Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Abortifacient Agents, Steroidal: Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Dilatation and Curettage: Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Abortion, Threatened: UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A: A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Fetoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Placenta Previa: Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Fetofetal Transfusion: Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Oligohydramnios: A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Pregnancy, Abdominal: A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Abnormalities, MultiplePregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Abortion, Missed: The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Intractable VOMITING that develops in early PREGNANCY and persists. This can lead to DEHYDRATION and WEIGHT LOSS.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The early first-trimester medical abortion regimen (200 mg of oral mifepristone, followed 24-48 hours later by 800 mcg of ... Creinin, Mitchell D.; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell (2009). "Medical abortion in early pregnancy". In Paul, Maureen; Lichtenberg ... International Consensus Conference on Non-surgical (Medical) Abortion in Early First Trimester on Issues Related to Regimens ... Creinin, Mitchell D.; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell (2009). "Medical abortion in early pregnancy". In Paul, Maureen; Lichtenberg ...
First instalment (in first trimester of pregnancy) - 3,000/- • Early Registration of Pregnancy, preferably within first three ...
The magazine also covers early (first trimester) pregnancy. In addition to the magazine, the Conceive brand includes a website ...
... occurs during 15-25% of first trimester pregnancies. Of these, half go on to miscarry and half bring the fetus ... Bleeding in early pregnancy may be a sign of a threatened or incomplete miscarriage. ... Snell, BJ (Nov-Dec 2009). "Assessment and management of bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy". Journal of midwifery & ... During pregnancy it is usually but not always related to the pregnancy itself. Rarely, the blood may arise from the urinary ...
"Pregnancy Symptoms - Early Signs of Pregnancy : American Pregnancy Association". Archived from the original on 15 January 2008 ... Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test.[7]. Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters.[4] The first ... Pregnancy is typically broken into three periods, or trimesters, each of about three months.[36][37] Each trimester is defined ... Further information: Pregnancy test. Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests,[59] ...
June 2001). "Sonographic early fetal gender assignment: a longitudinal study in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization". ... in the first trimester of pregnancy is usually due to major genetic mistakes or abnormalities in the developing embryo. During ... "Accuracy of first-trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of early embryonic demise: a systematic review". Ultrasound in ... Pregnancy Approach (eBook ed.). Lauren Lee. 2013. Chart of human fetal development, U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) U.K ...
In some cases, some or all treatments are postponed until after birth if the cancer is diagnosed late in the pregnancy. Early ... Some treatments, especially certain chemotherapy drugs given during the first trimester, increase the risk of birth defects and ... Pregnancy. Cancer affects approximately 1 in 1,000 pregnant women. The most common cancers found during pregnancy are the same ... For certain types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancer, it may be used alone.[155] For painful bone metastasis, it has ...
The cysts typically disappear later during pregnancy, and are usually harmless. They have no effect on infant and early ... These fluid-filled cysts can be detected by a detailed second trimester ultrasound. The finding is relatively common, with a ...
However, its most prominent time is during the early stages of pregnancy, during implantation. Its function as a surrounding ... The glands of the spongiosa layer continue to secrete during the first trimester, when they degenerate. However, before that ... Such agents are Platelet-activating factor, human chorionic gonadotropin, early pregnancy factor, immunosuppressive factor, ... In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the already fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the uterus. At ...
Typically the event is held before or early in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. As per North American tradition, women will hold ...
Yasmin did the show while she was in her first trimester of her first pregnancy. She revealed her pregnancy to SHOK Models and ... She was in her early 20s and five months pregnant with her son Hamzah when she accepted this shoot. Although she worked as a ...
HELLP usually begins during the third trimester; rare cases have been reported as early as 21 weeks gestation. Often, a woman ... He noted that cases with features of HELLP had been reported as early as 1954. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy Hypertrophic ... However, how many pregnancies complicated by AFLP or HELLP result in infants with LCHAD deficiency is not known. HELLP syndrome ... Early symptoms can include: In 90% of cases, either epigastric pain described as "heartburn" or right upper quadrant pain ...
"Diagnostic Criteria for Nonviable Pregnancy Early in the First Trimester". New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (15): 1443-1451 ... but many women also have bleeding in early pregnancy and don't miscarry. Bleeding during pregnancy may be referred to as a ... Diagnosis and Initial Management in Early Pregnancy of Ectopic Pregnancy and Miscarriage". NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 154. ... In the late 1980s and 1990s, doctors became more conscious of their language in relation to early pregnancy loss. Some medical ...
... a low level of these glycoproteins is detected in the maternal serum during the early stages of pregnancy. It appears that the ... In humans, the expression of such glycoproteins greatly decreases toward the end of the first trimester. Therefore, more highly ... Immune tolerance in pregnancy Clark, G. F.; Dell, A.; Morris, H. R.; Patankar, M. S.; Easton, R. L. (2001). "The species ... In 1960, Medawar and Burnet were awarded the Nobel Prize in part for their early contributions and discoveries related to ...
17.8%; loss of second-trimester pregnancy, 16.4% vs. 1.7%; ectopic pregnancy, 14.6% vs. 2.9%; preeclampsia, 26.4% vs. 13.7%; ... In the early 1950s, a double-blind clinical trial at the University of Chicago assessed pregnancy outcomes in women who were ... The study showed no benefit of taking DES during pregnancy; adverse pregnancy outcomes were not reduced in the women who were ... 2.6%; early menopause, 5.1% vs. 1.7%; grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 6.9% vs. 3.4%; and breast cancer at ...
Early and late fetal losses were observed within the first and last trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. For EFLs, clinical ... These early fetal losses were soon followed by a sequence of numerous early and late fetal losses and, recognized somewhat ... were independent of any state of pregnancy, and that they occurred at the same time as the early and late fetal loss syndromes ... Of foals conceived in the spring of 2001, about 2000 were lost, the so-called early fetal losses (EFLs). Of foals conceived ...
One, an early-onset sepsis, with Listeria acquired in utero, results in premature birth. Listeria can be isolated in the ... Infection in pregnancy: Listeria can proliferate asymptomatically in the vagina and uterus. If the mother becomes symptomatic, ... it is usually in the third trimester. Symptoms include fever, myalgias, arthralgias and headache. Miscarriage, stillbirth and ... In early December 2017 an outbreak of listeriosis was reported by the South African Department of Health. The outbreak, as at 8 ...
... is also used for the termination of pregnancy in the 2nd trimester. Unlabeled use: Hemorrhagic Cystitis PID ... Carboprost induces contractions and can trigger abortion in early pregnancy. It also reduces postpartum bleeding. Used in ... Vukelić J (2001). "Second trimester pregnancy termination in primigravidas by double application of dinoprostone gel and ...
During the first two trimester of pregnancy, levels of T4 are relatively low. But during the last trimester (and lactation), ... From December to early June, there are no mature sperm found within the male's reproductive tract. Starting in June, the ... Observed during the pregnancy of female M. waterhousii, there seems to be a delay in the development of the offspring. It is ... Mature sperm can be found in the reproductive tract of males from August to early December. However, starting around September ...
It usually onsets early in the third trimester of pregnancy, and generally persists until the child is born, but occasionally ... Most cases of GPP in pregnancy occur late in the third trimester, generally when production of progesterone increases. GPP is a ... The patient gave birth to a healthy baby in the thirty-eighth week of pregnancy. A month and a half after delivery, the woman ... Hazarika gave a report of a 29-year-old woman with no family history of psoriasis, having had a normal first pregnancy, who ...
In early December 2017 an outbreak of listeriosis was reported by the South African Department of Health. The outbreak, as at 8 ... However, infections during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or life-threatening infection of ... If the mother becomes symptomatic, it is usually in the third trimester. Symptoms include fever, myalgias, arthralgias and ... One, an early-onset sepsis, with Listeria acquired in utero, results in premature birth. Listeria can be isolated in the ...
... is common during early pregnancy but may occasionally continue into the second and third trimesters. In the first trimester ... Nausea is a side effect of many medications including chemotherapy, or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Nausea may also be ... Pregnancy should therefore be considered as a possible cause of nausea in any women of child bearing age. While usually it is ... Side effects from medications (3%) and pregnancy are also relatively frequent. There are many causes of chronic nausea. Nausea ...
"Mid-pregnancy anomaly scan - Pregnancy and baby - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2017-12-04. ... Nuchal scan "Practice guidelines for performance of the routine mid-trimester fetal ultrasound scan" (PDF). ISUOG.org. ... Whilst sex can technically be determined earlier, sex determination at this scan is generally reliable, and so this is commonly ... The anomaly scan, also sometimes called the anatomy scan, 20 week ultrasound, or level 2 ultrasound, is a pregnancy ultrasound ...
... a 1000x increase was observed in early pregnancy with a 10 000x increase seen by the third trimester. Following birth, ... Kisspeptin is highly expressed during pregnancy. In early-term placentas, GPR54 was expressed at a higher rate than placentas ... of GPR54 in early-term placentas is due to the increased presence of intrusive trophoblasts during the beginning of pregnancy. ... The expression of kisspeptin, however, remains unchanged in the placenta throughout pregnancy. The increased expression ...
... especially in the last trimester. Rates up to 5.9% of deliveries have been reported. There is some evidence that early ... Some avoid further pregnancy (secondary tocophobia), and those who become pregnant again may experience a return of symptoms, ... Early authors like Ideler wrote about this fear, and, in 1937, Binder drew attention to a group of women who sought ... Recurrences after another pregnancy are rare. Alcohol withdrawal states (delirium tremens) are recognized in addicts whose ...
Kaplan YC, Ozsarfati J, Etwel F, Nickel C, Nulman I, Koren G (November 2015). "Pregnancy outcomes following first-trimester ... acnes and the immune system have shown promise for improving acne in early clinical trials.[91] Another avenue of early-stage ... Pregnancy[edit]. Although sebaceous gland activity in the skin increases during the late stages of pregnancy, pregnancy has not ... Pregnancy category refers to an evaluation of a substance's risk of injury to a fetus if used by the mother during pregnancy.[ ...
Ninety-five high-order pregnancies following assisted conception were st ... To compare the outcome of multifetal pregnancy reduction from triplets to twins performed either early (at 11-12 weeks ... CONCLUSIONS: Early second-trimester multifetal pregnancy reduction from triplets to twins may allow more selective termination ... A comparative study of multifetal pregnancy reduction from triplets to twins in the first versus early second trimesters after ...
For a small percentage of these women, their morning sickness is far from just a normal part of pregnancy. If your morning ... Typically, 3 out of 4 women will experience some degree of morning sickness with pregnancy. ... The most commonly held belief is that the increase in HCG and estrogen hormones in early pregnancy is the cause. ... and electrolyte imbalances combined with a first trimester weight loss of aproximately 10% of your normal body weight. ...
Hcg Pregnancy Test from HCG Pregnancy Test /pH/HIV/Urine Rapid Test Kits/Pregnancy Test Strip - Sure Care Corporation ... pH/HIV/Urine Rapid Test Kits/Pregnancy Test Strip, Find details about China Pregnancy Test Strip, ... HCG Pregnancy Test: the early detection of human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) in human serum/plasma or urine ... The concentrations of hCG in urine and serum continue to rise during the first trimester of pregnancy to as high as 100, ...
In your first trimester of pregnancy? Get tips and information on screenings, symptoms, your babys size, weight gain, dos and ... First Trimester First Trimester. In your first trimester of pregnancy? Get tips and information on screenings, symptoms, your ... Week 6 of Pregnancy. Week 6 of Pregnancy Not all women start to feel pregnant this early on. Some experience a twinge of nausea ... Week 7 of Pregnancy. Week 7 of Pregnancy Getting in shape now will stand you in good stead as your pregnancy continues. Keeping ...
... dc.contributor. Bani Irshaid, I.. EN. ... The efficacy and safety of 3 methods used in legal termination of pregnancy in the second and early third trimester was ... Termination of second and early third trimester pregnancy: comparison of 3 methods. EN. ... Foley catheter as a method of termination of pregnancy in second and early third trimester is safe and inexpensive, and its ...
Diagnosis of Cardiac Diverticulum with Pericardial Effusion in the First Trimester of Pregnancy with Resolution after Early ... In the first trimester of pregnancy only 6 cases were reported. We described the largest series of cases published. We describe ... effusion during the first trimester of pregnancy and resolved by intrauterine pericardiocentesis at 17 weeks of pregnancy. We ...
These findings suggested a causal relationship between early exposure and fetal demise. Management of future influenza ... A second trimester fetal demise followed influenza-like illness in early pregnancy. Influenza A virus (H1N1) was identified in ... A second trimester fetal demise followed influenza-like illness in early pregnancy. Influenza A virus (H1N1) was identified in ... Second trimester miscarriages account for only 1%-2% of all pregnancy losses (3). Histopathologic features of these early ...
Some may have questions about avoiding a pregnancy ... Short and long sleep in early pregnancy linked to high blood ... pressure in the third trimesterSome people have basic questions about how pregnancy happens. ... "Associations of early pregnancy sleep duration with trimester-specific blood pressures and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ... "Both short and long sleep duration in early pregnancy were associated with increased mean third trimester systolic and ...
... termination of pregnancy in the second and early third trimester of pregnancy due to fetal abnormalities or intrauterine fetal ... ABSTRACT The efficacy and safety of 3 methods used in legal termination of pregnancy in the second and early third trimester ... Second and early third trimester pregnancy termination by extra-amniotic balloon and intracervical PGE2. International journal ... Termination of second and early third trimester pregnancy: comparison of 3 methods ...
early scan early afternoon - terrified First Trimester. Shall I be naughty and get an early early scan today?? Update- TWINS! ... at early scan did you need a vaginal scan? First Trimester. Possibly early, early labour?? *Probably early labour* -, LABOUR ... booking in appt next week and nuchal scan date sent away early scan or wait and see?? First Trimester. ... Congratulations! I had an early NHS scan due to previous mcs and then paid for a private early scan at 9 weeks to check baby ...
I had two have two earlyscans in my last pregnancy due to pain and ... Hi ladies I just wondered if any of you had opted to go for a private early scan! ... Pay for private early scan or wait?? First Trimester. Should have been my private early scan today Coping with Miscarriage & ... I just wondered if any of you had opted to go for a private early scan! I had two have two earlyscans in my last pregnancy due ...
Changes in laboratory markers of thrombotic risk early in the first trimester of pregnancy may be linked to an increase in ... Changes in laboratory markers of thrombotic risk early in the first trimester of pregnancy may be linked to an increase in ... Methods: Plasma samples were taken prior to conception and five times in early pregnancy, up to Day 59 gestation, from 22 women ... laboratory data suggest that hypercoagulability begins in the first trimester but it is unknown exactly how early in pregnancy ...
Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications, Infectious Pregnancy Trimester, Second Seasonal Influenza Seasons Transplacental Passage ... A second trimester fetal demise followed influenza-like illness in early pregnancy. Influenza A virus (H1N1) was identified in ... Seasonal Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Early Pregnancy and Second Trimester Fetal Demise ... To examine health care burden, pregnancy outcomes and impact of high risk medical conditions among pregnancy hospitalizations ...
... show that Zika virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy, or early in the second trimester, is associated with ... show that Zika virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy, or early in the second trimester, is associated with ... Microcephaly Risk Highest With Zika Virus Infection During First or Early Second Trimester of Pregnancy. ... these births were associated with Zika virus infection that most likely occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy, or early ...
3rd trimesters. Early symptoms of pregnancy may include constipation, headache, heartburn, extreme tiredness, and upset stomach ... Symptoms vary from week to week during pregnancy. A pregnancy test can easily confirm if you are pregnant. ... Pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, and has three phases or stages; the 1st, 2nd, ... What is the second trimester of pregnancy (week 13-week 28)?. *What is the third trimester trimester of pregnancy (week 29-week ...
tmi diarrhea and early pregnancy. hi. can anyone help me please? home pregnancy test showed me i was was pg 4/5 days ago. today ... It can be a pregnancy sign, so try not to worry. Make sure you drink plenty and make sure if it gets worse you get checked out ... could it be start of m/c or is it a symptom of early pg that i dont know about.. thanks for any help, im really worried right ... so even if i dont see a fetal pole and hb might see a pregnancy sac and/or yolk sac. the only thing is my apetite hasnt ...
Also avail free - Trimester of pregnancy News Widget from Medindia - Page 4 ... Find latest news and research updates on Trimester of pregnancy. ... Early Signs of Pregnancy. Pregnant or not pregnant? Catch on to ... Trimester of Pregnancy / Pregnancy -Trimester. Encyclopedia section of medindia explains in brief about confirmation of ... Multiple Pregnancy Calculator. Multiple Pregnancy Calculator assesses your pregnancy symptoms and finds if you are pregnant ...
Does early second-trimester sonography predict adverse perinatal outcomes in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies? Journal ... Does early second-trimester sonography predict adverse perinatal outcomes in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies? / Allaf ... T1 - Does early second-trimester sonography predict adverse perinatal outcomes in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies? ... Does early second-trimester sonography predict adverse perinatal outcomes in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies?. ...
Alcoholic Liver Disease Trimester of pregnancy Pregnancy and Exercise Home Pregnancy Test Pregnancy Drugs in Pregnancy and ... Pregnancy. Detailed look at Early pregnancy Symptoms and easy health solutions during 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. ... Trimester of pregnancy. Encyclopedia section of medindia explains in brief about confirmation of pregnancy in first trimester ... Home Pregnancy Test. A home pregnancy test is a test done to find out if one is pregnant or not in the relative comforts of the ...
Stages of Pregnancy: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Trimester Images. Explore the changes a pregnant womans body goes through as you watch a ... home/pregnancy center/ pregnancy a-z list/ zinc may fight alcohol effects in early pregnancy article ... "One, fetal abnormalities caused by acute alcohol exposure in early pregnancy can be prevented by dietary zinc supplementation. ... supplementation throughout pregnancy can protect against post-natal death caused by acute alcohol exposure in early pregnancy. ...
Early-Pregnancy Multiple Serum Markers and Second-Trimester Uterine Artery Doppler in Predicting Preeclampsia. Thilaganathan, ... Early-Pregnancy Multiple Serum Markers and Second-Trimester Uterine Artery Doppler in Predicting Preeclampsia ... In this study, second-trimester uterine artery Doppler and multiple early-pregnancy maternal serum biomarkers including C- ... The current study assessed five early-pregnancy maternal serum markers and second-trimester uterine artery Doppler resistance ...
Coughs, Colds and Sniffles in Early Pregnancy.. Your immune system is lowered slightly during pregnancy in order to stop your ... However, you should avoid aspirin as it can affect your babys development in the early weeks and, in late pregnancy, affect ... 2 Early m/c 06. March 07 Early mpause.Ovaries inactive. IVF Aug 07 No response to drugs Adoption only optn. MIRACLE BFP Oct 08 ... Penicillins are safe to take, but tetracyclines can cause minor fetal abnormalities early in pregnancy and cause discolouration ...
This information helps parents-to-be understand the changes they will face as sexual partners during the pregnancy and after ... Early pregnancy (first trimester). You may notice changes in your sexual activity during the earliest weeks of pregnancy. ... Mid-pregnancy (second trimester) The second trimester of pregnancy is usually a time when the expectant mother feels at her ... Late pregnancy (third trimester) The overall sense of physical, emotional, and sexual well-being usually continues into the ...
... from diet and supplements to exercise in pregnancy and antenatal care. ... Find out everything you need to know about the first few weeks of pregnancy - ... in Pregnancy information. First trimester pregnancy blogs. * . Blog. Pass me a crumpet!. Morning sickness. Why is it called ... More on the early days of pregnancy. * . Dos and donts for a safer pregnancy. Congratulations on your pregnancy! This page ...
The primary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy and successful abortion. Thirty-three studies composed of 22,275 participants were ... Combined regimens using mifepristone and misoprostol had lower rates of ongoing pregnancy, higher rates of successful abortion ... A wide range of drugs have been studied for first trimester medical abortion. Studies evaluating different regimens, including ... From: Medical termination for pregnancy in early first trimester (≤ 63 days) using combination of mifepristone and misoprostol ...
  • The study also found an association between sleep duration and preeclampsia, a condition that involves pregnancy-induced hypertension along with excess protein in the urine. (health.am)
  • The risk of developing preeclampsia was almost 10 times higher (adjusted odds ratio = 9.52) in very short sleepers who had a nightly sleep duration of less than five hours during early pregnancy. (health.am)
  • Overall, about 6.3 percent of participants were diagnosed with either preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension without proteinuria. (health.am)
  • The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development reports that preeclampsia is a syndrome that occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. (health.am)
  • What our studies do indicate is that dietary zinc supplementation could be as important as folic acid and applied as a simple prophylactic treatment in the human setting to prevent the effects of a range of insults in pregnancy. (medicinenet.com)
  • Czeizel AE, Vargha P: Periconceptional folic acid/multivitamin supplementation and twin pregnancy. (springer.com)
  • THURSDAY, Feb. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Zinc supplements may help mothers-to-be reduce the risk for birth defects linked to alcohol use early in pregnancy , Australian researchers report. (medicinenet.com)
  • There's also no need to worry if you were taking birth control pills before you realized you were pregnant - this isn't linked to pregnancy loss either. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Flu vaccination during pregnancy is safe and helps protect babies from flu for several months after birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Placental function in early pregnancy, as measured by circulating concentrations of placentally derived proteins in the mother's serum, is associated with risk of low birth weight. (bmj.com)
  • Although low birth weight and diabetes in pregnancy represent the most well-established factors linking exposures during pregnancy with subsequent risk of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome (MS) among offspring [ 1 ], we lack knowledge about the distinct molecular mechanisms involved. (wiley.com)
  • They looked at hospital records data for five years for each woman, using the three and a quarter years before the pregnancy and the year after the birth as comparisons. (nationalpost.com)
  • These symptoms result from changes in your hormones and blood circulation caused by your pregnancy. (upmc.com)
  • You can thank pregnancy hormones, plus the additional blood flow to the labia, clitoris and vagina, which makes you feel extra tingly down below (and can lead to more frequent or more intense orgasms). (whattoexpect.com)
  • Hormones and, later in pregnancy, your womb pressing on your stomach can sometimes leave you bloated, burpy, sick or with a nasty heart burning sensation. (tommys.org)
  • Hormones change everything during pregnancy. (healthline.com)
  • So, during pregnancy, the kidney is increased plus the pregnancy hormones cause the vessels to be a little more dilated that also is responsible to increase the blood flow to the kidney. (rediff.com)
  • The flood of hormones in your body in early pregnancy can make you unusually emotional and weepy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Again, if you've got a higher concentration of pregnancy hormones in your body, then if you're unlucky enough to suffer from emotional changes, it's also likely going to affect you more and hit you far harder? (twinstuff.com)