A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
The consumption of edible substances.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
The selection of one food over another.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A person's view of himself.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Preoccupations with appearance or self-image causing significant distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.
'Cooking and eating utensils' are tools or instruments made of various materials, such as metals, ceramics, glass, or silicone, that are specifically designed and used for preparing, serving, and consuming food during meal preparations and dining occasions.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The first meal of the day.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)
*My apologies, but "Restaurants" are not a medical term and do not have a medical definition.*
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Educational institutions.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The meal taken at midday.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.
'Menu planning' in a medical context refers to the process of designing and selecting meals that meet specific dietary needs and restrictions of patients in healthcare facilities, taking into account nutritional requirements, allergies, cultural preferences, and therapeutic goals.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The interactions between parent and child.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.
A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
Female parents, human or animal.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Living outdoors as a recreational activity.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
The consumption of liquids.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
The status of health in suburban populations.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is a state located in the Midwestern United States and not a term with a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.

Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from liver of Sparus aurata: nutritional regulation of enzyme expression. (1/8106)

A cDNA clone encoding full-length 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF-2-K/Fru-2, 6-P2ase) was isolated and sequenced from a Sparus aurata liver cDNA library. The 2527 bp nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contains a 73 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), an open reading frame that encodes a 469 amino acid protein and 1041 bp at the 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence is the first inferred 6PF-2-K/Fru-2, 6-P2ase in fish. The kinase and bisphosphatase domains, where the residues described as crucial for the mechanism of reaction of the bifunctional enzyme are located, present a high degree of homology with other liver isoenzymes. However, within the first 30 amino acids at the N-terminal regulatory domain of the fish enzyme a low homology is found. Nutritional regulation of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, together with immunodetectable protein and mRNA levels of 6PF-2-K/Fru-2,6-P2ase, was observed after starvation and refeeding. In contrast to results previously described for rat liver, the decrease in immunodetectable protein and kinase activity caused by starvation was associated in the teleostean fish to a decrease in mRNA levels.  (+info)

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (2/8106)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration. (3/8106)

The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations +info)

Lysine deficiency alters diet selection without depressing food intake in rats. (4/8106)

Under states of protein deficiency, the dietary limiting amino acid, rather than protein content, can act as the dietary stimulus to control diet selection. If fact, threonine-deficient rats will alter their diet selection patterns solely on the basis of very small changes (0.009 g/100 g) in the dietary threonine concentration. In these studies, we assessed whether lysine-deficient rats will also alter their diet selection patterns on the basis of small changes in dietary Lys concentration. In all experiments, growing rats were adapted to diets in which the protein fraction (purified amino acids or wheat gluten) was limiting in Lys. They were then given a choice between the adaptation diet (AD) diet and a slightly more deficient diet. Rats that were adapted to a Lys-deficient diet (0.25 g Lys/100 g) selected their AD over diets containing as little as 0.01% less Lys (P < 0.01) within 5 d. To determine how deficient rats must be before they alter their selection patterns, rats were adapted to diets containing various levels of Lys, i.e., 2 levels below the requirement for growth and 2 levels above the requirement for growth, but below the requirement for maximal nitrogen retention. Only rats adapted to diets containing Lys below their requirement for growth selected their AD over a diet containing 0.05% less Lys (P < 0.005). Finally, to determine whether rats will alter their selection to whole protein-based diets, rats were adapted to 25% wheat gluten diets supplemented with 0.03-0.21% Lys. Rats selected the AD over a diet containing as little as 0.09% less supplemental Lys by d 4 of the trial (P < 0.05). We conclude that rats are sensitive to changes as small as 0.01% in dietary Lys concentration, but that sensitivity requires prior adaptation to Lys-deficient diets.  (+info)

Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. (5/8106)

Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons.  (+info)

Evaluation of the chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). (6/8106)

Chronic toxicity and/or oncogenicity studies were conducted in rats, mice, and dogs with the insect repellent DEET. DEET was mixed in the diet and administered to CD rats for two years at concentrations that corresponded to dosage levels of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day for males and 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day for females; to CD-1 mice for 18 months at dosage levels of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day; and to dogs for one year, via gelatin capsules, at dosage levels of 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day. In the rodent studies, each group consisted of 60 animals of each sex, and two concurrent independent control groups, each containing 60 animals/sex were included in each study. Each group in the dog study consisted of four male and four female dogs and one control group was included in the study. Treatment-related effects were observed at the highest dose level in all three studies. For rats, the effects included decreases in body weight and food consumption and an increase in serum cholesterol in females only. In mice, the effects observed were decreases in body weight and food consumption in both sexes. The effects observed in dogs included increased incidences of emesis and ptyalism, and levels of transient reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit, increased alkaline phosphatase (males only), decreased cholesterol, and increased potassium. One male dog in the high-dose group also exhibited ataxia, tremors, abnormal head movements, and/or convulsions on several occasions during the study. The highest no-observed-effect levels (NO-ELs) for rats, mice and dogs were determined to be 100, 500, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively. No specific target organ toxicity or oncogenicity was observed in any of the studies.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (7/8106)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist. (8/8106)

1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis.  (+info)

Eating disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in eating behaviors and associated distressing thoughts and emotions. They include several types of disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED). These disorders can have serious medical and psychological consequences if left untreated.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Individuals with anorexia may also have a distorted body image and deny the severity of their low body weight.

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics), fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain.

Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort, accompanied by feelings of loss of control and distress. Unlike bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge eating disorder do not engage in compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED) include atypical anorexia nervosa, subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and subthreshold binge eating disorder, which may have similar symptoms to the above disorders but do not meet all the diagnostic criteria.

Eating disorders can affect people of any age, gender, race, or ethnicity, and they are often associated with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychological therapy, nutrition counseling, and medical management to address both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often experience a lack of control over their eating habits and may feel intense shame, guilt, and distress about their binge eating and compensatory behaviors. The disorder can lead to serious medical complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and gastrointestinal issues.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and social factors. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, nutrition counseling, and support groups.

Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort or pain. These episodes are accompanied by a loss of control over eating and are not followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging or excessive exercise.

To be diagnosed with BED, an individual must experience these binge-eating episodes at least once a week for three months or more, along with feelings of distress, shame, or guilt about their eating habits. Additionally, the binge eating must occur on average at least once a week for three months.

BED is different from overeating and can cause significant emotional and physical problems, including depression, anxiety, obesity, and other health issues related to weight gain. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have BED.

Body image is a person's perception and attitude towards their own physical appearance, shape, and size. It involves how a person thinks and feels about their body, including their self-perceived strengths and flaws. Body image can be influenced by many factors, such as cultural and societal standards of beauty, personal experiences, and media messages. A positive body image is associated with higher self-esteem, confidence, and overall well-being, while a negative body image can contribute to emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and disordered eating behaviors.

Food preferences are personal likes or dislikes towards certain types of food or drinks, which can be influenced by various factors such as cultural background, individual experiences, taste, texture, smell, appearance, and psychological factors. Food preferences can also be shaped by dietary habits, nutritional needs, health conditions, and medication requirements. They play a significant role in shaping an individual's dietary choices and overall eating behavior, which can have implications for their nutritional status, growth, development, and long-term health outcomes.

"Food habits" refer to the established patterns or behaviors that individuals develop in relation to their food choices and eating behaviors. These habits can include preferences for certain types of foods, meal timing, portion sizes, and dining experiences. Food habits are influenced by a variety of factors including cultural background, personal beliefs, taste preferences, social norms, and economic resources. They can have significant impacts on an individual's nutritional status, overall health, and quality of life.

It is important to note that while "food habits" may not be a formal medical term, it is often used in the context of nutrition and public health research and interventions to describe the behaviors related to food choices and eating patterns.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

In medical terms, "hunger" is not specifically defined as a clinical condition. However, it generally refers to the physiological need or desire for food and calories, driven by mechanisms in the brain and body that regulate energy balance. This sensation often arises when the body's energy stores are depleted, or when there has been a prolonged period without food intake.

Hunger is primarily mediated by hormones such as ghrelin, which stimulates appetite, and leptin, which signals satiety. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a crucial role in integrating these hormonal signals to regulate hunger and energy balance. Additionally, other factors like sleep deprivation, stress, and certain medical conditions can also influence feelings of hunger.

"Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood" is a diagnostic category in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders. This category includes several specific feeding and eating disorders that typically first occur during childhood or infancy. They are:

1. Pica: The persistent eating of non-nutritive, non-food substances for a period of at least one month.
2. Rumination Disorder: The repeated regurgitation of food for a period of at least one month.
3. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): The avoidance or restriction of food intake that leads to significant nutritional deficiency or failure to gain weight, but it's not due to lack of available food or a cultural practice.
4. Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This includes disorders that don't meet the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder, such as a child who eats only a very limited range of foods and has significant distress about it.
5. Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This is used when the clinician chooses not to specify the reason for not meeting the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder.

These disorders can lead to significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. It's important to note that children with these disorders should receive comprehensive evaluation and treatment from a mental health professional who specializes in eating disorders.

Hyperphagia is a medical term that describes excessive eating or increased appetite, often to the point of compulsive overeating. It's more than just a simple increase in hunger or appetite; it's characterized by consuming large amounts of food beyond what is needed for normal growth and health.

This condition can be associated with several medical conditions. For instance, it's a common symptom in Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects appetite, growth, and cognitive development. It can also occur in certain types of brain injuries or disorders affecting the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates hunger and fullness signals.

However, it's important to note that hyperphagia should not be confused with binge eating disorder, another eating disorder characterized by consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, but without the feeling of loss of control that is typical of binge eating.

As always, if you or someone else is experiencing symptoms of hyperphagia, it's important to seek medical advice to identify and treat any underlying conditions.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Satiation is a term used in the field of nutrition and physiology, which refers to the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that one experiences after eating food. It is the point at which further consumption of food no longer adds to the sensation of hunger or the desire to eat. This response is influenced by various factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, nutrient composition, energy density, individual appetite regulatory hormones, and gastric distension.

Satiation plays a crucial role in regulating food intake and maintaining energy balance. Understanding the mechanisms underlying satiation can help individuals make healthier food choices and prevent overeating, thereby reducing the risk of obesity and other related health issues.

A medical definition of 'food' would be:

"Substances consumed by living organisms, usually in the form of meals, which contain necessary nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These substances are broken down during digestion to provide energy, build and repair tissues, and regulate bodily functions."

It's important to note that while this is a medical definition, it also aligns with common understanding of what food is.

Satiety response is a term used in the field of nutrition and physiology to describe the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that follows food consumption. It is a complex process regulated by several factors, including the mechanical and chemical signals generated during digestion, hormonal responses, and psychological factors. The satiety response helps control food intake and energy balance by inhibiting further eating until the body has had enough time to metabolize and absorb the nutrients from the meal.

The satiety response can be influenced by various factors such as the type, volume, and texture of food consumed, as well as individual differences in appetite regulation and metabolism. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the satiety response is important for developing strategies to promote healthy eating behaviors and prevent overeating, which can contribute to obesity and other health problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vegetables" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a dietary category that includes various plant-based foods, typically referring to the edible parts of herbaceous plants excluding fruit (but including seeds), such as leaves, stems, roots, tubers, and bulbs.

However, in a nutritional or clinical context, vegetables are often defined by their nutrient content. For example, they may be classified as foods that are high in certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and low in calories and fat. Different healthcare professionals or organizations might have slightly different definitions or classifications of what constitutes a vegetable, but there is no single medical definition for this term.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a mental health condition where an individual becomes obsessed with perceived flaws or defects in their appearance, which are often either minimal or not observable to others. The preoccupation with these real or imagined physical imperfections can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Individuals with BDD may spend excessive time examining themselves in the mirror, seeking reassurance from others, or trying to camouflage or cover up their perceived flaws. They may also engage in repetitive behaviors such as skin picking, hair pulling, or excessive grooming. The obsessions and compulsions related to BDD can lead to significant anxiety, depression, and social isolation.

BDD typically begins in adolescence and is more common in women than men. It is important to note that BDD is different from normal concerns about appearance, as the preoccupation with perceived flaws in BDD is excessive and causes significant distress or impairment. Treatment for BDD often involves a combination of medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Medically, 'overweight' is a term used to describe a person whose body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height. This excess weight often comes from fat, muscle, bone, or water accumulation. The most commonly used measure to define overweight is the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. A BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or higher is considered obese. However, it's important to note that BMI doesn't directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status for all individuals, such as athletes with high muscle mass.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "meals" is a term that refers to food or drink consumed at regular intervals as part of a person's daily diet, rather than a medical term. It is not typically defined in a medical context. However, in a nutritional or healthcare setting, meals are often discussed in terms of their timing, composition, and impact on factors such as medication administration, blood sugar control, and overall health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

Appetite is the desire to eat or drink something, which is often driven by feelings of hunger or thirst. It is a complex process that involves both physiological and psychological factors. Physiologically, appetite is influenced by the body's need for energy and nutrients, as well as various hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate hunger and satiety signals in the brain. Psychologically, appetite can be affected by emotions, mood, stress levels, and social factors such as the sight or smell of food.

In medical terms, a loss of appetite is often referred to as anorexia, which can be caused by various factors such as illness, medication, infection, or psychological conditions like depression. On the other hand, an excessive or abnormal appetite is known as polyphagia and can be a symptom of certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

It's important to note that while "anorexia" is a medical term used to describe loss of appetite, it should not be confused with the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, which is a serious mental health condition characterized by restrictive eating, distorted body image, and fear of gaining weight.

Cognitive dissonance is a term used in psychology to describe the uncomfortable feeling or stress that results from holding two or more contradictory beliefs, values, or attitudes at the same time, or from engaging in behavior that conflicts with one's beliefs or values. This discrepancy can also occur when a person's actions do not align with their expectations or goals.

The theory of cognitive dissonance was first introduced by Leon Festinger in 1957. According to Festinger, people strive for internal consistency and will go to great lengths to reduce the discomfort caused by inconsistency. When faced with cognitive dissonance, individuals may change their beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors to bring them into alignment, or they may justify their behavior by creating new rationalizations or excuses.

For example, a person who values being environmentally friendly might experience cognitive dissonance if they purchase a gas-guzzling car. To reduce the discomfort caused by this inconsistency, they might try to justify their decision by convincing themselves that they need the car for work or family reasons, or they might decide to offset their carbon emissions by engaging in other environmentally friendly behaviors.

Cognitive dissonance can have significant implications for health and well-being, as it has been linked to stress, anxiety, and depression. It is also an important concept in the field of psychology because it helps to explain how people change their attitudes and behaviors over time.

A diet that is reduced in calories or portion sizes, often specifically designed to help a person achieve weight loss. A reducing diet typically aims to create a caloric deficit, where the body takes in fewer calories than it uses, leading to a reduction in body fat stores and overall body weight. These diets may also focus on limiting certain types of foods, such as those high in sugar or unhealthy fats, while encouraging increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any reducing diet to ensure it is safe, appropriate, and nutritionally balanced for the individual's needs.

Appetite regulation refers to the physiological and psychological processes that control and influence the desire to eat food. This complex system involves a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters, and neural pathways that work together to help maintain energy balance and regulate body weight. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a key role in appetite regulation by integrating signals from the digestive system, fat cells, and other organs to adjust feelings of hunger and fullness.

The hormones leptin and ghrelin are also important regulators of appetite. Leptin is released from fat cells and acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and promote weight loss, while ghrelin is produced in the stomach and stimulates appetite and promotes weight gain. Other factors that can influence appetite regulation include stress, emotions, sleep patterns, and cultural influences.

Abnormalities in appetite regulation can contribute to the development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, as well as obesity and other health problems. Understanding the mechanisms of appetite regulation is an important area of research for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

Fast food is a type of food that is prepared and served quickly, often at a restaurant or food stand. Fast food dishes are typically simple, consisting of pre-cooked ingredients that are assembled and heated quickly, allowing for a short service time. Common examples of fast food include hamburgers, hot dogs, sandwiches, fried chicken, fries, and pizza.

Fast food has become popular due to its convenience, affordability, and widespread availability. However, it is often high in calories, saturated fat, sodium, and sugar, making it a contributor to obesity and other health problems when consumed regularly. Public health organizations recommend limiting the consumption of fast food and opting for healthier options whenever possible.

Cooking and eating utensils are devices or tools used in the preparation, cooking, and serving of food. Here is a brief medical definition for some common types:

1. Cooking utensils: These include various tools and equipment used to prepare and cook food, such as knives, cutting boards, pots, pans, whisks, spatulas, colanders, and measuring cups/spoons. They help to chop, dice, mix, blend, stir, sauté, boil, fry, bake, or grill ingredients.
2. Eating utensils: These are devices used to consume food and include items like forks, spoons, knives, chopsticks, and straws. They aid in bringing food from the plate or bowl to the mouth and cutting or separating food into manageable pieces.

Proper cleaning and maintenance of cooking and eating utensils are essential to prevent cross-contamination of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms that can cause foodborne illnesses. Using clean utensils and following safe food handling practices can help minimize the risk of infection and promote overall health.

A diet survey is a questionnaire or interview designed to gather information about an individual's eating habits and patterns. It typically includes questions about the types and quantities of foods and beverages consumed, meal frequency and timing, and any dietary restrictions or preferences. The purpose of a diet survey is to assess an individual's nutritional intake and identify areas for improvement or intervention in order to promote health and prevent or manage chronic diseases. Diet surveys may also be used in research settings to gather data on the eating habits of larger populations.

There is no standard medical definition for "health food" as it can be subjective and may vary. However, health food generally refers to foods that are considered beneficial to one's health due to their high nutritional value or low levels of unhealthy components such as added sugars, saturated fats, and artificial ingredients.

These foods often include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some people may also consider certain fortified or functional foods, such as those with added vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients, to be health foods. However, it's important to note that the term "health food" is not strictly regulated, so claims about the health benefits of certain foods should be evaluated critically and supported by scientific evidence.

Breakfast is not a medical term, but it refers to the first meal of the day that is typically consumed in the morning after awakening from sleep. The word "breakfast" comes from the idea of breaking the overnight fast, as it is the meal that breaks the prolonged period without food or drink.

There is no specific medical definition for breakfast, but nutritionists and health professionals often recommend eating a nutritious breakfast to help kickstart metabolism, provide energy for the day, and support overall health and well-being. A healthy breakfast may include foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean protein sources, and low-fat dairy products.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Diet records are documents used to track and record an individual's food and beverage intake over a specific period. These records may include details such as the type and quantity of food consumed, time of consumption, and any related observations or notes. Diet records can be used for various purposes, including assessing dietary habits and patterns, identifying potential nutritional deficiencies or excesses, and developing personalized nutrition plans. They are often used in research, clinical settings, and weight management programs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fiji" is not a medical term. It is a country in the South Pacific Ocean, officially known as the Republic of Fiji, consisting of more than 300 islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Restaurants" are establishments where food and drinks are prepared and served to customers for a profit. They are part of the hospitality industry, not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for the term "Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is quite broad and can encompass various aspects related to nutrition and physiological changes that occur during adolescence. However, I can provide some insight into the nutritional and physiological changes that typically occur during adolescence.

Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, and proper nutrition is essential to support these changes. During this time, adolescents experience significant increases in height, weight, and muscle mass, as well as sexual maturation and reproductive development. As a result, their nutrient needs are higher than those of children or adults.

Some key nutritional physiological phenomena that occur during adolescence include:

1. Increased energy needs: Adolescents require more calories to support their rapid growth and development. The estimated daily calorie needs for boys aged 14-18 years are 2,500-3,000 calories, while for girls aged 14-18 years, the estimated daily calorie needs are 2,200-2,400 calories.
2. Increased protein needs: Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, including muscle mass. Adolescents require more protein to support their growth and development, with an estimated daily need of 46 grams for girls aged 14-18 years and 52 grams for boys aged 14-18 years.
3. Increased calcium needs: Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. Adolescents undergo significant bone growth during this time, making it crucial to meet their increased calcium needs. The recommended daily intake of calcium for adolescents is 1,300 milligrams.
4. Increased iron needs: Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Adolescent girls, in particular, have increased iron needs due to menstruation. The recommended daily intake of iron for adolescents is 8 mg for boys aged 14-18 years and 15 mg for girls aged 14-18 years.
5. Increased nutrient needs: Adolescents require a variety of vitamins and minerals to support their growth and development, including vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and magnesium. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products can help meet these needs.

In summary, adolescents have increased nutrient needs to support their growth and development. Meeting these needs requires a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food groups. It is essential to ensure adequate intake of protein, calcium, iron, and other vitamins and minerals during this critical period of growth and development.

Mastication is the medical term for the process of chewing food. It's the first step in digestion, where food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth, making it easier to swallow and further digest. The act of mastication involves not only the physical grinding and tearing of food by the teeth but also the mixing of the food with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin to break down carbohydrates. This process helps to enhance the efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption in the subsequent stages of the digestive process.

"Thinness" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to having a lower than average body weight or low body mass index (BMI) for a person's height. In medical terms, being significantly underweight might be defined as having a BMI of less than 18.5. It's important to note that while low body weight can be a sign of health issues like malnutrition or eating disorders, being thin does not necessarily equate to being healthy. A person's overall health is determined by a variety of factors, including diet, exercise, genetics, and the presence or absence of chronic diseases.

Nutrition policy refers to a set of guidelines, regulations, or laws established by governmental or organizational bodies to promote healthy eating habits and reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. These policies aim to create an environment that supports and encourages individuals to make healthier food choices. Nutrition policies can cover various aspects such as food labeling, nutrition education, food safety, agricultural practices, and access to affordable and nutritious foods. They may also address issues related to marketing and advertising of unhealthy food products, particularly to children. The ultimate goal of nutrition policy is to improve public health by creating a food environment that supports optimal nutrition and well-being.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

"Food Services" in a medical context typically refers to the provision and delivery of food and nutrition services to patients in hospitals, clinics, or other healthcare facilities. This can include:

1. Nutrition assessment and care planning by registered dietitians.
2. Food preparation and meal service that meet the dietary needs and restrictions of patients.
3. Special diets for patients with specific medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, food allergies).
4. Enteral and parenteral nutrition support for patients who cannot eat or digest food normally.
5. Education for patients and their families about diet and nutrition.
6. Implementation of food safety and sanitation practices to prevent infection and ensure the quality of food.

The goal of food services in healthcare facilities is to promote optimal nutritional status, support recovery, and enhance patient satisfaction and well-being.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

A Nutrition Assessment is a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of an individual's nutritional status, which is carried out by healthcare professionals such as registered dietitians or nutritionists. The assessment typically involves collecting and analyzing data related to various factors that influence nutritional health, including:

1. Anthropometric measurements: These include height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and other physical measures that can provide insights into an individual's overall health status and risk of chronic diseases.
2. Dietary intake assessment: This involves evaluating an individual's dietary patterns, food preferences, and eating habits to determine whether they are meeting their nutritional needs through their diet.
3. Biochemical assessments: These include blood tests and other laboratory measures that can provide information about an individual's nutrient status, such as serum levels of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
4. Clinical assessment: This involves reviewing an individual's medical history, current medications, and any symptoms or health conditions that may be impacting their nutritional health.
5. Social and economic assessment: This includes evaluating an individual's access to food, income, education level, and other social determinants of health that can affect their ability to obtain and consume a healthy diet.

The goal of a Nutrition Assessment is to identify any nutritional risks or deficiencies and develop a personalized nutrition plan to address them. This may involve making dietary recommendations, providing education and counseling, or referring the individual to other healthcare professionals for further evaluation and treatment.

In the context of medical and public health, social control in its informal sense refers to the unofficial mechanisms through which society regulates the behavior and conduct of individuals within a group or community. This can include peer pressure, social norms, customs, traditions, and other informal sanctions that discourage deviant behavior and promote conformity to accepted standards of health-related behaviors.

For example, in a community where regular exercise is considered important for maintaining good health, individuals who do not engage in physical activity may face informal social control measures such as disapproval, ridicule, or exclusion from social activities. These unofficial mechanisms can be just as powerful as formal regulations and laws in shaping individual behavior and promoting public health.

Informal social control is often contrasted with formal social control, which refers to the official mechanisms used by institutions such as government agencies, schools, and workplaces to regulate behavior through rules, policies, and laws. However, both forms of social control can interact and reinforce each other in complex ways to shape individual and community health behaviors.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Pediatric obesity is a medical condition where a child or adolescent has an excessive amount of body fat. This is typically defined as having a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile for their age and sex, according to growth charts developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

It's important to note that BMI is not a direct measure of body fat, but it's widely used as a screening tool because it correlates well with more direct measures of body fat.

Pediatric obesity can lead to various health complications, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and psychological issues like depression and low self-esteem. It's also associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood.

The causes of pediatric obesity are multifactorial, including genetic, environmental, behavioral, and societal factors. Treatment often involves a combination of dietary changes, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and sometimes medication or surgery in severe cases.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Compulsive behavior is a type of repetitive behavior that an individual feels driven to perform, despite its negative impact on their daily life and mental health. It is often driven by an overwhelming urge or anxiety, and the person may experience distress if they are unable to carry out the behavior. Compulsive behaviors can be associated with various psychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder, eating disorders, and impulse control disorders.

Examples of compulsive behaviors include:

1. Excessive handwashing or cleaning
2. Repeatedly checking locks, light switches, or appliances
3. Ordering or arranging items in a specific way
4. Compulsive hoarding
5. Compulsive shopping or spending
6. Compulsive eating or purging behaviors (such as those seen in bulimia nervosa)
7. Compulsive sexual behavior (sex addiction)
8. Compulsive exercise
9. Compulsive hair pulling (trichotillomania)
10. Compulsive skin picking (excoriation disorder)

Treatment for compulsive behaviors typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), and lifestyle changes to help manage the underlying causes and reduce the urge to engage in the compulsive behavior.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Television" is a consumer electronic device and does not have a medical definition. It is used for receiving and displaying broadcast television programs through an antenna, satellite dish, or cable provider. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lunch" is not a medical term. It refers to a meal typically eaten in the middle of the day. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

A beverage is a drink intended for human consumption. The term is often used to refer to any drink that is not alcoholic or, in other words, non-alcoholic beverages. This includes drinks such as water, juice, tea, coffee, and soda. However, it can also include alcoholic drinks like beer, wine, and spirits.

In a medical context, beverages are often discussed in relation to their impact on health. For example, sugary drinks like soda and energy drinks have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and other health problems. On the other hand, drinks like water and unsweetened tea can help to keep people hydrated and may have other health benefits.

It's important for individuals to be mindful of their beverage choices and to choose options that are healthy and support their overall well-being. This may involve limiting sugary drinks, choosing water or unsweetened tea instead of soda, and avoiding excessive caffeine intake.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Personal Satisfaction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the feeling of contentment or fulfillment one derives from achieving their personal goals or desires. However, in a medical context, it might be used to assess a person's quality of life or their satisfaction with their healthcare or treatment outcomes.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

"Cooking" is not a medical term, but it generally refers to the process of preparing and cooking food. In a medical or nutritional context, "cooking" may refer to the application of heat to food in order to make it safe and more palatable to eat, as well as to improve its nutritional value and digestibility.

Cooking can also have an impact on the nutrient content of food. For example, cooking certain vegetables can increase their bioavailability, or the amount of a nutrient that is available for absorption by the body. On the other hand, cooking some foods at high temperatures or for long periods of time can lead to the loss of certain nutrients, such as vitamins C and B.

It's important to note that the way food is cooked can also affect its safety. For example, undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood can harbor harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella and E. coli, which can cause foodborne illness. It's essential to cook these foods thoroughly to reduce the risk of infection.

In summary, while "cooking" is not a medical term, it has important implications for food safety, nutrition, and digestion.

Self-efficacy is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in medical and health-related contexts. It is a concept from social cognitive theory that refers to an individual's belief in their ability to successfully perform specific tasks or achieve certain goals, particularly in the face of challenges or adversity.

In medical settings, self-efficacy can refer to a patient's confidence in their ability to manage their health condition, adhere to treatment plans, and engage in healthy behaviors. For example, a person with diabetes who has high self-efficacy may feel confident in their ability to monitor their blood sugar levels, follow a healthy diet, and exercise regularly, even if they encounter obstacles or setbacks.

Research has shown that self-efficacy is an important predictor of health outcomes, as individuals with higher self-efficacy are more likely to engage in positive health behaviors and experience better health outcomes than those with lower self-efficacy. Healthcare providers may seek to enhance patients' self-efficacy through education, counseling, and support to help them manage their health condition more effectively.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological strategies that individuals use to cope with stressful, threatening, or uncomfortable situations. These mechanisms help protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety, fear, or other negative emotions. They can also help individuals maintain a positive self-image and a sense of control in difficult circumstances.

There are many different types of defense mechanisms, including:

1. Repression: The unconscious forgetting or pushing aside of painful memories or thoughts.
2. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge the existence or reality of a threatening situation or feeling.
3. Projection: Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or emotions to someone else.
4. Displacement: Channeling unacceptable feelings toward a safer or less threatening target.
5. Rationalization: Creating logical explanations or excuses for unacceptable behavior or feelings.
6. Reaction formation: Converting unconscious impulses or desires into their opposite, conscious attitudes or behaviors.
7. Sublimation: Transforming unacceptable impulses or instincts into socially acceptable behaviors or activities.
8. Regression: Returning to an earlier stage of development in order to cope with stress or anxiety.
9. Suppression: Consciously pushing aside unwanted thoughts or feelings.
10. Identification: Adopting the characteristics, attitudes, or behaviors of another person as a way of coping with anxiety or fear.

Defense mechanisms can be adaptive or maladaptive, depending on the situation and how they are used. While they can help individuals cope with stress and maintain their emotional well-being in the short term, relying too heavily on defense mechanisms can lead to problems in relationships, work, and other areas of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of their defense mechanisms and work to develop healthier coping strategies over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pleasure" is not typically defined in medical terms. It is more commonly understood in psychological or philosophical contexts. Pleasure is often described as a positive emotional response associated with satisfying needs and desires, or enjoying certain experiences. However, in a medical context, the term might be used to describe the positive feelings some people may associate with certain health-related behaviors or experiences. For example, a person might derive pleasure from engaging in regular exercise, which can have positive effects on their physical and mental health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "menu planning" is not a medical term per se. However, it is a common term used in nutrition and dietetics, which can be a part of medical nutritional therapy. Here's a definition related to that field:

Menu planning in the context of nutrition and dietetics refers to the process of creating well-balanced and appropriate meals for individuals or groups, taking into account their specific dietary needs, restrictions, and preferences. This can be done on a short-term or long-term basis, and may involve determining portion sizes, food combinations, and meal timing to optimize nutrient intake, support health goals, and manage chronic conditions. Menu planning is often carried out by registered dietitians or nutritionists in various settings such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, schools, and wellness programs.

Dietary sucrose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the human diet. It is a disaccharide, meaning it is composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, but it is also added to a wide variety of processed foods and beverages as a sweetener.

In the body, sucrose is broken down into its component monosaccharides during digestion, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy. While small amounts of sucrose can be part of a healthy diet, consuming large amounts of added sugars, including sucrose, has been linked to a variety of negative health outcomes, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Therefore, it is recommended that people limit their intake of added sugars and focus on getting their sugars from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Supply" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a more general term related to the availability and distribution of food. However, in a broader public health context, "food supply" can refer to the overall system and infrastructure that provides food to a population, including agricultural practices, food processing, distribution, and accessibility. Ensuring a safe and adequate food supply is an important aspect of public health and preventive medicine.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

Anorexia is a medical condition defined as a loss of appetite or aversion to food, leading to significant weight loss. It can be a symptom of various underlying causes, such as mental health disorders (most commonly an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa), gastrointestinal issues, cancer, infections, or side effects of medication. In this definition, we are primarily referring to anorexia as a symptom rather than the specific eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by:

1. Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight (in context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health)
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain
3. Disturbed body image, such as overvaluation of self-worth regarding shape or weight, or denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Anorexia nervosa has two subtypes: restricting type and binge eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors (such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas). In contrast, the binge eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

It is essential to differentiate between anorexia as a symptom and anorexia nervosa as a distinct psychological disorder when discussing medical definitions.

Nutritive value is a term used to describe the amount and kind of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water, that a food provides. It refers to the ability of a food to supply the necessary components for growth, repair, maintenance, and energy in the body. The nutritive value of a food is usually expressed in terms of its content of these various nutrients per 100 grams or per serving. Foods with high nutritive value are those that provide a significant amount of essential nutrients in relation to their calorie content.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Food parasitology is not a commonly used term in medical or scientific communities. However, it generally refers to the study of parasites that are transmitted through food, including parasitic protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., tapeworms, roundworms, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, etc.). Food parasitology involves understanding the life cycles, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these foodborne parasites. It is an important field within medical and veterinary parasitology, as well as food safety and public health.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Vomiting is defined in medical terms as the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. It is a violent, involuntary act that is usually accompanied by strong contractions of the abdominal muscles and retching. The body's vomiting reflex is typically triggered when the brain receives signals from the digestive system that something is amiss.

There are many potential causes of vomiting, including gastrointestinal infections, food poisoning, motion sickness, pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and certain medications or medical conditions. In some cases, vomiting can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain injury, concussion, or chemical imbalance in the body.

Vomiting is generally not considered a serious medical emergency on its own, but it can lead to dehydration and other complications if left untreated. If vomiting persists for an extended period of time, or if it is accompanied by other concerning symptoms such as severe abdominal pain, fever, or difficulty breathing, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

Dietetics is the branch of knowledge concerned with the diet and its effects on health, especially in the prevention and treatment of disease. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, dietetics is defined as "the integration and application of principles derived from nutrition science, biochemistry, food management, and behavioral and social sciences to achieve and maintain people's health."

Dietitians are healthcare professionals who evaluate individual nutritional needs and develop personalized eating plans to promote health and manage medical conditions. They may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, private practice, community health programs, and food service management. Dietitians often collaborate with other healthcare providers, such as doctors, nurses, and pharmacists, to provide comprehensive care for patients.

The goals of dietetics include promoting optimal nutrition, preventing chronic diseases, managing medical conditions, and enhancing overall health and well-being. Dietitians may provide education and counseling on topics such as healthy eating habits, meal planning, weight management, food safety, and supplement use. They may also conduct research, develop nutrition policies and programs, and advocate for improved food and nutrition policies and practices.

Somatotype is a term used in the field of human biology and medicine, particularly in anthropometry, which refers to the scientific study of measurements of the human body. It was introduced by American psychologist William H. Sheldon in the 1940s as part of his concept of "constitutional psychology."

Somatotype is a classification system that categorizes human body types based on their skeletal frame, muscle development, and body fat distribution. The system uses a three-number rating scale to describe an individual's somatotype, with each number ranging from 1 to 7:

1. Endomorphy (softness, roundness): Refers to the degree of relative body fatness or adiposity, which is determined by measuring skinfold thicknesses at various sites on the body. Higher values indicate a greater amount of body fat.
2. Mesomorphy (muscularity, hardness): Represents the degree of muscular development and bone structure, assessed through measurements of muscle circumferences and skeletal breadths. Higher values suggest a more muscular and robust build.
3. Ectomorphy (linearity, slenderness): Describes the relative leanness and linearity of the body, evaluated using height-to-weight ratios and other anthropometric measures. Higher values indicate a leaner and more delicate physique.

An individual's somatotype is typically expressed as a set of three numbers, such as 4-6-2 or 2-5-3, representing their endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy ratings, respectively. It is important to note that somatotypes are not fixed and can change over time due to factors like aging, lifestyle choices, and exercise habits.

While Sheldon's constitutional psychology theory has been largely discredited, the concept of somatotyping remains a valuable tool in various fields such as sports science, health, and fitness for assessing and comparing body composition and structure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "food quality" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. It is a term more commonly used in the context of food science and agriculture to describe the overall standard of food based on factors such as its nutritional value, freshness, safety, taste, and appearance.

However, from a public health or nutrition perspective, "food quality" could refer to the degree to which food is able to provide the necessary nutrients for good health while minimizing exposure to harmful contaminants or excessive calories. This can include factors such as:

* The nutritional content of the food (e.g., amount of protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals)
* The absence of harmful substances (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, bacteria, or other contaminants)
* The freshness and safety of the food (e.g., proper handling, storage, and preparation to minimize spoilage or foodborne illness)
* The sensory qualities of the food (e.g., taste, texture, and appearance)

It's important to note that "food quality" can be subjective and may vary depending on cultural preferences, individual dietary needs, and personal tastes.

Salmonella food poisoning, also known as salmonellosis, is an infection caused by the Salmonella enterica bacterium. It's typically contracted through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or by coming into contact with infected animals or their feces. The bacteria can cause gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever, within 12 to 72 hours after exposure. Symptoms usually last for four to seven days, and most people recover without treatment. However, in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage dehydration caused by excessive diarrhea. In rare instances, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening infections.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

A nutrition survey is not a medical term per se, but it is a research method used in the field of nutrition and public health. Here's a definition:

A nutrition survey is a study design that systematically collects and analyzes data on dietary intake, nutritional status, and related factors from a defined population or sample. It aims to describe the nutritional situation, identify nutritional problems, and monitor trends in a population over time. Nutrition surveys can be cross-sectional, longitudinal, or community-based and may involve various data collection methods such as interviews, questionnaires, observations, physical measurements, and biological samples. The results of nutrition surveys are used to inform nutrition policies, programs, and interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status and health outcomes of populations.

I believe you are asking for a medical explanation or definition of "candy," which is not a term typically used in the medical field. However, I can provide some context regarding how it may be discussed in a medical setting.

Candy, also known as sweets or confectionery, generally refers to sugary snacks and treats. In a medical context, excessive consumption of candy can contribute to dental caries (cavities), obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other health issues related to poor nutrition and high sugar intake.

Healthcare professionals may advise patients, particularly children, to limit their candy consumption due to these potential health risks. Additionally, candies that contain ingredients like nuts or allergens can pose a risk for individuals with specific food allergies.

Nutritional Sciences is a field of study that deals with the scientific examination and understanding of nutrients in food, how the body uses them, and the relationship between diet, health, and disease. It encompasses various disciplines including biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, epidemiology, and clinical nutrition.

The field covers several key areas such as:

1. Nutrient metabolism: This involves studying how nutrients are digested, absorbed, transported, stored, and utilized in the body for energy production, growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
2. Diet and disease prevention: Nutritional sciences investigate the role of diet in preventing or managing various health conditions like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.
3. Functional foods and nutraceuticals: This area focuses on studying the potential health benefits of specific foods or food components beyond their basic nutritional value, including functional foods (foods that have demonstrated health benefits) and nutraceuticals (nutrient-rich supplements derived from food sources).
4. Public health nutrition: Nutritional sciences also address population-wide nutrition issues, such as malnutrition, food insecurity, and the development of public policies related to food and health.
5. Clinical nutrition: This subfield applies nutritional principles and research findings to patient care, focusing on developing individualized dietary plans for patients with various medical conditions.

Overall, Nutritional Sciences aims to provide a solid scientific foundation for making informed dietary choices and promoting optimal health outcomes across populations and individuals.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

"Social desirability bias" is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept that's relevant in the fields of psychology, social sciences, and research methodology. It refers to the tendency of individuals to provide responses that they believe are socially acceptable or desirable, rather than their true feelings, thoughts, or behaviors, during surveys, interviews, or other forms of assessment. This bias can lead to inaccurate or skewed data, as it may not reflect the actual experiences or attitudes of the respondents. It's important for researchers to be aware of and control for social desirability bias to ensure the validity and reliability of their findings.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

"Ideal Body Weight" is a term that has been used in medicine to describe an approximate weight range that is considered healthy for a person's height and build. However, it's important to note that there is no universally accepted definition of "Ideal Body Weight," and different methods can yield different results.

One commonly used method to estimate Ideal Body Weight is the Hamwi method, which suggests the following formulae:

* For men: IBW = 106 pounds for the first 5 feet of height + 6 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet.
* For women: IBW = 100 pounds for the first 5 feet of height + 5 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet.

Another method is the Devine formula, which takes into account a person's frame size and suggests the following formulae:

* For men with small frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 13.2
* For men with medium frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 12.8
* For men with large frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 12.3
* For women with small frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 10.9
* For women with medium frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 10.5
* For women with large frames: IBW = (height in inches - 60) x 9.8

It's important to note that these methods are only estimates and may not be accurate for everyone, especially those who have a significant amount of muscle mass or body fat. Ultimately, the most important factor is to maintain a healthy body composition, with a balance between lean muscle mass and body fat, rather than focusing solely on achieving a specific Ideal Body Weight.

"Social facilitation" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept from social psychology that refers to the phenomenon where the presence of others can influence an individual's performance on a task. Specifically, social facilitation occurs when the presence of others enhances the dominant response or behavior of an individual, leading to improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks and impaired performance on complex or novel tasks.

In some cases, social facilitation can have implications for health and well-being, particularly in situations where individuals are performing tasks that require concentration, coordination, or other cognitive or physical skills. For example, the presence of others during exercise may enhance an individual's motivation and performance, leading to better health outcomes. However, the presence of distractions or social pressure can also impair performance on certain tasks, such as driving or operating machinery, leading to increased risk of accidents or injuries.

Overall, while "social facilitation" is not a medical term per se, it is a concept that has relevance for understanding various social and behavioral factors that can influence health and well-being.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "universities" is a term that refers to institutions of higher education and research, and it is not a medical term. A university typically offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs leading to the award of degrees such as bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Weight reduction programs are structured plans designed to help individuals reduce their body weight and improve overall health. These programs may incorporate a variety of strategies, including dietary modifications, increased physical activity, behavioral changes, and in some cases, medication or surgical interventions. The goal of these programs is to create a calorie deficit, where the number of calories consumed is less than the number of calories burned, leading to weight loss. It's important to note that safe and effective weight reduction programs should be developed and supervised by healthcare professionals to ensure they meet the individual's specific needs and health status.

Drinking behavior refers to the patterns and habits related to alcohol consumption. This can include the frequency, quantity, and context in which an individual chooses to drink alcohol. Drinking behaviors can vary widely among individuals and can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural norms, personal beliefs, mental health status, and genetic predisposition.

Problematic drinking behaviors can include heavy drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD), which is characterized by a pattern of alcohol use that involves problems controlling intake, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect, or having withdrawal symptoms when rapidly decreasing or stopping alcohol.

It's important to note that drinking behaviors can have significant impacts on an individual's health and well-being, as well as their relationships, work, and other aspects of their life. If you are concerned about your own drinking behavior or that of someone else, it is recommended to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Pica is a medical condition where an individual has an appetite for substances that are not typically considered food, and are not nutritionally beneficial. These substances can include things like dirt, clay, paper, hair, paint chips, or even feces. The behavior must be persistent and continue for a month or longer to be considered pica.

Pica can occur in children, pregnant women, and people with intellectual disabilities, but it can also affect typically developing adults. It's important to note that while some cultures may include non-food items in their diet, this does not necessarily mean they have pica.

The causes of pica are not fully understood, but it can be associated with nutritional deficiencies, mental health disorders, or developmental disabilities. It can lead to serious health complications, such as poisoning, intestinal blockages, and infections, so it's important to seek medical help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of pica.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

In the context of public health and medical research, a peer group is a social group whose members have similar interests, concerns, or social positions. Peer groups can play an important role in shaping individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood. In research, studying peer groups can help researchers understand how social norms and influences affect health-related behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behavior, and mental health. It's worth noting that the term "peer group" doesn't have a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in public health and medical research to refer to these types of social groups.

Obsessive behavior is defined in the medical context as repetitive, persistent, and intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause distress or anxiety. These obsessions are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems, but rather they are irrational and uncontrollable. Often, individuals with obsessive behavior attempt to ignore or suppress their obsessions, which can lead to increased distress and anxiety. In some cases, the obsessions may become so overwhelming that they interfere with a person's daily life and ability to function.

Obsessive behavior is a key feature of several mental health conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and hoarding disorder. In these conditions, the obsessions are often accompanied by compulsive behaviors that are performed in an attempt to alleviate the anxiety or distress caused by the obsessions.

It is important to note that everyone experiences unwanted thoughts or urges from time to time. However, when these thoughts become so frequent and distressing that they interfere with a person's daily life, it may be indicative of an underlying mental health condition. In such cases, it is recommended to seek professional help from a qualified mental health provider.

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is the official name of North Korea. It is a country located in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. The DPRK is a single-party socialist state, governed by the Kim dynasty since its establishment in 1948.

The government of the DPRK is based on the Juche ideology, which emphasizes self-reliance and independence in all aspects of national life. The country has a centrally planned economy, with a significant emphasis on heavy industry, military production, and agriculture.

The DPRK's human rights record is a subject of international concern, with widespread reports of political repression, censorship, and restrictions on freedom of movement, expression, and religion. The country is also known for its development and testing of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, which has led to international sanctions and tensions with neighboring countries and the global community.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Women" is not a medical term that can be defined in a straightforward way. In medical contexts, "women" is often used to refer to adult human females, based on their biological sex characteristics. However, it's important to note that there are individuals who may be biologically male but identify as women, and they are also considered part of the female population in many medical and societal contexts.

In general, gender identity is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else. It's separate from biological sex, which refers to physical characteristics like chromosomes, hormone levels, and reproductive organs. Some people identify with the gender that matches their biological sex, while others may identify as the opposite gender, or as neither male nor female.

Therefore, it's important to consider both the biological and personal aspects of an individual's identity when discussing medical issues related to women.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Friends" is not a medical term. If you are referring to the term "friends" in the context of social relationships, it generally refers to individuals who share a mutual affection and enjoy spending time together. However, if you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The Female Athlete Triad Syndrome is a medical condition that affects physically active females, particularly athletes. It is characterized by the interrelatedness of three components: energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density.

1. Energy availability refers to the amount of energy remaining for bodily functions, growth, and repair after exercise and dietary energy intake have been considered. Inadequate energy availability can lead to a range of issues, including menstrual dysfunction and decreased bone mineral density.
2. Menstrual function is often disrupted in this syndrome, with athletes experiencing amenorrhea (the absence of menstruation) or oligomenorrhea (infrequent or light menstruation). This disruption can be caused by low energy availability and is associated with a range of health issues, including decreased bone mineral density.
3. Bone mineral density refers to the amount of mineral content in bones. In the Female Athlete Triad Syndrome, low energy availability and menstrual dysfunction can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fractures and other injuries.

The Female Athlete Triad Syndrome is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Athletes who are experiencing any of the symptoms associated with this syndrome should seek medical attention from a healthcare provider who is knowledgeable about the condition. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying causes of the syndrome, such as improving energy availability and restoring menstrual function, as well as addressing any related health issues, such as stress fractures or nutritional deficiencies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Industry" is not a term that has a medical definition. The food industry is a broad category that includes businesses involved in the production, processing, packaging, distribution, and sale of food products. This can include farms, fisheries, manufacturers of food products, grocery stores, restaurants, and more.

If you have any questions related to nutrition or dietary habits and their impact on health, I would be happy to help provide information based on medical knowledge.

A vegetarian diet is a type of eating pattern that excludes meat, poultry, and fish, and sometimes other animal products like eggs, dairy, or honey, depending on the individual's specific dietary choices. There are several types of vegetarian diets, including:

1. Ovo-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
2. Lacto-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, fish, and sometimes eggs.
3. Ovo-lacto vegetarian: This is the most common type of vegetarian diet and includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
4. Vegan: This diet excludes all animal products, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and sometimes honey or other bee products.
5. Fruitarian: This is a more restrictive form of veganism that includes only fruits, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that can be harvested without killing the plant.
6. Raw vegan: This diet includes only raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that have not been cooked or processed above 115°F (46°C).

Vegetarian diets can provide a range of health benefits, including lower risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. However, it is important to ensure that vegetarian diets are well-planned and nutritionally adequate to meet individual nutrient needs, particularly for nutrients like vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.

Adolescent psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of adolescents, their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This field examines the cognitive, social, and emotional development of adolescents, as well as any challenges or mental health issues they may face during this stage of life. It also involves the application of psychological theories and principles to promote positive adolescent development and address adolescent mental health concerns. Adolescent psychologists work in various settings, including schools, clinics, hospitals, and private practices, providing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services to adolescents and their families.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

I could not find a medical definition specifically for "camping," but I can provide you with some general information about camping as it relates to recreation and outdoor activities, which may be helpful.

Camping is an activity where individuals or groups go outdoors to spend time in natural surroundings, usually in tents, recreational vehicles, or cabins. It often involves staying overnight in a designated campsite, although some people may engage in backcountry camping, which requires hiking and setting up camp in more remote areas.

Camping can provide various physical and mental health benefits, such as:

1. Exposure to nature: Being outdoors in natural surroundings can help reduce stress, improve mood, and boost overall well-being.
2. Physical activity: Camping often involves hiking, swimming, or other outdoor activities that can improve cardiovascular fitness, strength, and flexibility.
3. Social connection: Camping with friends or family can foster social bonds and create shared memories.
4. Skill development: Camping requires learning various skills, such as setting up a tent, building a fire, and cooking outdoors, which can help build confidence and self-reliance.
5. Disconnection from technology: Camping often involves limited access to electronic devices, providing an opportunity to disconnect from the digital world and recharge mentally.

It is essential to follow safety guidelines when camping, such as practicing proper food storage to avoid attracting wildlife, using insect repellent to prevent bug bites, and being aware of potential hazards like poisonous plants or wild animals. Additionally, it's crucial to leave no trace and respect the natural environment by properly disposing of waste and minimizing impact on the surroundings.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Medical definitions typically do not include general food items like seafood. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Seafood is a category of food that comes from aquatic animals (both saltwater and freshwater) including fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and echinoderms. It is an essential source of protein, vitamins, and minerals in many diets around the world. Some common examples of seafood are salmon, shrimp, lobster, clams, oysters, and squid.

If you're looking for a medical aspect related to seafood, it is worth noting that some people may have allergies to certain types of seafood, which can cause mild to severe reactions. In such cases, avoiding the specific allergen is crucial to prevent adverse health effects.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

Dizygotic twins, also known as fraternal twins, are a result of two separate sperm fertilizing two separate eggs during conception. These twins share about 50% of their genes, similar to any non-twin siblings. They may be of the same sex or different sexes and can vary in appearance, personality, and interests. Dizygotic twins typically do not share a placenta or a sac in the womb, but they may share a chorion (outer fetal membrane).

Maternal behavior refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a female animal towards its offspring. In humans, this term is often used to describe the natural instincts and actions of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and early child-rearing. It encompasses a broad range of activities such as feeding, grooming, protecting, and teaching the young.

In the context of medical and psychological research, maternal behavior is often studied to understand the factors that influence its development, expression, and outcomes for both the mother and offspring. Factors that can affect maternal behavior include hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as social, cultural, and environmental influences.

Abnormal or atypical maternal behavior may indicate underlying mental health issues, such as postpartum depression or anxiety, and can have negative consequences for both the mother and the child's development and well-being. Therefore, it is important to monitor and support healthy maternal behaviors in new mothers to promote positive outcomes for both parties.

Cereals, in a medical context, are not specifically defined. However, cereals are generally understood to be grasses of the family Poaceae that are cultivated for the edible components of their grain (the seed of the grass). The term "cereal" is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest.

The most widely consumed cereals include:

1. Wheat
2. Rice
3. Corn (Maize)
4. Barley
5. Oats
6. Millet
7. Sorghum
8. Rye

Cereals are a significant part of the human diet, providing energy in the form of carbohydrates, as well as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They can be consumed in various forms, such as whole grains, flour, flakes, or puffed cereals. Some people may have allergies or intolerances to specific cereals, like celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that requires a gluten-free diet (wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten).

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

A Mediterranean diet is a traditional eating pattern that is followed in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Italy, and Spain. This diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and olive oil, with moderate amounts of fish and poultry, and limited intake of red meat, processed foods, and added sugars. The Mediterranean diet also emphasizes the importance of social connections and physical activity, as well as mindful and enjoyable eating.

The Mediterranean diet has been associated with numerous health benefits, including reduced risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers, as well as improved cognitive function and longevity. These benefits are thought to be due to the combination of nutrient-dense foods, healthy fats, and lifestyle factors that characterize this dietary pattern.

It's worth noting that there is no one "Mediterranean diet," as the traditional eating patterns vary from region to region within Mediterranean countries. However, the general principles of a Mediterranean diet can be adapted and followed by individuals around the world who are looking to improve their overall health and well-being.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about parenting from a psychological and sociological perspective. Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child or children. It involves caring for their daily needs, providing a safe and nurturing environment, setting boundaries and expectations, modeling appropriate behavior, and fostering healthy relationships and communication skills. Parents also help their children develop coping strategies, resilience, and self-esteem by encouraging them to explore their interests, express their feelings, and learn from their mistakes. Effective parenting often requires patience, consistency, empathy, and adaptability, as the needs and developmental stages of children can vary widely.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Food deprivation is not a medical term per se, but it is used in the field of nutrition and psychology. It generally refers to the deliberate withholding of food for a prolonged period, leading to a state of undernutrition or malnutrition. This can occur due to various reasons such as famine, starvation, anorexia nervosa, or as a result of certain medical treatments or conditions. Prolonged food deprivation can have serious consequences on physical health, including weight loss, muscle wasting, organ damage, and decreased immune function, as well as psychological effects such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment.

Monozygotic twins, also known as identical twins, are derived from a single fertilized egg (ovum) that splits and develops into two separate embryos. This results in the formation of genetically identical individuals who share the same genetic material, with the exception of potential mutations that may occur after the split. Monozygotic twins have the same sex, blood type, and other genetic traits. They are a unique pair of siblings, sharing an extraordinary degree of resemblance in physical characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snacks" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Generally, snacks refer to small portions of food consumed between meals. However, in a medical context, the term might be used more specifically to describe certain types of dietary supplements or functional foods, which are designed to provide specific nutrients or health benefits. But in general, it's not a medical term.

Dyssomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve problems with the amount, quality, or timing of sleep. They can be broken down into several subcategories, including:

1. Insomnia: This is characterized by difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances to do so. It can result in distress, impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning, and/or feelings of dissatisfaction with sleep.
2. Hypersomnias: These are disorders that involve excessive sleepiness during the day, even after having adequate opportunity for sleep. Narcolepsy is an example of a hypersomnia.
3. Sleep-related breathing disorders: These include conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, in which breathing is repeatedly interrupted during sleep, leading to poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: These involve disruptions to the body's internal clock, which can result in difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep at desired times. Jet lag and shift work disorder are examples of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders.
5. Parasomnias: These are disruptive sleep-related events that occur during various stages of sleep, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and REM sleep behavior disorder.

Dyssomnias can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical evaluation if you are experiencing symptoms. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes, medication, or other interventions depending on the specific type of dyssomnia.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Child Nutrition Sciences is a field of study focused on the nutritional needs and dietary habits of children from infancy through adolescence. This interdisciplinary field incorporates aspects of nutrition, pediatrics, psychology, sociology, and public health to promote optimal growth, development, and overall health in children.

The scope of Child Nutrition Sciences includes:

1. Understanding the unique nutritional requirements during various stages of childhood, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, early childhood, school-age, and adolescence.
2. Examining how cultural, socioeconomic, and environmental factors influence children's dietary patterns and food choices.
3. Investigating the role of nutrition in preventing chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which often originate in childhood.
4. Developing and implementing evidence-based interventions to improve children's diets, promote healthy eating behaviors, and reduce health disparities.
5. Assessing the effectiveness of nutrition education programs for children, families, and communities.
6. Collaborating with policymakers, educators, healthcare providers, and community organizations to create supportive environments that encourage healthy eating and physical activity.
7. Conducting research on the safety, efficacy, and quality of food products, supplements, and fortified foods marketed for children.
8. Advocating for policies and regulations that protect children from marketing tactics that promote unhealthy food choices and contribute to poor diet-related health outcomes.

Overall, Child Nutrition Sciences aims to improve the nutritional status of children, enhance their overall well-being, and reduce the burden of diet-related diseases throughout the lifespan.

Medical definitions typically focus on the potential risks or reactions related to a substance, rather than providing a general definition. In the context of medicine, shellfish are often defined by the allergens they contain, rather than as a culinary category.

According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI), shellfish are divided into two categories: crustaceans and mollusks. Crustaceans include shrimp, crab, lobster, and crayfish. Mollusks include clams, mussels, oysters, scallops, octopus, and squid.

Shellfish allergies are one of the most common food allergies, and they can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. Therefore, in a medical context, it's essential to be specific about which types of shellfish may pose a risk to an individual.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

"Food assistance" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to various programs and initiatives designed to help individuals and families access and afford nutritious food. These programs may be run by government agencies, non-profit organizations, or community groups and can include things like:

* Food banks and pantries, which provide free or low-cost groceries to those in need
* Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps), which provides financial assistance to eligible low-income individuals and families to purchase food
* Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, which provides nutrition education, healthy food, and breastfeeding support to low-income pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children up to age five
* School meal programs, which provide free or reduced-price meals to eligible school-aged children
* Senior nutrition programs, which provide meals and nutrition assistance to older adults.

Medical professionals may refer patients to food assistance resources as part of a comprehensive approach to addressing social determinants of health, such as food insecurity, which can have significant impacts on physical and mental health outcomes.

Caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen that involves reducing the total calorie intake while still maintaining adequate nutrition and micronutrient intake. This is often achieved by limiting the consumption of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods and increasing the intake of nutrient-dense, low-calorie foods such as fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.

Caloric restriction has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including increased lifespan, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. It is important to note that caloric restriction should not be confused with starvation or malnutrition, which can have negative effects on health. Instead, it involves a careful balance of reducing calorie intake while still ensuring adequate nutrition and energy needs are met.

It is recommended that individuals who are considering caloric restriction consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure that they are following a safe and effective plan that meets their individual nutritional needs.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Yawning is a reflex characterized by the involuntary opening of the mouth and deep inhalation of air, often followed by a long exhalation. While the exact purpose and mechanism of yawning are not fully understood, it's believed to be associated with regulating brain temperature, promoting arousal, or stretching the muscles of the jaw and face. Yawning is contagious in humans and can also be observed in various animal species. It usually occurs when an individual is tired, bored, or during transitions between sleep stages, but its underlying causes remain a subject of ongoing scientific research.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Suburban Health" is not a recognized medical term or concept with a specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "suburban" generally refers to the residential areas surrounding a city or urban center, and health would refer to the physical and mental well-being of individuals living in those areas. However, there isn't a unique set of health issues or characteristics that define 'Suburban Health'.

Public health researchers might study the health disparities or common health issues in suburban areas compared to urban or rural areas, but this would not fall under a single medical definition. If you have more specific questions about health issues related to suburban living, I'd be happy to try and help with those!

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Midwestern United States, known for its cold winters, beautiful lakes, and friendly people. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Taste disorders, also known as dysgeusia, refer to conditions that affect a person's ability to taste or distinguish between different tastes. These tastes include sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory). Taste disorders can result from damage to the taste buds, nerves that transmit taste signals to the brain, or areas of the brain responsible for processing taste information.

Taste disorders can manifest in several ways, including:

1. Hypogeusia: Reduced ability to taste
2. Ageusia: Complete loss of taste
3. Dysgeusia: Distorted or altered taste perception
4. Phantogeusia: Tasting something that is not present
5. Parageusia: Unpleasant or metallic tastes in the mouth

Taste disorders can be caused by various factors, including damage to the tongue or other areas of the mouth, certain medications, infections, exposure to chemicals or radiation, and neurological conditions such as Bell's palsy or multiple sclerosis. In some cases, taste disorders may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or kidney disease.

Treatment for taste disorders depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the disorder, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, treating the underlying medical condition may resolve the taste disorder. If the cause cannot be identified or treated, various therapies and strategies can be used to manage the symptoms of taste disorders.

Addictive behavior is a pattern of repeated self-destructive behavior, often identified by the individual's inability to stop despite negative consequences. It can involve a variety of actions such as substance abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs), gambling, sex, shopping, or using technology (e.g., internet, social media, video games).

These behaviors activate the brain's reward system, leading to feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Over time, the individual may require more of the behavior to achieve the same level of pleasure, resulting in tolerance. If the behavior is stopped or reduced, withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Addictive behaviors can have serious consequences on an individual's physical, emotional, social, and financial well-being. They are often associated with mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups to help the individual overcome the addiction and develop healthy coping mechanisms.

Aversive therapy is a behavioral treatment approach that uses negative reinforcement or punishment to help an individual reduce or stop undesirable behaviors. The goal of aversive therapy is to condition the person to associate the undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus, such as a taste, sound, or image, so that they are deterred from engaging in the behavior in the future.

In aversive therapy, the therapist may use several techniques, including:

1. Contingent negative reinforcement: This involves removing a positive reinforcer (a reward) after the undesirable behavior occurs. For example, if a child with a disruptive behavior disorder is given tokens for good behavior that can be exchanged for prizes, and then loses tokens for misbehaving, this is an example of contingent negative reinforcement.
2. Punishment: This involves presenting an unpleasant stimulus immediately after the undesirable behavior occurs. For example, if a person who bites their nails receives a mild electric shock every time they bite their nails, this is an example of punishment.
3. Avoidance conditioning: This involves associating a negative stimulus with a particular situation or object to create an aversion to it. For example, if a person has a phobia of spiders, the therapist may gradually expose them to images or objects associated with spiders while also presenting a mild electric shock. Over time, the person learns to associate the spider-related stimuli with the unpleasant shock and develops an aversion to spiders.

It's important to note that aversive therapy can be controversial due to concerns about potential harm, including physical discomfort or psychological distress. As a result, it is typically used as a last resort when other treatment approaches have been ineffective, and only under the close supervision of a qualified professional who can ensure that the therapy is administered safely and ethically.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

'Infant behavior' is not a medical term per se, but it does fall under the purview of child development and pediatrics. It generally refers to the actions or reactions of an infant (a child between birth and 12 months) in response to internal states (e.g., hunger, discomfort, fatigue) and external stimuli (e.g., people, objects, events).

Infant behavior can encompass a wide range of aspects including:

1. Reflexes: Automatic responses to certain stimuli, such as the rooting reflex (turning head towards touch on cheek) or startle reflex (abrupt muscle contraction).
2. Motor skills: Control and coordination of movements, from simple ones like lifting the head to complex ones like crawling.
3. Social-emotional development: Responses to social interactions, forming attachments, expressing emotions.
4. Communication: Using cries, coos, gestures, and later, words to communicate needs and feelings.
5. Cognitive development: Problem-solving skills, memory, attention, and perception.

Understanding typical infant behavior is crucial for parental education, childcare, early intervention when there are concerns, and overall child development research.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Compulsive Personality Disorder (CPD) is a mental health condition characterized by an obsessive need for order, control, and perfection, which can interfere with the individual's ability to function in daily life. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), classifies CPD as a type of personality disorder.

The following are some of the diagnostic criteria for Compulsive Personality Disorder:

1. Rigid adherence to rules, regulations, and schedules.
2. Overconscientiousness, preoccupation with details, and perfectionism that interferes with task completion.
3. Excessive devotion to work and productivity at the expense of leisure activities and friendships.
4. Unwillingness to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly the individual's way of doing things.
5. Rigidity and stubbornness.
6. Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
7. Reluctance to take vacations or engage in leisure activities due to a fear of something unexpected happening that would disrupt the individual's routine.
8. Overly restrained and inhibited in expressing emotions and affection towards others.

Individuals with CPD may experience significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning due to their rigid and inflexible behavior. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which can help individuals learn more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to manage symptoms of anxiety or depression that often co-occur with CPD.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

Food labeling is the practice of providing written information about the characteristics and contents of food products, typically on the packaging or container in which they are sold. In a medical context, accurate and clear food labeling is essential for individuals with dietary restrictions due to medical conditions such as food allergies, intolerances, or chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes).

Standardized food labeling guidelines help consumers make informed decisions about the foods they consume, allowing them to avoid potential health risks and maintain a balanced diet. Components of food labels often include:

1. Product identity: The name of the food product and its intended use.
2. Net quantity declaration: The amount of the food product contained in the package, expressed in both metric and customary units (e.g., grams or ounces).
3. Ingredient list: A comprehensive list of all ingredients included in the food product, arranged in descending order by weight. This is particularly important for individuals with food allergies or intolerances, as it allows them to identify and avoid specific allergens (e.g., milk, eggs, peanuts).
4. Nutrition facts panel: A standardized format presenting the nutritional content of the food product per serving, including information on calories, total fat, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, and various vitamins and minerals.
5. Nutrient content claims: Voluntary statements made by manufacturers regarding the level of a nutrient in a food product (e.g., "low fat," "high fiber"). These claims must adhere to strict guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure accuracy and consistency.
6. Health claims: Statements linking a specific food or food component to a reduced risk of a particular disease or health-related condition (e.g., "a diet rich in whole grains may reduce the risk of heart disease"). Like nutrient content claims, health claims are subject to strict regulatory oversight.
7. Special dietary statements: Labeling statements indicating that a food product is suitable for specific dietary uses or restrictions (e.g., "gluten-free," "kosher," "vegan"). These statements help consumers with special dietary needs quickly identify appropriate food options.
8. Allergen labeling: Mandatory identification of the presence of any of the eight major food allergens (milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans) in a food product. This information must be clearly displayed in the ingredient list or as a separate "contains" statement.
9. Warning statements: Required labeling of specific health risks associated with the consumption of certain food products (e.g., "consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness").
10. Country of origin labeling: Identification of the country where a food product was produced, grown, or packaged. This information helps consumers make informed decisions about their food purchases based on factors such as quality, safety, and environmental concerns.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

... leaf eating), frugivory (fruit eating), nectarivory (nectar eating), gummivory (gum eating) and mycophagy (fungus eating). The ... Look up eating in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Eating. Media related to Eating at ... Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ... "Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder". International Journal of Eating Disorders. 19 (1 ...
... may refer to: Hematophagy, animals feeding on blood Blood as food, humans eating blood This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title Eating blood. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
... eating for social reasons (such as eating at a party), eating to conform (which involves eating because friends or family wants ... Those who eat as a coping strategy are at an especially high risk of developing binge-eating disorder, and those with eating ... Emotional eating as a means to cope may be a precursor to developing eating disorders such as binge eating or bulimia nervosa. ... Emotional eating, also known as stress eating and emotional overeating, is defined as the "propensity to eat in response to ...
... is the fourth studio album by Pennsylvania based band Black Moth Super Rainbow released on May 26, 2009, on the CD ... After many delays, Eating Us was released in a 180 gram "Audiophile" edition on black vinyl on April 6, 2010. A Double LP ... "R/IAmA - IAmA Black Moth Super Rainbow IAmAlsoA TOBACCO". Eating Us at Metacritic Black Moth Super Rainbow Catalog (Webarchive ...
According to the Eating Disorder Foundation, eating disorders are serious and complex illnesses that require the attention of ... The Eating Disorder Foundation recommends people with eating disorders seek a recovery option that involves clinicians from ... Eating disorders are physically and emotionally destructive. Most individuals with an eating disorder require ongoing medical ... Misdiagnosis of the medical complications of eating disorders is common due to the unique physiology of these patients. Eating ...
... www.variety.com/profiles/Film/main/125023/Eating.html?dataSet=1 Eating at Rotten Tomatoes Eating at Box Office Mojo v t e ( ... Eating is a 1990 American comedy-drama film starring Nelly Alard, Lisa Blake Richards, Frances Bergen, Mary Crosby, Gwen Welles ... Savannah Smith Boucher as Eloise Aloma Ichinose as Joanna Toni Basil as Jackie Eating at IMDb http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/ ...
... is considered to be a habit with this in mind. It is said that triangular eating was recommended in some area ... Triangular eating also has the meaning of in-mouth seasoning. The idea is that by alternately eating rice, soup, and side ... Triangular eating, Triangle eating (Japanese: sankakutabe, 三角食べ) is a Japanese custom popularized after World War II in which ... It is said that the cause of the increase in blood glucose levels with triangular eating is not so much the triangular eating ...
"Clean eating" has been used to describe a variety of diets. In the most basic form, the idea of eating more whole foods, fruit ... "What is 'clean eating' and should I be doing it?". www.bhf.org.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2023. Media related to Clean eating at ... "Clean Eating: The Dirty Truth: Is Clean Eating the Best Approach to Better Health?". CBC.ca. Archived from the original on 28 ... Fivian, E.; Wood, C. (25 June 2019). "The Roles of Social Media, Clean Eating and Self-Esteem in the risk of Disordered Eating ...
Safety for Fire Eating and Contact Fire (Retrieved from the MIT students portal) Blitz' book of magic and fire eating made easy ... Fire eating is the act of putting a flaming object into the mouth and extinguishing it. A fire eater can be an entertainer, a ... Fire eating relies on the quick extinguishing of the fire in the mouth or on the touched surfaces and on the short term cooling ... Fire eating and fire breathing (and all variants) is a skill which should be passed on from a skilled master to an appropriate ...
... is the psychological tendency for a person to eat more after having recently eaten. It is a behavior ... opposite to regulatory eating, which is the normal pattern of eating less if one has already eaten. It is more common among ... Effects on Eating and Emotion in Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters". Appetite. 55 (3): 426-30. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.07.015 ... v t e (CS1 errors: periodical ignored, CS1 errors: missing title, Eating behaviors of humans, All stub articles, Cognitive ...
A 2022 review found that intuitive eating reduced disordered eating behaviors. A 2022 review found that intuitive eating helped ... "Can eating pleasure be a lever for healthy eating? A systematic scoping review of eating pleasure and its links with dietary ... Intuitive eating is an approach to eating that focuses on the body's response to cues of hunger and satisfaction. It aims to ... "What is Intuitive Eating? 10 Principles to Follow". Cleveland Clinic. June 8, 2022. "What is Intuitive Eating and Is It Healthy ...
"Eating History". TVGuide.com. Retrieved 7 April 2022. Stezano, Martin. "Chewing the Fat with Eating History's Josh and Old ... Eating History is an American docuseries that airs on the History Channel and premiered in 2020. In the series, collectors Josh ... The production team includes a medic and a toxicologist, who do not allow the stars to eat foods that they deem unsafe, for ... "Old Smokey - Eating History Cast , HISTORY Channel". The HISTORY Channel. Retrieved 7 April 2022. "A+E Networks". www. ...
The term restrictive eating might refer or relate to: Anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder in which people avoid eating due to ... an eating disorder in which people avoid eating or eat only a very narrow range of foods Dieting, the practice of restricting ... the willing abstention from eating This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Restrictive eating. If an ...
"Is picky eating an eating disorder?". International Journal of Eating Disorders. 41 (7): 626-634. doi:10.1002/eat.20545. PMID ... A variety of behaviours whereby people are highly selective in what they eat and do not eat are known as picky eating or ... There is debate as to whether picky eating represents an eating disorder or is related to eating disorders. Some extreme forms ... Picky eating in children may lead to a nutritionally poor diet, but cases mostly resolve with age. Picky eating can be measured ...
... , or speed eating, is an activity in which participants compete against each other to eat large quantities of ... "Major League Eating & International Federation of Competitive Eating". Ifoce.com. Retrieved June 16, 2014. "All Pro Eating ... Psychiatrist and eating disorder specialist Kim Dennis has stated that "somebody eating 70 hot dogs in 10 minutes is self-abuse ... "Competitive Eating: How Safe Is It?". Webmd.com. Retrieved June 16, 2014. "Scenes from a Vegan hot dog eating contest". 15 ...
Look up eating in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Eating is the ingestion of food. Eating may also refer to: Eating (film), a ... "Eating", a Series E episode of the television series QI (2007) Consumption (disambiguation) EAT (disambiguation) Eater ( ... disambiguation) Feeding (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Eating. If an ... 1990 American film Eating (performance art), a performance by Abel Azcona " ...
... or food ethics refers to the moral consequences of food choices, both those made by humans and animals. Common ... Ethical eating is a type of ethical consumerism. The extent of environmental impacts depends on the methods of food production ... Western demand for quinoa, a traditional food in Bolivia Peru and Ecuador, has become so high that producers are eating ... The Union of Concerned Scientists advises that avoiding eating beef may potentially help the environment, because of the large ...
... describes a variety of abnormal eating behaviors that, by themselves, do not warrant diagnosis of an eating ... Disordered eating includes behaviors that are common features of eating disorders, such as: Chronic restrained eating. ... Compulsive eating. Binge eating, with associated loss of control. Self-induced vomiting. Disordered eating also includes ... Disordered eating can represent a change in eating patterns caused by other mental disorders (e.g. clinical depression), or by ...
"Eating Out (2004)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 23, 2023. Eating Out at IMDb Eating Out at Box Office Mojo Eating Out at ... Eating Out is a 2004 American sex comedy film written and directed by Q. Allan Brocka and starring Rebekah Kochan, Ryan Carnes ... All You Can Eat was released in 2009. Drama Camp and The Open Weekend were released in 2011. " ... Eating Out (film series), 2004 independent films, 2004 LGBT-related films, 2004 romantic comedy films, 2000s sex comedy films, ...
... is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating. It is a common symptom of ... 3.0.co;2-2 "Age of onset for binge eating: Are there different pathways to binge eating?". International Journal of Eating ... Binge drinking Binge eating disorder Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders Counterregulatory eating Overeating ... Eating much more rapidly than normal Eating until feeling uncomfortably full Eating large amounts of food when not physically ...
Binge eating episodes are associated with eating much more rapidly than normal, eating until feeling uncomfortably full, eating ... Types of eating disorders include binge eating disorder, where the patient eats a large amount in a short period of time; ... November 2017). "The Science Behind the Academy for Eating Disorders' Nine Truths About Eating Disorders". European Eating ... and night eating syndrome. Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (USFED) describes feeding or eating disturbances that cause ...
... is of a family of idioms having to do with eating and being proven incorrect, such as to "eat dirt" and to "eat ... "kin eat anything", and the boarders wonder if he can eat a crow. "I kin eat a crow!" the farmer says. The boarders take him up ... You Will Eat Turkey.) Oxford English Dictionary 2, "crow", n. #1, 3a. Eating Crow, and other indigestibles by Michael Quinion ... and now I eat crows." Morrowbie Jukes is also reduced to eating crow. After incumbent Harry Truman defeated Thomas Dewey in the ...
... at IMDb v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from July ... Eating Air (Chinese: 吃风) is a 1999 Singaporean action romantic drama film directed by Kelvin Tong and Jasmine Ng, starring ... "Eating Air". Time Out Worldwide. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2023. Lui, John (19 January 2022). "S'pore cult classic ... "Kelvin Tong Looks Back At 20 Years Of Directing Movies: From 'Eating Air' to 'The Maid' To 'Republic Of Food'". TODAY. ...
... is the act of extracting dried nasal mucus with one's finger and the succeeding action of ingesting the mucus from ... As mucus filters airborne contaminants, eating it could be thought to be unhealthy; Gates comments that "our body has been ... Stefan Gates in his book Gastronaut discusses eating dried nasal mucus, and says that 44% of people he questioned said they had ... and Srihari cited a study performed by Sidney Tarachow of the State University of New York which reported that people who ate ...
... at IMDb Eating Raoul at AllMovie Eating Raoul at the TCM Movie Database Eating Raoul at the American Film ... "Eating Raoul". Internet Off-Broadway Database. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015. "Eating Raoul, Bridewell, London". ... "Eating Raoul". American Film Institute. Retrieved December 27, 2018. "Eating Raoul (X)". British Board of Film Classification. ... "Eating Raoul". The Numbers. Retrieved July 26, 2011. "Eating Raoul". RogerEbert.com. January 1, 1982. Retrieved September 21, ...
The creators hope to expand the reach of Eating Animals' message so that more people think of the meat they eat in new ways. ... A New York Times best-seller, Eating Animals provides a dense discussion of what it means to eat animals in an industrialized ... "Eating Animals (2018)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on December 7, 2020. Retrieved December 7, 2020. "Eating ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Eating Animals. Official website Eating Animals documentary at IMDb Portals: Books Animals ...
Whenever an item is fully eaten, each of the agents who ate it goes to their favorite remaining item and starts eating it in ... Moreover, it is possible to let the eating speed change with time. The important thing is that the integral of the eating speed ... "eating speed" of each agent. If all agents are given the same eating speed, then the SE allocation satisfies SD-envy-freeness ... each agent goes to their favourite item and starts eating it. It is possible that several agents eat the same item at the same ...
The crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown, with areas of red on the face and legs, and black-tipped ears and tail. It ... The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), also known as the forest fox, wood fox, bushdog (not to be confused with the bush dog) ... The crab eating fox is nocturnal, with peaks of activity in the middle of the night and the early morning. The foxes reach ... The crab-eating fox searches for crabs on muddy floodplains during the wet season, giving this animal its common name. It is an ...
... : The World's Rarest Foods and Why We Need to Save Them is a 2022 book by Dan Saladino that examines rare ... "Eating to Extinction: The World's Rarest Foods and Why We Need to Save Them". Book Marks. Retrieved March 17, 2022. v t e ( ...
eating the European way, with fork in left hand and knife in right, is considered the correct way. Most Europeans have had ... However, if a knife is not needed - such as when eating pasta - the fork can be held in the right hand. Bread is always served ... In this new style, the fork is not switched between hands between cutting and eating and may also be deployed "tines-up" as a ... La manière de manger en France Les bonnes manières à la Française Martin, Judith (1997). Miss Manners' Basic Training: Eating. ...
Learn about eating disorders, including types (e.g., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa), signs and symptoms, risk factors, and ... Eating Disorders Studies Featured Publications About Eating Disorders. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food. This brochure ... Eating Disorders. What are eating disorders?. There is a commonly held misconception that eating disorders are a lifestyle ... How are eating disorders treated?. It is important to seek treatment early for eating disorders. People with eating disorders ...
Information on CDCs activities in Kenya in addtion to PMI including the KEMRI/CDC Research Station in Kenya.
Vikberg S, et al. Front Immunol. 2023. PMID: 36969250 Free PMC article. ...
What are the warning signs of an eating disorder? Eating disorders are as different as the people who have them, but there are ... Binge eating disorder: characterized by bingeing, the act of eating without control or response to normal hunger cues ... There are three main types of eating disorders. Its also possible to engage in disordered eating that doesnt fit into one of ... What types of eating disorders are there? Sexual violence can affect survivors in many ways, including perceptions of the body ...
Please enable JavaScript in your browser settings to continue.. Download Foursquare for your smart phone and start exploring the world around you! ...
... leaf eating), frugivory (fruit eating), nectarivory (nectar eating), gummivory (gum eating) and mycophagy (fungus eating). The ... Look up eating in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Eating. Media related to Eating at ... Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ... "Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder". International Journal of Eating Disorders. 19 (1 ...
Learn the myths and facts that surround binge eating disorder, the urge to overeat. ... Myth: Binge eating isnt dangerous like anorexia.. Fact: Just like other eating disorders, BED can put you at risk for serious ... Fact: BED affects far more people than other eating disorders do. Its believed to be the most common eating disorder in the U. ... Binge Eating Disorder Myths and Facts. Medically Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari, MD. on March 23, 2023 ...
Eating Together. Family Bonding Toddler (1-3) Preschooler (3-5) Kindergartner (5-6) Under 5 min ...
Elon Musk compared being an entrepreneur to eating glass. Man, winning the new boss fight is tough. It's like eating ... I really need to go eat glass in my break. Eating glass can kill you. ... When you are struggling in 7 Days to Die, so you eat glass to kill yourself and respawn with full hunger, thirst, and health ... Dennis Rodman , a power forward, could eat glass as good as anyone else.. Wilt Chamberlain, a center, has the most rebounds. ...
Weekly magazine featuring the best British journalists, authors, critics and cartoonists, since 1828
He explained, "I regret to inform you that my dog, who is very fond of eating paper, ate that portion of my sermon which I was ... Paper-Eating Dog. A minister delivered a sermon in 10 minutes one Sunday morning, which was about half the usual length of his ...
I found him while eating an apple. When you find Him, tell the story. Be brave and share what He says. It might be life ... I found him while eating an apple. When you find Him, tell the story. Be brave and share what He says. It might be life ...
The web Browser you are currently using is unsupported, and some features of this site may not work as intended. Please update to a modern browser such as Chrome, Firefox or Edge to experience all features Michigan.gov has to offer. ...
Binge eating is a type of eating disorder. This article explains what it is, how to recognize it, and how to get help. ... But binge eating is different from eating too much during the holidays. People with a binge eating problem regularly eat much ... Binge eating is different from bulimia, another eating disorder. People with bulimia binge eat, but try to make up for ... What Is Binge Eating?. If you ever ate so much at Thanksgiving that you felt uncomfortable, you know what it feels like to ...
Réunions et nouvelles*The Seventh Annual Meeting of the Agricultural Trade Expert Network in Europe and Central Asia ...
My paper, Insulation of a synthetic hydrogen metabolism circuit in bacteria just came out in the Journal of Biological Engineering! And its open access!
Explore Picnic recipes on Eat Well, with meal ideas, healthy recipes, nutrition tips, and cooking advice from New Zealands top ... We are eating more brown rice with our evening meals and I cant bear to throw out ... ... Although these rolls are best eaten on the same day, they are also good the day after ... ... Bay TodayWhanganui ChronicleThe Stratford PressManawatu GuardianKapiti NewsHorowhenua ChronicleTe Awamutu CourierVivaEat Well ...
Causes amusantes et connues, Volume 2. Causes amusantes et connues, Robert Estienne. ...
... heres another reason to eat leftovers this holiday season: about 1 million tons of CO2, 95 billion gallons of water, and $275 ... The USDA reports that 35% of perfectly good turkey meat in the U.S. does not get eaten after it is purchased by consumers (and ... As if Turkey Pot Pie and Turkey A La King arent enticing enough on their own, heres another reason to eat leftovers this ... Why is so much more turkey wasted than chicken? "Possibly because turkey is more often eaten during holidays when consumers may ...
... personalized information for convenient and enjoyable healthy eating. ... Three servings of fruit may sound like a lot to eat each day, but pears can help you reach this goal. Add sliced pears to your ... Since their skin provides some of their fiber, it is best to not peel the fruit but eat the entire pear. To cut the pear into ... Once their skin yields to gentle pressure, they are ripe and ready to be eaten. If you will not be consuming the pears ...
1. I have then write out a days of eating as they rise and then go to bed for a week to see the patterns of eating times and ... Additionally, I found what I was allergic to and stopped eating meat (red, chicken and pork) and only eat wild fish (salmon, ... Eating for Health, Where to Start? By Hillary Rubin. See all Articles by Intent.com AuthorsGet Updates on NutritionGet Updates ... There are many other ways of eating which I have tried many and now bring in a bit of each.What to keep an eye out for is ...
Visit the Resource Center at National Eating Disorders Association. ... Is laxative misuse associated with binge eating? Examination of laxative misuse among individuals seeking treatment for eating ... Overcoming laxative misuse requires working with a team of health professionals who have expertise in treating eating disorders ... National Eating Disorders Association is a registered 501(c)(3) nonprofit, EIN: 13-3444882 ...
Maximise your skills and income with these 5 mid-career side hustles , ET Careers GenNext. ET Online , Updated: 27 Apr 2023, 05 ... ET Careers GenNext global edition - Expert opinions on AI, Jobs in Germany, Study in Australia. Views: 254 ... ET Podcast , Why creating psychological safety at work for women is key for organisational success. Views: 5803 ... Maximise your skills and income with these 5 mid-career side hustles , ET Careers GenNext. Views: 1638 ...
ET-SFR88. Solutions & Tips, Download Manual, Contact Us. Samsung Support NZ ...
It recommends eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and limiting salt, bad fats, and sweets. Learn about this heart- ... The DASH eating plan helps lower high blood pressure. ... DASH Eating Plan (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) * ... DASH Diet: Healthy Eating to Lower Your Blood Pressure (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ... Why the DASH Eating Plan Works (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) - PDF Also in Spanish ...
... those who ate whole grains had an increase in resting metabolic rate and fecal energy losses compared to those who ate refined ... People who ate a diet with whole grains, which matched the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for fiber, lost close to an ... The extra calories lost by those who ate whole grains was equivalent of a brisk 30 min walk - or enjoying an extra small cookie ... In the first two weeks of the study all participants ate the same type of food, and individual calorie needs were determined. ...
Binge-eating episodes are associated with eating more rapidly than normal, eating until uncomfortably full, eating large ... Binge-eating usually occurs in secrecy or as inconspicuously as possible. Unlike bulimia, there is no purging after the eating ... Binge-eating disorder involves the recurrent consumption of a large amount of food in a short amount of time. ... Binge-eating episodes are associated with eating more rapidly than normal, eating until uncomfortably full, eating large ...
... Enabling a food transition in the Nordic countries ...
  • NEDA's blog consists of experiences of individuals impacted by eating disorders and information from clinicians as well as researchers. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
  • Whether you're interested in reading lived experiences, ways to advocate, or learn about the latest developments in the eating disorders field - NEDA's blog encompasses the importance of shared knowledge within the community. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
  • Hospital admission for children with eating disorders approximately tripled during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on data from 85 patients. (medscape.com)
  • Eating disorders are common among adolescents and often require hospital admission for nutritional restoration, according to May Shum of Yale University, New Haven, Conn., and colleagues. (medscape.com)
  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, the volume of hospital admissions for adolescents with eating disorders has increased, the researchers wrote in a poster presented at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers reviewed charts from patients with eating disorders admitted to a single center between Jan. 1, 2017, and June 30, 2021. (medscape.com)
  • There have been reports of the rising numbers in eating disorders, but until research has been conducted, we cannot quantify the volumes," said Thew, who was not involved in the study. (medscape.com)
  • There have been many reports of the rise in mental health issues during the pandemic, so it seems accurate that the rate of eating disorders would rise," she said. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, from a clinical perspective there seemed to be many younger-age patients with eating disorders presenting to the inpatient units who seemed sicker," she noted. (medscape.com)
  • Working with adolescents with eating disorders we saw the increased numbers of both hospitalizations and outpatient referrals during the pandemic," said Thew. (medscape.com)
  • Length of stay was higher across the nation regarding admissions for concerns of eating disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Clinicians should be more aware of the rise in patients presenting with eating disorders at younger ages to their clinics and provide early interventions to prevent severe illness and medical instability," said Thew. (medscape.com)
  • Clinicians also should be more proactive in managing younger children and adolescents who express mood disorders, disordered eating, or weight loss, given the significant rise in eating disorders and mental health concerns, she said. (medscape.com)
  • Additional research is needed to continue following the rate of eating disorders into 2022, said Thew. (medscape.com)
  • More research is needed on early interventions and recognition of eating disorders for preteens and teens to prevent severe illness, as is research on how the younger patient with an eating disorder may present differently to the primary care doctor or emergency department, she said. (medscape.com)
  • Alterations in the left orbitofrontal cortex, as can occur with lesions, result in increased insula volume, a finding that is nonspecific and seen in all eating disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Objetivo The main eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. (bvsalud.org)
  • Binge-eating episodes are associated with eating more rapidly than normal, eating until uncomfortably full, eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry, and feeling disgusted with oneself or depressed afterward. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Binge eating disorder (BED) was first characterized in 1959 by Stunkard as the presence of recurrent episodes of binge eating. (medscape.com)
  • The condition is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, which is defined as consuming an amount of food that is definitely larger than what most people eat in a similar period under similar circumstances. (medscape.com)
  • One word of advice: if you choose to eat a quick bowl of cereal for breakfast, skip the Cocoa Puffs and Lucky Charms . (lifehack.org)
  • One possible explanation that Lowe and Fisher suggest is obese individuals often eat their meals with others and do not eat more than average due to the reduction of distress because of the presence of other people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binge eating can be associated with an acute feeling of loss of control and marked distress. (medscape.com)
  • This is accompanied by a lack of control over eating during the episode and marked distress associated with the binge-eating episodes. (medscape.com)
  • In order to meet the criteria for binge-eating disorder, the binge-eating episodes must occur, on average, at least once a week for three months. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The diagnosis is can be categorized as mild, moderate, severe, or extreme based on the number of binge-eating episodes per week. (psychologytoday.com)
  • After repeated binge-eating episodes occur, they are often preceded by negative affect. (medscape.com)
  • How does binge-eating disorder differ from bulimia nervosa? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Binge-eating behaviors may also occur in individuals who have the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Yet binge-eating disorder is distinct from bulimia nervosa, because people with bulimia often perform some activity to keep from gaining weight after they overeat. (psychologytoday.com)
  • individuals engaging in binge-eating often feel depressed, disgusted, or ashamed about their eating habits. (psychologytoday.com)
  • How are the meal and eating habits in Denmark? (dst.dk)
  • The number-one reason Americans altered their eating habits last year was to get more energy. (marieclaire.com)
  • Additionally, I found what I was allergic to and stopped eating meat (red, chicken and pork) and only eat wild fish (salmon, scallops, tilapia) watching mercury levels. (selfgrowth.com)
  • I was raised eating meat, and at one point, I was having beef, ham, pork, or bacon two to three times a day. (marieclaire.com)
  • She didn't need to lose meat entirely to do this: She could have ditched the ribs and eaten pork tenderloin instead. (marieclaire.com)
  • Individuals with binge-eating disorder do not engage in these behaviors after a binge and thus tend to gain weight as a result of the condition. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Many of the principles used by elite athletes apply just as much to the rest of us, and by learning from the pros we can all develop healthier eating practices and mindsets around food. (businessinsider.com)
  • A lot of my friends swear that organic is the only way to eat, and I thought it might be healthier for me, too. (marieclaire.com)
  • For example, most of the Middle Eastern countries, eating while sitting on the floor is most common, and it is believed to be healthier than eating while sitting to a table. (wikipedia.org)
  • But while binge-eating is associated with obesity, most obese individuals do not engage in recurrent binge-eating. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Another possible explanation would be that obese individuals do not eat more than the others while having meals due to social desirability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simply stop eating meat, fish and chicken. (vegsoc.org)
  • Now at Eat BKK, traditional dishes like chicken satay ($6.95), tom yum ($5.95) and khao soi ($12.95) are on the menu along with fusion foods that incorporate western flavours and ingredients. (blogto.com)
  • Crucially, they don't feel guilty for eating foods like pizza or ice cream. (businessinsider.com)
  • It's not only gaming that apparently causes individuals to eat more - using the computer supposedly increases the desire to munch. (lifehacker.com)
  • Individuals with BED are typically ashamed of their eating problems and attempt to conceal their symptoms, so they may binge eat in secret. (medscape.com)
  • Binge- eating disorder involves the recurrent consumption of a large amount of food in a short amount of time. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Almost everyone overeats occasionally, and sometimes, depending on the circumstances (such as celebrations), it may be culturally appropriate to eat a large amount of food. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In addition, binge-eating involves consuming what most people think is an unusually large amount of food very quickly, eating to the point of discomfort, eating in secrecy, and eating even when not hungry. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The primary symptom of binge- eating disorder is recurrent episodes in which someone eats, within a 2-hour period, an amount of food that is significantly larger than what most people would eat under similar circumstances. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Vogelzang is a Dutch eating designer who explores the origin, preparation, etiquette, history, and the culture of food. (good.is)
  • What's so great about eating veggie food? (vegsoc.org)
  • By eating vegetarian food for a year you could save the same amount of emissions as taking a small family car off the road for 6 months [4] . (vegsoc.org)
  • You might not be able to stop using your car in day-to-day life, but you can offset a significant amount of those emissions by choosing to eat veggie food. (vegsoc.org)
  • Eat BKK is a Thai restaurant devoted to Bangkok-style street food. (blogto.com)
  • Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many homes have a large kitchen area devoted to preparation of meals and food, and may have a dining room, dining hall, or another designated area for eating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most societies also have restaurants, food courts, and food vendors so that people may eat when away from home, when lacking time to prepare food, or as a social occasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • At picnics, potlucks, and food festivals, eating is in fact the primary purpose of a social gathering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small amounts of pureed food are sometimes fed to young infants as young as two or three months old, but most infants do not eat adult food until they are between six and eight months old. (wikipedia.org)
  • 53] [he/she] said that there have been times when [he/she] thought about food or about eating almost all of the time? (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, many of us believe that humans should only eat food. (cdc.gov)
  • After a fl ood, food may not be safe to eat. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating a veggie diet means 2.5 x less carbon emissions than a meat diet. (vegsoc.org)
  • It's good she cut back on meat, but it's equally great she's eating more fiber-rich foods such as vegetables and beans, which stabilize blood sugar and help her feel fuller longer. (marieclaire.com)
  • Binge-eating disorder may be the most common eating disorder in the United States, where as many as 4 million adults struggle with it. (psychologytoday.com)
  • What are the possible social consequences of binge-eating disorder? (psychologytoday.com)
  • What health conditions are associated with binge-eating disorder? (psychologytoday.com)
  • In addition to an increase in hospital admissions for eating disorder management during the pandemic, longer inpatient stays of younger children with higher acuity at discharge is an added strain on hospital resources and warrants attention," they concluded. (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] Reduced white matter in the medial temporal lobe, as well as in the parietal lobe, may also be associated with binge eating disorder (BED). (medscape.com)
  • However, binge-eating disorder is a significant clinical condition that can affect daily life for millions of people. (medscape.com)
  • How much do you know about the characteristics of binge-eating disorder, as well as the appropriate workup and treatment? (medscape.com)
  • Can Electrolyte Abnormalities Predict Future Eating Disorder Diagnoses? (medscape.com)
  • For humans, eating is an activity of daily living. (wikipedia.org)
  • But pilgrims to these shrines are not the only humans who eat dirt. (cdc.gov)
  • I try to eat my last meal before 8:30, although that never works when I go out. (marieclaire.com)
  • A 39-year-old man ate approximately 1/4 oz of fugu after eating a full meal. (cdc.gov)
  • As a vegetarian, eating a balanced diet based on whole grains, pulses (beans and lentils), vegetables and fruits, nuts and seeds you should easily exceed the guidelines for eating 5-A-Day. (vegsoc.org)
  • but 'How can I eat the right amount to fuel my training so that I'm energized throughout the day, not feeling sluggish, and I'm not hangry? (businessinsider.com)
  • The average British person eats 20% more saturated fat than the maximum recommended amount, which over time can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attacks. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • rather, the amount of snacks they ate between meals was greater. (wikipedia.org)
  • It means that certain women should limit the amount and types of fish they eat per week. (cdc.gov)
  • The more fish children eat above this amount, the greater their chances are of nervous system problems. (cdc.gov)
  • The naturalistic study by Lowe and Fisher compared the emotional reactivity and emotional eating of normal and overweight female college students. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between athletes and the average person is that their livelihood depends on their physical performance, and although that can be a motivator to eat well, we can all approach our diets that way. (businessinsider.com)
  • Approximately 20 minutes after eating the fugu, he had onset of dizziness and mild chest tightness. (cdc.gov)
  • Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are five or six years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • I must say though that with healing its not just one thing its the integrative approach to make sure you are eating well, drinking water (1/2 your bodies weight in ounces), exercise , sleep and having fun. (selfgrowth.com)
  • 1. I have then write out a days of eating as they rise and then go to bed for a week to see the patterns of eating times and see if emotions are involved with your eating - this is more than diet but behavior . (selfgrowth.com)
  • Of course, when you're asleep, you go that entire time without eating anything at all (except spiders, according to that urban legend). (lifehack.org)
  • As mentioned before, you probably go the longest without eating during the time you're asleep. (lifehack.org)
  • People at work say, "Wow, you eat all the time," but my weight hasn't changed. (marieclaire.com)
  • Over time, the episodes of binge eating can generalize to a regular pattern of uncontrolled overeating. (medscape.com)
  • For the most part, athletes are focused on doing the basics really well: eating a high quality, balanced diet, consuming enough protein, and staying hydrated. (businessinsider.com)
  • Eating a vegetarian diet is one of the best things you can do to stop climate change - it's also delicious and can make you feel great! (vegsoc.org)
  • If you want to be sure you are eating a healthy diet, we want to help you with clear, up-to-date dietary guidance based on official UK nutritional recommendations [11] . (vegsoc.org)
  • Eating a healthy breakfast is actually a strategy to help you lose weight, as well. (lifehack.org)
  • It sounds like I'm always eating, but I haven't gained weight. (marieclaire.com)
  • Now I'm going to change the subject a bit and ask you some questions about eating and weight. (cdc.gov)
  • BED can also include night eating with resultant weight gain but by definition does not include the use of vomiting or medications such as laxatives, emetics, or diuretics. (medscape.com)
  • You want to take advantage of this moment by eating a healthy breakfast that your body will be able to process naturally. (lifehack.org)
  • There are definitely some breakfast foods that aren't exactly healthy, so if you decide to start eating breakfast on a daily basis, make sure you're still making nutritious choices. (lifehack.org)
  • When we were kids, our teachers always advised us to eat a healthy breakfast the day of a big test. (lifehack.org)
  • What I love the best about Ayurveda is that each season you eat different foods to help your body be at its best. (selfgrowth.com)
  • And then eat as much whole foods as possible and mix it up. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Young babies eat pureed baby foods because they have few teeth and immature digestive systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 8 and 12 months of age, the digestive system improves, and many babies begin eating finger foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children under seven could eat up to 4 ounces of fish or shellfish weekly with low or moderate levels of mercury. (cdc.gov)
  • On April 29, 1996, three cases of tetrodotoxin poisoning occurred among chefs in California who shared contaminated fugu (puffer fish) brought from Japan by a co-worker as a prepackaged, ready-to-eat product. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating for Health, Where to Start? (selfgrowth.com)
  • All of the other health benefits of eating breakfast on a daily basis add up to an increase in a person's overall well-being. (lifehack.org)
  • The quantity eaten by each person was minimal, ranging from approximately 1/4 to 1 1/2 oz. (cdc.gov)
  • A 23-year-old man ate a piece of fugu 'the size of a quarter' (approximately 1/4 oz). (cdc.gov)
  • A 32-year-old man ate three bites of fugu (approximately 1 1/2 oz) over 2-3 minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • Mouth alcohol" is a well-known complication for breathalyzer tests and can be easily avoided by not eating, smoking, or chewing on anything for 15 to 20 minutes before blowing into the breathalyzer. (snopes.com)
  • This is why instruction manuals indicate that the tool should not be used on subjects for 15 to 20 minutes after they've eaten, and it is why law enforcement officers are required , in most jurisdiction , to repeat any tests yielding positive readings again after a 15- to 20-minute waiting period. (snopes.com)
  • Some diets are great for a few months to clean out the body but then you must go back to eating what works for you so you don't deplete your body of its nutrients. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Whether it's for animals, people or the planet, there are many reasons to eat vegetarian for yourself and others. (vegsoc.org)
  • Eating positions vary according to the different regions of the world, as culture influences the way people eat their meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next up, Dr. Chaput hopes to research whether the Wii also triggers the same over-eating effect found in this study or rather, simply the desire for Nintendo to release more Wii games. (lifehacker.com)
  • I found him while eating an apple. (lulu.com)
  • If pregnant women eat more than 14 ounces a week of fish taken from Vieques waters, their children could have a small chance of problems later in life with language, attention, or memory-or to a lesser extent, problems with visual, spatial, and motor functions. (cdc.gov)
  • It is an eating plan that is based on research studies sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This eating plan is based on research studies sponsored. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Per the DSM , this episode should be characterized by a feeling that one lacks control over their eating behavior. (psychologytoday.com)
  • By Sioux Henley Campbell Fighting Brain-Eating Ameba [i] It sits in a blister pack, secured in a nondescript office at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), just a few phone calls away from being flown to a patient's bedside for emergency treatment. (cdc.gov)