An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
"Handwriting is a form of personal script or symbolic representation, primarily used in communication, created by the controlled motion of a writing instrument over a surface, typically performed with the hand and fingers."
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A parasomnia characterized by paroxysmal episodes of choreoathetotic, ballistic, dystonic movements, and semipurposeful activity. The episodes occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep and typically recur several times per night. (Neurology 1992 Jul;42(7 Suppl 6):61-67; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)
A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
One of the centrally acting MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS used for treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and drug-induced extrapyramidal movement disorders and as an antispasmodic.
Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A relatively common disorder characterized by a fairly specific pattern of tremors which are most prominent in the upper extremities and neck, inducing titubations of the head. The tremor is usually mild, but when severe may be disabling. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance may occur in some families (i.e., familial tremor). (Mov Disord 1988;13(1):5-10)
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.

DYT1 mutation in French families with idiopathic torsion dystonia. (1/432)

A GAG deletion at position 946 in DYT1, one of the genes responsible for autosomal dominant idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD), has recently been identified. We tested 24 families and six isolated cases with ITD and found 14 individuals from six French families who carried this mutation, indicating that 20% of the affected families carried the DYT1 mutation. Age at onset was always before 20 years (mean, 9+/-4 years). Interestingly, the site of onset was the upper limb in all but one patient. Dystonia was generalized in seven patients and remained focal or segmental in three patients. The absence of common haplotypes among DYT1 families suggests that at least six independent founder mutations have occurred. In addition, one Ashkenazi Jewish family carried the common haplotype described previously in Ashkenazi Jewish patients, but it was absent in the other family. Moreover, the dystonia remained focal in the latter family when compared with the usual generalized phenotype in patients with the common Ashkenazi Jewish haplotype. This indicates that there are at least two founder mutations in this population.  (+info)

Human deafness dystonia syndrome is a mitochondrial disease. (2/432)

The human deafness dystonia syndrome results from the mutation of a protein (DDP) of unknown function. We show now that DDP is a mitochondrial protein and similar to five small proteins (Tim8p, Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim12p, and Tim13p) of the yeast mitochondrial intermembrane space. Tim9p, Tim10p, and Tim12p mediate the import of metabolite transporters from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial inner membrane and interact structurally and functionally with Tim8p and Tim13p. DDP is most similar to Tim8p. Tim8p exists as a soluble 70-kDa complex with Tim13p and Tim9p, and deletion of Tim8p is synthetically lethal with a conditional mutation in Tim10p. The deafness dystonia syndrome thus is a novel type of mitochondrial disease that probably is caused by a defective mitochondrial protein-import system.  (+info)

Association of a missense change in the D2 dopamine receptor with myoclonus dystonia. (3/432)

Hereditary autosomal dominant myoclonus dystonia (MD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary lightning jerks and dystonic movements and postures alleviated by alcohol. Although various large families with MD have been described, no positive linkage has been found to a chromosomal location. We report a family with eight members with MD. Linkage analysis identified a 23-centimorgan region on chromosome 11q23 that cosegregates with the disease state (maximum multipoint logarithm of odds score = 2.96 at D11S897). This region contains an excellent candidate gene for involvement in the etiology of MD, the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene. Neurotransmission mediated by DRD2 is known to have a key role in the control of movement and also has been implicated in reward and reinforcement mechanisms and psychiatric disorders. Sequencing of the coding region of DRD2 indicated that all affected and obligate carriers were heterozygous for a Val154Ile change in exon 3 of the protein, which is highly conserved across species. This change was found neither in other unaffected members of the pedigree nor in 250 control chromosomes. Our finding provides evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in a disorder of the central nervous system and should lead to further insight into the function of the dopaminergic system in dystonia and other movement and mood disorders.  (+info)

From off-period dystonia to peak-dose chorea. The clinical spectrum of varying subthalamic nucleus activity. (4/432)

The effect of chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on levodopa-induced dyskinaesias was investigated in eight patients with fluctuating Parkinson's disease complicated by functionally disabling off-period dystonia. All of the patients also had severe diphasic and peak-dose chorea, so that it was possible to study the effect of high-frequency stimulation on the different types of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. Off-period fixed dystonia was reduced by 90% and off-period pain by 66%. After acute levodopa challenge, high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced diphasic mobile dystonia by 50% and peak-dose choreic dyskinaesias by 30%. The effect of bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the STN on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score had the same magnitude as the preoperative effect of levodopa. This allowed the levodopa dose to be reduced by 47%. The combination of reduced medication and continuous high-frequency stimulation of the STN reduced the duration of on-period diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias by 52% and the intensity by 68%. Acute high-frequency stimulation of the STN mimics an acute levodopa challenge, concerning both parkinsonism and dyskinaesias, and suppresses off-period dystonia. Increasing the voltage can induce repetitive dystonic dyskinaesias, mimicking diphasic levodopa-induced dyskinaesias. A further increase in voltage leads to a shift from a diphasic-pattern dystonia to a peak-dose pattern choreodystonia. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN also mimics the benefit of levodopa on parkinsonism and improves all kinds of levodopa-induced dyskinaesias to varying degrees. Off-period dystonia, associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the STN is directly affected by stimulation and disappears immediately. The effect of chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN on diphasic and peak-dose dyskinaesias is more complex and is related directly to the functional inhibition of the STN and indirectly to the replacement of the pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation by continuous functional inhibition of the STN. Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the STN allows a very gradual increase in stimulation parameters with increasing beneficial effect on parkinsonism while reducing the threshold for the elicitation of stimulation-induced dyskinaesias. In parallel with improvement of parkinsonism, the levodopa dose can be gradually decreased. As diphasic dystonic dyskinaesias are improved to a greater degree than peak-dose dyskinaesias, both direct and indirect mechanisms may be involved. Peak-dose choreatic dyskinaesias, associated with little evidence of parkinsonism and thus with low neuronal activity in the STN, are improved, mostly indirectly. Fixed off-period dystonia, mobile diphasic dystonia and peak-dose choreodystonia seem to represent a continuous clinical spectrum reflecting a continuous spectrum of underlying activity patterns of STN neurons.  (+info)

Generalised muscular weakness after botulinum toxin injections for dystonia: a report of three cases. (5/432)

Three patients are reported on who developed transient generalised weakness after receiving therapeutic doses of botulinum toxin for cervical dystonia (one case) and symptomatic hemidystonia (two cases) respectively. Clinical and electrophysiological findings were in keeping with mild botulism. All patients had received previous botulinum toxin injections without side effects and one patient continued injections without recurrence of generalised weakness. The cause is most likely presynaptic inhibition due to systemic spread of the toxin. Patients with symptomatic dystonia may be more likely to have this side effect and botulinum toxin injections in these patients should be carried out cautiously.  (+info)

Clinical genetics of familial progressive supranuclear palsy. (6/432)

Recent studies have shown that progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) could be inherited, but the pattern of inheritance and the spectrum of the clinical findings in relatives are unknown. We here report 12 pedigrees, confirmed by pathology in four probands, with familial PSP. Pathological diagnosis was confirmed according to recently reported internationally agreed criteria. The spectrum of the clinical phenotypes in these families was variable including 34 typical cases of PSP (12 probands plus 22 secondary cases), three patients with postural tremor, three with dementia, one with parkinsonism, two with tremor, dystonia, gaze palsy and tics, and one with gait disturbance. The presence of affected members in at least two generations in eight of the families and the absence of consanguinity suggests autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance. We conclude that hereditary PSP is more frequent than previously thought and that the scarcity of familial cases may be related to a lack of recognition of the variable phenotypic expression of the disease.  (+info)

Abnormal cortical processing of voluntary muscle relaxation in patients with focal hand dystonia studied by movement-related potentials. (7/432)

In order to clarify the abnormality in cortical motor preparation for voluntary muscle relaxation of the hand in patients with focal hand dystonia, Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) preceding voluntary muscle contraction and relaxation were recorded in eight patients (three with simple writer's cramp and five with dystonic writer's cramp), and were compared with those from 10 normal subjects. Voluntary muscle relaxation: after keeping the right wrist in an extended position for > 5 s, the subject let the hand drop by voluntarily terminating muscle contraction of the wrist extensor without any associated muscle contraction. Voluntary muscle contraction: the right wrist was flexed by voluntarily contracting the wrist flexor muscle. Scalp EEGs were recorded from 11 electrodes placed over the frontal, central and parietal areas. In the control group, the BP measured at the movement onset was maximal at the left central area (C1), and distributed predominantly over the left hemisphere equally in both the contraction and relaxation tasks. In the focal hand dystonia group, BP was maximal at C1 in the contraction task, whereas, in the relaxation task, it was maximal at the midline central area (Cz) and symmetrically distributed. At the left central area, the BP amplitude in the focal hand dystonia group was diminished significantly in the relaxation task compared with the contraction task (P < 0.05). The present results demonstrate for the first time that the cortical preparatory process for voluntary muscle relaxation, or motor inhibition, is abnormal in focal hand dystonia.  (+info)

Risk factors for spread of primary adult onset blepharospasm: a multicentre investigation of the Italian movement disorders study group. (8/432)

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about factors influencing the spread of blepharospasm to other body parts. An investigation was carried out to deterrmine whether demographic features (sex, age at blepharospasm onset), putative risk, or protective factors for blepharospasm (family history of dystonia or tremor, previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, ocular diseases, and cigarette smoking), age related diseases (diabetes, hypertension), edentulousness, and neck or trunk trauma preceding the onset of blepharospasm could distinguish patients with blepharospasm who had spread of dystonia from those who did not. METHODS: 159 outpatients presenting initially with blepharospasm were selected in 16 Italian Institutions. There were 104 patients with focal blepharospasm (mean duration of disease 5.3 (SD 1.9) years) and 55 patients in whom segmental or multifocal dystonia developed (mainly in the cranial cervical area) 1.5 (1.2) years after the onset of blepharospasm. Information was obtained from a standardised questionnaire administered by medical interviewers. A Cox regression model was used to examine the relation between the investigated variables and spread. RESULTS: Previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, age at the onset of blepharospasm, and female sex were independently associated with an increased risk of spread. A significant association was not found between spread of dystonia and previous ocular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, edentulousness, cigarette smoking, and family history of dystonia or tremor. An unsatisfactory study power negatively influenced the validity and accuracy of the negative findings relative to diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study confirm that patients presenting initially with blepharospasm are most likely to experience some spread of dystonia within a few years of the onset of blepharospasm and suggest that head or face trauma with loss of consciousness preceding the onset, age at onset, and female sex may be relevant to spread. The suggested association between edentulousness and cranial cervical dystonia may be apparent because of the confounding effect of both age at onset and head or face trauma with loss of consciousness. The lack of influence of family history of dystonia on spread is consistent with previous findings indicating that the inheritance pattern is the same for focal and segmental blepharospasm.  (+info)

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, leading to repetitive or twisting movements. These movements can be painful and may affect one part of the body (focal dystonia) or multiple parts (generalized dystonia). The exact cause of dystonia varies, with some cases being inherited and others resulting from damage to the brain. Treatment options include medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery.

Dystonic disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that result in involuntary, repetitive, and often twisting movements and abnormal postures. These movements can affect any part of the body, including the face, neck, limbs, and trunk. Dystonic disorders can be primary, meaning they are caused by genetic mutations or idiopathic causes, or secondary, resulting from brain injury, infection, or other underlying medical conditions.

The most common form of dystonia is cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis), which affects the muscles of the neck and results in abnormal head positioning. Other forms of dystonia include blepharospasm (involuntary eyelid spasms), oromandibular dystonia (affecting the muscles of the jaw, face, and tongue), and generalized dystonia (affecting multiple parts of the body).

Dystonic disorders can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing pain, discomfort, and social isolation. Treatment options include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery in severe cases.

'Dystonia Musculorum Deformans' is a medical term that refers to a rare inherited neurological disorder, which is now more commonly known as "Generalized Dystonia." This condition is characterized by sustained muscle contractions, leading to twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.

The onset of symptoms typically occurs during childhood or adolescence, and they can progress over time, affecting various parts of the body. The exact cause of Generalized Dystonia is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve genetic mutations that affect the functioning of certain proteins in the brain. Treatment options may include medications, botulinum toxin injections, or even deep brain stimulation surgery in severe cases.

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a condition where the neck muscles contract and cause the head to turn to one side. There are different types of torticollis including congenital (present at birth), acquired (develops after birth), and spasmodic (neurological).

Congenital torticollis can be caused by a tight or shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck, which can occur due to positioning in the womb or abnormal blood vessels in the muscle. Acquired torticollis can result from injury, infection, or tumors in the neck. Spasmodic torticollis is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary contractions of the neck muscles and can be caused by a variety of factors including genetics, environmental toxins, or head trauma.

Symptoms of torticollis may include difficulty turning the head, tilting the chin upwards or downwards, pain or discomfort in the neck, and a limited range of motion. Treatment for torticollis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or surgery.

Anti-dyskinetic agents are a class of medications that are used to treat or manage dyskinesias, which are involuntary movements or abnormal muscle contractions. These medications work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in movement control.

Dyskinetic symptoms can occur as a side effect of long-term use of levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anti-dyskinetic agents such as amantadine, anticholinergics, and dopamine agonists may be used to manage these symptoms.

Amantadine works by increasing the release of dopamine and blocking its reuptake, which can help reduce dyskinesias. Anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl and benztropine work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to dyskinesias. Dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinirole mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can help reduce dyskinesias by reducing the dose of levodopa required for symptom control.

It is important to note that anti-dyskinetic agents may have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

Blepharospasm is a medical condition characterized by involuntary spasms and contractions of the muscles around the eyelids. These spasms can cause frequent blinkings, eye closure, and even difficulty in keeping the eyes open. In some cases, the spasms may be severe enough to interfere with vision, daily activities, and quality of life.

The exact cause of blepharospasm is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, a part of the brain that controls movement. It can occur as an isolated condition (known as essential blepharospasm) or as a symptom of other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.

Treatment options for blepharospasm may include medication, botulinum toxin injections, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of the spasms, improve symptoms, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Meige Syndrome, also known as Brueghel's syndrome or Hemifacial spasm-blepharospasm syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the simultaneous contraction of muscles in the face, neck, and sometimes other parts of the body. It is a form of dystonia, which is a movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures.

Meige Syndrome is typically divided into two types:

1. Ocular Meige Syndrome: This type primarily affects the muscles around the eyes, causing involuntary spasms, blinks, and eyelid closure.
2. Cranio-cervical Dystonia or Brueghel's syndrome: This type involves both the cranial (head) and cervical (neck) regions, leading to abnormal head postures, neck pain, and involuntary movements of the facial muscles.

The exact cause of Meige Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to abnormal functioning in the basal ganglia, a part of the brain responsible for controlling movement. In some cases, it may be associated with structural lesions or vascular abnormalities in the brain.

Treatment options for Meige Syndrome include medications such as botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, which help to relax the overactive muscles and reduce spasms. In severe cases, surgical interventions may be considered.

The Globus Pallidus is a structure in the brain that is part of the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei associated with movement control and other functions. It has two main subdivisions: the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments. The GPe receives input from the striatum and sends inhibitory projections to the subthalamic nucleus, while the GPi sends inhibitory projections to the thalamus, which in turn projects to the cerebral cortex. These connections allow for the regulation of motor activity, with abnormal functioning of the Globus Pallidus being implicated in various movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

A muscle cramp is an involuntary and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. It can involve partial or complete muscle groups, often occurring in the legs and feet (hamstrings, quadriceps, calves, and foot intrinsic muscles) during or after exercise, at night, or while resting. The exact cause of muscle cramps is unclear, but they can be associated with muscle fatigue, heavy exercising, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, or underlying medical conditions (e.g., nerve compression or disorders, hormonal imbalances). The primary symptom is a sudden, sharp pain in the affected muscle, which may be visibly tightened and hard to touch. Most muscle cramps resolve on their own within a few minutes, but gentle stretching, massage, or applying heat/cold can help alleviate discomfort.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure that involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator, which sends electrical impulses to specific targets in the brain. The impulses help to regulate abnormal brain activity, and can be used to treat a variety of neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

During the procedure, electrodes are implanted into the brain and connected to the neurostimulator, which is typically implanted in the chest. The neurostimulator can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at varying frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths, depending on the specific needs of the patient.

DBS is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with neurological conditions, although it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and hardware complications. It is typically reserved for patients who have not responded well to other forms of treatment, or who experience significant side effects from medication.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "handwriting" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Handwriting refers to the personal style or manner in which a person writes by hand. It can vary from person to person and can be influenced by factors such as an individual's fine motor skills, cultural background, and personal preferences.

However, in a broader context, there are certain medical conditions that can affect handwriting, such as neurological disorders (like stroke, Parkinson's disease, or cerebral palsy) or orthopedic issues (like arthritis or fractures). In these cases, healthcare professionals might assess a person's handwriting as part of the diagnostic process or to monitor the progression or treatment response of a condition. But again, handwriting itself is not a medical term with a specific definition.

Neuromuscular agents are drugs or substances that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These agents can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals across the neuromuscular junction, leading to a variety of effects on muscle tone and activity.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a type of neuromuscular agent that is commonly used in anesthesia and critical care settings to induce paralysis during intubation or mechanical ventilation. NMBAs can be classified into two main categories: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing NMBAs, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle contraction followed by paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs, such as rocuronium and vecuronium, block the activation of these receptors, preventing muscle contraction and leading to paralysis.

Other types of neuromuscular agents include cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and can be used to reverse the effects of NMBAs, and botulinum toxin, which is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and is used in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

Molecular chaperones are a group of proteins that assist in the proper folding and assembly of other protein molecules, helping them achieve their native conformation. They play a crucial role in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, which can lead to the formation of toxic species associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones are also involved in protein transport across membranes, degradation of misfolded proteins, and protection of cells under stress conditions. Their function is generally non-catalytic and ATP-dependent, and they often interact with their client proteins in a transient manner.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

Nocturnal Paroxysmal Dystonia is actually an outdated term that was previously used to describe a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of dystonia (sustained muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures) occurring predominantly during sleep. These episodes are often associated with other symptoms such as autonomic dysfunction (e.g., sweating, tachycardia), vegetative symptoms (e.g., flushing, pallor), and sometimes pain.

Currently, this disorder is more commonly referred to as "Paroxysmal Dyskinesias" or "Nocturnal Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia" if the episodes are triggered by sudden movements or "Nocturnal Paroxysmal Non-Kinesigenic Dyskinesia" if they occur spontaneously, without any apparent trigger. These disorders can be caused by various genetic mutations and may respond to different treatment approaches.

The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is a small, compact collection of neurons located in the ventral region of the diencephalon, specifically within the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus. It is present in various mammals, including humans. The EP nucleus receives inputs from the basal ganglia and projects to the brainstem and other thalamic nuclei.

In rodents, the entopeduncular nucleus is also known as the globus pallidus internus (GPi). However, in primates, including humans, the GPi is a separate structure located near the EP nucleus. Both structures are part of the basal ganglia circuitry and play essential roles in motor control, procedural learning, and habit formation.

The entopeduncular nucleus has been implicated in several neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the EP nucleus or GPi is an effective treatment for reducing motor symptoms associated with these disorders.

Levodopa, also known as L-dopa, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to restore the balance between dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Levodopa is often combined with carbidopa (a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor) to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, reducing side effects like nausea and vomiting.

GTP Cyclohydrolase is a crucial enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of neurotransmitters and other biogenic amines. It catalyzes the conversion of GTP (guanosine triphosphate) to dihydroneopterin triphosphate, which is a key intermediate in the production of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Tetrahydrobiopterin serves as a cofactor for various enzymes involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline.

There are two main isoforms of GTP Cyclohydrolase: GTPCH1 (GTP Cyclohydrolase 1) and GTPCH2 (GTP Cyclohydrolase 2). GTPCH1 is primarily expressed in the brain, kidneys, and lungs, while GTPCH2 is mainly found in the liver. Defects or mutations in the GTPCH1 gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as Dopa-Responsive Dystonia (DRD), which is characterized by symptoms such as muscle stiffness, involuntary movements, and Parkinsonism.

Basal ganglia diseases are a group of neurological disorders that affect the function of the basal ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located deep within the brain. The basal ganglia play a crucial role in controlling movement and coordination. When they are damaged or degenerate, it can result in various motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and difficulty with balance and walking.

Some examples of basal ganglia diseases include:

1. Parkinson's disease - a progressive disorder that affects movement due to the death of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia.
2. Huntington's disease - an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and cognitive decline.
3. Dystonia - a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
4. Wilson's disease - a rare genetic disorder that causes excessive copper accumulation in the liver and brain, leading to neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
5. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) - a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and balance, as well as speech and swallowing.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) - a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia, leading to stiffness, rigidity, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Treatment for basal ganglia diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis and symptoms but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected nuclei, or clusters of neurons, located in the base of the brain. They play a crucial role in regulating motor function, cognition, and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia include the striatum (made up of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum), globus pallidus (divided into external and internal segments), subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra (with its pars compacta and pars reticulata).

The basal ganglia receive input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. They process this information and send output back to the thalamus and cortex, helping to modulate and coordinate movement. The basal ganglia also contribute to higher cognitive functions such as learning, decision-making, and habit formation. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia.

Trihexyphenidyl is an anticholinergic medication, which is primarily used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as rigidity, tremors, muscle spasms, and poor muscle control. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in the regulation of motor function. By blocking its action, trihexyphenidyl helps to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

In addition to its use in Parkinson's disease, trihexyphenidyl may also be used to treat other conditions, such as drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which are movement disorders that can occur as a side effect of certain medications, including antipsychotic drugs.

It is important to note that trihexyphenidyl can have significant side effects, particularly at higher doses, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, and difficulty urinating. It may also cause confusion, disorientation, and memory problems, especially in older adults or people with cognitive impairments. As with any medication, trihexyphenidyl should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects.

Chorea is a medical term that describes an involuntary movement disorder characterized by brief, irregular, and abrupt jerky movements. These movements often occur randomly and can affect any part of the body. Chorea can also cause difficulty with coordination and balance, and can sometimes be accompanied by muscle weakness or rigidity.

The term "chorea" comes from the Greek word "χορεία" (khoréia), which means "dance," reflecting the graceful, dance-like movements that are characteristic of this condition. Chorea can occur as a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease, Sydenham's chorea, and cerebral palsy, as well as metabolic disorders, infections, and certain medications.

Treatment for chorea depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications to help control the involuntary movements, physical therapy to improve coordination and balance, and lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of injury from falls or other accidents. In some cases, surgery may be recommended as a last resort for severe or refractory chorea.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

Drug-induced dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movements or abnormal posturing of the body. It is a side effect that can occur from the long-term use or high doses of certain medications, particularly those used to treat Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia can vary in severity and may include rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, face, or tongue; twisting or writhing movements; and abnormal posturing of the arms, legs, or trunk. These symptoms can be distressing and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

The exact mechanism by which certain medications cause dyskinesia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating movement. In some cases, adjusting the dose or switching to a different medication may help alleviate the symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia. However, in severe cases, additional treatments such as deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injections may be necessary.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Essential tremor is a type of involuntary tremor, or shaking, that primarily affects the hands and arms. It can also affect the head, vocal cords, and other parts of the body. Essential tremor is often confused with Parkinson's disease, as they share some similar symptoms, but essential tremor is generally not associated with other neurological conditions.

The tremors associated with essential tremor typically occur when a person is performing voluntary movements, such as writing, eating, or using tools. The shaking may also occur at rest, but this is less common. Essential tremor usually worsens with stress, fatigue, and age.

While the exact cause of essential tremor is not known, it appears to have a genetic component, as it tends to run in families. In some cases, essential tremor may be related to alcohol use or other factors. There is no cure for essential tremor, but medications and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Sensation disorders are conditions that affect the nervous system's ability to receive and interpret sensory information from the environment. These disorders can affect any of the five senses, including sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. They can result in symptoms such as numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in various parts of the body.

Some common types of sensation disorders include:

1. Neuropathy: A disorder that affects the nerves, often causing numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet.
2. Central pain syndrome: A condition that results from damage to the brain or spinal cord, leading to chronic pain.
3. Tinnitus: A ringing or buzzing sound in the ears that can be a symptom of an underlying hearing disorder.
4. Ageusia: The loss of taste sensation, often caused by damage to the tongue or nerves that transmit taste information to the brain.
5. Anosmia: The loss of smell sensation, which can result from a variety of causes including injury, infection, or neurological disorders.

Sensation disorders can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or other interventions aimed at addressing the underlying cause of the disorder.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Dyskinesias are a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, erratic, and often repetitive muscle movements. These movements can affect any part of the body and can include twisting, writhing, or jerking motions, as well as slow, writhing contortions. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications (such as those used to treat Parkinson's disease), brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to toxins. They can also be a side effect of some medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Dyskinesias can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, making it difficult for them to perform routine tasks and affecting their overall quality of life. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, surgery, or physical therapy. In some cases, dyskinesias may be managed with the use of assistive devices or by modifying the person's environment to make it easier for them to move around.

Parkinsonian disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. These symptoms are caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

The most common Parkinsonian disorder is Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. However, there are also several other secondary Parkinsonian disorders, including:

1. Drug-induced parkinsonism: This is caused by the use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide.
2. Vascular parkinsonism: This is caused by small vessel disease in the brain, which can lead to similar symptoms as PD.
3. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): This is a type of dementia that shares some features with PD, such as the presence of alpha-synuclein protein clumps called Lewy bodies.
4. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): This is a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and eye movements.
5. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): This is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects multiple systems in the body, including the autonomic nervous system, motor system, and cerebellum.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD): This is a rare neurological disorder that affects both movement and cognition.

It's important to note that while these disorders share some symptoms with PD, they have different underlying causes and may require different treatments.

MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.

MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gross Domestic Product" (GDP) is an economic term, not a medical one. GDP is the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. It serves as a comprehensive measure of a nation’s overall economic activity.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

... hand dystonia, blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, dysphonia and musicians' dystonia. Some focal dystonias have been proven ... There are multiple types of dystonia, and many diseases and conditions may cause dystonia. Dystonia is classified by: Clinical ... Primary dystonia is suspected when the dystonia is the only sign and there is no identifiable cause or structural abnormality ... Secondary dystonia refers to dystonia brought on by some identified cause, such as head injury[citation needed], drug side ...
... is a form of focal dystonia affecting the mouth, jaw and tongue, and in this disease it is hard to speak ... making it possible for patients to recover substantial function that was lost due to cervical dystonia, oromandibular dystonia ... An essay on the neurodynamics of dystonia. Galene editions 2016 Farias J. Intertwined. How to induce neuroplasticity. A new ... Michelotti A, Silva R, Paduano S, Cimino R, Farella M (December 2009). "Oromandibular dystonia and hormonal factors: twelve ...
Dystonia. The Canadian Movement Disorder group. http://cmdg.org/Dystonia/dystonia.htm Dystonia. Rewiring the brain through ... For some dystonias, Deep brain stimulation may be considered where BoNT treatment fails. If the dystonia is cause by an ... Focal dystonia, also called focal task-specific dystonia, is a neurological condition that affects a muscle or group of muscles ... These focal dystonias can be exclusive to specific tasks, like writing or playing an instrument. Focal dystonia will typically ...
A combination of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia. Early-onset torsion dystonia: The most severe type of dystonia, it ... Oromandibular dystonia: A dystonia of the jaw, lips, and/or the tongue. It can make eating and swallowing very complicated due ... Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis): A type of dystonia that affects the head, neck and spine. It can create problems by ... Spasmodic dysphonia: A dystonia of the vocal cords. The complications surrounding this form of dystonia are speech related and ...
Dystonia can be either primary or secondary with the latter being more common. Primary dystonia or "pure" dystonia is only ... Although myoclonus and dystonia are present in myoclonus dystonia patients, optimum treatment for myoclonus dystonia differs ... Myoclonus dystonia is characterized by two primary features: myoclonus and dystonia. For the majority of individuals with ... Myoclonic dystonia or Myoclonus dystonia syndrome is a rare movement disorder that induces spontaneous muscle contraction ...
... is a disorder in which the muscles involuntarily contract, which in turn cause involuntary movements ... It is a type of dystonia. This disorder was first discovered by Marla Gearing et al., when she described pair of male twins ... "OMIM Entry - # 607371 - DYSTONIA, JUVENILE-ONSET; DJO". www.omim.org. Retrieved 2022-05-15. Gearing, Marla; Juncos, Jorge L.; ... "Dystonia - Classifications, Symptoms and Treatment". www.aans.org. Retrieved 2022-05-15. Terao, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Chiba, A.; ...
... focal dystonias, dystonia musculorum deformans and dyspeptic dystonia with hiatal hernia. Diagnosis - main typically referral ... Progressive dystonia results in clubfoot and tiptoe walking. The symptoms can spread to all four limbs around age 18, after ... Dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD) also known as Segawa syndrome (SS), is a genetic movement disorder which usually manifests ... An MRI scan of the brain can be used to look for conditions that can mimic dopamine-responsive dystonia (for example, metal ...
... or PED is a rare neurological disorder characterized by sudden, transient, involuntary ... Kamm C, Mayer P, Sharma M, Niemann G, Gasser T (April 2007). "New family with paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia and epilepsy ... Tan NC, Tan AK, Sitoh YY, Loh KC, Leow MK, Tjia HT (November 2002). "Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia associated with ... May 2000). "A new family with paroxysmal exercise induced dystonia and migraine: a clinical and genetic study". J. Neurol. ...
... (XDP), also known as Lubag Syndrome or X-linked Dystonia of Panay, is a rare x-linked ... Lee, L V; Munoz, E L; Tan, K T; Reyes, M T (December 2001). "Sex linked recessive dystonia parkinsonism of Panay, Philippines ( ... Botulinum toxin injections have been used to relieve focal dystonia. Deep brain stimulation has shown promise in the few cases ... Although all early reported cases occurred in the Philippines, X-linked dystonia parkinsonism has been diagnosed in Japan, US, ...
... dystonia; and more rarely hemiballismus. The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: ... basal ganglia damage during second and third trimester of pregnancy Chorea Dystonia Epilepsy Fahr's disease Foreign accent ...
Tremor (shaking) can also be a characteristic of some types of dystonia. Dystonia is thought to be a neurological condition ( ... Dartitis is believed to be a form of dystonia, which is described by the UK NHS as: A medical term for a range of movement ... "Dystonia". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 6 April 2018. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Dystonia. Rewiring the brain through movement and dance , Federico Bitti , TEDxNapoli. TEDx Talks. 13 July 2015. Archived from ... Choosing music over meds, one man's quest to retrain his brain to overcome dystonia. The Globe and Mail. 8 March 2015. Archived ... Simultaneous dry eye and dystonias such as Meige's syndrome have been observed. Blepharospasms can be caused by concussions in ... An essay on the neurodynamics of dystonia. Galene editions, 2016[page needed][ISBN missing] Farias J. Intertwined. How to ...
SD is formally classified as a movement disorder; it is a type of focal dystonia known as laryngeal dystonia. Diagnosis of ... SD is a neurological disorder rather than a disorder of the larynx, and as in other forms of dystonia, interventions at the end ... The pathophysiology underlying dystonia is becoming better understood as a result of discoveries about genetically based forms ... de Gusmão CM, Fuchs T, Moses A, Multhaupt-Buell T, Song PC, Ozelius LJ, Franco RA, Sharma N (October 2016). "Dystonia-Causing ...
This uORF and the +142C>T SNP are associated with a familial form of DOPA Responsive Dystonia, which is a neurological movement ... "Dystonia Archives". MDS Abstracts. Retrieved June 5, 2020. "Chicago October Tuesday. Scientif ic Session Listings - PDF Free ... Translational effects and coding potential of an upstream open reading frame associated with DOPA Responsive Dystonia. Biochim ... Jones, Lataisia C. (Cherie') (2017). "Elucidating the Molecular Etiology of Levodopa Responsive Dystonia". {{cite journal}}: ...
The abnormal movements associated with choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias are distinct from the tics of Tourette's ... Other conditions that may manifest tics include Sydenham's chorea; idiopathic dystonia; and genetic conditions such as ...
Cervical dystonia. Insufficient data was available to assess the effectiveness of oral cannabis extract of THC in treating ... cervical dystonia. Preliminary research indicates that prolonged exposure to high doses of THC may interfere with chromosomal ...
Dystonias, paroxysmal dyskinesias, chorea, other genetic conditions, and secondary causes of tics should be ruled out in the ... Tics must be distinguished from movements of disorders such as chorea, dystonia and myoclonus; the compulsions of obsessive- ... idiopathic dystonia; and genetic conditions such as Huntington's disease, neuroacanthocytosis, pantothenate kinase-associated ...
Chorea (disease) Myoclonus Dystonia Torsion dystonia Idiopathic dystonia Chromosomal abnormalities Citrullinemia Down syndrome ... idiopathic dystonia; and genetic conditions such as Huntington's disease, neuroacanthocytosis, pantothenate kinase-associated ...
He is also the leader of the Knight-ADRC Genetics Core, the DIAN Genetics Core, the Dystonia Coalition Biobank, and co-leader ... ". "Dystonia Coalition". "ABC-DS". "MGI". "Cruchaga awarded Zenith Fellowship Award". 6 October 2022. "Cruchaga named Morriss ...
Very rarely dystonia can occur. Diazepam may impair the ability to drive vehicles or operate machinery. The impairment is ... Mezaki T, Hayashi A, Nakase H, Hasegawa K (September 2005). "[Therapy of dystonia in Japan]". Rinsho Shinkeigaku = Clinical ... Pérez Trullen JM, Modrego Pardo PJ, Vázquez André M, López Lozano JJ (1992). "Bromazepam-induced dystonia". Biomedicine & ... Kachi T (December 2001). "[Medical treatment of dystonia]". Rinsho Shinkeigaku = Clinical Neurology (in Japanese). 41 (12): ...
GCH1 Dystonia, juvenile-onset; 607371; ACTB Dystonia, myoclonic; 159900; DRD2 Dystonia-1, torsion; 128100; DYT1 Dystonia-11, ... HSPG2 Dystonia 16; 612067; PRKRA Dystonia 6, torsion; 602629; THAP1 Dystonia, dopa-responsive, due to sepiapterin reductase ... myoclonic; 159900; SGCE Dystonia-12; 128235; ATP1A3 Dystonia-parkinsonism, adult-onset; 612953; PLA2G6 Dystonia-Parkinsonism, X ... LRRK2 Parkinsonism-dystonia, infantile; 613135; SLC6A3 Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder; 167400; SCN9A Paroxysmal nocturnal ...
High muscle tone can either be due to spasticity or dystonia. Babies born with severe cerebral palsy often have irregular ... Dyskinetic cerebral palsy can be divided into two different groups; choreoathetosis and dystonia. Choreo-athetotic CP is ...
"Dealing with Dystonia". The Strad. Retrieved 2021-11-08. "Maison Henri Dutilleux - Rencontres et création musicale". Maison ... "that was published by String Magazine.[full citation needed] In 2021, he wrote an article "Dealing with Dystonia" that was ...
Pakkenberg H, Pedersen B (1985). "Medical treatment of dystonia". Dyskinesia. Psychopharmacology Supplementum. Vol. 2. pp. 111- ... and dystonia, it was never marketed. This was perhaps due to its capacity for producing potentially life-threatening ...
Dystonia is extremely rare. Due to the very low numbers of cases, dystonia is poorly understood. There were only five cases ... The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation stated that it is unlikely that the symptoms in this case were actually dystonia and ... "Dystonia & Flu Vaccine in the Media". Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. 2009. Archived from the original on 19 November ... According to the CDC, there is no evidence either for or against dystonia being caused by the vaccinations. ...
323-. ISBN 978-1-4471-6503-3. "Dipraglurant-ER for dystonia". Addex Therapeutics. Dipraglurant-IR for Parkinson's disease ... levodopa-induced dyskinesia - Addex Therapeutics Dipraglurant-ER for dystonia - Addex Therapeutics v t e (Articles with short ... is also investigating an extended-release formulation of dipraglurant for the treatment of non-parkinsonian dystonia. ...
Houstoun started suffering from focal hand dystonia, which could easily have ended his career. The condition was treated with ... Houstoun, Michael (20 November 2005). "Focal Dystonia - My History". Music and Health. Retrieved 29 October 2013. Hannigan, ... he overcame focal hand dystonia. Houstoun was born in Timaru in 1952. His parents were Archie and Ngaire Houstoun. He received ...
A sufferer of dystonia, Thompson became patron of the Dystonia Society in 2006. In London between 1975 and 1985, mainly for the ... "Derek Thompson Speaks about his dystonia" (PDF). www.dystonia.org.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2012. ...
Rissardo, JamirPitton; Caprara, AnaL Fornari (2020). "Dystonia and adrenoleukodystrophy: an overview". Annals of Movement ...
Dystonia is aggravated by voluntary movements and postures, or with stress, emotion or pain. A video of dystonia in a patient ... The Barry-Albright Dystonia Rating Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMS) and the Dyskinesia ... Dystonia predominates in most patients. Dystonia (DYS) is defined by twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures due ... As previously mentioned, dystonia predominates in most patients, partly because dystonia is often more noticeable and severe ...
... hand dystonia, blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, dysphonia and musicians dystonia. Some focal dystonias have been proven ... There are multiple types of dystonia, and many diseases and conditions may cause dystonia. Dystonia is classified by: Clinical ... Primary dystonia is suspected when the dystonia is the only sign and there is no identifiable cause or structural abnormality ... Secondary dystonia refers to dystonia brought on by some identified cause, such as head injury[citation needed], drug side ...
Dystonia is a movement disorder. It causes involuntary, often painful, contractions of your muscles. Learn about causes, ... Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health (Dystonia Medical Research Foundation) * Dystonia: Non-Drug Therapies (Dystonia Medical ... Dystonia 6: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Early-onset primary dystonia: MedlinePlus Genetics (National ... Employees with Dystonia (Office of Disability Employment Policy) * Traumatic Injury (Dystonia Medical Research Foundation) - ...
... formulation of a botulinum neurotoxin may have a longer duration of beneficial effect for patients with cervical dystonia, new ... The ASPEN-1 trial evaluated 301 patients with moderate to severe cervical dystonia for up to 36 weeks and found that those ... "The one thing we worry about most in people with cervical dystonia are swallowing and choking - dysphagia - and the numbers are ... "Botulinum neurotoxin is clearly the treatment of choice for cervical dystonia," Jankovic said in an interview. "While the ...
... mandibular dystonia or oromandibular dystonia), the tongue (lingual dystonia), the vocal cords (spasmodic dystonia), the larynx ... dystonia-plus, heterodegenerative diseases with dystonia, and secondary dystonia. Primary dystonia is used for familial and ... Tardive dystonia is a form of drug-induced secondary dystonia. Persistent dystonia was introduced by the French to describe the ... A dystonia-plus syndrome is also a genetic syndrome with dystonia as the primary symptom but with other neurologic symptoms ...
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These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Dystonia." Click on the image (or right click) to open the ...
The presence of dystonia is associated with greater severity of ataxia in SCA1, 2, and 3, but predictive of a slower ... Results: Dystonia was most commonly observed in SCA3, followed by SCA2, SCA1, and SCA6. Dystonia was associated with longer CAG ... Background: Dystonia is a common feature in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). Whether the presence of dystonia is associated with ... The CAG repeat number in TBP normal alleles appeared to modify the presence of dystonia in SCA1. The presence of dystonia was ...
Learn about treatment options from Medtronic for dystonia. ... Although dystonia has no cure, there are a number of treatments ... DBS may be right for you if you have chronic, primary dystonia,* have not had success managing your symptoms with medication, ... There are many medications that are commonly used to treat dystonia. No single drug works for every individual, and several ... Most of the medications used to treat dystonia work by affecting the neurotransmitter chemicals in the nervous system that ...
... explore what life is like following treatment with deep brain stimulation therapy for dystonia. ... primary dystonia, including generalized and/or segmental dystonia, hemidystonia, and cervical dystonia (torticollis), in ... Find resources that will help you avoid problems and get support while receiving DBS for dystonia.‡ ...
Twin Cities Dystonia Zoo Day is Back on October 2nd. Family-Friendly Event Brings Visibility to Little-Known but Surprisingly ... 2nd Dystonia Warrior Ride Brings Awareness to Debilitating Brain Disorder. 6th Indy Hunt for a Cure for Dystonia is September ... Cervical dystonia is among the most common types of dystonia and yet is frequently misdiagnosed due to a lack of awareness even ... Dystonia Medical Research Foundation Welcomes AbbVie as National Sponsor of Dystonia Zoo Days ...
Dunn has generalized dystonia, which affects the entire body. He has had dystonia since he was 6 years old and is now 43, said ... Dystonia can attack at any time, according to Delise.. "Anyone can get dystonia, at any age, regardless of ethnicity or gender ... Dystonia awareness champion has street named in his honor. By: Gena Johnson , Warren Weekly , Published November 16, 2023 ... Jason Dunn has dystonia, a chronic movement disorder affecting the brain and nervous system, for which, according to doctors, ...
Dystonia Animated is a planned series of short animations, as part of our Reach Out, Reach All campaign, focused on ... Dystonia Animated Dystonia Animated. Join the characters of Dystonia Animated as they show you their lives with dystonia.. ... Dystonia UK is the operating name of The Dystonia Society. The Dystonia Society is registered as a charity in England and Wales ... What causes dystonia?. The cause of dystonia is not yet fully understood, in some cases at least it can be attributed to a ...
Dystonia before levodopa treatment. Dystonia occurred in 11 (46%) patients with MSA before levodopa exposure. All of the ... Although there are no prospective series assessing the frequency of dystonia in untreated PD, dystonia has been reported in 16 ... Most patients had peak dose craniocervical dystonia; however, some patients experienced limb or generalised dystonia. Isolated ... studies on symptomatic dystonia emphasise the role of the putamen as a major lesion site in dystonia.15-19 Additional ...
We reviewed the database of the Dystonia Clinic at the University of Kansas Medical Center for patients with dystonia and ... Of 296 patients with idiopathic dystonia, 24 had dystonic tremor, 20 with cervical dystonia had an isolated head-nodding tremor ... Eight patients, all with cervical dystonia, had essential tremor that preceded the onset of their dystonia. ... Essential tremor and dystonia. Richard M. Dubinsky, Carolyn S. Gray, William C. Koller ...
Dystonia Clinic. Consultant. Day & Time. Frequency. Location. Contact Information. Dr. Seán ORiordan. Thursday. 11:45 - 14:45 ...
The Norwegian Dystonia Association was founded in 1993 by Tore Wirgenes. There are about 650 members throughout Norway. ... In addition to meetings, the Norwegian Dystonia Association is spreading information to their members and the public through ...
Understanding Dystonia: Causes and Symptoms. Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle ... In the case study of a patient with severe dystonia, splints have proven to be effective in assisting with dystonia management ... Alternative Treatment Options for Dystonia: Support Groups. * Physical Therapy Equipment for Dystonia Management: A ... Types of Splints for Dystonia Management. Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions ...
In addition, pain caused by cervical dystonia can cause depression.. Currently there are no ways to prevent cervical dystonia. ... Correcting cervical dystonia in infants and children is much easier. If the disease is not cured, you need to look for a ... Symptoms of cervical dystonia can develop slowly. Over time, they intensify. The most common symptoms are:. *inability to move ... With cervical dystonia, the head is inclined sideways and turned in one direction. It can also be tilted forward or backward. ...
The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) has stood up for the dystonia community since 1976. Join us in our global ... There are many benefits to joining a dystonia support group. Find the support group nearest you and enjoy the rewards. ... You can connect with others in the dystonia community who are committed to making a difference. Getting involved is empowering. ...
An artificial intelligence tool called DystoniaBoTXNet predicted which patients with dystonia would benefit from botulinum ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Billy had the privilege of appearing in a ST Dystonia publication written by Stephen J Busalacchi. Billy was asked to share his ... ST Dystonia Publication. April 8, 2012. /in News/by Billy McLaughlin. ST Dystonia Presents ... Spring 2012 - ST Dystonia Presents. Billy had the privilege of appearing in a ST Dystonia publication written by Stephen J ... If you are interested in purchasing this book, or learning more about ST Dystonia, please visit their website. ...
The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) has stood up for the dystonia community since 1976. Join us in our global ... Do you have the genetic forms of dystonia known as DYT6 (THAP1) or DYT25 (GNAL)? Have you or your child had previous positive ... There are many benefits to joining a dystonia support group. Find the support group nearest you and enjoy the rewards. ... You can connect with others in the dystonia community who are committed to making a difference. Getting involved is empowering. ...
Clozapine Withdrawal-Emergent Dystonias and Dyskinesias: A Case Series. Shakeel Ahmed, K. N. Roy Chengappa, Venkat Rama Naidu, ... Results: All subjects had a history of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms, 1 had a history of severe dystonias, and 1 ... These subjects had severe limb-axial and neck dystonias and dyskinesias 5 to 14 days after clozapine withdrawal. Two subjects ... This report describes 4 subjects who experienced severe dystonias and dyskinesias upon abrupt clozapine withdrawal. ...
Dystonia is a challenging neurological symptom found in paediatric palliative care (PPC).1 While well defined as a movement ... No studies to date have analysed differences in management of dystonia between palliative care and neurology services. ... Specifically with regard to dystonia, documentation over 12 months (preceding July 2017) was retrospectively reviewed to assess ... dystonia is less well recognised and identified by clinicians.2 A wide range of therapies exist but consensus is often lacking ...
Marks WA, Honeycutt J, Acosta F Jr, Reed M, Bailey L, Pomykal A, Mercer M: Dystonia due to cerebral palsy responds to deep ... Kupsch A, Benecke R, Müller J, Trottenberg T, Schneider GH, Poewe W, et al; Deep-Brain Stimulation for Dystonia Study Group: ... Gimeno H, Tustin K, Selway R, Lin JP: Beyond the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale: deep brain stimulation in childhood ... Isaias IU, Alterman RL, Tagliati M: Outcome predictors of pallidal stimulation in patients with primary dystonia: the role of ...
Massage will cause a relaxation of muscles which should at least temporarily help dystonia... ... It may briefly relieve pain from the spasm of the dystonia, but it wont make the dystonia any better or worse. Dystonia ... If a doctor was trying to rule out focal dystonia, why would he order a lumbar spine MRI if i said no back or leg pain or ... Massage will cause a relaxation of muscles which should at least temporarily help dystonia.. Created for people with ongoing ...
2021wed03mar5:00 pmwed7:00 pmVirtual , Dystonia Support & Advocacy Group of San Diego County ... The Dystonia Support and Advocacy Group Leader of San Diego:. Martha Murphy. Phone , (619) 582-1961. Email,[email protected] ... To learn more about the Dystonia Support Group of San Diego County please check out our website or our Facebook Page!. www. ... He will be discussing: BRAIN SENSING AND ADAPTIVE DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION: POTENTIAL APPLICATION FOR DYSTONIA. ...
... a client has dystonia-a neurological problem with muscle tone. Is there anything massage might do to help? ... Trauma-induced (no date) Dystonia Ireland. Available at: https://www.dystonia.ie/forms-of-dystonia/secondary-dystonias/ ... To describe typical dystonia, Im going to just cut to the chase and quote from my book. Dystonia appears to be linked to ... dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia/types-dystonia/injury/ (Accessed: 13 September 2022). ...
  • Experimental Botulinum Toxin More Effective in Cervical Dystonia? (medscape.com)
  • An investigative formulation of a botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) for cervical dystonia may significantly reduce the risk of dysphagia after injection compared with existing injections, and may have a longer duration of beneficial effect, according to results of a phase 3 clinical trial presented at the virtual International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders. (medscape.com)
  • The ASPEN-1 trial evaluated 301 patients with moderate to severe cervical dystonia for up to 36 weeks and found that those receiving two doses of DaxibotulinumtoxinA, known as DAXI, versus placebo improved their scores on the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS), said Joseph Jankovic, MD, professor of neurology and director of the Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin is clearly the treatment of choice for cervical dystonia," Jankovic said in an interview. (medscape.com)
  • Side effects "were remarkably minimal," Jankovic said, "but I want to call attention to the low frequency of neck weakness or dysphagia in comparison with other studies of botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • The one thing we worry about most in people with cervical dystonia are swallowing and choking - dysphagia - and the numbers are very modest: 2 out of 127 in the 125U dose and 5 of 130 in the 250U dose," he said. (medscape.com)
  • Including generalised and segmental dystonia, hemidystonia, and cervical dystonia. (medtronic.com)
  • Humanitarian Device - Authorized by Federal Law as an aid in the management of chronic, intractable (drug refractory) primary dystonia, including generalized and/or segmental dystonia, hemidystonia, and cervical dystonia (torticollis), in patients seven years of age or above. (medtronic.com)
  • The Zoo Walk is organized by members of the Minnesota Dystonia Support Group including group leader Brad Schmitt who developed cervical dystonia, affecting his neck, in 2008. (prlog.org)
  • Cervical dystonia is among the most common types of dystonia and yet is frequently misdiagnosed due to a lack of awareness even among medical professionals. (prlog.org)
  • Of 296 patients with idiopathic dystonia, 24 had dystonic tremor, 20 with cervical dystonia had an isolated head-nodding tremor, two patients with writer's cramp had ipsilateral hand tremor, and two patients with generalized dystonia had arm tremor. (neurology.org)
  • Eight patients, all with cervical dystonia, had essential tremor that preceded the onset of their dystonia. (neurology.org)
  • For instance, consider the case of John, a 42-year-old man diagnosed with cervical dystonia. (care4dystonia.org)
  • Several studies have examined the use of splints in various forms of dystonia, including cervical, upper limb, and lower limb dystonia. (care4dystonia.org)
  • For cervical dystonia, custom-made cervical collars or neck braces have shown promise in providing support and reducing abnormal head postures. (care4dystonia.org)
  • Cervical dystonia is a painful displacement and curvature of the neck. (rxmed.com)
  • With cervical dystonia, the head is inclined sideways and turned in one direction. (rxmed.com)
  • Cervical dystonia sometimes pass without treatment. (rxmed.com)
  • Any person can have this type of cervical dystonia. (rxmed.com)
  • Symptoms of cervical dystonia can develop slowly. (rxmed.com)
  • Several tests can be performed to establish the cause of cervical dystonia. (rxmed.com)
  • In some patients, cervical dystonia develop similar symptoms in adjacent areas, for example, in the shoulder or face area. (rxmed.com)
  • In addition, pain caused by cervical dystonia can cause depression. (rxmed.com)
  • Currently there are no ways to prevent cervical dystonia. (rxmed.com)
  • Congenital forms of cervical dystonia can be corrected by stretching the muscles of the neck. (rxmed.com)
  • The acquired cervical dystonia is treated depending on the cause. (rxmed.com)
  • deep brain stimulation for the cessation of nerve signals - is used in the most severe cases of the cervical dystonia. (rxmed.com)
  • Cervical dystonia caused by a small injury or disease is likely temporary and easily treated. (rxmed.com)
  • However, congenital and severe forms of cervical dystonia may lead to health problems in the future. (rxmed.com)
  • Correcting cervical dystonia in infants and children is much easier. (rxmed.com)
  • Communication with other people with cervical dystonia or with similar conditions will help to cope with the situation. (rxmed.com)
  • Spasmodic Torticollis (ST), and/or cervical dystonia, is a neurological condition thought to originate in the basal ganglia portion of the brain. (billymclaughlin.com)
  • Can you lift weights and exercise if you have cervical dystonia? (healthtap.com)
  • Botox for cervical dystonia: Effectiveness and more (2022). (abmp.com)
  • https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/drugs-botox-for-cervical-dystonia (Accessed: 13 September 2022). (abmp.com)
  • Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia and is a highly disabling movement disorder characterised by involuntary, usually painful, head posturing. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Objectives: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of botulinum toxin type A (BtA) versus placebo in people with cervical dystonia. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Selection criteria: Double-blind, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of BtA versus placebo in adults with cervical dystonia. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • The primary efficacy outcome was improvement in cervical dystonia-specific impairment. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Main results: We included eight RCTs of moderate overall risk of bias, including 1010 participants with cervical dystonia. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Authors' conclusions: We have moderate certainty in the evidence that a single BtA treatment session is associated with a significant and clinically relevant reduction of cervical dystonia-specific impairment, including severity, disability, and pain, and that it is well tolerated, when compared with placebo. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Methods: In a single-center cross-sectional case-control study, we evaluated the presence of pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and sleep alterations in 28 patients with blepharospasm, 28 patients with cervical dystonia, 24 patients with writer's cramp, and 80 control subjects matched for sex, age, and schooling. (columbia.edu)
  • In addition, Addex recently reported on 9 January, plans to start clinical testing of the therapeutic effect of dipraglurant in patients with cervical dystonia in collaboration with Professor Dirk Dressler of The Hannover Medical School. (addexpharma.com)
  • Cervical dystonia targets neck muscles and head posture. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Associate Professor Karl Ng has interest in the diagnosis and management of cervical dystonia including the use of medical injectable therapies. (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • What is Cervical Dystonia? (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common dystonia limited to one part of the body (focal or localised dystonia). (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • It is very rare for children to develop cervical dystonia. (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • Cortical mechanisms of sensory trick in cervical dystonia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with cervical dystonia (CD) often show an improvement in dystonic posture after sensory trick (ST), though the mechanisms underlying ST remain unclear. (bvsalud.org)
  • Do you have the genetic forms of dystonia known as DYT6 (THAP1) or DYT25 (GNAL)? (dystonia-foundation.org)
  • https://www.dystonia.ie/forms-of-dystonia/secondary-dystonias/environmen. (abmp.com)
  • There are multiple forms of dystonia, and up to 100 diseases and conditions include dystonia as a prominent symptom. (addexpharma.com)
  • ANO3/DYT24) and only 11 'DYT' genes have been unequivocally demonstrated to cause different forms of dystonia. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Although secondary forms of dystonia are frequently associated with structural lesions of the basal ganglia and thalamus, no consistent histologic or biochemical findings are noted in primary torsion dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • There are multiple types of dystonia, and many diseases and conditions may cause dystonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Are the Different Types of Dystonia? (baptisthealth.com)
  • DBS Therapy may control some of the primary symptoms of dystonia, such as muscle spasms, twisting, involuntary contractions, posturing, and uncontrolled movements. (medtronic.com)
  • Symptoms of dystonia can vary widely depending on the affected body part and severity of the condition. (care4dystonia.org)
  • Luke has no symptoms of dystonia but has been battling 20+ weeks of no exercise and no pressure on his right knee. (tylershope.org)
  • What are the symptoms of dystonia? (msdmanuals.com)
  • The genetics of idiopathic torsion dystonia. (bmj.com)
  • Primary dystonia DYT21 type is a subtype of mixed dystonia with a late-onset form of pure torsion dystonia. (globalgenes.org)
  • In 1908, Schwalbe first described primary, or idiopathic, torsion dystonia in a Jewish family, and in 1911, Oppenheim termed this dystonia musculorum deformans (DMD). (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Initially believed to be a manifestation of hysteria, idiopathic torsion dystonia gradually became established as a neurologic entity with a genetic basis. (medscape.com)
  • Primary torsion dystonia (PTD), historically called DMD, is dystonia in isolation without brain degeneration and without an acquired cause. (medscape.com)
  • Primary torsion dystonia may be focal, segmental, multifocal, or generalized, depending on which anatomic sites are involved (see Table 1). (medscape.com)
  • substantial evidence implicates dysfunction in dopaminergic pathways in the pathophysiology of primary torsion dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • Idiopathic torsion dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • The symptoms worsen significantly with use, especially in the case of focal dystonia, and a "mirror effect" is often observed in other body parts: Use of the right hand may cause pain and cramping in that hand as well as in the other hand and legs that were not being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tardive dystonia is insidious in its development, often presenting first as a focal dystonia that becomes increasingly widespread over a period of months to years. (medscape.com)
  • Due to it's efficacy, rapidity of onset, and relative safety compared to most other interventions, it may be considered as a first-line treatment for severe tardive dystonia with focal symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Background: Idiopathic focal dystonia is a motor syndrome associated with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits. (columbia.edu)
  • The aim was to assess the prevalence and correlation of non-motor symptoms in patients with common idiopathic focal or segmental dystonia. (columbia.edu)
  • Due to the advent of next-generation sequencing, the field of dystonia genetics has been evolving very rapidly over the past two years, resulting in the reporting of 'DYT1-25' and, for the first time, in the identification of genes associated with adult-onset focal/segmental dystonia. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Focal dystonia occurs in only one part of the body (e.g., the neck). (baptisthealth.com)
  • Approximately nine out of 100,000 people will develop CD, making it the most common focal dystonia. (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • The phenotypic spectrum associated with PTD is broad ranging, from early onset generalized to adult-onset focal dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • Do doctors in US usualy test FL-41 glases on patients with dystonia/phtophobia/blepharospasm(no migraine)? (healthtap.com)
  • Blepharospasm is dystonia of the eye muscles. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Dystonia is a neurological hyperkinetic movement disorder in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. (wikipedia.org)
  • These most common dystonias are typically classified as follows: The combination of blepharospasmodic contractions and oromandibular dystonia is called cranial dystonia or Meige's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dystonia is a movement disorder that causes involuntary contractions of your muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers think that dystonia may be due to a problem in the part of the brain that handles messages about muscle contractions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tardive dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and typically presents as abnormal posturing of voluntary muscles. (medscape.com)
  • Dystonia is commonly defined as "a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. (medscape.com)
  • Dystonia is a disabling brain disorder characterized by excessive, involuntary muscle contractions that cause twisting, repetitive muscle movements as well as sustained postures of the body and limbs. (prlog.org)
  • Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that result in repetitive, twisting movements and abnormal postures. (care4dystonia.org)
  • 1 While well defined as a movement disorder characterised by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions associated with abnormal movement and posturing, dystonia is less well recognised and identified by clinicians. (bmj.com)
  • Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by persistent or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. (addexpharma.com)
  • Dystonia is a movement disorder marked by involuntary muscle contractions, neck and limb twisting, crooked postures, and repetitive motions. (baptisthealth.com)
  • There are many medications that are commonly used to treat dystonia. (medtronic.com)
  • Most of the medications used to treat dystonia work by affecting the neurotransmitter chemicals in the nervous system that execute the brain's instructions for muscle movement and the control of movement. (medtronic.com)
  • How do doctors treat dystonia? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Geneva, Switzerland /Chicago, USA, 19 January 2015 - Addex Therapeutics (SIX: ADXN), a leading company pioneering allosteric modulation-based drug discovery and development and the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) announced today entering a collaboration to explore the use of dipraglurant to treat dystonia, the third most common movement disorder following essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. (addexpharma.com)
  • Tyler's Hope Foundation was established to advance research for a cure, discover effective treatments and to promote awareness and education of DYT1 Dystonia. (tylershope.org)
  • Investigating the essential role of torsinB, a powerful modifier for the main cause of twisting movements in torsinA dysfunction, the William Dauer grant has supported future research in DYT1 dystonia. (tylershope.org)
  • According to previous research, carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation exhibit abnormalities in the cerebellothalamocortical motor pathways. (tylershope.org)
  • Using the mice neurons, researchersi n addition hope to build a cell-culture of DYT1 dystonia. (tylershope.org)
  • After using DYT1 mouse models to study dystonic symptoms, researchers were able to link early on set dystonia to specific changes in the early stage of brain development. (tylershope.org)
  • Dipraglurant has also been shown to normalize the effects of the TOR1A/DYT1 dystonia mutation in the brains of mice. (addexpharma.com)
  • While Hermann Oppenheim probably described the first cases of genetic (DYT1) dystonia in 1911, the 'modern history' of dystonia genetics dates back to 1994 when mutations in the GTP cyclohydrolase I gene were discovered to cause dopa-responsive dystonia. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • DMD and Oppenheim disease are terms now used for childhood- and adolescent-onset dystonia due to the DYT1 gene. (medscape.com)
  • No studies to date have analysed differences in management of dystonia between palliative care and neurology services. (bmj.com)
  • The legs are primarily affected by dopa-responsive dystonia. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Background GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) mutations are the commonest cause of Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Neurocirculatory dystonia( vegetative-vascular dystonia) is a disease accompanied by vasomotor disorders and discordant reactions in various parts of the vascular system. (womensecr.com)
  • Dystonia is a movement disorder characterised by involuntary, repetitive and sustained movements and postures. (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus is the current treatment of choice for tardive dystonia refractory to medical treatment with alternative interventions such as DBS of the subthalamic nucleus currently having a smaller body of evidence. (medscape.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a treatment for severe childhood-onset dystonia. (ant-neuro.com)
  • Differences in the extent and severity of muscle and frequency of symptom involvement range from intermittent contraction limited to a single body region to generalized dystonia involving the limbs and axial muscles. (medscape.com)
  • The presence of dystonia is associated with greater severity of ataxia in SCA1, 2, and 3, but predictive of a slower progression in SCA6. (nih.gov)
  • Using pre- and postoperative videos the severity of dystonia and changes thereof during standardized settings ('on') and after the stimulator had been switched off ('off') were assessed using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). (karger.com)
  • Dipraglurant reduced dystonia severity in addition to chorea, the two major LID components. (addexpharma.com)
  • The collaboration with the DMRF will give Addex access to unique networks of research and clinical experts in the field of dystonia" said Sonia Poli, CSO at Addex. (addexpharma.com)
  • The cause of dystonia is not yet fully understood, in some cases at least it can be attributed to a chemical imbalance in the part of the brain called the basal ganglia, a part which helps to control movement. (dystonia.org.uk)
  • While the exact cause of dystonia remains unclear, it is believed to be related to dysfunction within the brain's basal ganglia, which controls voluntary movement. (care4dystonia.org)
  • With help from families and young people with dystonia, we created the first episode which centres around explaining dystonia in a format children and young people can relate to and with language suitable for their age. (dystonia.org.uk)
  • While anecdotal evidence suggests that splints can be beneficial for some people with dystonia, it is important to note that research on their effectiveness is limited. (care4dystonia.org)
  • Dystonia Uk, the only national charity supporting people with dystonia is delighted to bring you The Dystonia Matters Podcast! (feedspot.com)
  • People with dystonia constantly have painkillers in their system. (mmjrecs.com)
  • Lipnicki, M. (2020) ' Massage Therapy for Dystonia: a Case Report ', International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork, 13(2), pp. 33-44. (abmp.com)
  • 1 . Neymotin SA, Dura-Bernal S, Lakatos P, Sanger TD, Lytton WW (2016) Multitarget Multiscale Simulation for Pharmacological Treatment of Dystonia in Motor Cortex. (yale.edu)
  • Bressman, Susan B. / Treatment of dystonia . (elsevierpure.com)
  • These subjects had severe limb-axial and neck dystonias and dyskinesias 5 to 14 days after clozapine withdrawal. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Cranial dystonia affects the neck muscles, too, but extends to other muscles in the face and head. (baptisthealth.com)
  • CD describes dystonia that specifically occurs in the neck muscles. (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • In our lab we use hPSC-based disease modeling to study the neurological movement disorder dystonia, in particular X-linked Dystonia Parkinsonism (XDP). (labroots.com)
  • Dystonia causes excessive, uncontrollable muscle spasms that twist the body and limbs into involuntary movements and contorted postures. (candgnews.com)
  • In upper limb dystonia, splints such as wrist braces or finger orthoses may be utilized to improve hand function and reduce involuntary twisting or curling movements. (care4dystonia.org)
  • Secondary dystonia develops in conjunction with an underlying medical cause, such as an inherited condition, a traumatic injury, or a neurological disorder. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Conclusion: The prospective clinical study suggests that dystonia is common in untreated MSA-P. This finding may reflect younger age at disease onset and putaminal pathology in MSA-P. Levodopa induced dyskinesias were almost exclusively dystonic affecting predominantly craniocervical musculature. (bmj.com)
  • This report describes 4 subjects who experienced severe dystonias and dyskinesias upon abrupt clozapine withdrawal. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Dystonia is classified by: Clinical characteristics such as age of onset, body distribution, nature of the symptoms, and associated features such as additional movement disorders or neurological symptoms, and Cause (which includes changes or damage to the nervous system and inheritance). (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of tardive dystonia is a primarily clinical one based on observed phenomology and of course a history of neuroleptic exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Additional workup may be indicated if there are clinical features suggestive of other dystonia syndromes. (medscape.com)
  • To study clinical characteristics and ataxia progression in SCAs with and without dystonia. (nih.gov)
  • We studied 334 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3 and 6 from the Clinical Research Consortium for Spinocerebellar Ataxias (CRC-SCA) and compared the clinical characteristics of SCAs with and without dystonia. (nih.gov)
  • 1) Presence of dystonia, its topographical distribution and clinical pattern (tonic versus phasic movements), and onset in relation to initiation of levodopa therapy (before levodopa v after levodopa). (bmj.com)
  • Eight of nine patients with evidence of flexion dystonia showed a deterioration in their response to l -dopa therapy over a two year period, whereas four patients without flexion dystonia maintained their clinical improvement. (bmj.com)
  • We obtained clinical and demographic data, and evaluated patients using the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and other specific scales for dystonia. (columbia.edu)
  • Based on a recent consensus approach, dystonias are subdivided on clinical grounds into isolated (with or without tremor) and combined (with other movement disorders) forms. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • One example that illustrates the impact of dystonia on individuals is the case study of John, a 35-year-old man who developed dystonic symptoms in his right hand after sustaining a traumatic brain injury. (care4dystonia.org)
  • Tardive dystonia is one of several tardive syndromes, a group of movement disorders that occur relatively late in the course of ongoing treatment with dopamine receptor blocking agents. (medscape.com)
  • Even mild tardive dystonia frequently requires treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Dopamine-depleting agents are currently the primary pharmacological treatment for tardive dystonia specfically. (medscape.com)
  • Tardive dystonia is caused by a drug reaction. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Segmental dystonia involves two or more adjacent areas of the body. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Multifocal dystonia affects many different parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multifocal dystonia is similar to segmental, but the affected areas are not adjacent. (baptisthealth.com)
  • In most cases, dystonia tends to lead to abnormal posturing, in particular on movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abnormal muscle tone of dystonia usually results in muscle cramping. (msdmanuals.com)
  • St Paul is one of eight cities across the country hosting a Dystonia Zoo Day in 2022 after a two-year hiatus due to the Covid-19 pandemic. (prlog.org)
  • https://dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia/types-dystonia/injury/ (Accessed: 13 September 2022). (abmp.com)
  • The `freezing' or `blocking' gait in Parkinson's disease was found to be associated with coactivation of flexor and extensor muscles and this phenomenon occurred only in patients with features of flexion dystonia in the electromyographic recordings of their tonic stretch reflexes. (bmj.com)
  • Dipraglurant, a novel small molecule inhibitor of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, has shown promise in the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia and dystonia in Parkinson's disease. (addexpharma.com)
  • As such, a complete diagnosis of dystonia typically includes its characterization along three axes: age of onset, distribution, and presumed etiology. (medscape.com)
  • 26 years), with a younger age of onset associated with a more generalized and severe course in primary dystonias. (medscape.com)
  • Early onset primary dystonia are rare and frequently have a genetic basis (e.g. (addexpharma.com)
  • DBS may be right for you if you have chronic, primary dystonia,* have not had success managing your symptoms with medication, and are 7 years of age or older. (medtronic.com)
  • Newly diagnosed with Primary dystonia, DYT21 type? (globalgenes.org)
  • Primary dystonia develops without an obvious link to an underlying medical condition. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Dystonia can be either primary or secondary. (medscape.com)
  • Advances in the area of dystonia genetics have identified new genetic loci and increased understanding of phenotypic spectrum. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder, typically alcohol-responsive upper body myoclonus and dystonia. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Future studies are required to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of dystonia in MSA. (bmj.com)
  • Jason Dunn has dystonia, a chronic movement disorder affecting the brain and nervous system, for which, according to doctors, there is currently no cure. (candgnews.com)
  • Chronic dystonia can cause debilitating pain and make it difficult to perform daily tasks. (rxmed.com)
  • Chronic dystonia can be congenital. (rxmed.com)
  • A 2002 study revealed a patient suffering from chronic pain as a result of dystonia. (mmjrecs.com)
  • An artificial intelligence tool called DystoniaBoTXNet predicted which patients with dystonia would benefit from botulinum toxin injections with 96.3% accuracy. (plasticsurgerypractice.com)
  • Other genes that have been associated with dystonia include CIZ1, GNAL, ATP1A3, and PRRT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used logistic regression to analyze the impact of different repeat expansion genes on dystonia in SCAs. (nih.gov)
  • Another report has linked THAP1 and SLC20A2 to dystonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warriors of Dystonia has been set up to spread awareness of the neurological condition known as dystonia. (feedspot.com)
  • Proceeds benefit the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF). (prlog.org)
  • The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to advancing research for improved dystonia treatments and ultimately a cure, promoting awareness, and supporting the well-being of affected individuals and families. (prlog.org)
  • The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) has stood up for the dystonia community since 1976. (dystonia-foundation.org)
  • The DMRF and Addex each embody spheres of expertise that complement the other very well," said DMRF President Art Kessler, who was diagnosed with dystonia as a child. (addexpharma.com)
  • Dipraglurant has shown robust efficacy in multiple models of dystonia and we look forward to collaborating with DMRF to evaluate dipraglurant in dystonia patients. (addexpharma.com)
  • We reviewed the database of the Dystonia Clinic at the University of Kansas Medical Center for patients with dystonia and tremor. (neurology.org)
  • Dystonia is the 3rd most common movement disorder. (prlog.org)
  • The Positive Twist is a podcast about the third most common movement disorder, dystonia. (feedspot.com)
  • Although dystonia has no cure, there are a number of treatments available for finding relief. (medtronic.com)
  • Effective treatments of dystonia and/or post-stroke spasticity for extended periods of time are provided. (findownersearch.com)
  • The purpose of this family-friendly day at the zoo is to raise awareness of dystonia and funds for medical research toward a cure. (prlog.org)
  • WARREN - Before leaving office as Warren's mayor, James Fouts renamed a street in honor of a longtime Warren resident who advocates for dystonia awareness and supports efforts to find a cure. (candgnews.com)
  • While medical marijuana may not be able to cure dystonia completely, it can at least make the pain subside for an extended amount of time. (mmjrecs.com)
  • Dystonia can affect just one muscle, a group of muscles or all of your muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Following a motor vehicle accident, a client has dystonia-a neurological problem with muscle tone. (abmp.com)
  • Dystonia may affect a single body area or be generalized throughout multiple muscle groups. (addexpharma.com)
  • Dystonia encompasses a broad and complex spectrum of symptoms caused by opposite muscles contracting (muscle co-contraction). (sydneynorthneurology.com.au)
  • All subjects had a history of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms, 1 had a history of severe dystonias, and 1 had neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Paroxysmal dystonia is an occasional form of this condition, often triggered by stress, fatigue, or some form of stimulation, such as coffee consumption. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Dunn has generalized dystonia, which affects the entire body. (candgnews.com)
  • Generalized dystonia affects the entire body (including the legs and other less common areas). (baptisthealth.com)
  • Dystonia is often intensified or exacerbated by physical activity, and symptoms may progress into adjacent muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oromandibular is a dystonia of the mouth and jaw muscles. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Dystonia and its Signs and Symptoms Dystonia is medical condition that primarily affects one or more muscles. (web.app)
  • Numerous therapies are potentially useful in the management of patients with dystonia. (elsevierpure.com)