Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.PolysaccharidesGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Glycoside HydrolasesBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.FucoseHexosesSialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.GlycogenDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.DextrinsAmino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.GlucosamineMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)HexosaminesLactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Neuraminic AcidsEating: The consumption of edible substances.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.TriglyceridesTunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.XyloseDigestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)TrehaloseChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Ovomucin: A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.GalactosamineMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Beutler, E. et al. The normal human female as a mosaic of X-chromosome activity: Studies using the gene for G-6-PD deficiency ... Beutler,E. Erythrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. In: Weinstein,I.M.; Beutler,E., eds. Mechanisms of Anemia in Man New York: ... Beutler E, et al. The diagnosis of the adult type of Gaucher's disease and its carrier state by demonstration of deficiency of ... Feder JN, et al. A novel MHC class I-like gene is mutated in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. Nat Genet 13: 399-408, ...
Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins. *Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology: A Web Tour SPECIAL ... Emanual Maverakis; et al. "Glycans in the immune system and The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity" (PDF).. ... Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies Receptor Various proteins involved ... The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as ...
"Carbohydrates That Contain Monosaccharides". Healthy eating. Lean, Michael E.J. (2015). "Principles of human nutrition". ... Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple ... When machinery has been used to remove bits of high fiber, the carbohydrates are refined. These are the carbohydrates found in ... meaning a human does not need to eat carbohydrates. Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 99: 101-109. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.08.037. PMID 24274485. Kojima, T.; et al. (1993). "Eisenin (L- ...
Carbohydrate Polymers. 55: 171-177. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2003.09.004. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Wakabayashi K, ... CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Dervilly-Pinel, G; et al. (2004). "Investigation of the distribution of arabinose ... McCartney, L; et al. (2005). "Monoclonal Antibodies to Plant Cell Wall Xylans and Arabinoxylans". Journal of Histochemistry and ... et al (2005). Physiologia Plantarum. 125:127-134 Izydorczyk, MS; Dexter, JE (2008). "Barley β-glucans and arabinoxylans: ...
After eating the tainted eggs, the crows avoided eating green eggs. The crows subsequently avoided eating green eggs whether ... Carbohydrate Research. 256 (1): 185-188. doi:10.1016/0008-6215(94)84237-X. Nicolaus, L.K.; Cassel, J.F.; Carlson, R.B. & ... David E. Stevenson; et al. (1994). "Synthesis of 2-fluoroethyl β-D-galactopyranoside and 2-fluoroethyl 6-0-β-D-galactopyranosyl ... The researchers put a sickness-causing agent in several eggs, painted them green and then placed them where crows could eat ...
Apetorgbor et al. 2005, pp. 5-6 *^ Adhikari, M. K.; Devkota, S.; Tiwari, R. D. (2005). "Ethnomycological knowledge on uses of ... 65 g of carbohydrate, 5.8 g ash, and 0.03% mg of carotene. Fresh mushrooms contain about 90% moisture.[36][37] Dried specimens ... Apetorgbor et al. 2005, p. 10 *^ Misaki, A.; Kakuta, M.; Sasaki, T.; Tanaka, M.; Miyaji, H. (1981). "Studies on interrelation ... It has been likened to "eating an Indian rubber with bones in it",[31] while in 19th-century Britain, it was said that "it has ...
... eat less, move more, eat lots of fruits and vegetables. For additional clarification, a five-word modifier helps: go easy on ... Diets to promote weight loss are divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie. A ... Eat at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots do not count ... This pattern of eating can be achieved through a variety of dietary patterns, including the "Healthy U.S.-style Pattern," the " ...
Finally, Amano et al. used the Ferrier conditions to synthesise complex conjugated cyclohexanones in 1998. Ferrier, RJ (1979 ... The Ferrier carbocyclization (or Ferrier II reaction) is an organic reaction that was first reported by the carbohydrate ... Dalko, PI; Sinaÿ, P (1999). "Recent Advances in the Conversion of Carbohydrate Furanosides and Pyranosides into Carbocycles". ... doi:10.1016/0008-6215(86)80012-X. Ferrier, RJ; Middleton, S (1993). "The conversion of carbohydrate derivatives into ...
Zhang, Pingyi and et. al. "Banana starch: production, physicochemical properties, and digestibility- a review." Carbohydrate ... Ovando-Martinez, Maribel and et al. "Unripe banana flour as an ingredient to increase the undigestible carbohydrates of pasta ... Ovando-Martinez, Maribel and et al. "Unripe banana flour as an ingredient to increase the undigestible carbohydrates of pasta ... Ovando-Martinez, Maribel and et al. "Unripe banana flour as an ingredient to increase the undigestible carbohydrates of pasta ...
While also eaten year-round, mochi is a traditional food for the Japanese New Year and is commonly sold and eaten during that ... "Dietary carbohydrate composition". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2016-03-11. "07-2: Structure of Starches , CHEM 005". online.science. ... Zoni is also eaten on New Year's Day. In addition to mochi, zoni contains vegetables like taro, carrot, honeywort and red and ... At this time, mochi was eaten exclusively by the Emperor and nobles due to its status as an omen of good fortune. During the ...
Berlin: SpringerLink [host]. ISBN 3-540-41842-3. Collins, edited by Peter M. (2006). Dictionary of carbohydrates with CD-ROM ( ... by C.V. Ammini ... [et (2003). Natural production of organohalogen compounds. Berlin: SpringerLink [host]. ISBN 3-540-41842-3. ... by C.V. Ammini ... [et (2003). Natural production of organohalogen compounds. ... et (2002). Anthropogenic compounds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-42064-9. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net ...
ISBN 0-8493-7765-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) al.], Rosaleen Anderson ... [et (2012). Antibacterial agents ... Dictionary of carbohydrates with CD-ROM (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis. ...
al.], editors in chief, Richard H. Baltz, Julian E. Davies, Arnold L. Demain ; editors, Alan T. Bull ... [et (2010). Manual of ... Dictionary of carbohydrates with CD-ROM (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8493-7765-X. CS1 maint: Extra text ...
doi:10.1016/0014-5793(73)80015-8. al.], edited by Koji Nakanishi ... [et (1983). Natural products chemistry. Oxford: Oxford ... Dictionary of carbohydrates with CD-ROM (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8493-7765-X. CS1 maint: Extra text ...
ISBN 1-4051-4479-3. al.], Senior reporter, R.J. Ferrier ; reporters, R. Blattner-- [et (1993). Carbohydrate chemistry. a review ... ISBN 81-904398-7-1. Collins, edited by Peter M. (2006). Dictionary of carbohydrates with CD-ROM (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC/ ... Nemr, El Sayed H. El Ashry, Ahmed El (2007). Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Nitrogen Heterocycles from Carbohydrates. Oxford ...
Kim, Kwang Kyu, et al. "Halomonas stevensii sp. nov., Halomonas hamiltonii sp. nov. and Halomonas johnsoniae sp. nov., isolated ... "O-chain structure from the lipopolysaccharide of the human pathogen Halomonas stevensii strain S18214." Carbohydrate ... Kim, Kwang Kyu; et al. (2012). "Draft genome sequence of the human pathogen Halomonas stevensii S18214T". Journal of ... Pieretti, Giuseppina, et al. "Characterization of the Core Oligosaccharide and the O‐Antigen Biological Repeating Unit from ...
Question of the Day: Do Carbohydrates Cause Weight Gain? Archived 2013-05-08 at the Wayback Machine. Eat Right. Start Your Day ... School's Out! Help Your Kids Eat Right All Summer Long. NewsWire. May 24, 2011. Kids Eat Right - About Kids Eat Right Grassley ... Kids Eat Right has a website that gives families healthy eating tips, articles, videos, and recipes from registered dietitians ... Kids Eat Right also has scientifically-based health information centered around the theme "Shop-Cook-Eat" which has information ...
Cassava and rice are also eaten as staple carbohydrates. All of these are served with sauces of vegetables, meat, beans or fish ... Food in Mozambique Mozambican Recipes Eat Your Way Through Mozambique. ...
doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02671.x. al.], Senior reporter, J.F. Kennedy ; Reporters, D.P. Atkins-- [et (1986). Carbohydrate ... Dictionary of carbohydrates with CD-ROM (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8493-7765-X. CS1 maint: Extra text ... et (1983). The alkaloids. London: Royal society of chemistry. ISBN 0-85186-367-1. Borowski, edited by David Shugar, Wojciech ...
... et (1982). Carbohydrate chemistry. a review of the literature published during 1979. London: Chemical Society. ISBN 0-85186-112 ...
... et (1986). Carbohydrate chemistry. a review of the literature published during 1981. London: Chemical Society. ISBN 0-85186-152 ... ISBN 3-642-86605-0. Horton, editor, Derek (2000). Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. San Diego: Academic ... Advances in macromolecular carbohydrate research. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press. ISBN 0-08-055227-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: ...
... et (1981). Carbohydrate chemistry. a review of the literature published during 1978. London: Chemical Society. ISBN 0-85186-940 ...
Renton, Alex (2006-02-26). "How Sushi ate the World". The Guardian. Retrieved 2006-08-20. White, Madeleine (2012-10-23). "Meet ... Carbohydrate and Calorie Counter". Calories in California Sushi Rolls. Retrieved May 31, 2016. ...
Hughes GJ, Reason AJ, Savoy L, Jaton J, Frutiger-Hughes S (Sep 1999). "Carbohydrate moieties in human secretory component". ... Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1434 (1): 86-93. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(99)00168-5. PMID 10556562. Polymeric Immunoglobulin ... Mizoguchi A, Mizuochi T, Kobata A (Aug 1982). "Structures of the carbohydrate moieties of secretory component purified from ...
... or monitored carbohydrate diets such as a low carbohydrate diet.[58][97][98] Viscous fiber supplements may be useful in those ... Maintaining normal weight, exercising, eating properly[1]. Treatment. Dietary changes, metformin, insulin, bariatric surgery[1] ... Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, et al. (GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence ... Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment ...
The spring should be a time to eat less of everything. In particular, less carbohydrates, as they are mostly not harvested ... They ate wheat and dairy. Maybe more detoxing from my years of eating bad would help? I dont think the body decides to be ... If you desire to eat wheat then look for an organic ancient wheat. If you desire to eat dairy then look for raw organic. Good ... We should strive to lower the amount of food we eat, as well as our frequency of eating. ...
By limiting your carbohydrate application being on a ketogenic diet and in reality removing them on a ketogenic diet and eating ... Due to carbohydrates removing on a ketogenic diet you will practice some nutrient deficiencies. For this cause its indeed ... Ketogenic diet schedules for weight loss program basically include depriving your body of carbohydrates and sugars.. When you ... As explained above a ketogenic diet is comprised of basically depriving body of carbohydrates and sugars. Glucagon is what ...
A few studies in literature, however, reported metabolic benefits and sustainability of carbohydrate restricted diets. Herein, ... patients are usually instructed to follow a low fat/high carbohydrate diet. ... He was eating vegetables in insignificant amounts. His diet had a ketogenic ratio (fat : protein + carbohydrate) of at least 2: ... Two studies by Nielsen et al. showed that a low carbohydrate diet lowers the need for insulin as well as the number of ...
... a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects ... a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects ... Degrees of Freedom ‡:the ANOVA-Type Statistic of Brunner et al. [33] which approximately follows the central F(DF,∞)- ... Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast ...
Eating a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet - known as the ketogenic.. Category: Low Calorie Restaurants Near Me Post navigation ... A low-carbohydrate diet can trigger ketosis. That is because a low-carb diet will cause you to have less glucose in your blood ... What would you say if I told you theres a diet where you can eat all the food you normally deny. have enough carbs for your ... As long as you stay in nutritional ketosis (0.5 to 3.0 mM), moderate amounts of carbohydrates can be added to your diet. ...
When you eat something high in carbohydrates, your body will produce glucose and insulin. Glucose is the easiest and lightest ... Giving a new diet a trial can be very tough, all those things to avoid, to eat more of new ingredients to buy. Its enough to ... The beauty about the keto diet is that sometimes you just have not eaten enough fat in the day, and so you chow down on "fat ... But there is a way of eating that has grown recently known as the ketogenic, or "keto," diet and its keto recipes. If you do ...
... of full-fat yogurt contains around 8g of carbohydrate. Eat one serving of each and youre nearing the carbohydrate limit of the ... Myth 1: A high fat diet equals low carbohydrate. Multiple comments consisted of referencing the high fat foods eaten, but few ... The carbohydrates in dairy come from the natural sugar called lactose which consists of galactose and glucose. This is called a ... Yes, in its most basic form, carbohydrates are broken down into sugar in the form of glucose, but the package of the ...
For more about low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet, please subscribe to our website newsletter now! ... Get to know more about ketogenic diet and low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet here on this site. ... metagenics, A ketogenic diet is a very low-carbohydrate way of eating that delivers moderate amounts of high-quality dietary ... no fat? High carbohydrates or no carbohydrates? Low protein or high protein? To make matters worse, there are a million ...
The diet starts by enabling 10 grams of carbohydrates per day for youngsters and also 15 grams for adults, with potential mild ... Around 20- 30 % of calories from healthy protein, 10- 20 % from carbs, et cetera from fat. ... Modified Atkins Diet (MAD): 4- 6 % of calories from carbohydrates without constraint on protein most of the times. ... Medium-Chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet (MCT Diet): At first 20 % carbohydrates, 10 % healthy protein, 50 % medium-chain ...
Now, Im not telling you to go out and eat fat, fried foods like fried chicken. Eat responsibly. ... This is because carbohydrates are needed to build muscle mass because it is glycogen (stored in muscle and the liver) that ... Mood Swings: Are you one of those types who get irritable if you dont eat? Well, this diet can have a similar effect on some ... It is carbohydrate consumption that drives triglyceride levels, not fat.. A healthy cholesterol profile has high HDL (high- ...
Malabsorption of carbohydrates-flatulence,abdominal distension,belching.. *Malabsorption of vitamin A-night blindness, ... Treat the cause,avoid spicy,fried food,avoid eating outside foods especially tinned products.. Correct the underlying defective ...
A person may fast voluntarily because of an eating disorder , as a dietary practice related to religious proscriptions , or for ... Ketones are acidic compounds produced from the incomplete breakdown of fats when there is insufficient carbohydrate intake, and ...
Eating a diet rich in whole foods is essential for getting all the nutrients your body needs to properly function. And, ... Americans Still Eat Too Many Processed Carbs, But What About Runners?. What does this mean for your prerun fuel plan? ... The bottom line: "We all need to be more mindful when we are consuming carbohydrates and choose whole grains or fresh fruit ... While packaged foods and drive-thru stops are convenient, the processed carbohydrates in these foods can take a toll on your ...
Carbohydrates, Cardiovascular Disease, Careers in Dietetics, Caribbean Islanders, Diet of, Carotenoids, Central Americans and ... People tend to eat more from restaurants and fast-food places because many eating establishments supersize their portions. ... Ironically, diets high in complex carbohydrates and fiber in poor economic times give way to consumption of foods high in ... In addition, eating at home does not always mean cooking. Supermarkets and grocery stores provide thousands of ready-made meals ...
When you eat to manage diabetes youll need to stay on top of the amount of carbohydrates you take in, trying to keep it ... That means the bulk of your carbohydrates should come from so-called "good carbohydrates"-fiber-rich and whole-grain foods. ... Fiber is the part of plant foods that the body cant digest, and its chiefly found in carbohydrate foods. Whole-grain cereals ... But dont worry about which type of fiber to eat, because its all good. Instead, focus on getting more fiber, period: experts ...
Eat the Right Carbohydrates. Its been ingrained in our minds that most carbs are nothing more than empty calories. While some ... Interestingly enough, according to Harvard researchers, women who eat more whole grains have a lower risk of diabetes, since ...
... Wednesday, April 18, 2018 Caryl Inglis, RDN, LDN, CDE is a Registered Dietitian ... Our Best Eating Plan for people with diabetes gives you the tools you need for healthy eating - whether or not you have ... Eat whole fruit rather than juice. The fiber fills you up and you end up eating fewer calories and carbs. ... Limit carbohydrates. "When you have diabetes, you need to limit your carbohydrates, but especially those simple sugars like ...
adults should get about 40% to 55% of their calories from carbohydrates. ... carbohydrates give your body fuel in the form of glucose, which is a type of sugar. ... Adults should get about 40% to 55% of their calories from carbohydrates. Most Americans eat too many carbohydrates, especially ... How many carbohydrates do I need when eating healthy for weight loss?. ANSWER ...
Good carbohydrates are those that have a significant amount of fiber and micronutrients, such as whole grains, starchy ... List of Good Carbohydrates to Eat Kelsey Casselbury , updated on February 15, 2019 ... However, carbohydrates serve as your bodys main source of energy, so without eating enough, you could feel lethargic. Luckily ... Complex carbohydrates are typically higher in fiber, an indigestible carbohydrate that lessens the carbs impact on your blood ...
Eating simple carbohydrates can make you fat, because they are easily turned into sugar; as opposed to healthy carbs, like ... Will Eating Carbohydrates Make Me Fat? (1:30) Eating simple carbohydrates can make you fat, because they are easily turned into ... Video / Sharecare Experts / Michael Roizen, MD / Will Eating Carbohydrates Make Me Fat? ... What Is the Difference Between a Good Carbohydrate and a Bad Carbohydrate? ...
While some fad-diet gurus may denounce carbohydrates as the root of all edible evil, the truth is that your body needs these ... Carbohydrates are your bodys primary energy source, so you may feel sluggish if you dont eat enough of them. Your body ... What Happens if You Dont Eat Enough Carbohydrates? by NINA K. Last Updated: Oct 03, 2017. ... While some fad-diet gurus may denounce carbohydrates as the root of all edible evil, the truth is that your body needs these ...
You should avoid eating refined carbohydrates because they tend to change the bodys hormone levels, manipulate blood sugar, ... Why Should I Avoid Eating Refined Carbohydrates? (0:51) You should avoid eating refined carbohydrates because they tend to ... Video / Sharecare Experts / Peter Attia, MD / Why Should I Avoid Eating Refined Carbohydrates? ... When you eat more complex carbohydrates instead and food that has protein and fat in it, it tend get more even distribution and ...
7 Reasons to eat more ginger - NaturalNews.com. *What to eat and what NOT to eat to avoid autoimmune disease and fight chronic ... Eating certain carbohydrates triggers the growth of cancer cells. Wednesday, February 13, 2019 by: Zoey Sky Tags: badcancer, ... www.naturalnews.com/2019-02-13-eating-certain-carbohydrates-trigger-the-growth-of-cancer-cells.html",Eating certain ... www.naturalnews.com/2019-02-13-eating-certain-carbohydrates-trigger-the-growth-of-cancer-cells.html. ...
There are 43 calories in 1 serving of Eat n Park Honey. Youd need to walk 11 minutes to burn 43 calories. Visit CalorieKing ...
... who do not consume much fat but consume a lot of carbohydrates, have higher mortality rates. ... According to a study decrease in fat intake automatically leads to an increase in carbohydrate consumption and the results ... Eating low fat, high carbohydrate foods may kill you According to a study decrease in fat intake automatically leads to an ... Eating low fat, high carbohydrate foods may kill youhttps://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/4821745-eating-low-fat- ...
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