An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.
A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.
Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is the name of a country located in Central Asia, known officially as the Kyrgyz Republic.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Veins which drain the liver.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uzbekistan" is a country located in Central Asia and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Bulgaria" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It is actually the name of a country located in southeastern Europe, known officially as the Republic of Bulgaria.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Peru. If you have any questions about medical topics that I can help clarify, please let me know!
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Uruguay" is a country's name located in South America and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical conditions, diseases, or healthcare in Uruguay, I would be happy to help with those!
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
'Splenic diseases' refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or integrity of the spleen, leading to various symptoms and potential complications such as anemia, infection, or abdominal pain.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.

Laparoscopic management of benign solid and cystic lesions of the liver. (1/289)

OBJECTIVE: The authors present their experience in the laparoscopic management of benign liver disease. The aim of the study is to analyze technical feasibility and evaluate immediate and long-term outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Indications for the laparoscopic management of varied abdominal conditions have evolved. Although the minimally invasive treatment of liver cysts has been reported, the laparoscopic approach to other liver lesions remains undefined. METHODS: Between September 1990 and October 1997, 43 patients underwent laparoscopic liver surgery. There were two groups of benign lesions: cysts (n = 31) and solid tumors (n = 12). Indications were solitary giant liver cysts (n = 16), polycystic liver disease (n = 9), hydatid cyst (n = 6), focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3), and adenoma (n = 9). Only solid tumors, hydatid cysts, and patients with polycystic disease and large dominant cysts located in anterior liver segments were included. All giant solitary liver cysts were considered for laparoscopy. Patients with cholangitis, cirrhosis, and significant cardiac disease were excluded. Data were collected prospectively. RESULTS: The procedures were completed laparoscopically in 40 patients. Median size was 4 cm for solid nodules and 14 cm for solitary liver cysts. Conversion occurred in three patients (7%), for bleeding (n = 2) and impingement of a solid tumor on the inferior vena cava (n = 1). The median operative time was 179 minutes. All solitary liver cysts were fenestrated in less than 1 hour. There were no deaths. Complications occurred in 6 cases (14.1%). Two hemorrhagic and two infectious complications were noted after management of hydatid cysts. There were no complications after resection of solid tumors. Three patients received transfusions (7%). The median length of stay was 4.7 days. Median follow-up was 30 months. There was no recurrence of solitary liver or hydatid cysts. One patient with polycystic disease had symptomatic recurrent cysts at 6 months requiring laparotomy. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic liver surgery can be accomplished safely in selected patients with small benign solid tumors located in the anterior liver segments and giant solitary cysts. The laparoscopic management of polycystic liver disease should be reserved for patients with a limited number of large, anteriorly located cysts. Hydatid disease is best treated through an open approach.  (+info)

Alveolar echinococcosis in China. (2/289)

DATA SOURCES: All reference data originated from related Chinese- or English-language literature in Chinese journals. STUDY SELECTION: Twenty-three original articles published in 1992-1996 were selected according to the stated purpose and 9 of them were written by myself. DATA EXTRACTION: The present paper dealt with 5 subtopics, i.e. epidemiology, parasitology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. RESULTS: Five hundred and eighty-four patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) have been reported from 7 provinces or autonomous regions. Human infection rate was 19.2% or 2.8%, and the morbidity was 2.4%-5.0%. The intermediate hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis included 7 species of rodents and 3 species of livestocks, and the final hosts of that were fox, dog or wolf. Diagnosis of AE was chiefly based on imaging examination (ultrasound and CT) and immunological test. The operative resection rate for liver AE was only 10.5% (27/258). Albendazole was a certain remedy for the chemotherapy of AE, and TCM "Xiao-Bao" pill may be a hopeful drug. CONCLUSIONS: In the past 30 years, a lot of work concerning basic and clinical studies has been done in China and some achievements have been achieved. However, some important problems such as how to conduct further research on molecular biology, how to make early diagnosis, how to improve the chemotherapeutic effect, and how to control the prevalence of AE, need to be studied more deeply in the 21st century.  (+info)

Diagnosis and classification of hepatic echinococcosis by ultrasonography. (3/289)

OBJECTIVE: To make an early and correct diagnosis of hepatic echinococcosis. METHODS: A total of 1092 patients with hepatic echinococcosis underwent operation in our hospital between 1984 and 1995. Of these patients, 427 (39.1%) were cases with complications, including secondary infection, rupture, obstructive jaundice, anaphylactic shock, disseminated implantation with resultant multiple echinococcosis and portal hypertension. The ultrasonic examination has been generally used in clinical practice for comprehensive evaluation which can dectedct the preoperative diagnostic accuracy rate. RESULTS: B-mode ultrasonography can be used not only to detect the location, dimension and pathological characteristics of hydatid cyst but also to show the pathological changes of various complications caused by echinococcosis. Seven patterns specific ultrasonic scanning images were revealed. In this series the diagnostic accuracy rate reached 98.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonic examination is harmless to human body, and has been widely used in combination with immunological tests in clinical and epidemiological studies to detect the asymptomatic parasite carriers in early stage and to improve the preoperative diagnostic accuracy rate.  (+info)

Immunological diagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis: utility of discriminant analysis applied to the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. (4/289)

An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the diagnosis of human hydatid disease was performed, and the different antibody responses were analyzed by a discriminant analysis. This multivariate technique gave us, first, a selection of the most important responses against Echinococcus granulosus infection and, second, a procedure for the classification of patients into two groups: patients with hydatid disease and patients without a history of hydatid disease. This method was applied to 67 patients, 25 with active hydatid cysts (24 hepatic and 1 pulmonary) and 42 without a history of hydatid disease and was compared with the results obtained by conventional serology: indirect hemagglutination, latex particle agglutination, and basophil degranulation. An immunoelectrotransfer blot coupled to a discriminant analysis was more sensitive than conventional serological diagnosis and detected 100% of patients with an active hepatic hydatid cyst with a specificity of 100%. This method, however, failed to detect an uncomplicated hyaline pulmonary hydatid cyst.  (+info)

The real incidence of extracapsular (satellite) cysts of liver echinococcus. (5/289)

BACKGROUND: The presence of extracapsular (Satellite) cysts in liver echinococcus granulosus is known for many years. In one of our previous studies of radiological (CT) material they were found to be present in 16% of cases. METHODS: In the present study the operative findings, in cases of total capsectomy (cystopericystectomy) or partial lobectomy are presented. RESULTS: The real incidence of these cysts in operative specimens was as high as 29,5%. They were present in 15 out of 51 totally excised cysts. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that satellite cysts are present more often than they are radiologically detected. As they can be incriminated as a cause of recurrence of the disease they must be excised en block with the main parasitic cysts, by means of more radical procedures such as cystopericystectomy or partial hepatectomy, whenever it is feasible.  (+info)

Surgical management of calcified hydatid cysts of the liver. (6/289)

Hydatid disease of the liver is still a major cause of morbidity in Greece. Beside the common complications of rupture and suppuration, calcification of the hepatic cysts represent a not well studied, less frequent and sometimes difficult surgical problem. In the present study 75 cases with calcified symptomatic liver echinococcosis were operated on in the 1st Propedeutic Surgical Clinic between 1964 to 1996. Twenty-eight patients were male and 47 female with ages from 23 to 78 years. The diagnosis was based mainly on the clinical picture and radiological studies. In 5 cases the operative method was cystopericystectomy. We performed evacuation of the cystic cavity and partial pericystectomy and primary closure of the residual cavity in 6 cases, omentoplasty or filling of the residual cavity with a piece of muscle of the diaphragm in 4 cases and external drainage by closed tube, in 60 cases. In 12 of those with drainage, after a period of time, a second operation with easy, removal of most of the calcareous wall plaques was performed. The mortality rate was 2%. Our results could be considered satisfactory. In the calcified parasitic cysts of the liver the proposed technique is cystopericystectomy. An alternative procedure is pericystectomy and drainage with a "planned" reoperation with a bloodless, due to intervening inflammation, chiseling of the calcification.  (+info)

Long-term evaluation of patients with hydatidosis treated with benzimidazole carbamates. (7/289)

Four hundred forty-eight patients with 929 Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts received 3- to 6-month continuous cycles of mebendazole or albendazole treatment and underwent prolonged follow-up by clinical visits and imaging studies (range, 1-14 years) to assess the long-term outcome of treatment. Degenerative changes and relapse were assessed by imaging techniques. At the end of therapy, 74.1% of the hydatid cysts showed degenerative changes. These were more frequent in albendazole-treated than in mebendazole-treated cysts (82.2% vs. 56.1%; P < .001). During long-term follow-up, 104 cysts (22%) had degenerative changes that progressed, whereas 163 cysts (approximately 25%) relapsed. The percentages of relapses in the two drug-treated groups were almost the same. Relapses occurred more frequently in type II cysts of the liver. Cysts recurred most often (78.5%; P < .001) within the first 2 years after treatment ended. Further chemotherapy cycles induced degenerative changes in >90% of relapsed cysts without inducing more frequent or more severe side effects than those observed during the initial cycles.  (+info)

Pericystic metabolic activity in alveolar echinococcosis: assessment and follow-up by positron emission tomography. (8/289)

Information on parasite viability in alveolar echinococcosis (AE) cannot be obtained by conventional imaging techniques. We evaluated the glucose metabolism of AE lesions by use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in 12 inoperable patients. Eight patients showed either perilesional or focal enhancement ("hot spots"), whereas 4 patients had nonenhancing (metabolically inactive) lesions. With PET, necrotic parasitic lesions and areas of enhanced metabolic activity could be clearly discriminated. Most notably, 3 of 8 patients with metabolically active lesions who were reexamined after chemotherapy treatment clearly showed improvement: the initial surrounding hot spots had disappeared in 2 of them, and had significantly decreased in 1. PET may prove valuable in assessing the efficacy of chemotherapy by showing the disappearance of metabolic activity and may also be useful for timely detection of relapses and metastases. Although costly and not readily available, FDG-PET is a promising tool toward improved management of AE and may thus help lower costs of long-term chemotherapy.  (+info)

Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. There are several species of Echinococcus that can cause disease in humans, but the most common ones are Echinococcus granulosus (causing cystic echinococcosis) and Echinococcus multilocularis (causing alveolar echinococcosis).

Humans typically become infected with echinococcosis by accidentally ingesting eggs of the tapeworm, which are shed in the feces of infected animals such as dogs, foxes, and wolves. The eggs hatch in the small intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs in the body, where they form cysts or hydatids.

The symptoms of echinococcosis depend on the location and size of the cysts. Cystic echinococcosis often affects the liver and lungs, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, cough, and shortness of breath. Alveolar echinococcosis typically involves the liver and can cause chronic liver disease, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

Treatment of echinococcosis may involve surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or both. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with dogs and other animals that may be infected with Echinococcus, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

Echinococcosis, hepatic is a type of parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The infection typically occurs when a person accidentally ingests microscopic eggs of the tapeworm, which can be present in contaminated food, water, or soil.

Once inside the body, the eggs hatch and release larvae that can migrate to various organs, including the liver. In the liver, the larvae form hydatid cysts, which are fluid-filled sacs that can grow slowly over several years, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice.

Hepatic echinococcosis is a serious condition that can lead to complications such as cyst rupture, infection, or organ damage if left untreated. Treatment options include surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or a combination of both. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

Pulmonary echinococcosis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. The infection occurs when the eggs of the tapeworm, which are passed in the feces of an infected animal (usually a dog or fox), are ingested by another host (usually a human). Once inside the body, the eggs hatch and release larvae that can migrate to various organs, including the lungs. In the lungs, the larvae form hydatid cysts, which can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by medication to prevent recurrence.

'Echinococcus' is a genus of tapeworms that can cause serious infections known as echinococcosis in humans and other animals. The most common species that infect humans are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis.

Echinococcus granulosus typically causes cystic echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease, which affects the liver, lungs, or other organs. The tapeworm's eggs are passed in the feces of infected animals, such as dogs or sheep, and can be ingested by humans, leading to the development of cysts in various organs.

Echinococcus multilocularis typically causes alveolar echinococcosis, a more severe and invasive form of the disease that affects the liver and can spread to other organs. This species has a complex life cycle involving small mammals as intermediate hosts and canids (such as foxes or dogs) as definitive hosts.

Human infections with Echinococcus are rare but can lead to severe health complications if left untreated. Preventive measures include proper hygiene, avoiding contact with infected animals, and cooking meat thoroughly before consumption.

'Echinococcus multilocularis' is a species of tapeworm that causes alveolar echinococcosis, a serious and potentially fatal infection. This tapeworm is most commonly found in foxes and other wild canids, but it can also infect domestic dogs and cats. The life cycle of this parasite involves the ingestion of eggs shed in the feces of an infected animal by another animal, such as a rodent. Once inside the new host, the eggs hatch into larvae that migrate to various organs, particularly the liver, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and may eventually cause serious complications if left untreated.

Humans can become accidentally infected with 'Echinococcus multilocularis' by ingesting contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with an infected animal. The infection can be asymptomatic for many years, but it can eventually lead to the formation of hydatid cysts in various organs, particularly the liver and lungs. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by anti-parasitic medication to eliminate any remaining parasites. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with foxes or other wild canids, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

'Echinococcus granulosus' is a species of tapeworm that causes hydatid disease or echinococcosis in humans and other animals. The adult worms are small, typically less than 1 cm in length, and live in the intestines of their definitive hosts, which are usually dogs or other canids.

The life cycle of 'Echinococcus granulosus' involves the shedding of eggs in the feces of the definitive host, which are then ingested by an intermediate host, such as a sheep or a human. Once inside the intermediate host, the eggs hatch and release larvae that migrate to various organs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and may cause significant damage to the affected organ.

Humans can become accidentally infected with 'Echinococcus granulosus' by ingesting contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected dogs. The treatment of hydatid disease typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by anti-parasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. Prevention measures include proper hygiene and sanitation practices, as well as regular deworming of dogs and other definitive hosts.

Anticestodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by tapeworms (cestodes) and other related parasites. These agents work by either stunting the growth or killing the parasites, which allows the body to expel them naturally. Common anticestodal agents include niclosamide, praziquantel, and albendazole. It is important to note that proper diagnosis of the specific type of tapeworm infection is necessary for effective treatment, as different medications may be more or less effective against certain species.

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tibet" is not a medical term. It is a region in Asia that is currently under the political control of China, although it has a distinct cultural and historical heritage. Tibet is geographically located in the Tibetan Plateau, which is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of over 14,000 feet (4,267 meters) above sea level.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

Mebendazole is a medication used to treat various types of worm infections, such as roundworm, whipworm, hookworm, and threadworm. It belongs to a class of drugs called anthelmintics, which work by preventing the worms from absorbing nutrients, leading to their eventual death and elimination from the body.

Mebendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, chewable tablets, and suspensions. It is usually taken as a single dose or for several days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that mebendazole is not effective against all types of worm infections, so it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional. Additionally, while taking mebendazole, it's recommended to maintain good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contaminated food or water, to prevent reinfection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Foxes" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. The common fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a species of small omnivorous mammals, and while there can be medical issues related to foxes or other animals in certain contexts, such as zoonotic diseases, "Foxes" itself does not have a medical connotation. If you have any specific medical query, I'd be happy to try and help with that.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Helminth DNA refers to the genetic material found in parasitic worms that belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and Nematoda (roundworms). These parasites can infect various organs and tissues of humans and animals, causing a range of diseases.

Helminths have complex life cycles involving multiple developmental stages and hosts. The study of their DNA has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, genetic diversity, and mechanisms of pathogenesis. It has also facilitated the development of molecular diagnostic tools for identifying and monitoring helminth infections.

Understanding the genetic makeup of these parasites is crucial for developing effective control strategies, including drug discovery, vaccine development, and disease management.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uzbekistan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

I apologize, but "Bulgaria" is not a medical term or condition. It is a country located in southeastern Europe, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and natural beauty. If you have any questions related to the field of medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Antinematodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by nematodes, which are also known as roundworms. These agents work by either killing the parasitic worms or preventing them from reproducing. Some examples of antinematodal agents include albendazole, ivermectin, and mebendazole. These medications are used to treat a variety of nematode infections, such as ascariasis, hookworm infection, and strongyloidiasis. It is important to note that the use of antinematodal agents should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mongolia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms belonging to the phylum Platyhelminthes, also known as flatworms. Cestodes are commonly known as tapeworms and have a long, flat, segmented body that can grow to considerable length in their adult form. They lack a digestive system and absorb nutrients through their body surface.

Cestodes have a complex life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts, usually insects or crustaceans, and a definitive host, which is typically a mammal, including humans. The tapeworm's larval stage develops in the intermediate host, and when the definitive host consumes the infected intermediate host, the larvae mature into adults in the host's intestine.

Humans can become infected with tapeworms by eating raw or undercooked meat from infected animals or through accidental ingestion of contaminated water or food containing tapeworm eggs or larvae. Infection with tapeworms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin deficiencies.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Cestode infections, also known as tapeworm infections, are caused by the ingestion of larval cestodes (tapeworms) present in undercooked meat or contaminated water. The most common types of cestode infections in humans include:

1. Taeniasis: This is an infection with the adult tapeworm of the genus Taenia, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Humans become infected by consuming undercooked beef or pork that contains viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae then mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can live for several years, producing eggs that are passed in the feces.
2. Hydatid disease: This is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, which is commonly found in dogs and other carnivores. Humans become infected by accidentally ingesting eggs present in dog feces or contaminated food or water. The eggs hatch in the human intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs, such as the liver or lungs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms depending on their location and size.
3. Diphyllobothriasis: This is an infection with the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, which is found in freshwater fish. Humans become infected by consuming raw or undercooked fish that contain viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Preventing cestode infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meat thoroughly, avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish, and washing fruits and vegetables carefully before eating. In some cases, treatment with antiparasitic drugs may be necessary to eliminate the tapeworms from the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South America, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Emerging communicable diseases are infections whose incidence has increased in the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. These diseases can be caused by new microbial agents, or by previously known agents that have newly acquired the ability to cause disease in humans. They may also result from changes in human demographics, behavior, or travel patterns, or from technological or environmental changes. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infection, and West Nile fever.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uruguay" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help!

To provide some general information about Uruguay, it is bordered by Argentina to the west and Brazil to the north and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to the south and southeast. The capital and largest city of Uruguay is Montevideo. Uruguay is known for its rich cultural history, beautiful landscapes, and progressive social policies.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with liver dysfunction and/or portosystemic shunting. It results from the accumulation of toxic substances, such as ammonia and inflammatory mediators, which are normally metabolized by the liver. HE can present with a wide range of symptoms, including changes in sleep-wake cycle, altered mental status, confusion, disorientation, asterixis (flapping tremor), and in severe cases, coma. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and exclusion of other causes of cognitive impairment. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying liver dysfunction, reducing ammonia production through dietary modifications and medications, and preventing further episodes with lactulose or rifaximin therapy.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

Hepatic stellate cells, also known as Ito cells or lipocytes, are specialized perisinusoidal cells located in the space of Disse in the liver. They play a crucial role in maintaining the normal architecture and function of the liver. In response to liver injury or disease, these cells can become activated and transform into myofibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components and contribute to fibrosis and scarring in the liver. This activation process is regulated by various signaling pathways and mediators, including cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress. Hepatic stellate cells also have the ability to store vitamin A and lipids, which they can release during activation to support hepatocyte function and regeneration.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Splenic diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the spleen. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, which plays a vital role in filtering the blood and fighting infections. Some common splenic diseases include:

1. Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen due to various causes such as infections, liver disease, blood disorders, or cancer.
2. Hypersplenism: Overactivity of the spleen leading to excessive removal of blood cells from circulation, causing anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia.
3. Splenic infarction: Partial or complete blockage of the splenic artery or its branches, resulting in tissue death and potential organ dysfunction.
4. Splenic rupture: Traumatic or spontaneous tearing of the spleen capsule, causing internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening conditions.
5. Infections: Bacterial (e.g., sepsis, tuberculosis), viral (e.g., mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus), fungal (e.g., histoplasmosis), or parasitic (e.g., malaria) infections can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
6. Hematologic disorders: Conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, lymphomas, leukemias, or myeloproliferative neoplasms can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement or dysfunction.
7. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or vasculitis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
8. Cancers: Primary (e.g., splenic tumors) or secondary (e.g., metastatic cancer from other organs) malignancies can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement, dysfunction, or rupture.
9. Vascular abnormalities: Conditions such as portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, or splenic vein thrombosis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
10. Trauma: Accidental or intentional injuries to the spleen can lead to bleeding, infection, or organ dysfunction.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the obstruction of the hepatic veins, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the liver to the heart. This obstruction can be caused by blood clots, tumors, or other abnormalities, and it can lead to a backflow of blood in the liver, resulting in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, swelling, and liver enlargement. In severe cases, Budd-Chiari syndrome can cause liver failure and other complications if left untreated. The diagnosis of this condition typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and treatment may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolytic therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Helminth proteins refer to the proteins that are produced and expressed by helminths, which are parasitic worms that cause diseases in humans and animals. These proteins can be found on the surface or inside the helminths and play various roles in their biology, such as in development, reproduction, and immune evasion. Some helminth proteins have been identified as potential targets for vaccines or drug development, as blocking their function may help to control or eliminate helminth infections. Examples of helminth proteins that have been studied include the antigen Bm86 from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, and the tetraspanin protein Sm22.6 from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

There is no single medical definition for "Monkey Diseases." However, monkeys can carry and be infected with various diseases that are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans. Some examples include:

1. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV): A virus similar to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS in monkeys. It is not typically harmful to monkeys but can cause AIDS in humans if transmitted, which is rare.
2. Herpes B Virus: Also known as Macacine herpesvirus 1 or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, it is a virus that commonly infects macaque monkeys. It can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with an infected monkey's saliva, eye fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid, causing a severe and potentially fatal illness called B encephalitis.
3. Tuberculosis (TB): Monkeys can contract and transmit tuberculosis to humans, although it is not common.
4. Simian Retrovirus (SRV): A virus that can infect both monkeys and great apes, causing immunodeficiency similar to HIV/AIDS in humans. It is not known to infect or cause disease in humans.
5. Various parasitic diseases: Monkeys can carry and transmit several parasites, including malaria-causing Plasmodium species, intestinal worms, and other parasites that can affect human health.

It's important to note that while monkeys can carry and transmit these diseases, the risk of transmission is generally low, and most cases occur in individuals who have close contact with monkeys, such as primatologists, zookeepers, or laboratory workers. Always follow safety guidelines when interacting with animals, including monkeys, to minimize the risk of disease transmission.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

Liver circulation, also known as hepatic circulation, refers to the blood flow through the liver. The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery and the portal vein.

The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver, accounting for about 25% of the liver's blood supply. The remaining 75% comes from the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.

In the liver, these two sources of blood mix in the sinusoids, small vessels with large spaces between the endothelial cells that line them. This allows for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes (liver cells). The blood then leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, which merge into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the heart.

The unique dual blood supply and extensive sinusoidal network in the liver enable it to perform various critical functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, synthesis, storage, and secretion of numerous substances, maintaining body homeostasis.

Bhutani, N; Kajal, P (December 2018). "Hepatic echinococcosis: A review". Annals of Medicine and Surgery (2012). 36: 99-105. ... Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease of tapeworms. Taeniasis and cysticercosis are both parasitic diseases caused by tapeworms ... Singh, BB; Dhand, NK; Ghatak, S; Gill, JP (1 January 2014). "Economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India: Need for ... "Cystic echinococcosis in animals and humans of Maharashtra State, India". Acta Parasitologica. 63 (2): 232-243. doi:10.1515/ap- ...
April 2012). "Hepatic echinococcosis: clinical and therapeutic aspects". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 18 (13): 1448-58. ... Although alveolar echinococcosis is rarely diagnosed in humans and is not as widespread as cystic echinococcosis (caused by ... Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis". World Journal of Surgical Procedures. 4 (1): 13-20. doi:10.5412/wjsp.v4.i1.13. Knapp J, ... July 2008). "Alveolar echinococcosis: from a deadly disease to a well-controlled infection. Relative survival and economic ...
2014). "Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France)". ... Similar to the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis and cystic echinococcosis, the diagnosis of polycystic echinococcosis uses ... Like cystic echinococcosis, imaging is the major method used for the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis while the same types ... Alveolar and polycystic echinococcosis are rarely diagnosed in humans and are not as widespread as cystic echinococcosis, but ...
"Percutaneous Aspiration-Injection-Reaspiration Drainage Plus Albendazole or Mebendazole for Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis: A ... PAIR is considered an alternative treatment for cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) and is often indicated for patients who ... "Efficacy and Safety of PAIR for Cystic Echinococcosis: Experience on a Large Series of Patients from Bulgaria". American ... "Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans". Acta Tropica. 114 (1): 1-16 ...
March 2003). "European echinococcosis registry: human alveolar echinococcosis, Europe, 1982-2000". Emerging Infect. Dis. 9 (3 ... AE primarily affects the liver by inducing a hepatic disorder similar to liver cancer, therefore becoming extremely dangerous ... Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a highly lethal helminthic disease in humans, caused by the larval form of the parasitic ... January 2008). "Alveolar echinococcosis localized in the liver, lung and brain". Chin. Med. J. 121 (1): 90-2. doi:10.1097/ ...
Human polycystic echinococcosis is the rarest type of echinococcosis and is characterized by infiltrative, multi-compartment ... Type II seems to have the highest mortality rate due to the complications involved with hepatic insufficiency. Due to the ... produce a disease called echinococcosis. Echinococcosis, also known has hydatidosis, is a result of ingesting the eggs of the ... Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is an extremely lethal helminthic disease in humans, which is caused by the larval form of E. ...
In terms of complications of hepatic hemangiomas, it is very rare for a hepatic hemangioma to rupture or bleed. Focal nodular ... Prevention, CDC-Centers for Disease Control and (2019-07-16). "CDC - Echinococcosis - Biology". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2021-02- ... Liver cell adenomatosis differs from hepatic adenomas by its definition of more than 10 hepatic adenomas that are in both liver ... Currently, if the hepatic adenoma is >5 cm, increasing in size, symptomatic lesions, has molecular markers associated with HCC ...
... echinococcosis, hepatic MeSH C06.552.664.424 - fascioliasis MeSH C06.552.664.642 - liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.697.040 ... hepatic encephalopathy MeSH C06.552.308.500.750 - liver failure, acute MeSH C06.552.308.500.750.500 - massive hepatic necrosis ...
... echinococcosis MeSH C03.335.190.396.314 - echinococcosis, hepatic MeSH C03.335.190.396.480 - echinococcosis, pulmonary MeSH ...
At present doctoral thesis on topics such as biliary complications, microRNA, histones and hepatic dysfunctions after liver ... vascular alveolar echinococcosis) (2014). Electron microscopy discovered advanced fat in hepatocytes of liver donors, who was ... COVID-19 infection is more common in renal and hepatic recipients than in the general population, with higher lethality, male ... and histone levels 24 hours postoperatively may be a predictor of postsectional hepatic dysfunction (2021). ...
Hepatic fibrosis, peliosis hepatis and veno-occlusive disease. Liver damage is part of Reye syndrome. Malignant neoplasm of ... in syphilis Epstein-Barr virus infection yellow fever virus infection rubella virus infection leptospirosis Echinococcosis ... hepatic adenomas, and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Chronic liver diseases like chronic hepatitis, chronic alcohol abuse or ... hepatoblastoma angiosarcoma of liver Kupffer cell sarcoma other sarcomas of liver Benign neoplasm of liver include hepatic ...
It is a non-specific medical sign, having many causes, which can broadly be broken down into infection, hepatic tumours, and ... "CDC - Echinococcosis - Resources for Health Professionals". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-03-11. "Leptospirosis (Weil's Disease ... Other ultrasound studies have suggested hepatomegaly as being defined as a longitudinal axis > 15.5 cm at the hepatic midline, ... non-hepatic cells or (2) increased cell contents (such as that due to iron in hemochromatosis or hemosiderosis and fat in fatty ...
070 Viral hepatitis 070.0 Hepatitis A with hepatic coma 070.1 Hepatitis A w/o coma 070.2 Hepatitis B with hepatic coma 070.3 ... 121 Other trematode infections 122 Echinococcosis 123 Other cestode infection 124 Trichinosis 125 Filarial infection and ... viral Hepatitis C 070.70 Unspecified viral Hepatitis C w/o hepatic coma 070.71 Unspecified viral Hepatitis C with hepatic coma ... Other specified viral hepatitis with mention of hepatic coma 070.5 Other specified viral hepatitis without mention of hepatic ...
... mixed hepatic porphyria, mixed porphyria, South African genetic porphyria, South African porphyria) Verruciform xanthoma Waxy ... Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) Elephantiasis tropica (elephantiasis arabum) Elephant skin Enterobiasis (oxyuriasis, pinworm ...
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonotic helminthic disease that can mimic malignancy ... Combined ultrasound and serologic screening for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in central China. ... Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonotic helminthic disease that can mimic malignancy ... WHO Collaborating Centre for Prevention and Treatment of Echinococcosis, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.. ...
Primary echinococcosis was registered in 293 (81.6%), relapsing echinococcosis in 37 (10.3%) and residual echinococcosis in 29 ... Precise diagnosis of hepatic echinococcosis was established in most of the cases when using NLS. Determination of nature of ... Considering that hepatic echinococcosis may cause multiple and combined nature of lesion, all patients (n = 359) obligatory ... NLS in mixed diagnostics of complicated hepatic echinococcosis. by admin , Mar 13, 2015 , Gastroenterology, Surgery, ...
Hepatic CE†. OR (95% CI). p value. OR (95% CI). p value. OR (95% CI). p value. ... CE, cystic echinococcosis; NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio.. †Pearson χ2 goodness-of-fit test value of p,0.05.. ‡Pearson χ2 ... Prevalence of cystic echinococcosis among cattle in multivariate logistic regression model, by sex and 4-month period, Huancayo ... Economic Effect of Confiscation of Cattle Viscera Infected with Cystic Echinococcosis, Huancayo Province, Peru J. Raúl Lucas. ...
Combined ultrasound and serologic screening for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in central China ... Combined ultrasound and serologic screening for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in central China. American Journal of Tropical ... Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonotic helminthic disease that can mimic malignancy ... WC Communicable Diseases , Tropical and Parasitic Diseases , WC 840 Echinococcosis. Faculty: Department:. Groups (2002 - 2012 ...
Bhutani, N; Kajal, P (December 2018). "Hepatic echinococcosis: A review". Annals of Medicine and Surgery (2012). 36: 99-105. ... Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease of tapeworms. Taeniasis and cysticercosis are both parasitic diseases caused by tapeworms ... Singh, BB; Dhand, NK; Ghatak, S; Gill, JP (1 January 2014). "Economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India: Need for ... "Cystic echinococcosis in animals and humans of Maharashtra State, India". Acta Parasitologica. 63 (2): 232-243. doi:10.1515/ap- ...
Echinococcosis is the general term for 3 diseases caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus tapeworms, the smallest tapeworms ... Smego RA Jr, Sebanego P. Treatment options for hepatic cystic echinococcosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2005 Mar. 9(2):69-76. [QxMD ... Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are the key forms of echinococcosis that are of significant medical ... Human echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease that occurs in four clinically well-described forms:. * Cystic echinococcosis, also ...
... both Alveolar echinococcosis and Cystic echinococcosis, for health professionals including diagnosis and treatment information. ... Alveolar Echinococcosis. Alveolar echinococcosis closely mimics hepatic carcinoma or cirrhosis and is more commonly diagnosed ... Cystic Echinococcosis. The incubation period of cystic echinococcosis is often prolonged for several years and most cases of ... Alveolar Echinococcosis. The primary infection of alveolar echinococcosis is in the liver, usually the right lobe, but direct ...
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the larval cystic stage (called echinococcal cysts) of a small taeniid-type tapeworm ( ... Percutaneous aspiration-injection-reaspiration drainage plus albendazole or mebendazole for hepatic cystic echinococcosis: a ... encoded search term (Echinococcosis Hydatid Cyst) and Echinococcosis Hydatid Cyst What to Read Next on Medscape ... Echinococcosis Hydatid Cyst Medication. Updated: Dec 05, 2018 * Author: Enrico Brunetti, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran ...
In order to explore the effect and mechanism of SA treatment against echinococcosis, we established animal echinococcosis model ... In all, we consider that the combinational treatment displayed better therapeutic effects against liver echinococcosis as well ... The current clinical therapeutic medicine against echinococcosis is albendazole, although it caused serious side effects in ... is thought to be a potential drug to treat echinococcosis. ... Echinococcosis is a worldwide anthropozoonosis which is highly ...
Categories: Echinococcosis, Hepatic Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Echinococcosis, abscess Abstract. Mymensingh Med J. 2012 Jan;21(1):165-169 ... Hepatic hydatid cyst presenting as cutaneous abscess Authors. * MN Islam Department of Radiology & Imaging, Khulna Medical ... Islam, M., Khan, N., Haque, S., Hossain, M., & Ahad, M. (2012). Hepatic hydatid cyst presenting as cutaneous abscess. ...
Evaluation of treatment and long-term follow-up in patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Br J Surg 92: 1110-1116. ... Evaluation of treatment and long-term follow-up in patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Br J Surg 92: 1110-1116. ... Evaluation of treatment and long-term follow-up in patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. . Br J Surg 92. : 1110. - ... Evaluation of treatment and long-term follow-up in patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. . Br J Surg 92. : 1110. - ...
Evaluation of Usefulness of Three Serological Tests Using Native Crude Antigen in Diagnosis of Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis ...
Echinococcosis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Treatment of Echinococcosis *. For hepatic echinococcosis, surgical resection. *. Percutaneous aspiration followed by ... Symptoms and Signs of Echinococcosis Although many infections are acquired during childhood, clinical signs of echinococcosis ... 1 Treatment reference Echinococcosis is infection with larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus (cystic echinococcosis, ...
2021) Evaluation of Nine Commercial Serological Tests for the Diagnosis of Human Hepatic Cyst Echinococcosis and the ... Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Three Rapid Tests for the Serodiagnosis of Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis in Humans. ... Evaluation of Nine Commercial Serological Tests for the Diagnosis of Human Hepatic Cyst Echinococcosis and the Differential ... Evaluation of Nine Commercial Serological Tests for the Diagnosis of Human Hepatic Cyst Echinococcosis and the Differential ...
Splenic echinococcosis represents 3.5% of abdominal hydatid cysts treated in our Service. When splenic hydatidosis was ... Splenic echinococcosis represents 3.5% of abdominal hydatid cysts treated in our Service. When splenic hydatidosis was ... There was no mortality and morbidity was principally related to the hepatic-associated hydatidosis. It is concluded that ...
Infected Hepatic Echinococcosis: Results of Surgical Treatment of a Consecutive Series of Patients Manterola C.; Urrutia, S ... Intrabiliary Rupture of Hepatic Echinococcosis, a Risk Factor for Developing Postoperative Morbidity: A Cohort Study Manterola ... Preoperative albendazole and scolices viability in patients with hepatic echinococcosis Manterola C.; Mansilla, JA; Fonseca, F ... Viability and fertility of human hepatic hydatid cysts Manterola C.; Vial, M; Melo A.; Oberg, C; Fonseca, F Article ISI SCOPUS ...
HEPATIC ALVEOLAR ECHINOCOCCOSIS , FOLLOW-UP , MULTILOCULARIS INFECTION , CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA , CLASSIFICATION , HEPATOBILIARY , ... Free subject headings]: Liver parasites , alveolar echinococcosis , cystic echinococcosis , Echinococcus multilocularis , ...
Macroscopic cysts consistent with alveolar echinococcosis were present in 24% of muskrats (22/93). Most individuals had hepatic ... The mean number of cysts per liver was 2.1 (range, 1-4). We examined hepatic cysts from 18 individuals using histology; all had ... The objectives of this study were to 1) diagnose alveolar echinococcosis using macroscopic assessment, histopathology, and ... lesions compatible with alveolar echinococcosis. Protoscoleces, indicative of patent infections, were present in 14/18 (78%). ...
coord IM with specific parasitic dis (IM) but note that also available are ECHINOCOCCOSIS, HEPATIC; FASCIOLIASIS & LIVER ...
Imaging to T1 Mapping in Characterization of Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis Yibanu Abudureheman, Jian Wang, [...] Wenya Liu - ... Imaging to T1 Mapping in Characterization of Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis Yibanu Abudureheman, Jian Wang, Wenya Liu ...
Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease of tapeworms of the Echinococcus type characterized by production of unilocular or ... This image shows all the components of a hepatic hydatid cyst. a) Inside que cyst : " daughters vesicles" with endogenous ... Echinococcosis. Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease of tapeworms of the Echinococcus type characterized by production of ... B. Alveolar echinococcosis (#2 M/C). *Also known as alveolar colloid of the liver, alveolar hydatid disease, alveolococcosis, ...
Brucellosis-Related Hepatic Abscess Case Images In Infectious Diseases. Alkan, Sevil; Demiray, Emine Kübra Dindar * Text: en ... Alveolar echinococcosis mimicking bilateral lung metastatic cancer Images In Infectious Diseases. Aydin, Yener; Ulas, Ali Bilal ... Ruptured hepatic hydatid cyst with the formation of an abscess and a cutaneous fistula Images In Infectious Diseases. Önder, ... Diagnosis of a hepatic hydatid cyst using posteroanterior chest radiography Images In Infectious Diseases. Aydin, Yener; Ulas, ...
Hepatic echinococcosis: Clinical and therapeutic aspects Giuseppe Nunnari, Marilia R Pinzone, Salvatore Gruttadauria, Benedetto ... Noninvasive Parameters and hepatic fibrosis scores in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ...
Menteş A, Yalaz S, Killi R, Altıntaş N. Radical treatment for hepatic echinococcosis. HPB Surg, 2000; 2(1):49-54 ...
We report the case of an 18-year-old Caucasian male patient who presented with a hepatic pseudocyst secondary to a ventriculo- ... Hepatic pseudocysts, a rare complication of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, have similar clinical and radiological ... This is the first report of a hepatic cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst mimicking hydatid liver disease. ... Imaging findings of echinococcosis reflect a spectrum depending on the developing stages of the parasitic cyst in the human ...
Association between hepatic alveolar echinococcosis and frequency of human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles in Turkish ... Query Trace: Alveolar Echinococcosis[original query]. [Association of HLA-DRB1 allele and the susceptibility to alveolar ... HLA-DRB1 allele in 35 patients with alveolar echinococcosis in Gansu Province of China. Chinese medical journal 2003 Oct 116 ( ... Correlation between HLA-DB1 genes and susceptibility to echinococcosis in Tibetan population in Tibetan Plateau]. Zhongguo xue ...
  • In all, we consider that the combinational treatment displayed better therapeutic effects against liver echinococcosis as well as alleviated liver injury, which could be considered as an effective strategy to treat echinococcosis clinically. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans, ingested eggs can be mainly distributed to liver and lung, leading to cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE). (hindawi.com)
  • The primary infection of alveolar echinococcosis is in the liver, usually the right lobe, but direct extension to contiguous organs, as well as hematogenous metastases to the lungs and brain is not uncommon. (cdc.gov)
  • stenosis was considered to be symp- only 2 cases of isolated hydatid cyst of The patient's routine laboratory tests tomatic by the urologists and an open the round ligament of the liver have were normal and the echinococcosis surgical treatment was planned. (who.int)
  • Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease of tapeworms of the Echinococcus type characterized by production of unilocular or multilocular cystic disease of lung and liver. (capsulehealth.one)
  • This is the first report of a hepatic cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst mimicking hydatid liver disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report the case of an 18-year-old Caucasian male patient who presented with a hepatic pseudocyst secondary to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, misdiagnosed as hydatid disease of the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatic pseudocysts, a rare complication of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, have similar clinical and radiological characteristics to those of hydatid liver disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such cysts may cause diagnostic problems in regions such as the Middle East, where echinococcosis disease of the liver is endemic, due to similarities in clinical presentation and radiological appearance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Hydatid disease is an important health problem worldwide and surgery remains the gold standard in terms of treatment for patients with echinococcosis of the liver. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • AE can cause damage to several organs, primarily the liver, and have severe outcomes, such as hepatic failure and encephalopathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protoscoleces (PSCs) of E. multilocularis invade the liver and trigger hepatic fibrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peri-parasite granulomas form in the liver and cause irreversible hepatic fibrosis, which makes surgical resection difficult, and secondary infections typically occur [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the interactions between the parasite and humans and the pathogenesis of AE is necessary to develop treatments for echinococcosis-induced liver damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatic signs - telangiectasias (asterisks, spiders) in the face and shoulder girdle, erythema of the palmar and digital elevations (liver palms), blanching of the nails (a sign of low serum albumin), deformity of the terminal phalanges of the fingers in the form of drumsticks, red (varnished) language. (medprep.info)
  • Infection in the gastrointestinal tract or bacteremia can expose the liver to high bacterial loads because of the liver 's dual blood supply from the portal vein and hepatic artery . (amboss.com)
  • Also known as a hepatic cyst, a simple liver cyst is a thin-walled, fluid-filled cavity in the liver that usually produces no signs or symptoms. (mygoodgut.com)
  • In rare cases, liver cysts may indicate a serious, underlying condition such as polycystic liver disease (an inherited disorder associated with multiple cysts of varying size), echinococcosis (parasitic infection), or liver cancer. (mygoodgut.com)
  • Solitary echinococcus cysts were found in 97 (27%) patients, multiple hepatic echinococcosis found in 262 (73%) patients. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • 87 (33.2%) patients had 2 cysts, 175 (66.8%) had 3 and more hepatic cysts among the patients with multiple lesions. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Albendazole in combination with percutaneous aspiration or PAIR therapy can lead to a reduction in cyst size, and, in one study, it improved efficacy over albendazole alone against hepatic hydatid cysts. (medscape.com)
  • The incubation period of cystic echinococcosis is often prolonged for several years and most cases of cystic echinococcosis remain asymptomatic until the cysts reach a large enough size to cause dysfunction. (cdc.gov)
  • In secondary echinococcosis, larval tissue spreads from the primary site and new cysts develop after spontaneous or trauma-induced cyst rupture or after release of viable parasite material during invasive treatment procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • Although many infections are acquired during childhood, clinical signs of echinococcosis may not appear for years, except when cysts are in vital organs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Splenic echinococcosis represents 3.5% of abdominal hydatid cysts treated in our Service. (nih.gov)
  • Ovarian echinococcosis should always be kept in mind such as a differential diagnosis with ovarian cysts and malignancies. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonotic helminthic disease that can mimic malignancy. (ajtmh.org)
  • Echinococcosis is the general term used to describe four disease forms caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus tapeworms, the smallest tapeworms in the Taeniidae family. (medscape.com)
  • Echinococcosis is a worldwide anthropozoonosis which is caused by Echinococcus granulosus [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Echinococcus granulosus (cystic echinococcosis, hydatid disease) or Echinococcus multilocularis (alveolar disease). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of human hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated the role of Echinococcus multilocularis (Echinococcus genus) PSCs in hepatic fibrosis by examining structural changes and measuring hepatic fibrosis-related protein levels in cocultures of PSCs and human HSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ALBEZOL is active against tissue parasites, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis defiant cystous and alveolar echinococcosis of ALBEZOL is effective at treatment of the neurotsistitsirkoz caused by a larval invasion of Taenia solium, the gepatikolez caused by Capilaria philippinensis and a gnatostomoza, caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum invasion. (rxeli.com)
  • Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by infection with the larvae of E granulosus . (medscape.com)
  • CE infection is the leading consequence, which is responsible for over 98 percent of all echinococcosis cases [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Alveolar echinococcosis: from a deadly disease to a well-controlled infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection renopelvic dilatation. (who.int)
  • The results of this study provide an experimental basis for further examination of the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis due to AE infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other routes of infection include hematogenic spread via the portal vein or hepatic artery and direct extension. (amboss.com)
  • Diagnostic difficulties may occur in large cyst patients (with live parasites), as well as in patients with dead echinococcosis. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • In 2-9% of cases it is not possible to establish the nature of hepatic cyst formation using hardware research methods. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Chemotherapy, cyst puncture, and PAIR (percutaneous aspiration, injection of chemicals and reaspiration) have been used to replace surgery as effective treatments for cystic echinococcosis and, for some cases, no treatment but a conservative "watch and wait" approach is best. (cdc.gov)
  • This image shows all the components of a hepatic hydatid cyst. (capsulehealth.one)
  • Four years prior to his current admission he had presented with abdominal pain and a computed tomography (CT) scan of his abdomen at that time was interpreted as being consistent with a right hepatic hydatid cyst (8 × 6 cm). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hepatic cyst was found to contain cerebrospinal fluid with no evidence of hydatid disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was no mortality and morbidity was principally related to the hepatic-associated hydatidosis. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we aimed to present our recent surgical experience in treating patients with hepatic hydatidosis. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Hardware diagnostic results of 359 patients with complicated hepatic echinococcosis were analyzed. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Given research is based on clinical observations analysis of 359 patients suffering from complicated hepatic echinococcosis at Surgical pathologies department of Tadzhik State Medical University n.a. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Complications in the form of hepatic echinococcosis suppuration and calcifications were registered in 279 (77.7%) patients. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Primary echinococcosis was registered in 293 (81.6%), relapsing echinococcosis in 37 (10.3%) and residual echinococcosis in 29 (8.1%) of the total number of observed patients. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Treatment of echinococcosis for patients weighing more than 60 kg is albendazole administered PO with meals in a dose of 400 mg twice daily for 28 days. (medscape.com)
  • Echinococcosis of the heart: clinical and echocardiographic features in 12 patients. (medscape.com)
  • The current clinical therapeutic medicine against echinococcosis is albendazole, although it caused serious side effects in patients. (hindawi.com)
  • HLA-DRB1 allele in 35 patients with alveolar echinococcosis in Gansu Province of China. (cdc.gov)
  • Association between hepatic alveolar echinococcosis and frequency of human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles in Turkish patients. (cdc.gov)
  • At the same period, 306 patients with non-hydatid disease had serologic results for echinococcosis. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
  • Children of 1-2 years: Recommended dose is a single dose of 200 mg (5 ml suspension).Children under 1 year: Not recommended.In Hydatid disease (Echinococcosis): Alzed 400 mg is given by mouth with meals in a dose of 400 mg twice daily for 28 days for patients weighing over 60 kg. (medeasy.health)
  • Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive avec une collecte rétrospective des données des patients hospitalisés et/ou reçus en consultation dans le service de Néphrologie du CHU de Yopougon à Abidjan entre Janvier 1991 et Décembre 2015. (bvsalud.org)
  • L'ectopie rénale croisée a été notée chez deux patients et l'ectopie bilatérale chez quatre dont un cas de fusion en fer à cheval. (bvsalud.org)
  • Le contrôle radiologique effectué chez les patients ayant présenté un traumatisme au stade IV a montré une reconstruction du rein et une absence d'extravasion de produit de contraste.Conclusion :Les traumatismes du rein sont de plus en plus fréquents. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hepatic parasitic fibrosis caused by E. multilocularis PSCs is a host response associated with immune cell infiltration which activates the differentiation of HSCs into fibroblasts [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 We report a rare case of CC type IB that presented with eccentric features and was misdiagnosed for other cystic hepatic lesions because of the lack of technical quality of the examination. (org.pk)
  • It is a functional hepatic syndrome but can often present with biliary duct dilatation and can mimic other hepatobiliary pathologies such as cholangiocarcinoma 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • When possible, including in underdeveloped suburban and rural areas of the country, the biological fluid tests included blood count and complete functional hepatic to visualize potential side effects of the ABZ and evaluation of the general clinical state of every patient. (who.int)
  • In cases of verified ABZ toxicity, the dosage was immediately lowered to 7.5 mg/kg/day and the blood count and functional hepatic test run weekly until the values normalized. (who.int)
  • Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to that, radiologic findings are non-specific in many cases and may point to another diagnosis, especially in unusual sites and in the absence of other hepatic or pulmonary localizations. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • Severe pulmonary hypertension due to chronic echinococcal pulmonary emboli treated with targeted pulmonary vascular therapy and hepatic resection. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis. (medscape.com)
  • 2018) Valoración de un nuevo ensayo quimioluminiscente en comparación con ELISA en la detección de IgG contra el virus de la hepatitis E. Revista de la Sociedad Andaluza de Microbiología y Parasitología Clínica. (vircell.com)
  • There is no evidence to suggest that dose should be altered in renal, hepatic or cardiac failure. (com.bd)
  • Combined ultrasound and serologic screening for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in central China. (ajtmh.org)
  • In order to explore the effect and mechanism of SA treatment against echinococcosis, we established animal echinococcosis model and treated rats with albendazole alone, alkaloids alone, and combined therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Echinococcosis is a worldwide anthropozoonosis which is highly endemic over large animal husbandry areas in northwestern China. (hindawi.com)
  • NLS provides more efficient differentiation of «pseudo-soild» echinococcosis forms from tumors by means of spectral-entropy analysis (SEA). (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Hepatocellular insufficiency - hemorrhagic diathesis (bleeding of the mucous membrane of the nose and gums, subcutaneous petechiae and hemorrhages, localized or generalized purpura), jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy. (medprep.info)
  • Protozoan infections Leishmaniasis Helminth infections Taeniasis/Cysticercosis Dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm disease) Echinococcosis Lymphatic filariasis Soil-transmitted helminthiases Viral infections Dengue Rabies Bacterial infections Leprosy (Hansen's disease) Trachoma Melioidosis Fungal infections Mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis, and other deep mycoses Ectoparasitic infections Scabies and other ectoparasites Others Snakebite envenoming India has a goal for the elimination of kala-azar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programme for ultrasound diagnoses and treatment with albendazole of cystic echinococcosis in asymptomatic carriers: 10 years of follow-up of cases. (medscape.com)
  • As can be seen from the above, the introduction of NLS with SEA into clinical practice significantly improves diagnostics of complicated echinococcosis (especially in its early forms) which allows often performance of radical and, at the same time, economical intervention. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Albendazole is the most common clinical drug to treat echinococcosis [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are the key forms of echinococcosis that are of significant medical and public health concerns for humans. (medscape.com)
  • quently involved, followed by the lung cm capsulated cystic mass that was being In the urological evaluation an intrave- and sometimes the heart, spleen, kidney compressed by the hepatic left lobe and nous pyelogram confirmed dilatation of and brain [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • Abdominal ultrasound demon- strated a 6 × 4 cm cystic mass between the anterior abdominal wall and ante- rior surface of the left hepatic lobe. (who.int)
  • Structural changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and levels of the hepatic fibrosis-related proteins collagen I (Col-I), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and osteopontin (OPN) were measured by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of this study provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of AE-induced hepatic fibrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • En este artículo se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 62 años, que consulta por cuadro de dolor abdominal inespecífico y síntomas urinarios irritativos, el cual por persistencia del dolor abdominal pese al manejo medico es llevado a cirugía, donde se diagnostica de manera intraoperatoria una invaginación intestinal a nivel de íleon distal. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hepatic cells at this phase of the disease are likely damaged by toxic products of the metacestodes [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinically, its seeds decoction is combined with albendazole to treat echinococcosis [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For cystic echinococcosis, the 28-day course may be repeated after 14 days without treatment to a total of 3 treatment cycles. (medscape.com)
  • Justified concern or exaggerated fear: the risk of anaphylaxis in percutaneous treatment of cystic echinococcosis-a systematic literature review. (medscape.com)
  • In the present study, we not only investigated the therapeutic effect of the combinational treatment of Sophora moorcroftiana alkaloids and albendazole against echinococcosis in an experimental rats model, but also explored the underlying molecular mechanism of this strategy by proteomics. (hindawi.com)
  • For alveolar echinococcosis , [NT005 trade name] is taken for a course of 28 days followed by 14 tablet-free days, and treatment cycles may need to be continued for months or years. (who.int)
  • For alveolar echinococcosis, cycles of 28 days of treatment followed by 14 days without treatment, may need to continue for months or years. (com.bd)
  • Signs and symptoms may include hepatic enlargement with or without a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant, right epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. (cdc.gov)
  • The main purpose of this study was to explore the interactions between hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and E. multilocularis protoscoleces (PSCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to various authors, information value of NLS method in case of hepatic echinococcosis depends on parasite development stage (live or dead), and is at least 90-97% on average. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • The results of commonly used hardware examination methods have shown that mixed analysis of these methods greatly increases specificity and sensitivity in preoperative diagnostics of complicated hepatic echinococcosis. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Use of NLS (which in comparison to CT provides panoramic images and higher sensitivity superior in certain locations, accurate differential and regional diagnostics) was the next step in diagnostics improvement of complicated hepatic echinococcosis. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • New development stage of echinococcosis surgery is associated with development of new and more informative diagnostic tools: NLS-research in the first place, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and helical computed tomography (HCT). (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Radiographic diagnostic method is subsidiary and it may generally show indirect signs of complicated hepatic echinococcosis. (nls-diagnostic.org)
  • Polymorphisms of the TAP1 and TAP2 genes in human alveolar echinococcosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Traducere "human papillomavirus" în română Zentel a giardia kezelésében May 17, · Debido a la enorme extensión de Asia, y a que se extiende desde el polo norte hasta el ecuador, en Asia. (zagyvabanda.hu)
  • Albendazole and mebendazole are the only anthelmintics effective against cystic echinococcosis. (medscape.com)