Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Male Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adenine NucleotidesRadiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Retinoblastoma: A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)Retinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spinal NeoplasmsTreatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Osteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Thoracic NeoplasmsSpectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Radiotherapy Setup Errors: Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Supratentorial Neoplasms: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
University Malaya Medical Centre
Studies are ongoing to confirm its role in patients with higher risk disease. IORT produces low energy X-ray radiation. Due to ... This is usually delivered using External Beam Radio Therapy (EBRT). Treatment is started a few weeks after surgery or ... IORT stands for Intra Operative Radio Therapy and TARGIT stands for TARGeted Intra Operative Radio Therapy. IORT is a technique ... Radio-therapy is delivered over 20-50 minutes by oncologists and medical physicists. Once treatment is completed, the ...
... one year after treatment with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone versus EBRT and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT)". ... It also contrasts to EBRT, in which high-energy x-rays (or occasionally gamma-rays from a radioisotope like cobalt-60) are ... External beam radiotherapy Prostate brachytherapy Targeted intra-operative radiotherapy Unsealed source radiotherapy Nuclear ... Patients typically have to make fewer visits to the radiotherapy clinic compared with EBRT, and may receive the treatment as ...
Intraoperative radiation therapy
... of low-energy X-rays on tumor cells is higher when compared to high-energy X-rays or gamma rays which are delivered by linear ... Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy (IOERT) Brachytherapy External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) EBRT Mirnezami, Reza; Chang, ... up to 300 kV in energy) prior to the advent of technology that enabled high energy electrons. For the first 75 years, X-Ray ... Conventional radiation techniques such as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgical removal of the tumor have ...
Intraoperative electron radiation therapy
External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT) ... Head and neck cancers are often difficult to treat and have a high rate of recurrence or metastasis. IOERT is an effective ... Because portable LINACs for IOERT produced electron beams of energy less than or equal to 12 MeV and did not use bending ... 1] "Intraoperative radiotherapy versus external radiotherapy for early breast cancer (ELIOT): a randomised controlled ...
The same device can also be used to produce high energy photon beams. When electrons are required, the x-ray target is ... Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) Karzmark, C. J. (1987). "AAPM Report No. 23 ... The depth of the treatment is selected by the appropriate energy. Unlike photon beams there is no surface sparing effect, so ... Electron therapy or electron beam therapy (EBT) is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where electrons are directed to a tumor ...
Targeted intra-operative radiotherapy
... of low-energy X-rays on tumour cells is higher when compared to high-energy X-rays or gamma rays which are delivered by linear ... EBRT is usually given as a course of whole breast radiotherapy and an additional tumour bed boost. However, it has a few ... Conventional radiation techniques such as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgical removal of the tumor have been ... Targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) is a technique of giving radiotherapy to the tissues surrounding a cancer after ...
Conventional radiation techniques such as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgical removal of the tumor have ... via two-dimensional beams using kilovoltage therapy x-ray units or medical linear accelerators which generate high energy x- ... The advantage of this energy deposition profile is that less energy is deposited into the healthy tissue surrounding the target ... The effect of radiotherapy on control of cancer has been shown to be limited to the first five years after surgery, ...
Dielectric wall accelerator
This system requires several new advances because of the high energies, like e.g. high gradient insulators. A wide band-gap ... Possible uses of this concept include its application in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) using protons or ions. An external ... The energy stored in the Blumlein rushes toward the dielectric wall as a high voltage pulse. Dielectric wall accelerators have ... Depending on the desired final beam energy, the conventional medical accelerator solutions (cyclotrons and small synchrotrons) ...
... deliver external beam radiation therapy to the lymphoma from a machine called linear accelerator which produces high energy X ... For Hodgkin's lymphomas, radiation oncologists typically use external beam radiation therapy (sometimes shortened to EBRT or ... "Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for adults with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma". The Cochrane Database ... The high cure rates and long survival of many patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma has led to a high concern with late adverse ...
... deliver external beam radiation therapy to the lymphoma from a machine called linear accelerator which produces high energy X ... For Hodgkin's lymphomas, radiation oncologists typically use external beam radiation therapy (sometimes shortened to EBRT or ... "ABVD versus modified stanford V versus MOPPEBVCAD with optional and limited radiotherapy in intermediate- and advanced-stage ... The high cure rates and long survival of many patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma has led to a high concern with late adverse ...
... deliver external beam radiation therapy to the lymphoma from a machine called a linear accelerator which produces high energy X ... For Hodgkin lymphomas, radiation oncologists typically use external beam radiation therapy (sometimes shortened to EBRT or XRT ... this study has been heavily criticized due to its incorrect administration of radiotherapy, diverging from the original ... The high cure rates and long survival of many people with Hodgkin lymphoma has led to a high concern with late adverse effects ...
Treatment of cancer
Radiotherapy is the use of high-energy rays, usually x-rays and similar rays (such as electrons) to treat disease. It works by ... Radiation therapy can be administered externally via external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or internally via brachytherapy. The ... High-energy therapeutic ultrasound could increase higher-density anti-cancer drug load and nanomedicines to target tumor sites ... Children who had received cranial radiotherapy are deemed at a high risk for academic failure and cognitive delay. Study by ...
External beam radiotherapy
... useful X-rays are produced when electrons are accelerated to a high energy. Some examples of X-ray energies used in medicine ... External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy). The patient sits ... If the target is removed (and the beam current decreased) a high energy electron beam is obtained. Electron beams are useful ... Orthovoltage X-ray machines, which produce higher energy x-rays in the range 200-500 kV. This radiation was called "deep" ...
Also, higher rate of equipment failures were recorded using this technique. Finally, even though short term success rate is ... In surgical procedures, a flexible probe is used directly on an exposed heart to apply the energy that interrupts the ... Tanaka's breast cancer cases were considered incurable: advanced, unresectable, and resistant to radiotherapy, chemotherapy, ... EBRT); and focal therapy for smaller, discrete tumors in younger patients. Cryoablation has been explored as an alternative to ...
Multiple studies have shown that adjuvant radiotherapy improves local recurrence rates in high-risk melanoma patients. The ... as a full course of cytotoxic chemotherapy produced far more side effects then a course of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).[ ... Heating the tumor by Radio Frequency (RF) or Microwave energy increases oxygen content in the tumor site, which results in ... For instance, radiotherapy to the brain can cause memory loss, headache, alopecia, and radiation necrosis of the brain. If the ...
External Beam Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Practice Essentials, Overview, Indications and Contraindications
EBRT) remains one of the primary treatment modalities for patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. It is ... Photons are packets of energy that are capable of entering the body to a depth that is proportional to their energy (ie, higher ... What is simulation prior to conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)?. How is conventional external beam radiotherapy ( ... EBRT) delivered for the treatment of prostate cancer?. What are outcomes of conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for ...
What are the possible skin complications of conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer?
This is relatively uncommon, given the frequent use of high-energy photon beams ... more ... EBRT) for prostate cancer?) and What are the possible skin complications of conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for ... Conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: 5-year outcomes of the ... What are the possible skin complications of conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer?. Updated: Nov ...
Radiation therapy for prostate cancer
Radiotherapy may be used to enhance the effects of chemotherapy or to shrink a localized tumor before it is surgically removed ... This therapy uses high energy waves to kill cancer cells.. Radiotherapy may be used to enhance the effects of chemotherapy or ... External beam radiation therapy or EBRT. For this therapy, high-energy radiation beams generated by a machine are directed at ... Proton beams release energy only after they reach the site they are directed at rather than releasing energy as they travel ...
Patient information - Rectal cancer - External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) - pre-operative short course | eviQ
Radiotherapy is the use of high energy x-rays to treat cancer. Radiotherapy is sometimes called external beam radiotherapy ( ... EBRT) and is delivered by a linear accelerator (radiotherapy treatment machine). Your treatment is individualised and carefully ... Before radiotherapy begins and during treatment, if you are pregnant or feel that there is any chance that you may be pregnant ... A course of radiotherapy will take approximately 1 to 5 weeks to complete. Your doctor will talk to you about the number and ...
University Malaya Medical Centre - Wikipedia
Studies are ongoing to confirm its role in patients with higher risk disease. IORT produces low energy X-ray radiation. Due to ... This is usually delivered using External Beam Radio Therapy (EBRT). Treatment is started a few weeks after surgery or ... IORT stands for Intra Operative Radio Therapy and TARGIT stands for TARGeted Intra Operative Radio Therapy. IORT is a technique ... Radio-therapy is delivered over 20-50 minutes by oncologists and medical physicists. Once treatment is completed, the ...
Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Stages
External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) involves targeting a beam of high-energy radiation directly at the localized cancer. The ... The goal of radiotherapy for men with localized prostate cancer is to deliver enough radiation to the tumor while minimizing ... It may be added to surgery and radiation in cases at high risk for relapse due to high Gleason score and/or positive surgical ... Specifically, total energy intake (as reflected by body mass index) and dietary fat have been incriminated. In addition, there ...
Patient information | eviQ
Radiotherapy is the use of high energy x-rays to treat cancer. Radiotherapy is sometimes called external beam radiotherapy ( ... EBRT) and is delivered by a linear accelerator (radiotherapy treatment machine). Your treatment is individualised and carefully ... See our patient information sheets - Fertility for men receiving radiotherapy or Fertility for women receiving radiotherapy. ... Before radiotherapy begins and during treatment, if you are pregnant or feel that there is any chance that you may be pregnant ...
Radiation Therapy for Liver Cancer | Roswell Park Cancer Institute
... our radiation oncologists assess how radiotherapy may benefit each liver cancer patient. Radiation therapy may be beneficial in ... Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. The radiation overwhelms cancer cells with oxidizing molecules ... 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT): This is a form of EBRT where a few shaped radiation beams are aimed at the ... We offer patients with liver cancer the most advanced radiotherapy treatments, including:. *External Beam Radiation Therapy ( ...
External radiotherapy (radiation therapy or EBRT). This treatment involves the use of radiation (very high energy rays) ... 2010: Salvage Radiotherapy After High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Recurrent Localised Prostate Cancer. Julien Riviere et ... 2006: Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy - Salvage Treatment by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound. F-J. Murat et al ... different between HIFU and EBRT but the rate of patients who need palliative S-ADT was significantly higher for EBRT compare to ...
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - North Kansas City Hospital, Kansas City, MO
External beam radiotherapy, or EBRT, uses high-energy rays, such as X-rays, to destroy the cancer. It is usually given in ... Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or protons to destroy the cancer. This treatment has improved with newer technologies ... Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). This uses a three-dimensional planning system to target a strong dose of radiation to the ... A higher PSA does not necessarily mean your cancer has come back. But it may mean that you need further tests, such as a ...
Brachytherapy - Wikipedia
... one year after treatment with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone versus EBRT and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT)". ... It also contrasts to EBRT, in which high-energy x-rays (or occasionally gamma-rays from a radioisotope like cobalt-60) are ... External beam radiotherapy Prostate brachytherapy Targeted intra-operative radiotherapy Unsealed source radiotherapy Nuclear ... Patients typically have to make fewer visits to the radiotherapy clinic compared with EBRT, and may receive the treatment as ...
Treatment | Melanoma | Boston Medical Center
Radiation uses special equipment to deliver high-energy particles, such as x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams or protons, to ... called external beam radiotherapy, or EBRT). Radiation may be used as a solitary treatment to cure the tumor or in combination ... The treatment allows high doses of the chemo drug to be administered to the cancer site without endangering the rest of the ... Radiation (also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or x-ray therapy) can be delivered internally through seed implantation or ...
Treatments | Skull Base Surgery | Boston Medical Center
... and to achieve the highest quality of life. ... Radiation uses special equipment to deliver high-energy ... called external beam radiotherapy, or EBRT). Radiation may be used as a solitary treatment to cure the tumor or in combination ... Radiation (also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or x-ray therapy) can be delivered internally through seed implantation or ... Developments in EBRT equipment have enabled physicians to offer conformal radiation. With conformal radiation, computer ...
Esophageal Cancer, Risks, Symptoms, Treatment | Moffitt
... external radiotherapy involves the delivery of high-energy beams produced by an X-ray machine called a linear accelerator, ... EBRT is often performed as an outpatient procedure over the course of two to 10 weeks, with one treatment session administered ... Radiation therapy involves the precise delivery of high-energy X-rays or particles directly to a tumor to destroy cancerous ... High-resolution images captured by the camera are displayed on an external monitor in real time, allowing a physician to view ...
Intraoperative Radiotherapy - Medical Technology | ZEISS International
Targeted interdisciplinary and highly effective intraoperative radiotherapy for local tumor diseases. ... By using low energy x-rays intraoperative radiation can be given with a high dose, precisely into the tumor or directly after ... In general, for IORT no differences in postoperative complications compared to EBRT have been found.6 This is a result of ... with Low-Energy Photons as a Boost in Patients with Early-Stage Oral Cancer with the Indications for Postoperative Radiotherapy ...
Treatment Options for Bile Duct Cancer
Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses rays with high energy to remove the cancer cells. To treat bile duct ... Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT): The SBRT technique utilizes the process of IMRT and 3D-CRT where it delivers the ... External beam radiation therapy (EBRT): To destroy the cancer cells completely, this type of radiation therapy utilizes an x- ... radiation therapy is an important type of therapy that targets the cancer cells inside the liver and delivers giving high-dose ...
Understanding different cancer treatments - Daily Monitor
... among them external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), where a linear accelerator or a cobalt 60 machine is used to deliver high-energy ... Unlike EBRT, this type of radiotherapy allows for a higher radiation dose to be applied in a smaller area. ... Radiotherapy types. Types of EBRT include: 3-D conformal radiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided ... Some types of focused EBRT target a tumour with higher, more precise doses of radiation, while reducing damage to healthy ...
Breast Cancer Radiation - Buffalo, NY | Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center
... radiation treatment directs high-energy x-rays at the cancer cells to kill them or to keep them from growing. Your treatment ... Women who undergo lumpectomy almost always need radiotherapy, too. Women who undergo mastectomy may also need radiotherapy, ... Radiotherapy for breast cancer may involve:. *External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT): A machine outside the body delivers ... Also called radiotherapy, radiation treatment directs high-energy x-rays at the cancer cells to kill them or to keep them from ...
Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer | Texas Oncology
Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, uses high-energy rays to damage or kill cancer cells and prevent them from growing and ... Newer Radiation Machines: Most EBRT uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. Some radiation oncology centers use different ... During radiation therapy, high-energy x-rays are used to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy can be administered by a machine ... EBRT begins with a planning session, or simulation, where marks are placed on the body and measurements are taken in order to ...
Radiation Treatment for Cancer - Adventist HealthCare
Radiation therapy uses high energy rays, such as X-rays, to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors in different parts of the ... Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT): 3D-CRT uses a three-dimensional planning system to target a strong dose of radiation to where ... External beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Radiation comes from a machine outside the body and is aimed at a specific part of your ... Proton therapy uses a type of energy (protons) different from X-rays. This allows a higher amount of specifically directed ...
Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer | Texas Oncology
EBRT) is a common way to treat rectal cancer and is given on an outpatient basis 5 days a week for 5 to 6 weeks. ... Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, uses high-energy rays to damage or kill cancer cells and prevent them from growing and ... Newer Radiation Machines: Most EBRT uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. Some radiation oncology centers use different ... Radiation therapy involves the use of high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. For many rectal cancers, radiation therapy is ...
Dr. M. V. T. Krishna Mohan - Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Fees, Contact Number, Feedbacks | Oncologist in Hyderabad
In external beam radiation therapy, high-energy rays are focused on the cancer cells (thereby resulting in the apoptosis of the ... Radiotherapy to treat Lung cancer:. Radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the treatment of lung cancer. The radiation therapy is ... The EBRT may be of the following types. *3D-CRT (Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy): An advanced radiation therapy ... Hi! Doctor my question is that my wife age is 32 and he wants to know that whether she can have injections for uterus to ...
Brachytherapy : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
EBRT) and chemotherapy.. In contrast to EBRT in which high-energy x-rays are directed at the tumour from outside the body, ... one year after treatment with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone versus EBRT and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT)". ... The main benefit of breast brachytherapy compared to EBRT is that a high dose of radiation can be precisely applied to the ... 2009). "External beam radiotherapy plus high-dose-rate brachytherapy for treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer: the ...
External Beam Therapy
Linear accelerators are used in this procedure to deliver high energy x-rays, which deposit in tumor cells and eventually ... EBRT (External Beam Radiation Therapy). *EBT (External Beam Therapy). *External Beam Radiotherapy ... External Beam Therapy (EBT) or External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is used in the treatment of cancer, to kill cancer cells ... External Beam Therapy (EBT) or External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is used in the treatment of cancer, to kill cancer cells ...
The most common form of radiotherapy used for the treatment of painful bone metastases is EBRT (external beam radiation). It ... uses high-energy radiation to destroy the tumor locally and relieve symptoms such as pain. Pain relief is typically attained at ... Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases: An ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Mar 15;79(4): ... MRgFUS for pain palliation of bone metastases is performed without any incision, by directing ultrasound energy to destroy the ...
WE-B-137-01: Plastic Scintillation Detectors: Present Status and Their Application for Quality Assurance and in Vivo Dosimetry....
This lecture will provide a brief overview of the dosimetric characteristics and properties of PSDs when exposed to high-energy ... We will present few recent applications of PSD systems as applied for EBRT and Brachytherapy (quality assurance and in vivo ... started with point detectors and has led to matrix arrays to respond to the ever-increasing complexity of radiotherapy ... 2. Understand the principles of the methods associated with recent innovations of PSDs in EBRT and Brachytherapy. 3. Identify ...
Prostate Cancer Glossary | Patient Education | UCSF Health
External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT): High-energy X-rays or protons used to kill cancerous tissue in the prostate, and ... High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR): A focal radiotherapy treatment involving temporary placement of a radioactive source in the ... For EBRT, CT scans are used for treatment planning.. Concurrent: This means simultaneous. With EBRT, usually refers to androgen ... For EBRT, usually includes X-rays and a CT scan.. Testosterone: The male sex hormone or androgen that causes characteristically ...
Prostate Cancer Worcester County, Maryland
External radiation. Also called external beam radiotherapy, or EBRT, radiation therapy uses high-energy rays, such as X-rays, ... High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. For this form of brachytherapy, radioactive material is placed into the prostate for a very ... Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). It uses a three-dimensional planning system to target a strong dose of radiation to the ... A higher level of PSA may mean that you have prostate cancer. But it could also mean that you have an enlargement or infection ...
Waging War on Pancreatic Cancer in the #CLE and Beyond!: 2010
When treating pancreatic cancer, EBRT uses a high-energy X-ray machine called a linear accelerator to direct the radiation ... These radiotherapy treatments generally last a few minutes at a time and are usually administered five days a week, over the ... EBRT poses no risk of radioactivity to you or others with whom you have contact. Thus, as you undergo EBRT, you may continue ... Im learning to keep things on a more even keel, avoid the high-highs and the low-lows - keep yourself on an emotional middle- ...
Stage III (C) Prostate Cancer | Nebraska Hematology Oncology - Cancer Care Treatment Blood Disorders Clinical Trials Lincoln...
Since high PSA levels are an indication of the presence of cancer, these results suggest that brachytherapy plus EBRT may be ... Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy is treatment with high energy x-rays that have the ability to kill cancer cells. Standard ... Additionally, the high likelihood that postoperative radiotherapy will be required potentially exposes patients to toxicities ... EBRT is typically offered to high-risk patients electing treatment with surgical prostatectomy. This includes individuals ...
BeamChemotherapyForm of radiotherapyTreatmentsIORTIMRTTumorLinear acceleratorIrradiationBeamsProstateBody radiotherapyCancerMetastasesTumourDoses of radiationSurgeryCentersConventionalCourse of radiotherapyLymph nodesTreatmentBreast RadiotherapyAdjuvantPatients undergoPostoperative radiotherapyPlus radiotherapyModern radiotherapyOutpatientBrain tumoursElectronOncologyConformal radiationRaysLumpectomyCervical
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) remains one of the primary treatment modalities for patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
- Unit used to deliver conventional external beam radiotherapy. (medscape.com)
- In 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), the radiation beam is shaped to include the 3D anatomic configuration of the prostate and any specified adjacent tissue (including the seminal vesicles and periprostatic adventitial tissues). (medscape.com)
- In contrast to photon beam therapy, the entrance radiation dose in proton beam therapy tends to be significantly less than the maximum energy of the clinical beam. (medscape.com)
- What are the possible skin complications of conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer? (medscape.com)
- Radiotherapy is sometimes called external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and is delivered by a linear accelerator (radiotherapy treatment machine). (eviq.org.au)
- Using SIRT, higher radiation doses can be delivered with fewer side effects to nearby tissue and organs than with external beam radiotherapy. (roswellpark.org)
- Radiation (also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or x-ray therapy) can be delivered internally through seed implantation or externally using linear accelerators (called external beam radiotherapy, or EBRT). (bmc.org)
- Radiation with INTRABEAM ® from ZEISS enables an individual treatment ensuring that skin and deeper structures are protected and a shorter duration of the radiation therapy compared to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). (zeiss.com)
- Radiotherapy is of different types, among them external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), where a linear accelerator or a cobalt 60 machine is used to deliver high-energy rays to the contour of the tumour. (monitor.co.ug)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for cervical cancer is administered on an outpatient basis, 5 days a week for several weeks. (texasoncology.com)
- EBRT begins with a planning session, or simulation, where marks are placed on the body and measurements are taken in order to line up the radiation beam in the correct position for each treatment. (texasoncology.com)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for rectal cancer is given on an outpatient basis, 5 days a week, for approximately 5 to 6 weeks. (texasoncology.com)
- External Beam Therapy (EBT) or External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is used in the treatment of cancer, to kill cancer cells without destroying normal tissues around it. (dovemed.com)
- The most common form of radiotherapy used for the treatment of painful bone metastases is EBRT (external beam radiation). (bone-mets.com)
- Spinal tumors can be treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). (oncologistraipur.com)
- With EBRT, the radiation is delivered by a machine called a linear accelerator, or linac , which focuses a high-energy x-ray beam into the tumor site from outside the body. (oncologistraipur.com)
- External beam radiation therapy includes radiation therapy (or radiotherapy ) and also radiosurgery . (oncologistraipur.com)
- In the first category, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), the radiation is usually delivered by a machine called a linear accelerator, or linac, which focuses a high-energy x-ray beam to the tumor site from outside the body. (oncologistraipur.com)
- Instead, a focused high-intensity beam of radiation is used to target the tumor. (oncologistraipur.com)
- Patients with stage III prostate cancer are curable and have a number of treatment options, including external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without hormone therapy, surgical removal of the cancer with radical prostatectomy, or active surveillance without immediate treatment. (yourcancercare.com)
- The current standard treatment for stage III prostate cancer is external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in conjunction with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). (yourcancercare.com)
- In external beam radiation therapy, high-energy rays are focused on the cancer cells (thereby resulting in the apoptosis of the cancer cells) externally, from outside the body. (lybrate.com)
- IORT can be combined with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or used as a single radiation dose . (scirp.org)
- NOVAC and LIAC are able to produce a high dose per pulse electron beam and possible to apply the whole dose of radiation during the surgery in the operating room. (scirp.org)
- Most important feature of this mobile dedicated radiotherapy device is the production of a very high dose per pulse electron beam. (scirp.org)
- The dose distribution from electron beams is difficult to predict due to complex dependence on the beam energy and complicated trajectory of particles affected by scattering foils, collimating elements, such as applicator inserts and patient body. (scirp.org)
- On the basis of procedure, the external beam radiotherapy segment commanded the largest share of the overall radiotherapy market in 2019. (benzinga.com)
- Higher installations of external beam radiotherapy equipment, majorly linear accelerators based teletherapy units, due to their technical features like precise radiation delivery, less damage to normal tissues even at high radiation doses, and continuous advances in existing products is supporting the largest share of this segment. (benzinga.com)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can be delivered more precisely to cancer-containing areas by using a special CT scan and targeting computer. (radiationoncologyassociates.co)
- To determine the tolerance of gemcitabine hydrochloride given concurrently with external-beam radiotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Beginning 2-6 weeks after surgery, patients undergo external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) once a day 5 days a week for up to 7 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- ARM I: Patients undergo external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the pelvis daily on days 1-5 for 5 weeks. (osu.edu)
- To report the effect of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in addition to surgery as well as to evaluate the role of resectable local recurrence for long-term prognosis. (springer.com)
- P] + SV radiation therapy [RT]) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or external-beam RT (EBRT) with a high-dose rate (HDR) or a permanent prostate (radioactive seed) implant (PPI) boost. (clinicaltrialsgps.com)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is directed to the tumor by means of linear accelerators. (efellecloud.com)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is used to treat gallbladder cancer. (ahealthyme.com)
- With proton beam therapy, the type of energy beam is different from conventional external beam radiation (proton beams are used instead of photon beams). (ahealthyme.com)
- This allows for more precise delivery of the radiation beam and may help keep nearby tissues from being exposed to high doses of radiation. (ahealthyme.com)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) involves the delivery of radiation via a machine that aims x-rays at the body. (unm.edu)
- External beam radiation therapy [EBRT] is a type of radiation therapy that uses one or more beams to deliver high energy xrays to a cancerous tumour. (radiationoncologycentres.com.au)
- Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) are wound healing deficits or infections requiring surgical intervention, IORT-related cerebral bleeding or ischemia, symptomatic brain necrosis requiring surgical intervention and early termination of external beam radiotherapy (before the envisaged dose of 60 Gy) due to radiotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prostate cancer is frequently treated using external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). (biomedcentral.com)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is frequently used as a definitive treatment for localised and locally advanced prostate cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- As the characteristic acoustic impedance of the gold marker ( ρ =19300 kg/m 3 , c =3240 m/s) is significantly higher than the impedance of the prostate tissue ( ρ =1050 kg/m 3 , c =1578 m/s), this could potentially lead to distortion of the beam due to scattering or reflections when obstructed by the marker, compromising treatment efficacy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Results of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy containing multimodality treatment for locally unresectable T4. (amegroups.com)
- The aim of this study is to analyse the pooled results of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) containing multimodality treatment of locally advanced T4 rectal cancer, initially unresectable for cure, from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA (MCR) and Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (CHE), both major referral centers for locally advanced rectal cancer. (amegroups.com)
- In external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), radiation is used with the premise of preferentially targeting malignancies while simultaneously sparring the healthy tissues and organs around them. (mcgill.ca)
- Renaud J, Sarfehnia A, Bancheri J, Seuntjens J. "Absolute dosimetry of a 1.5 T MR‐guided accelerator‐based high‐energy photon beam in water and solid phantoms using Aerrow" Medical Physics . (mcgill.ca)
- To establish the efficacy and toxicity of post-operative continuous infusion doxorubicin with concurrent external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in patients with extremity and trunk sarcoma. (bioportfolio.com)
- In TARGIT-A, the researchers compared TIR with the conventional policy of whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). (theoncologynurse.com)
- Radiation therapy is delivered to the site of mesothelioma from a machine outside the body, a technique that is called external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). (yourcancercare.com)
- Traditional external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) involves daily radiation treatments for six to eight weeks, while IORT with the Xoft System can be completed in as little as eight minutes. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) provides successful pain relief in 50 to 80 percent of patients with little risk of side effects. (innovations-report.com)
- Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for breast cancer has challenged the standard external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and has been shown to be non-inferior for treating early breast cancer in the past decade. (ecancer.org)
- IORT has gained interest as an alternative to external beam radiation treatment (EBRT) in the past two decades [ 1 ]. (ecancer.org)
- To determine the feasibility and acute tolerability of intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) and external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after lumpectomy in women with stage I or II breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy. (knowcancer.com)
- Beginning 2-8 weeks after surgery, patients undergo whole breast external beam radiotherapy once daily for 24-27 fractions. (knowcancer.com)
- The goal in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for cancer is to maximize damage to the tumor while limiting toxic effects of radiation dose on the organs-at-risk (OAR). (washington.edu)
- In the Genentech and investigator-sponsored study, 2.0 mg ranibizumab was used to treat cases that were not suppressed by standard dose therapy.14 This series included both post-plaque and post-external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) patients. (eyecancer.com)
- The INTRABEAM ® was used internationally as part of the TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT-A) Trial comparing IORT to traditional whole breast external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). (moffitt.org)
- Radiotherapy may be used to enhance the effects of chemotherapy or to shrink a localized tumor before it is surgically removed by radical prostatectomy. (news-medical.net)
- While chemotherapy eventually spreads throughout the whole body, radiotherapy is restricted to a certain part of the body. (monitor.co.ug)
- Dr Okuku shares that some cancers such as that of the cervix are treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (monitor.co.ug)
- Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (Amgen), NSC-614629 IFF Ifosfamide, NSC-109724 MAID Mesna/DOX/IFF/DTIC Mesna Mercaptoethane sulfonate, NSC-113891 3-Drug Combination Chemotherapy plus Radiotherapy followed by Surgery followed, if indicated, by Radiotherapy followed by 3-Drug Combination Chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- For example, lymphomas respond better to chemotherapy and radiotherapy than surgery. (diseasefix.com)
- Hormonal imbalances: Radiation therapy is sometimes given with chemotherapy in patients who need higher dosage. (onco.com)
- The radiotherapy team consists of the oncologist, the medical specialist, the medical physicist who is responsible for ensuring the machines are working properly and that people receive the correct dosage of radiation, radiographers of whom there are about 50 in the department in Addenbrookes (many part-time) and a similar number of oncology nurses who also give chemotherapy and palliative care support. (meningiomauk.org)
- Researchers from the Dana Farber Cancer Center in Boston, MA have reported that among 120 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who underwent surgery with extrapleural pneumonectomy and adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, 22% survived 5 years or longer. (yourcancercare.com)
- It is also common to combine radiotherapy with surgery , chemotherapy , hormone therapy or some mixture of the three. (wikidoc.org)
- Arm I: Radiotherapy plus Single-Agent Chemotherapy. (knowcancer.com)
Form of radiotherapy2
- There is a significant benefit in terms of 5-year survival after surgery plus some form of radiotherapy and a good prognosis for patients when the recurrence from RSTS was resected. (springer.com)
- Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a specialised form of radiotherapy which allows the dose to be 'shaped' to the tumour. (meningiomauk.org)
- The results of several phase III clinical trials suggest that the true benefit of combining radiotherapy with androgen blockade may lie in the potentially synergistic effects of the 2 treatments. (medscape.com)
- Short-course or hypofractionated whole breast irradiation provides a slightly higher dose of radiation per treatment, but with fewer treatments. (roswellpark.org)
- Technological variations and advancements in radiotherapy, such as IMRT, IGRT, and 3-DCRT have provided the ability to precisely conform doses only to the tumor and haveminimized the need for fractionated treatments. (benzinga.com)
- Surgery and radiotherapy are offered as treatments for cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate (localised prostate cancer) or remains in the region of the prostate (locally advanced prostate cancer). (prostatehealth.org.au)
- However, an open question remains as to the impact of fiducial markers implanted during the EBRT procedure on the efficacy of post-EBRT salvage HIFU treatments. (biomedcentral.com)
- In earlier treatments it was not known how much radiation was required and dosage was measured in relation to the redness of the skin (erythema), but this has been found to be higher than is actually required to treat and the skin effects are far less now dosage is calculated more accurately. (meningiomauk.org)
- The term radiotherapy encompasses many different treatments. (meningiomauk.org)
- Radiotherapy can be given as a single treatment and this is known as radiosurgery SRS, or as a number of treatments when it is known as fractionated. (meningiomauk.org)
- This dosage means there is a higher chance of the tumour cells being hit by the radiation when they are most vulnerable ie when they are dividing, and it also gives the normal cells a chance to recover between treatments, and a higher total dose can be given than in just a single treatment. (meningiomauk.org)
- This has hence created a platform for these more localized radiation treatments designed to focus the radiotherapy to the lumpectomy cavity, which is the area most likely to fail and form a recurrence. (moffitt.org)
- Many low-dose palliative treatments (for example, radiotherapy to bony metastases ) cause minimal or no side effects. (wikidoc.org)
- In general, for IORT no differences in postoperative complications compared to EBRT have been found. (zeiss.com)
- IntraOperative radiation Therapy (IORT) is a technique that delivers a high single fraction of radiation dose to the tumor during the surgical procedure. (scirp.org)
- There are many advantages of IORT modality: sharp dose falloff, ideal dose distribution, short treatment time, high radiobiological effectiveness and normal tissue protection . (scirp.org)
- The irradiation procedure in IORT is usually determined based on tabulated data which describe the dose distribution according to the energy, field size and depth. (scirp.org)
- Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a pragmatic and effective approach to sterilize the margins from persistent tumor cells, abrogate post-injury proliferative stimuli and to bridge the therapeutic gap between surgery and radiochemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- One of the techniques employed to tackle this challenging feature of GBM is intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). (biomedcentral.com)
- Dr. Ivanov will also discuss IORT in an oral presentation entitled "Intraoperative Radiotherapy" on Sunday, March 12 from 8:15 am to 8:30 am ET in the Luster Gallerie. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Alektiar KM, Hu K, Anderson L et al (2000) High dose rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) for retroperitoneal sarcomas. (springer.com)
- Different methods of application of IORT have also been evaluated, from early breast cancer to tumour bed boost radiotherapy amongst high risk women. (ecancer.org)
- Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is the administration of radiation therapy at the time of surgery, accurately defining the target volume of the breast. (ecancer.org)
- Moffitt has found success with the INTRABEAM ® Radiotherapy device that is employed to deliver IORT. (moffitt.org)
- The data showed that when IORT was given with lumpectomy, the 5-year local recurrence rate was similar to EBRT. (moffitt.org)
- IMRT is an advanced form of conformal radiotherapy that can harness the radiation beams even more precisely, delivering them directly to the tumor site and even at varying doses to different parts of the tumor. (news-medical.net)
- This evolution started with point detectors and has led to matrix arrays to respond to the ever-increasing complexity of radiotherapy treatment fields such as IMRT, small field dosimetry or incorporating them within special patient applicators to monitor the dose in real time. (semanticscholar.org)
- By combining ADT with a higher dose of EBRT delivered with 3D-CRT or IMRT radiation therapy the outcomes of stage III patients have been improved. (yourcancercare.com)
- Intensity modulated radiation therapy [IMRT] is a high precision type of radiotherapy that uses computer controlled linear accelerators to deliver high dose radiation to cancerous tumours, while limiting the impact of radiation on healthy surrounding tissue. (radiationoncologycentres.com.au)
- To cope with the situation the department of radiotherapy is provided with a new state-of-the-art Dual Photon Energy Linear Accelerator with IMRT, IGRT, VMAT and Stereotactic Radiosurgery & Stereotactic Radiotherapy facilities to cater precision radiotherapy also to the economically backward cancer patients. (org.in)
- Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) uses the techniques of 3D-CRT and IMRT, but gives the radiation over fewer sessions. (cholangiocarcinoma.org)
- By using low energy x-rays intraoperative radiation can be given with a high dose, precisely into the tumor or directly after resection to the tumor bed. (zeiss.com)
- With intraoperative radiation therapy, radiation is given with a spherical applicator targeted to the area where the risk of recurrence is highest, directly into the tumor bed right after tumor resection. (zeiss.com)
- It uses high-energy radiation to destroy the tumor locally and relieve symptoms such as pain. (bone-mets.com)
- Once the probe is in place, energy is transmitted through it and into the tumor. (bmc.org)
- Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays and other types of radiation to kill tumor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- All patients then undergo an exploratory laparotomy that may include tumor debulking, Whipple-type resection (pancreaticoduodenectomy), total pancreatectomy, gastrojejunostomy, total or partial gastrectomy, or cholecystectomy and en bloc resection depending on the extent of the disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Local recurrence rate is high even after complete removal of the tumor. (springer.com)
- These devices create high-energy external radiation beams that travel through healthy tissue into the region where the tumor is located. (efellecloud.com)
- By planning carefully, the radiologist is able to target the tumor with the highest level of radiation that can be delivered safely and to minimize the corresponding exposure of healthy tissue to the radiation. (efellecloud.com)
- But the strength of the beams is also adjusted to keep the highest doses only on the tumor. (ahealthyme.com)
- Thus, though novel surgical techniques (such as fluorescence-guided resection) may have improved the rates of macroscopic complete resections [ 9 ], and advanced radiotherapy techniques are at hand, no single or combined approach is sufficient to deplete microscopically dispersed tumor cells around the tumor cavity. (biomedcentral.com)
- The high linear energy transfer of Xofigo may cause double-strand DNA breaks in adjacent cells, resulting in an anti-tumor effect on bone metastases. (prnewswire.com)
- In the following, we describe technical aspects of boost HDR-ISBT as dose escalation for NPC patients who respond poorly to the CCRT with EBRT, not salvage HDR-ISBT for tumor persistence or local recurrence. (termedia.pl)
- CHICAGO-Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TIR) for breast cancer, in which radiotherapy is confined to the area of the breast where the tumor has been removed, has been found to be as good as whole breast radiotherapy at reducing breast cancer recurrence. (theoncologynurse.com)
- To determine the long-term side effects and cosmetic outcome of IOERT to the tumor bed and EBRT after lumpectomy in these patients. (knowcancer.com)
- Patients with negative lymph nodes undergo intraoperative electron radiotherapy to the tumor bed. (knowcancer.com)
- Radiation therapy or radiotherapy , often abbreviated RT , RTx , or XRT , is therapy using ionizing radiation , generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator . (wikipedia.org)
- The machine used to deliver the radiotherapy is called a linear accelerator and it produces high energy x-ray photons which can be delivered in a very accurate way. (meningiomauk.org)
- Using a machine called a linear accelerator, MRO radiation oncologists direct high-energy radiation beams to the exact location of the cancer. (mropa.com)
- Procurement of the second Linear Accelerator with Low Energy X-Ray with all the above facilities and 4D wide bore CT Simulator is under process. (org.in)
- For the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, kilovoltage irradiation is an important therapeutic option which is also suitable for patients with a high operative risk. (zeiss.com)
- In contrast to previous approaches, the study involves the application of isotropic low-energy (kV) x-rays delivered by spherical applicators, providing optimal irradiation properties to the resection cavity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Besides the obvious benefits of completing all the necessary radiotherapy in a single session at the time of surgery, TIR almost completely avoids irradiation of the intrathoracic structures such as the heart, lung, and esophagus. (theoncologynurse.com)
- Repeat irradiation with EBRT might be feasible in some circumstances, though the details of its effectiveness and safety are still to be determined. (innovations-report.com)
- It is used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit but is not curative) Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. (wikidoc.org)
- For this therapy, high-energy radiation beams generated by a machine are directed at the area of the body where the prostate gland is located. (news-medical.net)
- This procedure involves the use of a computer to direct the radiotherapy beams specifically to the prostate area. (news-medical.net)
- Proton beams release energy only after they reach the site they are directed at rather than releasing energy as they travel towards the target site, like X-rays do. (news-medical.net)
- This is a form of EBRT where a few shaped radiation beams are aimed at the cancer target from different directions. (roswellpark.org)
- Radiation uses special equipment to deliver high-energy particles, such as x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams or protons, to kill or damage cancer cells. (bmc.org)
- This lecture will provide a brief overview of the dosimetric characteristics and properties of PSDs when exposed to high-energy photon beams. (semanticscholar.org)
- This device produces high-dose-per-pulse electron beams with four different energies in the range from 3 MeV to 9 MeV. (scirp.org)
- Radiotherapy is the type of cancer radiation treatment that utilizes beams of higher energy to kill cancer cells. (benzinga.com)
- During EBRT, the machine projects beams of radiation on the areas where there is a presence of tumours or cancer cells. (onco.com)
- Modern radiation therapy for cancers of the head and neck is usually administered with machines called linear accelerators, which produce high-energy external radiation beams. (unm.edu)
- Comparative analysis of prostate-specific antigen free survival outcomes for patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer treatment by radical therapy. (medscape.com)
- Surgery Versus Radiotherapy for Clinically-localized Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
- Phase III trial comparing whole-pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy and neoadjuvant versus adjuvant combined androgen suppression: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9413. (medscape.com)
- Preliminary results of a randomized radiotherapy dose-escalation study comparing 70 Gy with 78 Gy for prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
- Comparison of conventional-dose vs high-dose conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
- The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) now recommends the use of conformal radiotherapy as the optimal method for delivering external radiotherapy in prostate cancer. (news-medical.net)
- If diagnosed early the chance of recovery from prostate cancer is very high. (edap-tms.com)
- This treatment involves the use of radiation (very high energy rays) directed at the prostate gland to kill cancerous cells. (edap-tms.com)
- High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer. (edap-tms.com)
- The treatment transducer then emits high intensity focused ultrasound in the prostate gland. (edap-tms.com)
- A higher level of PSA may mean that you have prostate cancer or that your prostate cancer has come back. (nkch.org)
- If your PSA is high, you may need a prostate biopsy to figure out the cause. (networkofcare.org)
- Prostate cancer is usually slow growing compared to other cancers and when caught early it can be cured, usually by surgery or radiotherapy. (prostatehealth.org.au)
- Further work is necessary to investigate whether these results indicate the necessity to reconsider patient selection and treatment planning for prostate salvage HIFU after failed EBRT. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prior to commencing EBRT, permanent fiducial markers are commonly implanted into the prostate to increase the accuracy of treatment as part of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). (biomedcentral.com)
- Typically, three gold fiducial markers in the shape of a cylinder (approximately 3 mm in length and 1 mm in diameter) are implanted in the prostate before the patient undergoes EBRT planning, and remain permanently in the prostate after the completion of the treatment [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- For patients with later-stage prostate cancer, or those who are at high risk for recurrence, treatment often includes hormone therapy, which aims to lower the levels of androgens - male hormones such as testosterone - that help prostate cancer cells to grow. (ucla.edu)
- Radionuclides are most appropriate for patients who have several sites of painful osteoblastic metastases (like those that are commonly associated with prostate cancer) that cannot be conveniently or safely treated with EBRT. (innovations-report.com)
- Radiotherapy is the use of high energy x-rays to treat cancer. (eviq.org.au)
- Radiotherapy is given to destroy the cancer cells and shrink the tumour (before surgery), or destroy any remaining cancer cells (after surgery). (eviq.org.au)
- Radiotherapy is given to destroy cancer cells, relieve the symptoms caused by the cancer and improve your quality of life. (eviq.org.au)
- This therapy uses high energy waves to kill cancer cells. (news-medical.net)
- As part of our multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment, our radiation oncologists assess how radiotherapy may benefit each liver cancer patient. (roswellpark.org)
- Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. (roswellpark.org)
- This can help reduce the chance for surviving cancer-cells to divide and grow in the intervals between each radiotherapy dose. (wikipedia.org)
- Also called radiotherapy, radiation treatment directs high-energy x-rays at the cancer cells to kill them or to keep them from growing. (roswellpark.org)
- Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses rays with high energy to remove the cancer cells. (news-medical.net)
- Internal radiation therapy is an important type of therapy that targets the cancer cells inside the liver and delivers giving high-dose radiation. (news-medical.net)
- However, Dr Okuku says every patient's experience during EBRT varies depending on the type of cancer, the size and location of the tumour. (monitor.co.ug)
- Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, uses high-energy rays to damage or kill cancer cells and prevent them from growing and dividing. (texasoncology.com)
- Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, is a common way to treat cervical cancer. (texasoncology.com)
- This can help reduce the chance of surviving cancer cells dividing and growing in the intervals between each radiotherapy dose. (thefullwiki.org)
- High doses may be used to stop cancer growth. (patientresource.com)
- The long-term risk for developing other types of skin cancer is higher for patients being treated with these drugs in the area where the drugs are applied. (bmc.org)
- Radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the treatment of lung cancer. (lybrate.com)
- Females who smoke are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. (ucsb.edu)
- Smokers generally keep their HPV infections longer, and therefore have a higher incidence rate of developing cancer from an HPV infection. (ucsb.edu)
- With advances in medical procedures such as radiotherapy, it is now possible to provide more accurate and targeted cancer treatment. (benzinga.com)
- Since 3D-CRT can better target the area of cancer, radiation oncologists are evaluating whether higher doses of radiation can be given safely with greater potential for cancer cures. (radiationoncologyassociates.co)
- When discovered at an early stage, there is a high chance that the cancer can be cured. (diseasefix.com)
- Some types of cancer are notably radioresistant, that is, much higher doses are required to produce a radical cure than may be safe in clinical practice. (wikipedia.org)
- For localised cancer, the three most common treatment strategies are surgery, radiotherapy or delayed treatment (active surveillance or watchful waiting). (prostatehealth.org.au)
- Men with localised cancer are often encouraged to talk to a second urologist (surgeon) or a radiation oncologist (a doctor who specialises in radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer). (prostatehealth.org.au)
- Radiotherapy is also given post surgery in the treatment of seminomas to prevent the recurrence or metastasizing of cancer. (onco.com)
- Warburg demonstrated in 1927 that most of cancer cells predominantly produced energy by a high rate of anaerobic glycolysis [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Radiation works by using high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. (efellecloud.com)
- Radiation therapy is a treatment for cancer that uses rays of energy. (ahealthyme.com)
- A machine directs the rays of energy to the area of cancer. (ahealthyme.com)
- This lets healthcare providers send an even higher dose to the cancer areas. (ahealthyme.com)
- Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, is the use of radiation to safely treat and manage cancer. (radiationoncologycentres.com.au)
- Decatur, Texas, July 13, 2020 - Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, involves the use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA and inhibiting their growth and multiplication ability. (northtexascancercenteratwise.com)
- Latest EBRT techniques have been invented to accurately treat lung cancer while reducing the radiation exposure to nearby healthy tissues. (northtexascancercenteratwise.com)
- In the case of local cancer recurrence, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) provides a non-invasive salvage treatment option. (biomedcentral.com)
- Radiotherapy is using radiation to treat, and in oncology this is usually to treat cancer, but radiotherapy is also used to treat benign tumours such as acoustic neuromas, meningiomas and pituitary tumours. (meningiomauk.org)
- Oncologist Michael Baum, MB, ChB, FRCS, ChM, MD(hc), professor emeritus of surgery at the University College London and chairman of the TARGITA trial, said the nurses will be the key people on this major shift in the use of radiotherapy for breast cancer. (theoncologynurse.com)
- Radiation therapy is treatment with high-energy rays or particles that destroy cancer cells. (cholangiocarcinoma.org)
- Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that, compared with exudative macular degeneration, eyes irradiated for cancer contain higher levels of VEGF. (eyecancer.com)
- With this trend toward more minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of breast cancer, it is disappointing to see that some studies demonstrate that mastectomy rates are higher among patients that live far away from radiation centers. (moffitt.org)
- Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy ) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology , the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis ). (wikidoc.org)
- Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant cancer treatment. (wikidoc.org)
- Most common cancer types can be treated with radiotherapy in some way. (wikidoc.org)
- Lutz, S. et al Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases: An ASTRO Evidence-based Guideline. (bone-mets.com)
- MRgFUS for pain palliation of bone metastases is performed without any incision, by directing ultrasound energy to destroy the nerves conducting the pain. (bone-mets.com)
- Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases: An ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. (bone-mets.com)
- EBRT continues to be the mainstay for treating bone metastases. (innovations-report.com)
- Bisphosphonates do not eliminate the need for EBRT for painful metastases, and they act effectively when combined with EBRT. (innovations-report.com)
- It also contrasts to EBRT, in which high-energy x-rays (or occasionally gamma-rays from a radioisotope like cobalt-60) are directed at the tumour from outside the body. (wikipedia.org)
- This enables clinicians to achieve a high level of dose conformity - i.e. ensuring the whole of the tumour receives an optimal level of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- Some types of focused EBRT target a tumour with higher, more precise doses of radiation, while reducing damage to healthy tissue and nearby organs. (monitor.co.ug)
- Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA within the tumour cells and destroying their ability to reproduce. (meningiomauk.org)
Doses of radiation6
- Higher doses of radiation are given once a day (or less often) over fewer treatment days. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Unlike radiotherapy, SRS is typically delivered in a maximum of five sessions using higher doses of radiation with each session. (oncologistraipur.com)
- Accurate and high doses of radiation are given to the patients who have not been completely cured with lower doses. (onco.com)
- Damage to blood vessels: High doses of radiation kills the healthy blood vessels and drops the blood count. (onco.com)
- Effect of heart: High doses of radiation leads to increased blood pressure and disturbances in the heart rhythm, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. (onco.com)
- The high doses of radiation necessary for eradication of disease may cause sunburn like changes to the skin, fatigue, and damage normal structures in the chest. (yourcancercare.com)
- The skull base surgery program offers many treatment options to accomplish dual goals: to treat the patient's condition, and to achieve the highest quality of life. (bmc.org)
- Additionally, the high likelihood that postoperative radiotherapy will be required potentially exposes patients to toxicities of both surgery and radiotherapy. (yourcancercare.com)
- Assess local control and local complications related to surgery and neoadjuvant MAID plus radiotherapy in these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Twenty three patients (50%) had surgery plus radiotherapy, 23 (50%) had surgery only. (springer.com)
- Surgery plus radiotherapy led to significantly improved survival ( p = 0.04). (springer.com)
- In this study prognostic and epidemiologic factors as well as the 5-year-survival-rate of 53 patients after surgery with or without radiotherapy for primary and recurrent RSTS was assessed. (springer.com)
- Conventional EBRT is typically delivered by means of a 4-field technique. (medscape.com)
- Diamant A, Heng VJ, Chatterjee A, Faria S, Bahig H, Filion E, Doucet R, Khosrow-Khavar F, El Naqa I, Seuntjens J. "Comparing local control and distant metastasis in NSCLC patients between CyberKnife and conventional SBRT" Radiotherapy & Oncology . (mcgill.ca)
- Standard (conventional) EBRT is used much less often than in the past. (cholangiocarcinoma.org)
- The aim of this trial was to compare a 21 Gy single-dose IOERT delivered using the ELIOT technique to conventional whole breast EBRT [ 7 ]. (ecancer.org)
Course of radiotherapy1
- Data from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) have shown a clear improvement in biochemical control of disease when patients receive a combination of radiotherapy and androgen-suppressive treatment. (medscape.com)
- When you are having radiotherapy, you will be on your own in the treatment room. (eviq.org.au)
- The treatment is usually given Monday to Friday as an outpatient in the radiotherapy department. (eviq.org.au)
- Before radiotherapy begins and during treatment, if you are pregnant or feel that there is any chance that you may be pregnant it is important to discuss this with your doctor. (eviq.org.au)
- This is made before you start treatment, usually during one of your first visits to the radiotherapy department. (eviq.org.au)
- A more precise form of EBRT than 3D CRT, where the radiation dose is given and the field shape is changed continuously as the treatment machine moves, or arcs around the patient. (roswellpark.org)
- Radiation therapy that is planned and coordinated in concert with your on-site surgical and medical oncologists to provide the highest degree of comprehensive and fully integrated treatment. (roswellpark.org)
- Radiotherapy does not require anesthesia and treatment is generally given during regular sessions over several weeks. (edap-tms.com)
- Patients typically have to make fewer visits to the radiotherapy clinic compared with EBRT, and may receive the treatment as outpatients. (wikipedia.org)
- This convenience may be particularly relevant for patients who have to work, older patients, or patients who live some distance from treatment centres, to ensure that they have access to radiotherapy treatment and adhere to treatment plans. (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, EBRT may help reduce the risk of side effects associated with traditional radiation treatment. (monitor.co.ug)
- [ 6 ] Patients typically have to make fewer visits to the radiotherapy clinic compared with EBRT, and the treatment is often performed on an outpatient basis. (thefullwiki.org)
- For EBRT, CT scans are used for treatment planning. (ucsfhealth.org)
- With EBRT, usually refers to androgen deprivation that is given during the course of treatment. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Radiation therapy by EBRT does not make you radioactive, and it is safe for you to be with other people, including children, throughout your treatment. (radiationoncologycentres.com.au)
- This treatment varies depending on the type of EBRT and its purpose. (northtexascancercenteratwise.com)
- The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of a single EBRT fiducial marker on the efficacy of HIFU treatment delivery using a tissue-mimicking material (TMM). (biomedcentral.com)
- The history of radiotherapy goes back to 1885 when x-rays were first discovered and used as a treatment option and in 1899 there was the first reported cure due to radiotherapy. (meningiomauk.org)
- By the 1950s radiotherapy had started to look as it does now with the use of linear accelerators which allow a much higher and better directed dose of x-ray radiation for treatment. (meningiomauk.org)
- Single treatment radiotherapy or fractionated? (meningiomauk.org)
- The Radiotherapy Pathway followed by patients (outlined below) includes firstly consultation with the oncologist, immobilisation, imaging and planning and then treatment. (meningiomauk.org)
- The use of lowenergy x-ray radiation eliminates the need for a specialized treatment room, in contrast to other high-energy radiation sources (linear accelerators and HDR/HDR brachy therapy systems) that require specially designed rooms. (theoncologynurse.com)
- Radiotherapy has a few applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia , severe thyroid eye disease , pterygium , prevention of keloid scar growth, and prevention of heterotopic ossification . (wikidoc.org)
- Treatment to higher doses causes varying side effects during treatment (acute side effects), in the months or years following treatment (long-term side effects), or after re-treatment (cumulative side effects). (wikidoc.org)
- The reaction may become more severe during the treatment and for up to about one week following the end of radiotherapy, and the skin may break down. (wikidoc.org)
- OBJECTIVES: I. Compare the efficacy of mitomycin vs. porfiromycin as an adjunct to radiotherapy for the treatment of epidermoid carcinomas of the head and neck. (knowcancer.com)
- As a Medical Physics Faculty at McGill University, I conducted research on free-hand 3D ultrasound-image guidance for radiotherapy simulation and pre-treatment verification. (stanford.edu)
- OBJECTIVES: I. Assess whether patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treated with neoadjuvant mesna/doxorubicin/ifosfamide/dacarbazine (MAID) plus radiotherapy in a cooperative group setting exhibit a response rate, toxicity, and complication rate comparable to those seen in pilot data collected by the Massachusetts General Hospital. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Clinical Activities / Objective of the department:The cost of precision radiotherapy with quality control is increasing rapidly with the incorporation of advanced technologies in the modern radiotherapy equipments. (org.in)
- One of the aims of modern radiotherapy is to reduce side effects to a minimum, and to help the patient to understand and to deal with those side effects which are unavoidable. (wikidoc.org)