonita Anderson Echocardiography (Ultrasound of the heart) Doppler Examination - Introduction The ... Medical ultrasonography section: Doppler sonography Echocardiography American Society of Echocardiography Christian Doppler Oh ... Numerical manipulation of Doppler parameters obtain during routine Echocardiography has been extensively utilized to non- ...
SCHNEIDER, MICHEL (1999). "Characteristics of SonoVue™". Echocardiography. Wiley. 16 (s1): 743-746. doi:10.1111/j.1540- ...
Diagnosis can occur prenatally via ultrasound or shortly after birth via echocardiography. Initial management is geared to ... Hypoplastic left heart syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally or after birth via echocardiography. Typical findings include a ... Echocardiography. 34 (12): 1834-1841. doi:10.1111/echo.13667. ISSN 1540-8175. PMID 29287139. S2CID 12087225. Tchervenkov, C. I ...
Uses include: Doppler echocardiography is the use of Doppler ultrasonography to examine the heart. An echocardiogram can, ... This contrast medical imaging modality is used throughout the world, for echocardiography in particular in the United States ... Page 161 (part II > Two-dimensional Echocardiography) in: Reves, J. G.; Estafanous, Fawzy G.; Barash, Paul G. (2001). Cardiac ... Other clinical applications using contrast exist, as in echocardiography to improve delineation of left ventricle for ...
Echocardiography. 37 (8): 1321-1322. doi:10.1111/echo.14790. ISSN 0742-2822. PMC 7404830. PMID 32654172. Group, The Severe ...
Cai Q, Ahmad M (June 2020). "Eustachian valve, interatrial shunt, and paradoxical embolism". Echocardiography. 37 (6): 939-944 ...
Echocardiography. 21 (8): 673-9. doi:10.1111/j.0742-2822.2004.03174.x. PMID 15546367. S2CID 25261136. Table 30-1 in: Goers TA, ...
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... confirmation by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography". Echocardiography. 20 (3): 283-287. doi:10.1046/j.1540- ...
The first common measurement method is echocardiography, although cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cardiac computed ... Armstrong WF, Ryan T, Feigenbaum H (2010). Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-9557-9 ... "4.00-Cardiovascular-Adult". Armstrong WF, Ryan T (2012-02-03). Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p ... Echocardiography. 31 (1): 87-100. doi:10.1111/echo.12331. PMC 4231568. PMID 24786629. Asferg C, Usinger L, Kristensen TS, ...
They described how echocardiography could detect many abnormalities of the cardiac valves and chambers, developed early strip ... Harvey Feigenbaum (born 1933) is an American cardiologist known for his life-long work in the field of echocardiography. He ... His seminal article on the diagnosis of pericardial effusions published in 1965 with his technique "brought echocardiography to ... Feigenbaum, Harvey (1986). Echocardiography. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. ISBN 0-8121-0979-1. OCLC 11865839. Ultrasound ...
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In severe cases, echocardiography is performed every 3-6 months. In both moderate and mild cases, the person should immediately ... In moderate cases echocardiography is performed every 1-2 years to monitor the progression, possibly complemented with a ... doi:10.1111/anec.12457 "Senile aortic stenosis". Yale atlas of echocardiography. 1999. Archived from the original on November ... Echocardiography. 28 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8175.2010.01256.x. PMID 20678125. S2CID 205746869. Nathaniel S, Saligram S, ...
Echocardiography can also help to detect congenital heart disease as a cause of pulmonary hypertension. 4-month-old with ... Thus, Doppler echocardiography can suggest the presence of pulmonary hypertension, but right heart catheterization (described ... January 2013). "Echocardiography in pulmonary arterial hypertension: from diagnosis to prognosis". Journal of the American ... If pulmonary hypertension is suspected based on the above assessments, echocardiography is performed as the next step. A meta- ...
From 2002 to 2004, Pinto served as president and founder of the European Association of Echocardiography. From 2008 to 2010, he ... He was then worked as a clinician the Echocardiography laboratory and underwent a fellowship in Interventional Cardiology at ... Echocardiography; Heart failure and Diastology and Hypertension.[citation needed] His main positions are Full Professor of ...
Stoddard, M. F. (2000). "Risk of thromboembolism in acute atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter". Echocardiography. 17 (4): 393 ...
Echocardiography. 20 (1): 71-3. doi:10.1046/j.1540-8175.2003.00010.x. PMID 12848701. S2CID 26572152. Nash, Ira S. (October 2002 ...
Echocardiography is used to diagnose this condition. Other pathologies of the truncus arteriosus include transposition of the ... ISBN 978-0-07-163340-6. "Truncus Arteriosus , Pediatric Echocardiography". "Truncus Arteriosus Imaging: Overview, Radiography, ...
Echocardiography can be conducted by a probe on the chest (transthoracic), or by a probe in the esophagus (transesophageal). A ... Several imaging methods can be used to assess the anatomy and function of the heart, including ultrasound (echocardiography), ... Armstrong, William F.; Ryan, Thomas; Feigenbaum, Harvey (2010). Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ... typical echocardiography report will include information about the width of the valves noting any stenosis, whether there is ...
If a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is suspected, an examination by echocardiography may be performed to diagnose the defect. In ... Shah SN (20 November 2016). Ali YS (ed.). "Imaging Studies - Echocardiography". Patent Foramen Ovale Workup. Medscape. ...
Speckle tracking echocardiography is based on grey scale echocardiography (B-mode), and the fact that the reflected echo from ... Echocardiography 1998,15(8 part 2):S40. Abstract. Urheim S, Edvardsen T, Torp H, Angelsen B, Smiseth OA. Myocardial strain by ... It has been shown to be at least as accurate as B-mode echocardiography. Deformation imaging has also been shown to be useful ... In stress echocardiography (see Cardiac stress test), the regional dysfunction due to ischemia will become evident when the ...
... e-echocardiography.com. Retrieved 2018-03-30. Richard Van Pragh: Cardiac anatomy in A. C. Chang et al.: Pediatric Cardiac ...
American Society of Echocardiography; American Psychosomatic Society; European Association of Echocardiography Iuliu Hatieganu ...
Three-dimensional echocardiography (also known as four-dimensional echocardiography when the picture is moving) is now possible ... Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is specialized form of echocardiography that uses catheters to insert the ultrasound probe ... Echocardiography was also the first ultrasound subspecialty to use intravenous contrast. Echocardiography is performed by ... These modes are common to all types of echocardiography. Amplitude mode is not a mode used in modern echocardiography. ...
Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to evaluate the babys heart for problems before birth. ... Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to evaluate the babys heart for problems before birth. ... Fetal echocardiography is a test that is done while the baby is still in the womb. It is most often done during the second ... Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to evaluate the babys heart for problems before birth. ...
Echocardiography is the use of sound waves to generate images for the assessment and diagnosis of various heart conditions. ... Echocardiography-Advanced Certificate. This certificate is granted to those students who successfully complete the career ... Echocardiography is part of a rapidly expanding health care industry with excellent job opportunities. This profession is ... To learn more about the opportunities that await you in Echocardiography contact:. Tammy Howard, Director of Medical Imaging. ...
span,,b,BACKGROUND.,/b, Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the standard of care for initial evaluation of patients with ... BACKGROUND. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the standard of care for initial evaluation of patients with suspected ... Predictive Value of Cardiac CTA, Cardiac MRI, and Transthoracic Echocardiography for Cardioembolic Stroke Recurrence AJR Am J ...
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Breast cancer echocardiography or ultrasound All Images. X-rays. Echo & Ultrasound. CT ... As a potentially serious side effect of this novel treatment, serial Echocardiography is recommended in all patients treated ... As a potentially serious side effect of this novel treatment serial Echocardiography is recommended in all patients treated ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Breast_cancer_echocardiography_or_ultrasound&oldid=1563265" ...
Get exceptional Echocardiography services from highly experienced & loving pet care professionals in Irving, TX. Visit VCA ... Echocardiography Our hospital offers echocardiography as one of our many cardiology services. An echocardiogram is an ... The power of echocardiography is the ability to look inside the heart at various structures. Wall thickness can be measured, ...
Online Silver Package is our best selling study package for those looking to pass their ARDMS Adult Echocardiography board ... Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Study Guide. ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Study Guide is the ... ULTRA P.A.S.S Adult Echocardiography Interactive Registry Review Online Mock Exam. ULTRA P.A.S.S Adult Echocardiography ... ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Flashcards (Digital Version). ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography ...
Can new magnetic resonance indices interpret cardiac pathophysiology beyond echocardiography?. Email alerts ...
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is often performed in the evaluation of stroke patients to pinpoint the etiology of the ... While transthoracic echocardiography has the advantage of assessing patients non-invasively, TEE is often performed because it ... Transesophageal echocardiography and risk of respiratory failure in patients who had ischemic stroke or transient ischemic ... Post-Stroke Evaluation: How Safe is Transesophageal Echocardiography?. /*. */ Patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke or a ...
NATIONAL BOARD OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, INC.®. 3915 Beryl Road. Unit 130. Raleigh, NC 27607. +1 919. 861. 5582 ... The NBE is excited to launch a NEW longitudinal learning assessment, Maintenance of Testamur in Echocardiography (MOTE) and/or ... CCEeXAM is a federally registered trademark of the National Board of Echocardiography, Inc.. CCE is a federally registered ... The National Board of Echocardiography Inc.® is a physician, volunteer-led not-for-profit corporation. ...
Statistics of the Radio-Frequency Signal Based on K Distribution with Application to Echocardiography ... Statistics of the Radio-Frequency Signal Based on K Distribution with Application to Echocardiography ...
control subjects, cardiac embolic sources, stroke, transesophageal echocardiography. in Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. ... In stroke patients several cardiac changes associated with embolism can be detected with transoesophageal echocardiography. ... In stroke patients several cardiac changes associated with embolism can be detected with transoesophageal echocardiography. ... Cardiac changes in stroke patients and controls evaluated with transoesophageal echocardiography. *Mark ...
echocardiography physics.text - Echocardiography Physic Questions
Effect of Intravenous Phenobarbital on Left Ventricular Myocardial Contractility Determined by Echocardiography in Children ...
Mayo Clinic Echocardiography Board Review Course, 26-30 Apr 2024, Rochester, United States, organized by MAYO Clinic. Find ... New echocardiographic technologies to complement/supplement standard echocardiography. The Mayo Clinic Echocardiography Board ... The Mayo Clinic Echocardiography Board Review Course will be held in Rochester, United States on 26-30 Apr 2024. ... Mayo Clinic Echocardiography Board Review Course - 26-30 Apr 2024, Mayo Civic Center, Rochester, Minnesota, United States ( ...
Echocardiography - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version. ... Stress echocardiography Transthoracic echocardiography is an alternative to radionuclide imaging Radionuclide Imaging of the ... Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most common echocardiography technique. In TTE, a transducer is placed along the ... Color Doppler echocardiography combines 2-dimensional and spectral Doppler echocardiography to provide information about the ...
Atrial Septal Aneurysm: PFO? Transthoracic Echocardiography: Buble Contrast Test 2D, 3D. Date de larticle : 10 octobre 2023 ... Atrial Septal Aneurysm: PFO? Transthoracic Echocardiography: Buble Contrast Test 2D, 3D. Date de larticle : 10 octobre 2023 ...
The levels of inflammatory biomarkers and myocardial damage biomarkers were measured through ELISA, while echocardiography was ... Echocardiography. On day 28, echocardiography was performed on all rats in each group to evaluate cardiac function. A high- ... measured by echocardiography. Data represented as Mean ± SD (n = 5). C Echocardiography of rat heart. D H&E staining of heart ... Echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function. The treatment with SMYA led to a reduction in LVEDs and LVEDd values and ...
Cost: $3.99. Sandpiper Gene Search makes it easy to find information about genes of interest from the convenience of your phone. Users can search for genes by gene symbol, aliases, or keywords. Each gene page provides a wealth of information about the genes family, chromosomal location, and additional symbols and aliases used to refer to the gene. The app also includes information about previous symbols used for the genes, ensuring that users can find the information they need even if the symbol for which theyre searching isnt up-to-date. Additionally, there is a detailed summary included about the genes known functions. The app also allows users to take notes on particular genes and export them into an email. Sandpiper Gene Search is a great tool for searching for genes of interest even when youre on the go.. ...
Primaya Hospital adalah jaringan rumah sakit berstandar Internasional dengan layanan kesehatan yang modern dan professional.. ...
The introduction version of CARDIO3® Atlas of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance includes the random list of MR images and videos from our database as reference/learning tool for cardiologists, radiologists, internists, other physicians evaluating magnetic resonance images in cardiology. ...
This is the first part of a multi-part series on the topic of point-of-care echocardiography. In this initial episode, we will ... This is my synthesis of years of doing both critical care and echocardiography at the point of care. You will have your own, or ... Learn Echocardiography , Standard Protocol for Performing Comprehensive Echocardiogram , Explained with Images and Videos. If ... A very common and early part of point-of-care echocardiography, the assessment for pericardial effusion made its way into the ...
Echocardiography plays a major role in screening and assisting in making the diagnosis of PPHN. It is considered the most ... Echocardiography with Doppler and color-flow mapping allows the physician to assess the presence and direction of the shunt at ... Echocardiography is also used to define the anatomy of the pulmonary veins and to rule out obstructed total anomalous pulmonary ... Echocardiography. The diagnosis of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) should be suspected whenever the ...
... our Echocardiography (ECHO) Facility stands as a testament to our commitment to providing exceptional cardiac care using ... CTS Speciality Hospitals Echocardiography Facility is more than just a diagnostic center; its a cornerstone of our commitment ... At CTS Speciality Hospital, our Echocardiography (ECHO) Facility stands as a testament to our commitment to providing ...
... Scali M. C.;Zagatina A.;Ciampi Q.;Cortigiani L.; ... Methods: The authors prospectively performed transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and LUS in 2,145 patients referred for ... Methods: The authors prospectively performed transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and LUS in 2,145 patients referred for ... The purpose of this study was to assess the functional and prognostic correlates of B-lines during stress echocardiography (SE ...
Echocardiography. The segment of coarctation may usually be visualized by 2-dimensional echocardiography; associated anomalies ... Early Postnatal Echocardiography in Neonates with a Prenatal Suspicion of Coarctation of the Aorta. Pediatr Cardiol. 2020 Apr. ... Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for suspected CoA, but cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) ... Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for suspected CoA, but cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) ...
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Like echocardiography, transesophaeal echocardiography uses ultrasound waves to create ... Fetal echocardiography. Fetal echocardiography is a test that is done while the baby is still in the womb. It is usually done ... Echocardiography. Echocardiography uses ultrasound, or high frequency sound waves, to view the heart. This is a safe (non- ... Echocardiography is an excellent test for measuring the size of heart chambers and the thickness of the wall, how well the ...
Writing Group of the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE), European Association of Echocardiography (EAE), Association ... Targeted neonatal echocardiography in the neonatal intensive care unit: practice guidelines and recommendations for training:. ... Targeted neonatal echocardiography in the neonatal intensive care unit: practice guidelines and recommendations for training:. ... "Targeted neonatal echocardiography in the neonatal intensive care unit: practice guidelines and recommendations for training: ...
GE Vivid Learning Academy: Strain imaging in echocardiography. ... Learn more about strain imaging in echocardiography with ... Dr Christos G Mihos is the Director of the Echocardiography Laboratory at Columbia University Division of Cardiology at Mount ... GE Vivid Learning Academy: Strain Imaging in Echocardiography Published: 13 September 2022 ... outlines the basics and applications of strain echocardiography. The series addresses pertinent topics including quantitative ...
  • Transesophageal echocardiography, also known as TEE, is an echocardiogram made using endoscopy. (chp.edu)
  • Post-Stroke Evaluation: How Safe is Transesophageal Echocardiography? (nyp.org)
  • Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is often performed in the evaluation of stroke patients to pinpoint the etiology of the stroke and potential sources of cardiac embolism. (nyp.org)
  • Special article: basic perioperative transesophageal echocardiography examination: a consensus statement of the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. (snacc.org)
  • In transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), a transducer on the tip of an endoscope allows visualization of the heart via the stomach and esophagus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A 66 years old male patient, with an history of previous cardiac surgery for mitral annuloplasty and recurrent fever, came to the attention of our echo lab with an indication for transesophageal echocardiography after previous inconclusive transthoracic echocardiograms. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • The American Society of Echocardiography is an organization of professionals working to advance cardiovascular ultrasound and improve lives through excellence in education, research, innovation, advocacy, and service to the profession and the public. (asecho.org)
  • Recommendations for the imaging assessment of prosthetic heart valves: a report from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging endorsed by the Chinese Society of Echocardiography, the Inter-American Society of Echocardiography, and the Brazilian Department of Cardiovascular Imaging Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • Concentric hypertrophy was defined as elevated RWT and LVmi, eccentric hypertrophy defined by elevated LVmi with normal RWT and concentric remodelling defined as elevated RWT with normal LVmi, per 2015 American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. (cdc.gov)
  • Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the standard of care for initial evaluation of patients with suspected cardioembolic stroke. (nih.gov)
  • While transthoracic echocardiography has the advantage of assessing patients non-invasively, TEE is often performed because it can provide better visualization of certain cardioembolic sources. (nyp.org)
  • Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most common echocardiography technique. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Echocardiography, also known as cardiac ultrasound, is the use of ultrasound to examine the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Echocardiography is an important tool in assessing wall motion abnormality in patients with suspected cardiac disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Echocardiography is performed by cardiac sonographers, cardiac physiologists (UK), or physicians trained in echocardiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognized as the "Father of Echocardiography", the Swedish physician Inge Edler (1911-2001), a graduate of Lund University, was the first of his profession to apply ultrasonic pulse echo imaging in diagnosing cardiac disease, which the acoustical physicist Floyd Firestone had developed to detect defects in metal castings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnostic criteria for numerous cardiac diseases are based on echocardiography studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac effects of anthracycline therapy based on speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and to identify patients at risk for cardiotoxicity. (karger.com)
  • ULTRA P.A.S.S Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Workbook is the perfect workbook to prepare for your Adult Echocardiography or Cardiac Sonographer boards. (gcus.com)
  • Consistent with the current ARDMS and CCI outlines, the ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Workbook provides a comprehensive review of the information needed to successfully pass the adult echocardiography or cardiac sonographer registry examinations. (gcus.com)
  • ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Flashcards (Digital Version) are designed based upon qualified requests from the medical community, expanding utilization of cardiac ultrasound, and laboratory accreditation/certification requirements. (gcus.com)
  • Can new magnetic resonance indices interpret cardiac pathophysiology beyond echocardiography? (bmj.com)
  • In stroke patients several cardiac changes associated with embolism can be detected with transoesophageal echocardiography. (lu.se)
  • Echocardiography is considered the most reliable noninvasive test to establish the diagnosis, assess cardiac function, and exclude associated structural heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • Not only can an echocardiogram create ultrasound images of heart structures, but it can also produce accurate assessment of the blood flowing through the heart by Doppler echocardiography, using pulsed- or continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Echocardiography was also the first ultrasound subspecialty to use intravenous contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) to evaluate the baby's heart for problems before birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It may still be necessary to repeat an ultrasound of the baby's heart following delivery to confirm findings seen on fetal echocardiography and evaluate areas not previously seen clearly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This comprehensive ultrasound registry review mock exam contains 409 questions relating to Adult Echocardiography. (gcus.com)
  • All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, carotid ultrasound and transthoracic/transoesophageal echocardiography. (lu.se)
  • Echocardiography uses ultrasound waves to produce an image of the heart, the heart valves, and the great vessels. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Doppler technique can also be used for tissue motion and velocity measurement, by tissue Doppler echocardiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doppler echocardiography is used to measure and assess the flow of blood through the heart's chambers and valves. (chp.edu)
  • Color Doppler is an enhanced form of Doppler echocardiography. (chp.edu)
  • Real time 3D echocardiography and 3D color doppler imaging resulted of outmost importance to clarify the presence of annular ring dehiscence, previously not well defined from 2D echocardiography imaging. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • Introduction: Myocardial deformation assessed by two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) allows accurate evaluation of regional and global left ventricular (LV) function and is sensitive to detect abnormalities induced by ischemia. (longdom.org)
  • Objective: To examine the value of speckle tracking echocardiography to detect the presence, extent and severity of coronary artery affection in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. (longdom.org)
  • citation needed] There are three primary types of echocardiography: transthoracic, transesophageal, and intracardic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult Echocardiography Registry Review - Online Silver Package is our best selling study package for those looking to pass their ARDMS Adult Echocardiography board examination. (gcus.com)
  • If you are looking to pass your exam on the first attempt, the Adult Echocardiography Registry Review - Online Silver Package is the perfect study package for you. (gcus.com)
  • Adult Echocardiography Registry Review - Online Silver Package includes. (gcus.com)
  • The ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Workbook provides comprehensive written and narrated formats. (gcus.com)
  • The ULTRA P.A.S.S Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Workbook includes 301 pages, self-tests, and media that can be played on both personal computers and mobile devices. (gcus.com)
  • ULTRA P.A.S.S Adult Echocardiography Interactive Registry Review Online Mock Exam is an excellent self-assessment tool for the medical professional preparing to take the Adult Echocardiography Registry Examination, or for the educator who has a desire to enhance their current registry review curriculum. (gcus.com)
  • The questions within the ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Interactive Online Mock Exam is based on current registry examination content outlines and are presented in a similar format. (gcus.com)
  • The Adult Echocardiography Mock Exam includes both an exam mode and a study mode. (gcus.com)
  • The ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Interactive Online Mock Exam is available in an interactive Online Exam (Mac & PC). (gcus.com)
  • The ULTRA P.A.S.S. Adult Echocardiography Registry Review Flashcards 4th Edition (Digital Version) contain 505 questions (including assorted images, diagrams and charts) designed after the actual registry format, and provides a method of final testing to determine the areas of weakness that may require further study, while at the same time reinforcing the material with which you are already comfortable. (gcus.com)
  • An emerging branch is fetal echocardiography, which involves echocardiography of an unborn fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal echocardiography is a test that is done while the baby is still in the womb. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some heart defects cannot be seen before birth, even with fetal echocardiography. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fetal echocardiography: congenital heart disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Yaranov DM, Sattiraju S. 3D transoesophageal echocardiography in evaluation of mitral valve annuloplasty ring dehiscence Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2018 Mar 1;2(1):yty026. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • The levels of inflammatory biomarkers and myocardial damage biomarkers were measured through ELISA, while echocardiography was used to assess heart function. (springer.com)
  • The advanced echocardiography technique called myocardial work (MW), through the analysis of the left ventricular pressure - strain loop, is among the possibilities for evaluating these individuals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Echocardiography now has a vast role in pediatrics, diagnosing patients with valvular heart disease and other congenital abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • DL has been applied across a variety of medical fields, driven by specialties that use magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, mammography, and computed tomography scans and therefore have large data sets of annotated images available. (cdc.gov)
  • Our hospital offers echocardiography as one of our many cardiology services. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The Mayo Clinic Echocardiography Board Review Course is intended for cardiologists, echocardiographers, and cardiology fellows. (clocate.com)
  • A concise, easy-to-use manual of basic two dimensional and m-mode echocardiography for the non-specialist. (routledge.com)
  • 2-D (2-dimensional) echocardiography is used to "see" the actual structures and motion of the heart structures. (chp.edu)
  • EAE/ASE recommendations for image acquisition and display using three-dimensional echocardiography Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • Left ventricular mass measured by three-dimensional echocardiography , systolic wall stress, relative wall thickness and peak systolic dispersion were inversely correlated to GWE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of its extensive experience, the echocardiography "core" laboratory at Mayo Clinic, directed by Dr. Jae K. Oh, was selected to review the echocardiograms. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of its reputation and extensive experience, the echocardiography laboratory at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., was chosen to review the study's echocardiograms. (cdc.gov)
  • Echocardiography is the use of sound waves to generate images for the assessment and diagnosis of various heart conditions. (dacc.edu)
  • Echocardiography uses sound waves to assess the heart's function and structures. (chp.edu)
  • The NBE is excited to launch a NEW longitudinal learning assessment, Maintenance of Testamur in Echocardiography (MOTE) and/or Maintenance of Certification in Echocardiography (MOCE) in 2024, which will replace our 10-year recertification process ! (echoboards.org)
  • Real time 3D echocardiography has an established incremental diagnostic value over 2D imaging, especially during transesophageal evaluation of native and prosthetic heart valves. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • However, despite advances in imaging, diagnostic confirmation is often achieved only after postnatal echocardiography is performed. (medscape.com)
  • In cases that are well defined by echocardiography, diagnostic catheterization is usually not required before surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Methods: 200 candidates with suspected stable angina pectoris and normal resting conventional echocardiography were subjected to 2D-STE and coronary angiography. (longdom.org)
  • The Mayo Clinic Echocardiography Board Review Course will be held in Rochester, United States on 26-30 Apr 2024. (clocate.com)
  • When 3D echocardiography truly makes the difference: a case report of mitral annular ring dehiscence. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • Health societies recommend the use of echocardiography for initial diagnosis when a change in the patient's clinical status occurs and when new data from an echocardiogram would result in the physician changing the patient's care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional echocardiography and STE were performed 1 month prior to and 1 month after chemotherapy. (karger.com)
  • Echocardiography;39(11): 1412-1419, 2022 11. (bvsalud.org)
  • Echocardiography can help detect cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small differences between Ponce and Mayo findings were attributed to the limited precision of the trans-thoracic echocardiography measurement technique. (cdc.gov)
  • Echocardiography is routinely used in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with any suspected or known heart diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common example of overuse of echocardiography when not indicated is the use of routine testing in response to a patient diagnosis of mild valvular heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were experts with international reputations in echocardiography and environmental or cardiovascular epidemiology. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of stress echocardiography may also help determine whether any chest pain or associated symptoms are related to heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the meeting was to review the methods, results and public health significance of PSM's Vieques Heart Study, considering the echocardiography readings of both PSM and the Mayo Clinic. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Board of Echocardiography Inc. ® is a physician, volunteer-led not-for-profit corporation. (echoboards.org)
  • M-mode echocardiography is the simplest type of echocardiography, and produces an image similar to a EKG tracing rather than an actual picture of heart structures. (chp.edu)
  • This certificate is granted to those students who successfully complete the career curriculum that is Echocardiography. (dacc.edu)
  • National Board of Echocardiography, Inc. (echoboards.org)
  • CCEeXAM is a federally registered trademark of the National Board of Echocardiography, Inc. (echoboards.org)
  • Echocardiography is part of a rapidly expanding health care industry with excellent job opportunities. (dacc.edu)
  • Echocardiography Department of InCor- A Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School (USP), São Paulo, Brasil. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Society and the field of Echocardiography are featured in a set of videos capturing the recollections of ASE's founders and first past presidents. (asecho.org)

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