Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Otoscopy: Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Tympanic Membrane Perforation: A temporary or persistent opening in the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Clinical signs depend on the size, location, and associated pathological condition.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Ear Ossicles: A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Ear Auricle: The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear: A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.BooksNose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Dermatoglyphics: The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Earache: Pain in the ear.Lecture NotesAdenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Endolymphatic Hydrops: An accumulation of ENDOLYMPH in the inner ear (LABYRINTH) leading to buildup of pressure and distortion of intralabyrinthine structures, such as COCHLEA and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. It is characterized by SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; and sometimes VERTIGO.Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.

An aural myiasis case in a 54-year-old male farmer in Korea. (1/190)

A 54-year-old male farmer residing in Chunchon, Korea, complaining of blood tinged discharge and tinnitus in the left ear for two days, was examined in August 16, 1996. Otoscopic examination revealed live maggots from the ear canal. The patient did not complain of any symptoms after removal of maggots. Five maggots recovered were identified as the third stage larvae of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). This is the first record of aural myiasis in Korea.  (+info)

Examination on biological activities and fates of new steroids, steroid-17-yl methyl glycolate derivatives. (2/190)

A variety of acyl derivatives based on the "antedrug" concept were synthesized to evaluate their biological activities, in vitro fate in human serum and examine pharmacokinetics in rats. Among the prepared compounds, acetyl and pivaloyl derivatives (8 and 9) showed strong to vasoconstrictive activity in human, exceeding that of dexamethasone. In rats, topical administration of the compound 8 significantly reduced oxazolone-induced ear edema compared to that of control. These activities were almost equal to that of prednisolone, however 9 did not show any suppression of the oxazolone-induced edema. The in vitro half-lives of 8 and 9 in human serum were 18.2 and 43.8 hours, respectively. Prednisolone and dexamethasone were extremely stable under the used conditions. When compound 8 was intravenously administrated to rats, its metabolites, 20(R)-methyl dexamethasonate (4) and carboxylic acid (18), were found in the systemic blood. The total body clearance of 8 was 1734 ml x hr(-1) x kg(-1), which was about 12 times larger than that of dexamethasone. On the other hand, 9 was found to be metabolized instantaneously to methyl prednisolonate (1) in systemic serum. Acetyl derivative 8 derived from dexamethasone may thus be useful as a topical steroid which offers the advantage of a low potential for systemic and local side effects.  (+info)

High-resolution MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle: 2D versus 3D fast spin-echo sequences. (3/190)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical usefulness of MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle, applying 2D or 3D fast spin-echo sequences, has been reported recently. Our purpose was to investigate the cause of signal loss in CSF in the prepontine or cerebellopontine angle cistern on 2D FSE MR images and to compare the cisternographic effects of 2D and 3D FSE sequences. METHODS: Preliminary experiments were performed in four volunteers to assess the causes of signal loss. Initially, using a 2D cardiac-gated cine phase-contrast method with a velocity encoding value of 6 cm/s, we measured the velocity and flow pattern of CSF. Comparisons were made to assess the effects of intravoxel dephasing, amplitude of the section-selecting gradient, echo time (TE), and section thickness. Four healthy subjects and 13 patients with ear symptoms were examined, and multisection 3-mm-thick 2D images and 30-mm-slab, 1-mm-section 3D images were compared qualitatively and quantitatively. Then, 3D MR cisternography was performed in 400 patients with ear symptoms, and qualitative evaluation was performed. RESULTS: In volunteers, the average peak velocity of CSF was 1.2 cm/s. With TE = 250, CSF may move an average of 3 mm, and can be washed out of a 3-mm-thick 2D section volume. The CSF signal relative to that of a water phantom decreased gradually as TE increased on single-section 3-mm-thick 2D images. The CSF signal relative to that of the water phantom increased gradually as section thickness increased. No significant differences were noted in intravoxel dephasing and amplitude of the section-selecting gradient. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between CSF and the cerebellar peduncle, and the visibility of the cranial nerves and vertebrobasilar artery were significantly improved on 3D images in 17 subjects. In images from 400 patients, no significant signal loss in the cistern was observed using 3D FSE. CONCLUSION: CSF signal loss in thin-section 2D MR cisternography is mainly attributable to the wash-out phenomenon. 3D acquisition can reduce this phenomenon and provide thinner sections. The scan time for 3D acquisition is not excessive when a long echo train length and half-Fourier imaging are used. MR cisternography should be performed using a 3D acquisition.  (+info)

Medical advice for commercial air travelers. (4/190)

Family physicians are often asked to advise patients who are preparing to travel. The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 has enabled more passengers with medical disabilities to choose air travel. All domestic U.S. airlines are required to carry basic (but often limited) medical equipment, although several physiologic stresses associated with flight may predispose travelers with underlying medical conditions to require emergency care. Recommendations for passengers with respiratory, cardiac or postsurgical conditions must be individualized and should be based on objective testing measures. Specific advice for patients with diabetes, postsurgical or otolaryngologic conditions may make air travel less hazardous for these persons. Air travel should be delayed after scuba diving to minimize the chance of developing decompression sickness. Although no quick cure for jet lag exists, several simple suggestions may make travel across time zones more comfortable.  (+info)

Kimura's disease with bilateral auricular masses. (5/190)

We report an unusual case of Kimura's disease. An 81-year-old Japanese woman was shown to have bilateral auricular masses that had begun to enlarge 6 years before. On CT scans, slightly high-density masses with faint contrast enhancement were seen. The masses were heterogeneous and hypointense on T1-weighted MR images, were slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted MR images, and showed heterogeneous enhancement after the administration of contrast material. Kimura's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of bilateral auricular tumors.  (+info)

Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae. (6/190)

Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection.  (+info)

Topical fluoroquinolones for eye and ear. (7/190)

Topical fluoroquinolones are now available for use in the eye and ear. Their broad spectrum of activity includes the common eye and ear pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the treatment of acute otitis externa, these agents are as effective as previously available otic preparations. For the treatment of otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation, topical fluoroquinolones are effective and safe. These preparations are approved for use in children, and lack of ototoxicity permits prolonged administration when necessary. Topical fluoroquinolones are not appropriate for the treatment of uncomplicated conjunctivitis where narrower spectrum agents suffice; they represent a simplified regimen for the treatment of bacterial keratitis (corneal ulcers). When administered topically, fluoroquinolones are well tolerated and offer convenient dosing schedules. Currently, bacterial resistance appears limited.  (+info)

Letter: Abnormal patency of eustachian tube from oral contraceptives.(8/190)


  • Infectious agents usually get to the inner ear through a perforated tympanum. (vetinfo.com)
  • Long, droopy ears favor humidity and the proliferation of infectious agents in the ear. (vetinfo.com)
  • The various etiologies that result in inflammation of the ear are numerous and may be categorized broadly as infectious, traumatic, and immunologic. (medscape.com)
  • Infectious diseases of the external ear have been covered in other articles and are not discussed here. (medscape.com)
  • The Infectious Disease Institute is a Harvard-wide initiative that operates in conjunction with the NIH-sponsored Harvard-wide Program on Antibiotic Resistance/Boston Area Antibiotic Resistance Network . (masseyeandear.org)
  • Although the exact economic impact of PRRSV has not yet been quantified in Europe, the virus is estimated to cost the American swine industry around $600 million a year - almost a third of its losses related to infectious diseases. (stackyard.com)
  • The purpose of the study was to clarify differences and chronological changes in causative pathogens among infectious ear diseases over the last 20 years, and to identify antibiotic resistance. (springer.com)
  • The Chinese company added that the bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) kits helps to prevent and treat blue ear disease , respiratory pneumonia, pseudorabies, swine fever and foot and mouth disease, which are common diseases affecting pig in the farming industry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Animal disease investigators found a "pseudo-rabies virus" - which is related to the herpes virus, rather than rabies - and also the virus that causes blue ear disease , "which likely killed the pigs", the report said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This decrease can at least be partially attributed to the Blue Ear Disease scare, which caused some Vietnamese consumers to stop buying pork. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the meantime, the development of traditional national compulsory vaccines such as foot and mouth disease vaccine, bird flu vaccine, blue ear disease vaccine, hog cholera vaccine in China are relatively mature as a result of national animal vaccine procurement policies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It got better: 1986 saw Chernobyl in sheep, 1993 saw BSE, 1995-96 blue ear disease in pigs and in 2001 foot and mouth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In May Feedinfo News Service reported that Blue ear disease was spreading in Vietnam's Red River Delta, affecting 12 provinces and cities, according to the Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, the rabies vaccine has become the fifth compulsory variety of immunity after the foot-and-mouth disease, bird flu, blue ear disease and hog cholera. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • April 10 - A pork industry body in New Zealand has voiced its concerns over the Government's newly published provisional health standards for imported pigmeat, declaring the rule change could lead to an infestation of blue ear disease among the country's swine herds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • March 16 - Chinese pork production and consumption are expected to increase by four and five percent respectively in 2009 as the industry continues its recovery from the debilitating blue ear disease epidemics in 2006 and 2007 and the Government maintains subsidies to producers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 MMT -- citing low pork prices as a major reason for this, as the swine sector continues to recover from the damaging blue ear disease outbreaks in 2006 and 2007. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Now after my 4th day on steriods, I have a sharp intermitten pain in my left ear. (healingwell.com)
  • I noticed that I have a crease running fully through my left ear. (medhelp.org)
  • A trial of high-dose prednisone (60 mg/d for 30 days) results in full recovery of the right ear hearing and substantial improvement in the left ear. (jci.org)
  • Share information and don't miss Mass. Eye and Ear updates on research and clinical advancements. (masseyeandear.org)
  • Thyroid eye disease and tumors of the eye socket (orbit) are complicated, and potentially sight threatening, clinical conditions," said Suzanne Freitag, M.D. , Director of the Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Service and Co-director of the Center for Thyroid Eye Disease and Orbital Surgery at Mass. Eye and Ear and Associate Professor of Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School (HMS). (newswise.com)
  • Mass. Eye and Ear is a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital and trains future medical leaders in ophthalmology and otolaryngology, through residency as well as clinical and research fellowships. (newswise.com)
  • The report includes coverage of disease clinical trials by region and top countries, trial phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Today we celebrate the decades of work by many individuals to bring gene therapy from science fiction to clinical reality for patients with inherited retinal disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • The goals of this meeting include the exchange of clinical and scientific information regarding the autoinflammatory diseases. (nih.gov)
  • This disease can occur as a distinct clinical entity or in association with an underlying autoimmune disorder. (uzh.ch)
  • Does the clinical finding of ear wax exclude the finding of otitis media? (bmj.com)
  • Newswise - Boston, Mass. - Massachusetts Eye and Ear recently opened the Center for Thyroid Eye Disease and Orbital Surgery , a multidisciplinary initiative to address complex conditions affecting the eye sockets, including orbital tumors and thyroid eye disease. (newswise.com)
  • Surgeons at Mass. Eye and Ear are pioneering minimally invasive surgical techniques to remove these tumors and speed up recovery time. (newswise.com)
  • This may involve deep ear evaluation using a video otoscope under general anesthesia, advanced imaging using cat scan, bacterial cultures, biopsy or allergy management. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Interactions between Viral and Motor Proteins - a Gene Therapy Vector for Spinal Cord Disease? (char.ru)
  • In the 2016-2017 "Best Hospitals Survey," U.S. News & World Report ranked Mass. Eye and Ear #1 in the nation for ear, nose and throat care and #1 in the Northeast for eye care. (newswise.com)
  • A visual examination will be required using a medical device (otoscope or auriscope) to look into your ears. (benendenhospital.org.uk)
  • They gently place the tip of the otoscope into the ear and move the instrument around. (adam.com)
  • Most patients with chronic otitis media and nearly all patients with cholesteatoma require surgery to cure the disease. (bcm.edu)
  • This length of time is preferred because it gives time after the first surgery for the ear to heal. (bcm.edu)
  • They are caused by wear and tear on the ear, disease, certain drugs, and blows and skull fractures, and usually cause permanent damage that cannot be helped by surgery or medical treatment. (faqs.org)
  • The following topics are discussed: decision-making for surgery on wet or best hearing ears, children, bilateral surgery, working with local anaesthesia, and obtaining adequate consent in this environment. (cambridge.org)
  • This type of ear injection is often called destructive surgery, but it rarely involves an actual operation. (earhelp.co.uk)
  • It is hoped that this will reduce the number of people who eventually need extensive inner ear surgery to try to reduce the frequency of their attacks. (earhelp.co.uk)
  • The surgery aims to insert tiny tubes between the different parts of the inner ear, to allow the pressure to equalise more easily. (earhelp.co.uk)
  • This type of surgery, referred to as non-destructive is more extensive surgery but it does not destroy the hearing apparatus in the ear. (earhelp.co.uk)
  • For people with advanced gum disease, it is imperative that they get a scaling done every three months for the first year after gum surgery . (steadyhealth.com)