Echinacea: A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Polyacetylenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one triple bond; or an oxidized form of POLYENES. They can react with SULFUR to form THIOPHENES.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Salvia officinalis: A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.Hydrastis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)North AmericaDipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.Pimpinella: A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.Helleborus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain hellebrin (BUFANOLIDES). The extract is the basis of Boicil preparation used to treat rheumatism.Primula: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Kava: Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Aromatherapy: The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Carum: A plant genus of the family Apiaceae. The seeds are used as flavoring.Herbal Medicine: The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.Mentha piperita: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of peppermint oil.Pharmacy Administration: The business and managerial aspects of pharmacy in its broadest sense.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)

Ineffectiveness of echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. (1/92)

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of echinacea for the prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Infection occurred in 44 and 57% and illness occurred in 36 and 43% of the echinacea- and placebo-treated subjects, respectively. This preparation of echinacea had no significant effect on either the occurrence of infection or the severity of illness.  (+info)

Inflammation and Native American medicine: the role of botanicals. (2/92)

There is a growing interest in medicinal botanicals as part of complementary medicine in the United States. In particular, both physicians and consumers are becoming aware of the use of herbals by Native American societies; many botanicals sold today as dietary supplements in the United States were used by Native Americans for similar purposes. Yet, these supplements represent only a small number of the >2500 different plant species from vascular taxa, and >2800 species from all taxa, known to have been prized for their medicinal properties by the indigenous inhabitants of the North American continent. We review some of the studies of the immunomodulatory activities of botanicals used by native peoples of North America, the bioactive constituents responsible for those activities, and the mechanisms by which these constituents might modulate the immune system. We focus particularly on 3 species of purple coneflower (ECHINACEA:) because of the widespread use of purple coneflower in the United States to boost immunity and prevent upper respiratory infections. Seven of the 10 most common botanicals sold in the United States were used extensively by Native Americans. However, there are very few data to support such use and even less information about drug toxicity or interactions.  (+info)

Immunopharmacological activity of Echinacea preparations following simulated digestion on murine macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (3/92)

We have investigated the immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of various Echinacea raw materials and commercially available products on murine macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To emulate oral dosing, a simulated digestion protocol was employed as a means of sample preparation. Echinacea-induced macrophage activation was used as a measure of immunostimulatory activity determined via quantitative assays for macrophage-derived factors including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and nitric oxide. Echinacea herb and root powders were found to stimulate murine macrophage cytokine secretion as well as to significantly enhance the viability and/or proliferation of human PBMCs in vitro. In contrast, Echinacea extracts chemically standardized to phenolic acid or echinacoside content and fresh pressed juice preparations were found to be inactive as immunostimulatory agents but did display, to varying degrees, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.  (+info)

Deleterious effects of Echinacea purpurea and melatonin on myeloid cells in mouse spleen and bone marrow. (4/92)

The neurohormone, melatonin, a product of the pineal gland, is a potent immune cell stimulant. Phytochemicals contained in root extracts of the plant species Echinacea purpurea are also potent as immune cell stimulants. Both agents are potent stimulants of T, B, and/or natural killer cells, but little is known of their effect on other hemopoietic cells, specifically granular leukocytes, also participants in a wide variety of disease defense processes. Given their current popularity and availability for amelioration of a) jet lag and sleep disorders (melatonin) and b) virus-mediated respiratory infections (E. purpurea), we investigated the effects of these agents on granular leukocytes and their precursors, myeloid cells. Mice received these agents daily for 7 or 14 days via the diet, thus mimicking human administration, after which spleens and bone marrow were removed and assessed for mature, differentiated granulocytes and their myeloid progenitors. The influence of these agents was directly related to the stage of cell maturity. Administration of both agents together resulted in significantly elevated levels of myeloid progenitor cells in both bone marrow and spleen and significantly reduced levels of mature, functional granulocyte progeny in both organs, suggesting a) increased precursor proliferation, b) antiapoptosis among the progenitors, and/or c) inhibition of precursor maturation-the latter readily explaining the paucity of mature granulocyte progeny. In conclusion, individual administration of either the herbal derivative and melatonin was either without effect (E. purpurea) or even advantageous (melatonin) to cells of this lineage, but when administered together, these agents significantly perturbed myelopoiesis.  (+info)

Can herbal products be used safely during pregnancy? Focus on echinacea. (5/92)

QUESTION: Many of my patients are now using herbal medicines; some even use them during pregnancy. As we enter the "cold and flu" season, many are inquiring about use of the herb echinacea to prevent these ailments. Is there any evidence to suggest that use of echinacea during pregnancy is safe? ANSWER: Although herbal products have been used in the past during pregnancy and delivery, there is little evidence showing they are safe. Many authoritative reviews of echinacea report that its safety for use during pregnancy has not been established. A recent Motherisk study showed that use of echinacea during the first trimester of pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of major malformations.  (+info)

Immunological activity of larch arabinogalactan and Echinacea: a preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (6/92)

The immunomodulating effects of two Echinacea species, E. purpurea and E. angustifolia and larch arabinogalactan extracted from Larix occidentalis were examined in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective four-week clinical trial at a naturopathic medical school research center. SUBJECTS/MATERIALS: Forty-eight healthy female volunteers (22-51 y) were randomly assigned to one of six groups: standardized extract of E. purpurea (EP); ultra-refined E. purpurea/E. angustifolia (urEPA); E. purpurea/E. angustifolia (EPA); E. purpurea/E. angustifolia plus larch arabinogalactan (EPALA); larch arabinogalactan (LA); or placebo. METHODS: Immunological tests with enumerative measurements, stool cultures for Lactobacillus acidophilus and yeast, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the Medical Outcomes Study derived SF-36 self-administered questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at four weeks. RESULTS: Complement properdin increased by 21 percent in the EPA group (p<0.05) and by 18 percent in the EPALA group (p<0.05), compared to the placebo group (p>0.05). SF-36 showed improvements in overall physical health, vitality, and emotional health in the same two groups (EPA and EPALA). DISCUSSION: Volunteers in the EPA and EPALA groups had increased production of complement properdin after four weeks of intervention. The increased complement properdin may be an indication of one aspect of immune system stimulation in patients treated with either E. purpurea/E. angustifolia or E. purpurea/E. angustifolia plus larch arabinogalactan.  (+info)

The effect of herbal remedies on the production of human inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. (7/92)

BACKGROUND: Some herbal remedies are sold as food additives and are believed to have immune-enhancing properties. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of five herbal remedies--Sambucol Black Elderberry Extract, Sambucol Active Defense Formula and Sambucol for Kids (with known antiviral properties), Protec and Chizukit N (containing propolis and Echinacea, claimed to be immune enhancers)--on the production of cytokines, one of the main components of the immune system. METHODS: The production of four inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6 and IL-8) and one anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was tested using blood-derived monocytes from 12 healthy donors. RESULTS: The Sambucol preparations increased the production of five cytokines (1.3-6.2 fold) compared to the control. Protec induced only a moderate production of IL-8 (1.6 fold) and IL-10 (2.3 fold) while Chizukit N caused only a moderate increase in IL-10 production (1.4 fold). Both Protec and Chizukit N caused moderate decreases in IL-1 beta, TNF alpha and IL-6 production. Lipopolysaccharide, a known activator of monocytes, induced the highest levels of cytokine production (3.6-10.7 fold). CONCLUSIONS: The three Sambucol formulations activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines production, while the effect of Protec and Chizukit N is much less. Sambucol could therefore have immunostimulatory properties when administered to patients suffering from influenza (as shown before), or immunodepressed cancer or AIDS patients who are receiving chemotherapy or other treatments.  (+info)

Echinacea. (8/92)

Echinacea is the name of a genus of native North American plants, commonly known as the purple coneflower. The most widely used herbal product in the United States is a liquid extract made from the root of Echinacea purpurea. Because the active component of the plant has not been identified, commercial echinacea products are not typically standardized to any particular component. The research literature on echinacea is difficult to evaluate because of the heterogeneity of the products used in various studies. The herb has been recommended as a prophylactic treatment for upper respiratory infection and is widely used for this indication. However, based on the current literature, it appears that prophylactic echinacea does not have a significant impact on the frequency, severity, or duration of upper respiratory infection. The data regarding treatment of upper respiratory infection appear to support a modest positive effect. No significant herb-drug interactions with echinacea have been reported; adverse effects reported generally have been uncommon and minor, including abdominal upset, nausea, and dizziness.  (+info)

  • Echinacea is growing in popularity because of recent media attention to its historic reputation of boosting the immune system in treating colds and flu and fighting infections. (pitt.edu)
  • Recently the media has publicized the results of one study which has cast scepticism on the medicinal value of echinacea for treating colds. (pitt.edu)
  • In 2011, a study from the University of Wisconsin in Madison, published in Annals of Family Medicine, involved 719 people with early onset colds who were divided into four groups: standardized echinacea pills (labeled as such), standardized echinacea pills (unlabeled), placebo pills, or no pill. (healthcentral.com)
  • In individual trials, echinacea did not prevent colds, but a meta-analysis combining the studies did suggest that the herb might have a small effect on cold incidence. (healthcentral.com)
  • In treatment trials, echinacea did not shorten duration of colds. (healthcentral.com)
  • It's still not clear what effect echinacea has on colds and immunity. (healthcentral.com)
  • The German government has approved Echinacea pallida root and Echinacea purpurea leaf for use against colds, flu, and chronic respiratory or urinary infections. (thebody.com)
  • The major use of echinacea is to treat colds and flu. (thebody.com)
  • Many people with HIV have used echinacea because it stimulates the immune system, or for short-term treatment of colds and the flu. (thebody.com)
  • Some researchers believe that short-term use of echinacea (up to two weeks) to treat colds or flu does not present any serious risks to people with HIV. (thebody.com)
  • Echinacea, traditionally used to fight colds and the flu and long familiar in health food stores, is now thought to bolster the body s immune system. (bio.net)
  • Echinacea is a very popular herb, and people commonly take it to help combat flu and colds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Promoters of echinacea say that the herb encourages the immune system and reduces many of the symptoms of colds, flu and some other illnesses, infections, and conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Echinacea does not appear to prevent the common cold, but it may shorten the duration of colds or be of benefit in the early treatment of influenza when taken within 24-48 hours of the first symptoms. (mskcc.org)
  • Human studies have found that echinacea is not effective for preventing the common cold or to treat respiratory infections, but it may shorten the duration of colds. (mskcc.org)
  • One clinical trial supports the use of echinacea for reducing the length of colds, but not the severity of symptoms. (mskcc.org)
  • Andrographis ( Andrographis paniculata ), sometimes referred to as "Indian echinacea," is an herb which has been shown in several clinical studies to help prevent colds and reduce cold symptoms such as earache, sleeplessness, nasal drainage, and sore throat. (consumerlab.com)
  • Echinacea is able to reduce the severity and duration of colds. (wikihow.com)
  • Commonly known as both purple coneflower and Sampson root, Echinacea has proven to be an excellent preventive against colds, flu and other bacterial, fungal and viral infections. (manataka.org)
  • Ironically, antibiotics are not effective for colds, while echinacea appears to offer some real help. (epnet.com)
  • In Europe, and increasingly in the US as well, echinacea products are widely used to treat colds and flus. (epnet.com)
  • The best scientific evidence about echinacea concerns its ability to help you recover from colds and minor flus more quickly. (epnet.com)
  • However, good, if not entirely consistent, evidence tells us that echinacea can actually help you get over colds much faster. (epnet.com)
  • 7,37,41,42,56-57 The fact that regular use of echinacea does not appear to help prevent colds (or genital herpes 8 ) also somewhat argues against an immune-strengthening effect. (epnet.com)
  • Echinacea does not prevent colds or flu. (rxlist.com)
  • The roots and sometimes the flowers of echinacea, a beautiful member of the sunflower family also known as a purple coneflower, make an important medicine used widely to treat colds, flu, bronchitis, and all types of infections. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Long used for infectious diseases and poor immune function, echinacea extractions also are used today to help treat influenza, colds, chronic fatigue syndrome, and AIDS. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Our family uses Blackmores echinacea liquid at first signs of colds and it works for us. (webmd.com)
  • There are 200 types of viruses that can cause colds, and research hasn't shown which strains echinacea works against. (health.com)
  • Fortunately, natural cold remedies can help you to beat colds more quickly, and reduce the severity of symptoms.Your best Echinacea remedies are those made from fresh Echinacea. (medicinehunter.com)
  • HRI Cold & Flu Echinacea is a traditional herbal medicinal product used to relieve the symptoms of colds and influenza (flu) type infections. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Echinacea tea is a somewhat controversial treatment for colds and other immune system issues, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. (livestrong.com)
  • Though the medical center notes that some research suggests echinacea tea may help colds pass more quickly and decrease the severity of their symptoms, preparations of echinacea can vary so significantly that it's difficult to confirm these benefits. (livestrong.com)
  • Barrett and colleagues concluded that echinacea is likely to have "only a small beneficial effect" for treating colds, basing this conclusion on their data as well as "a reasonably substantial body of scientific evidence. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There seems to be evidence that purple coneflower (echinacea purpurea) may be the most effective at treating colds. (uniprix.com)
  • Different studies have produced mixed results about whether Echinacea works for colds. (boots.com)
  • A 2009 review of evidence by the Cochrane Collaboration found no clear evidence for echinacea helping to prevent colds, but some preparations using echinacea may help shorten colds or help to reduce symptoms in adults. (boots.com)
  • Giving healthy adults echinacea every day for four months may result in around a 26% reduction in the number and duration of colds, according to the Common Cold Centre in Cardiff University in a study published in 2012 in the journal Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (boots.com)
  • Echinacea may also help against some viruses that cause colds but not others. (boots.com)
  • A similar problem of underdosing (3.75 to 5 milliliters, or three-quarters to one teaspoon, twice per day) was the flaw in a large study of Echinacea purpurea flower juice that found no effects in treating symptoms of natural colds in 407 children (this study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2004). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Our Echinacea range, Echinaforce, is licenced for the relief of the symptoms of colds and flu, and it does this job very well! (avogel.co.uk)
  • The researchers found that those using Echinacea were less likely to develop colds when compared to placebo, reducing the incidence by about half. (avogel.co.uk)
  • In 2007 researchers who looked at 14 different studies on Echinacea found that overall, Echinacea was shown to decrease the odds of developing a cold by 58%, as well as reducing the duration of colds by a day-and-a-half in people who were infected. (avogel.co.uk)
  • Some fascinating research in 2011 showed that people with high stress levels and those prone to frequent colds gained most from taking Echinacea - its activity was seen to be greater in these groups of people. (avogel.co.uk)
  • A study conducted by Schoop et al in Clinical Theraputics ?Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis' 2006 discovered standardized extracts of Echinacea were effective in the prevention of symptoms of the common cold after clinical inoculation, compared with placebo. (chemistdirect.co.uk)
  • People who get colds spend $8 billion annually on pharmaceutical products, including supplements such as Echinacea, Barrett noted. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Barrett added that "it looks like taking Echinacea may reduce the incidence of colds. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The paper does support the safety and efficacy of Echinacea in treating colds and highlights the main issue of standardizing herbal medicines," says Ron Eccles, PhD, director of the Common Cold Centre & Healthcare Clinical Trials at Cardiff University's School of Biosciences in Wales. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Preparations of the plant Echinacea are widely used in some European countries and in North America for common colds. (cochrane.org)
  • We reviewed 24 controlled clinical trials with 4631 participants investigating the effectiveness of several different Echinacea preparations for preventing and treating common colds or induced rhinovirus infections. (cochrane.org)
  • Although it seems possible that some Echinacea products are more effective than a placebo for treating colds, the overall evidence for clinically relevant treatment effects is weak. (cochrane.org)
  • In general, trials investigating Echinacea for preventing colds did not show statistically significant reductions in illness occurrence. (cochrane.org)
  • Echinacea plant preparations (family Asteraceae ) are widely used in Europe and North America for common colds. (cochrane.org)
  • I heard that zinc and echinacea help to shorten colds. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Most colds get better without treatment, but many people searching for a shorter illness have turned to two "natural" therapies: echinacea and zinc. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • So, the evidence that echinacea fights colds is weak. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Furthermore, studies that evaluated echinacea for its ability to decrease the incidence and duration of common colds produced mixed results. (ascopost.com)
  • Many research studies done by doctors in Germany indicated that echinacea is effective primarily by increasing the number of white blood cells, thus boosting the immune system and thereby increasing the body's ability to fight infections. (pitt.edu)
  • Some lab research has suggested that echinacea can stimulate the immune system (or various components of it) and have direct antibacterial/anti-viral effects. (healthcentral.com)
  • Because echinacea may affect the immune system, some experts believe it might worsen autoimmune disorders such as lupus, multiple sclerosis, or rheumatoid arthritis. (healthcentral.com)
  • Since the late 1930s, German researchers have studied echinacea and its effects on the immune system. (thebody.com)
  • Echinacea stimulates the immune system. (thebody.com)
  • Echinacea is generally not recommended for use by people with diseases of the immune system such as HIV, multiple sclerosis, or tuberculosis . (thebody.com)
  • Some researchers believe that echinacea could actually worsen these immune system problems. (thebody.com)
  • They are also concerned about an animal study showing that echinacea increased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a substance produced by the immune system to kill unhealthy cells. (thebody.com)
  • Echinacea (purple coneflower) is a flowering plant used for respiratory problems and to stimulate the immune system. (thebody.com)
  • The following article is from The Oregonian, 8/10/98, pA8 Experts worry Echinacea boom will wipe species out The plant, whose roots are thought to bolster the immune system, is being illegally removed from land in Montana The Associated Press GLASGOW, Mont. (bio.net)
  • Echinacea has a complex mix of active substances, some of which are said to be antimicrobial, while others are believed to have an effect on the human immune system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Laboratory and animal studies suggest that echinacea extracts stimulate different parts of the immune system. (mskcc.org)
  • Echinacea contains many ingredients that exert an overall stimulating effect on the immune system. (manataka.org)
  • Many sports physicians recommend that marathon runners and others undergoing endurance training take Echinacea for a day or so after extreme physical exertion to strengthen the immune system. (manataka.org)
  • Until recently, it was believed that echinacea acted by stimulating the immune system. (epnet.com)
  • Although a few laboratory studies suggest that some chemicals found in Echinacea might increase the activity of certain immune system cells, human studies have generally concluded that Echinacea does not prevent, shorten, or relieve the symptoms of these infections. (hubpages.com)
  • Echinacea (and other immune system stimulants) make me feel much worse. (healingwell.com)
  • NaturVet Cranberry Relief Plus Echinacea is used in cats and dogs to help maintain and support a healthy urinary tract and immune system. (1800petmeds.com)
  • According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, echinacea contains active substances that enhance the immune system. (livestrong.com)
  • With Peppermint, Lemongrass and Licorice, Yogi Echinacea Immune Support tea is a delicious way to support your immune system. (yogiproducts.com)
  • Although echinacea is used to fight many different ailments, it is most commonly used to boost the immune system and fight infection. (pearltrees.com)
  • German medical studies have proven that echinacea does indeed boost the immune system, and is useful in treating a number of common ailments. (pearltrees.com)
  • Echinacea is used in aromatherapy for stimulating the immune system. (essortment.com)
  • When first starting with Echinacea as an herbal treatment for the immune system, you will need to take 75 drops once per day for two days straight. (essortment.com)
  • Echinacea tea may stimulate the immune system and interfere with the effects of medications used to suppress overactive immune systems, so people who have progressive systemic or autoimmune disorders -- including tuberculosis, connective tissue disorders and lupus -- shouldn't drink echinacea tea, according to the Herb Research Foundation. (livestrong.com)
  • You should not take Echinacea for more than eight consecutive weeks, as this could reduce the effectiveness of the treatment and weaken your immune system. (uniprix.com)
  • Echinacea was used traditionally for supporting the immune system and also for topical use. (mountainroseherbs.com)
  • Echinacea is most often used to boost the immune system and fight infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If you have an immune system that is compromised by disease such as Lupus, Multiple Sclerosis, AIDS, or diabetes to name some, it is advised that you check with your healthcare provider before you use Echinacea, since it does have a direct effect on your immune system and I have seen conflicting opinions on the internet in relation to its use under these circumstances. (sharedreviews.com)
  • However, is there benefit in taking Echinacea extracts preventatively, to strengthen the immune system and fight off bugs before you even begin to show any cold or flu symptoms? (avogel.co.uk)
  • Additionally, Echinacea was seen to increase the activity of the immune system in people with low immune function, but to have no effect where immune function was satisfactory. (avogel.co.uk)
  • This is excerpted from a much longer letter in response to several articles appearing in Medical Herbalism suggesting that the use of Echinacea may deplete the immune system when used for periods longer than several days. (herpes-coldsores.com)
  • By taking Echinacea you can boost your immune system and help prevent illness. (steroid.com)
  • After a long time period of staying on Echinacea without a break your body's immune system will go back to normal, therefore making it non-effective. (steroid.com)
  • Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals Echinacea supports a healthy immune system and helps maintain a healthy white blood cell count. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Perhaps the most common usage of echinacea relates to its impact on the immune system. (organicfacts.net)
  • Echinacea has been connected to preventing cancer because it stimulates the body's immune system to eliminate cancerous cells. (organicfacts.net)
  • Although echinacea is not necessarily considered an antioxidant , it can certainly help eliminate free radicals by stimulating the proper immune system cells, like T-cells, thereby helping to prevent the development of cancer. (organicfacts.net)
  • Ginseng, ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, and echinacea are currently the top five best-selling herbs according to the Nutrition Business Journal. (pitt.edu)
  • Echinacea is one of the most frequently sold herbs in the United States. (thebody.com)
  • Advocates of Echinacea suggest drinking it from small batches made from herbs less than one year old. (thebody.com)
  • Its recent resurgence as a treatment for upper respiratory infections (URIs) has placed echinacea among the three top-selling herbs in the United States. (aafp.org)
  • Because some studies have examined combinations of echi-nacea species using differing parts of the various plants, and others have looked at echinacea combined with other herbs, it is difficult to attribute efficacy to any one of the constituents. (aafp.org)
  • Botanicals and herbs, such as Echinacea , may help some people boost their immune systems, Longenecker says. (wordnik.com)
  • Echinacea is one of the world's most important medicinal herbs. (pfaf.org)
  • Contains two types of echinacea, plus a dynamic blend of immune-enhancing herbs to boost your natural defenses. (iherb.com)
  • Echinacea is one of the most widely known herbs in American folk herbalism. (mountainroseherbs.com)
  • Gaia Herbs' Echinacea purpurea is grown on Gaia's own certified organic farm. (gaiaherbs.com)
  • National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Herbs at a Glance: Echinacea. (boots.com)
  • Planetary Herbals Echinacea Defense Force is a unique combination of some of the most widely used tonifying herbs of China with some of North America's finest purifiers. (planetherbs.com)
  • The tonifiers astragalus, ligustrum, schisandra and eleuthero together with echinacea and garlic create a classic combination of two primary classes of herbs for supporting our natural defenses. (planetherbs.com)
  • Enzymatic Therapy Esberitox Supercharged Echinacea combines two types of Echinacea with two additional immune-enhancing herbs, baptisia and thuja. (netrition.com)
  • Allergic reactions have been reported with echinacea. (mskcc.org)
  • However, people who tend to be allergic to mixed herbal remedies should exercise caution when taking Echinacea. (manataka.org)
  • Some people, particularly those who are allergic to ragweed and list hay fever as a seasonal complaint, may have an allergic reaction to echinacea -- typically, itchy eyes and throat.Frequent use of echinacea may mask the symptoms of a more serious underlying disease. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Echinacea can trigger allergic reactions in people with a tendency to develop allergic conditions. (drugs.com)
  • In studies they have not found any side effects of Echinacea except some people are allergic to some herbal mixtures. (essortment.com)
  • It's rare, but some people may have allergic reactions after drinking echinacea tea, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. (livestrong.com)
  • People who have asthma or allergies, especially people who are allergic to plants in the daisy family, may be especially prone to allergic reactions to echinacea tea. (livestrong.com)
  • Allergic reactions to echinacea range from fairly mild skin rashes to life-threatening conditions like anaphylaxis, so if you suspect you're having an allergic reaction to using echinacea, seek medical attention immediately. (livestrong.com)
  • So long as you aren't allergic to Echinacea, or taking immunosuppressant medication, or in the grip of some disease that affects immune cells, there's not much to worry about (although obviously, always read any leaflets that come with Echinacea products - they're there to help). (avogel.co.uk)
  • If you are allergic to plants in the sunflower or daisy family, are pregnant or nursing, have HIV or lupus, or are taking prescription drugs, you should not use Echinacea. (steroid.com)
  • Three studies show that echinacea reduced severity of symptoms on URI symptom scoring instruments and reduced the duration of illness by one to two days. (aafp.org)
  • Echinacea may also be able to "abort" a cold, if taken at the first sign of symptoms. (epnet.com)
  • Thus, at present, it can only be said that we don't understand the means by which echinacea affects cold symptoms. (epnet.com)
  • Other people take echinacea after cold symptoms have started, hoping they can make symptoms less severe. (rxlist.com)
  • There is some scientific evidence that echinacea can reduce the symptoms of cold or flu if started when the symptoms are first noticed and continued for 7-10 days. (rxlist.com)
  • Many scientific studies show that taking some echinacea products when cold symptoms are first noticed can modestly reduce symptoms of the common cold in adults. (rxlist.com)
  • Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Echinacea Angustifolia in traditional homeopathic usage , not approved by the FDA. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Many studies show that echinacea lessens cold symptoms and speeds recovery by a day or two. (health.com)
  • Also, what works well for you is not necessarily effective for your kids: A 2003 study at the University of Washington showed that echinacea does not help relieve cold symptoms in children. (health.com)
  • I have found Traditional Medicinal's Organic Echinacea Plus teabags to be a comfort and a help when suffering from cold symptoms. (sharedreviews.com)
  • A group of German researchers concluded that extracts of Echinacea purpurea flowering tops are also generally more useful than placebo to reduce duration and severity of symptoms if started soon after a cold beings. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In 2006 a meta-analysis (a study that summarises many previous trials) concluded that the use of Echinacea is effective in the prevention of the symptoms of the common cold . (avogel.co.uk)
  • Early studies suggested that echinacea reduced cold symptoms, but more recent research has not documented any benefit, including a study of 719 cold sufferers published in 2010. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • People in both the echinacea and the placebo group reported symptoms lasting for about the same period: seven days. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Researchers failed to find statistically significant effects of echinacea on the rates of infection or on the severity of symptoms (P values for difference in infection rate vs placebo, with the three extracts used, were .57, .46, and .22 respectively). (ascopost.com)
  • In another randomized study involving 58 individuals, prophylactic treatment with echinacea (3 capsules, twice daily for 8 weeks during winter months) did not have a significant impact on the frequency of upper respiratory tract symptoms compared with placebo. (ascopost.com)
  • Of interest, in a multicenter randomized study of patients with early influenza symptoms, an echinacea formulation (25 mL for 3 days followed by 15 mL for 7 days) was found equally effective as oseltamivir capsules (taken for 5 days, followed by 5 days of placebo, twice daily). (ascopost.com)
  • In truth, the tribes used Echinacea to treat some of the symptoms that could have been caused by the common cold like sore throats and headaches. (jonbarron.org)
  • DNA analysis is applied to determine the number of Echinacea species, allowing clear distinctions among species based on chemical differences in root metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early settlers then adopted the therapeutic uses of echinacea root, and it has been used as an herbal remedy in the United States ever since. (pitt.edu)
  • Dr. J. S. Leachman of Sharon, Oklahoma wrote in the October 1914 issue of "The Gleaner," that echinacea root was used for nearly every sickness with good results. (pitt.edu)
  • Echinacea is available in capsules containing a powder of the dried plant or root, and also as a tincture (an alcohol-based preparation). (thebody.com)
  • An article in the society s newsletter estimates that as of this spring, 100,000 pounds of Echinacea root have been harvested in eastern Montana. (bio.net)
  • Workers at the unmarked Quonset hut in Wolf Point estimated that they had 4,000 to 5,000 pounds of Echinacea root that day being dried and stuffed into 50-pound boxes for shipment to pharmaceutical companies in Maryland and North Carolina. (bio.net)
  • Several species of the echinacea plant are used to make medicine from its leaves, flower, and root. (rxlist.com)
  • As long as you're not exceeding the recommended dosage of echinacea -- 1 to 2 grams of dried echinacea root made into a tea per day, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center -- your risk for side effects is low. (livestrong.com)
  • The active treatment consisted of 10.2 g of dried echinacea root during the first day and 5.1 g per day for four additional days. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This product utilizes the whole Echinacea root, which has all of its natural components in the amounts found in nature. (iherb.com)
  • Echinacea propagates easily from seed or by root cuttings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Echinacea is vulnerary, promoting wound healing through the action of a chemical substance in the root known as caffeic acid glycoside. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Sioux tribe valued the root as a remedy for snake bite, the Cheyenne tribe chewed the root to quench thirst, and another tribe washed their hands in a decoction of echinacea to increase their tolerance of heat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies have looked at different types and strengths of echinacea as well as different parts of the plant or root. (boots.com)
  • For example, a large study (437 adults participated) of three tinctures of Echinacea angustifolia root was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2005. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As far as I know, the root is the active ingredient and any echinacea pills you buy are grounded root? (shroomery.org)
  • Echinacea root harvests require a tractor and digging forks. (herb-pharm.com)
  • In a randomized trial, 437 subjects received prophylaxis (treatment with echinacea from study day 7, before rhinovirus challenge, through study day 5) or treatment either with placebo or three different echinacea extracts (virus challenge through study day 5, 3 times daily as a 1.5-mL tincture containing the equivalent of 300 mg of echinacea root). (ascopost.com)
  • These Native Americans actually identified the plant as elk root, not the common name of Echinacea that we use now. (jonbarron.org)
  • The one recent new study conducted by doctors in Germany indicated no significant differences among the people given echinacea or a placebo. (pitt.edu)
  • 17 The results showed that the people who were given echinacea recovered significantly more quickly: just 6 days in the echinacea group versus 9 days in the placebo group. (epnet.com)
  • In clinical trials, adverse reactions caused by echinacea were generally not statistically significant compared with placebo. (drugs.com)
  • In their study, 719 patients with new-onset common cold aged 12 to 80 years were randomised to one of four parallel groups: no pills, placebo (blinded), echinacea pills (blinded), or echinacea pills (unblinded) over five days. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The researchers - published in the Annals of Internal Medicine journal yesterday - found no significant differences in illness duration and severity with echinacea compared to placebo. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The team's research paper states: 'This dose regimen of the echinacea formulation did not have a large effect on the course of the common cold compared with either blinded placebo or no pills. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • For example, one metanalysis conducted by Swiss researchers found that of the three studies that involved people taking standardized extracts of the flowering tops of Echinacea purpurea, the risk of developing a natural cold was about one-half that of people given a placebo (dummy pill). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Our review shows that a variety of products prepared from different Echinacea species, different plant parts and in a different form have been compared to placebo in randomized trials. (cochrane.org)
  • In the echinacea study mentioned above, researchers compared a group that received no pills with a group that received placebo pills. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Those in the echinacea group reported 9 sick days per person, whereas the placebo group reported 14 sick days (P = .67). (ascopost.com)
  • These effects may decrease if people take echinacea for more than a few weeks. (thebody.com)
  • Some people take echinacea at the first sign of a cold, hoping they will be able to keep the cold from developing. (rxlist.com)
  • According to Janet Zand, writing on the website Healthy.net, people may take echinacea and goldenseal two to three times per day for one to two weeks per month. (livestrong.com)
  • You may experience serious reactions if you take echinacea while taking other medications, according to Medline Plus. (livestrong.com)
  • Modulation of IL-2 production by submaximally stimulated Jurkat cells was determined in response to treatment with extracts prepared from dried aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea. (bastyr.edu)
  • Are there side effects of echinacea? (boots.com)
  • Commercially available echinacea products come in many forms including tablets, juice, and tea. (rxlist.com)
  • There have been no reports of adverse side effects or interactions between Echinacea and other remedies, drugs or medications. (manataka.org)
  • Echinacea was used in traditional herbal remedies by the Great Plains Indian tribes. (rxlist.com)
  • In fact, many of these herbal remedies, such as Echinacea and St. John's Wort, in fact, have been manufactured, so that they actually have other ingredients, and added to them artificial ingredients which sometimes people don't know about, making it a little difficult to interpret. (wordnik.com)
  • European settlers learned of the North American herb's many uses, and soon numerous echinacea-based remedies were commercially available from pharmaceutical companies in the United States. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Echinacea was included in the U. S. National Formulary from 1916 to 1950, although papers published by the Journal of the American Medical Association described it as a useless quack remedy. (pitt.edu)
  • This can mean that a herbal remedy, such as Echinacea, that is purchased at a drugstore might not contain what the label claims. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Echinacea was the number one cold and flu remedy in the United States until it was displaced by sulfa antibiotics. (epnet.com)
  • Echinacea is a popular herbal remedy in the United States. (drugs.com)
  • There is a folk remedy for fever blisters using Echinacea: just take a few drops of Echinacea juice and place on fever blister when just coming up, apply as needed until fever blister is gone. (essortment.com)
  • As with any herbal remedy, consult your health-care provider if you're considering making echinacea tea part of your health-care regimen. (livestrong.com)
  • Echinacea was a popular remedy in the United States through the 1930s. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • People have used echinacea as a traditional cold remedy for centuries. (boots.com)
  • Its use as a cold-relief remedy didn't occur until later, when a Swiss herbal supplement maker was erroneously told that Native American tribes used Echinacea for cold prevention. (jonbarron.org)
  • Test tube and animal studies had found that various constituents of echinacea can increase antibody production, raise white blood cell counts, and stimulate the activity of key white blood cells. (epnet.com)
  • 14 Echinacea extracts were also found to stimulate phagocytosis, increase the mobility of leukocytes, stimulate TNF and IL-1 secretion from macrophages and lymphocytes, and improve respiratory activity. (ascopost.com)
  • Findings show that echinacea is ineffective in preventing the common cold, but it may be useful in the treatment of influenza. (ascopost.com)
  • A number of in vitro and animal studies have shown that echinacea appears to increase immunologic activity by increasing levels of interferon and may increase phagocytosis, cellular respiratory activity, and lymphocyte activation through release of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interferon beta-2. (aafp.org)
  • Research has shown that echinacea increases production of interferon in the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Laboratory research has shown that Echinacea has antiviral and antibacterial activity and that Echinacea can kill pathogens before they infect body cells. (avogel.co.uk)
  • Preclinical studies have shown that echinacea exerts immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects, 1 inactivates influenza viruses, 2 stimulates erythropoiesis, 3 produces anxiolytic effects, 4 and has wound-healing 5 as well as anticancer properties. (ascopost.com)
  • And other studies from the University of Munich have shown that Echinacea extracts boost T-cell production by as much as 30% more than immune boosting drugs. (jonbarron.org)
  • Scientific trials found that Echinacea reduced the odds of one developing a cold by 58% and the duration of a cold by one to four days. (bellaonline.com)
  • 3 , 4 [References 3 and 4 -Evidence level B, lower quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] A systematic review of four studies confirmed the lack of effect of echinacea in preventing URIs. (aafp.org)
  • Thus, the data precluded a quantitative meta-analysis of 16 trials in a Cochrane review of echinacea. (aafp.org)
  • This concept partly comes from the misinterpretation of the evidence from a clinical study [See Medical Herbalism 1994;6(1):and also the Echinacea monograph from the German Commission E. However, the Commission E monograph only draws conclusions from traditional use and clinical trials conducted in Europe. (herpes-coldsores.com)
  • One study by the University of Connecticut combined findings from 14 previously reported trials examining Echinacea and concluded that Echinacea can reduce the chances of catching a cold by approximately 58%, and decrease the duration of a cold by an average of 1.4 days. (jonbarron.org)
  • Few studies have been conducted on echinacea with respect to cancer or cancer treatment. (mskcc.org)
  • So many studies have been conducted on echinacea that it is difficult to make heads or tails out of them. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Since the 1930's, there have been more than 400 journal articles published on the chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical uses of echinacea. (pitt.edu)
  • One large clinical trial suggested a specific echinacea formulation was as effective as a prescription drug to treat influenza, with fewer side effects. (mskcc.org)
  • Limited clinical evidence, expert opinion, and long-term traditional use suggest that oral echinacea is safe for use during pregnancy at normal dosages. (drugs.com)
  • In 2012 the results of the l argest and longest clinical trial ever carried out on Echinacea were published by the Cardiff Common Cold Centre. (avogel.co.uk)
  • In particular, the scarce oral-dose clinical work for Echinacea in Europe has been mainly short-term, so Commission E have tailored their recommendations accordingly. (herpes-coldsores.com)
  • However, there has been one clinical study involving longer use of Echinacea purpurea. (herpes-coldsores.com)
  • These results imply that immune responsiveness progressively increases with continued use of Echinacea, which is consistent with my clinical experience. (herpes-coldsores.com)
  • Cheyenne Spirit Echinacea flowers first year from seed, allowing growers and retailers to offer it in quarts, gallons and larger containers in full flower. (harrisseeds.com)
  • Cheyenne Spirit Echinacea blooms range from yellow to pink to crimson. (westcoastseeds.com)
  • Echinacea boosts your immune function as it increases your white cells, which helps the body fight and resist illness and disease. (bellaonline.com)
  • Echinacea increases the risk of dry eye syndrome. (mskcc.org)
  • Echinacea does more than stimulating T-cells, it also increases the production of white blood cells in the body, which are the main soldiers in the battle against illness going on in our bodies every day. (organicfacts.net)
  • However, both AIDS researchers and herbalists warn against long-term use of echinacea. (thebody.com)
  • A case report of leukopenia, possibly caused by long-term use of echinacea, has been published. (drugs.com)
  • Laboratory studies suggest that echinacea has antiviral properties and a human study suggests a specific echinacea formulation could be as effective as a prescription drug to treat the influenza virus. (mskcc.org)
  • Alkylamides present in Echinacea species have reported immunomodulatory actions, yet their direct effects on T lymphocytes, key mediators of antiviral immunity, are poorly understood. (bastyr.edu)
  • Two Echinacea-derived alkylamides significantly depressed IL-2 production but not cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. (bastyr.edu)