Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiratory Function Tests
Forced Expiratory Volume
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Severity of Illness Index
Quality of Life
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
Lung Diseases, Interstitial
Lung Volume Measurements
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Work of Breathing
Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
Maximal Voluntary Ventilation
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
Total Lung Capacity
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia
Long-term recovery of diaphragm strength in neuralgic amyotrophy. (1/1741)Diaphragm paralysis is a recognized complication of neuralgic amyotrophy that causes severe dyspnoea. Although recovery of strength in the arm muscles, when affected, is common, there are little data on recovery of diaphragm function. This study, therefore, re-assessed diaphragm strength in cases of bilateral diaphragm paralysis due to neuralgic amyotrophy that had previously been diagnosed at the authors institutions. Fourteen patients were recalled between 2 and 11 yrs after the original diagnosis. Respiratory muscle and diaphragm strength were measured by volitional manoeuvres as maximal inspiratory pressure and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure. Cervical magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation was used to give a nonvolitional measure of diaphragm strength: twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure. Only two patients remained severely breathless. Ten of the 14 patients had evidence of some recovery of diaphragm strength, in seven cases to within 50% of the lower limit of normal. The rate of recovery was variable: one patient had some recovery after 2 yrs, and the rest took 3 yrs or more. In conclusion, in most patients with diaphragm paralysis due to neuralgic amyotrophy, some recovery of the diaphragm strength occurs, but the rate of recovery may be slow. (+info)
Time course of respiratory decompensation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, double-blind study of peak flow changes prior to emergency department visits. (2/1741)The aim of this study was to look at changes in peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) prior to emergency department visits for decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was designed as a prospective, double-blind study at the Albuquerque Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Twelve patients with an irreversible component of airflow obstruction on pulmonary function tests were assessed. At entry, all subjects were instructed in the use of a mini-Wright peak flow meter with electronic data storage. They then entered a 6-month monitoring phase in which they recorded PEFR twice daily, before and after bronchodilators. The meter displays were disabled so that the patients and their physicians were blinded to all values. Medical care was provided in the customary manner. Patients were considered to have respiratory decompensation if they required treatment for airflow obstruction in the Emergency Department (ED) and no other causes of dyspnea could be identified. Simple linear regression was used to model changes in PEFR over time. The 12 subjects had 22 episodes of respiratory decompensation during 1741 patient-days of observation. Two episodes could not be analysed because of missing values. Ten episodes in seven subjects were characterized by a significant linear decline in at least one peak flow parameter prior to presentation. The mean rates of change for the four daily parameters varied from 0.22% to 0.27% predicted per day (or 1.19 to 1.44 1 min-1 day-1). The average decrement in these parameters ranged from 30.0 to 33.8 1 min-1 (or 18.6%-25.9% of their baseline values). No temporal trends were found for the 10 episodes occurring in the other five subjects. We concluded that respiratory decompensation is characterized by a gradual decline in PEFR in about half of cases. Future studies should be done to elucidate the mechanisms of respiratory distress in the other cases. (+info)
Early occurrence of respiratory muscle deoxygenation assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during leg exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. (3/1741)The mechanisms of respiratory muscle deoxygenation during incremental leg exercise with expired gas analysis were investigated in 29 patients with chronic heart failure and 21 normal subjects. The deoxygenation and blood volume of the respiratory muscle and exercising leg muscle were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). To evaluate the influence of the leg exercise on the blood volume of the respiratory muscle, 10 normal subjects also underwent a hyperventilation test with NIRS. The respiratory muscle deoxygenation point (RDP), at which oxygenated hemoglobin starts to decrease, was observed in both groups during exercise. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and the minute ventilation at the RDP in the patients was lower (p<0.01). At the same VO2, the respiratory rate was higher in patients (p<0.01). During exercise, the blood volume of the leg muscle increased, while that of the respiratory muscle decreased. During a hyperventilation test, the minute ventilation was higher than that of the RDP during exercise, the blood volume of the respiratory muscle did not decrease, and the RDP was not detectable. In conclusion, a limited ability to increase perfusion of respiratory muscles during exercise combined with the greater work of breathing results in early respiratory muscle deoxygenation in patients with chronic heart failure. (+info)
A case of eosinophilic myocarditis complicated by Kimura's disease (eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma) and erythroderma. (4/1741)This report describes a patient with eosinophilic myocarditis complicated by Kimura's disease (eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma) and erythroderma. A 50-year-old man presented with a complaint of precordial pain. However, the only abnormal finding on examinatioin was eosinophilia (1617 eosinophils/microl). Three years later, the patient developed chronic eczema, and was diagnosed with erythroderma posteczematosa. One year later, a tumor was detected in the right auricule, and a diagnosis of Kimura's disease was made, based on the biopsy findings. The patient developed progressive dyspnea 6 months later and was found to have cardiomegaly and a depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (17%). A diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis was made based on the results of a right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. The eosinophilic myocarditis and erythrodrema were treated with steroids with improvement of both the eosinophilia and left ventricular function. (+info)
Mechanisms of death in the CABG Patch trial: a randomized trial of implantable cardiac defibrillator prophylaxis in patients at high risk of death after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (5/1741)BACKGROUND: The CABG Patch trial compared prophylactic implantable cardiac-defibrillator (ICD) implantation with no antiarrhythmic therapy in coronary bypass surgery patients who had a left ventricular ejection fraction <0.36 and an abnormal signal-averaged ECG. There were 102 deaths among the 446 ICD group patients and 96 deaths among the 454 control group patients, a hazard ratio of 1.07 (P=0.63). The mechanisms of death were classified, and hypotheses were tested about the effects of ICD therapy on arrhythmic and nonarrhythmic cardiac deaths in the CABG Patch Trial and the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT). METHODS AND RESULTS: The 198 deaths in the trial were reviewed by an independent Events Committee and classified by the method of Hinkle and Thaler. Only 54 deaths (27%) occurred out of hospital; 145 deaths (73%) were witnessed. Seventy-nine (82%) of the 96 deaths in the control group and 76 (75%) of the 102 deaths in the ICD group were due to cardiac causes. Cumulative arrhythmic mortality at 42 months was 6.9% in the control group and 4.0% in the ICD group (P=0. 057). Cumulative nonarrhythmic cardiac mortality at 42 months was 12. 4% in the control group and 13.0% in the ICD group (P=0.275). Death due to pump failure was significantly associated with death >1 hour from the onset of symptoms, dyspnea within 7 days of death, and overt heart failure within 7 days of death. CONCLUSIONS: In the CABG Patch Trial, ICD therapy reduced arrhythmic death 45% without significant effect on nonarrhythmic deaths. Because 71% of the deaths were nonarrhythmic, total mortality was not significantly reduced. (+info)
Quality of life four years after acute myocardial infarction: short form 36 scores compared with a normal population. (6/1741)OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of myocardial infarction on quality of life in four year survivors compared to data from "community norms", and to determine factors associated with a poor quality of life. DESIGN: Cohort study based on the Nottingham heart attack register. SETTING: Two district general hospitals serving a defined urban/rural population. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction during 1992 and alive at a median of four years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Short form 36 (SF 36) domain and overall scores. RESULTS: Of 900 patients with an acute myocardial infarction in 1992, there were 476 patients alive and capable of responding to a questionnaire in 1997. The response rate was 424 (89. 1%). Compared to age and sex adjusted normative data, patients aged under 65 years exhibited impairment in all eight domains, the largest differences being in physical functioning (mean difference 20 points), role physical (mean difference 23 points), and general health (mean difference 19 points). In patients over 65 years mean domain scores were similar to community norms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that impaired quality of life was closely associated with inability to return to work through ill health, a need for coronary revascularisation, the use of anxiolytics, hypnotics or inhalers, the need for two or more angina drugs, a frequency of chest pain one or more times per week, and a Rose dyspnoea score of >/= 2. CONCLUSIONS: The SF 36 provides valuable additional information for the practising clinician. Compared to community norms the greatest impact on quality of life is seen in patients of working age. Impaired quality of life was reported by patients unfit for work, those with angina and dyspnoea, patients with coexistent lung disease, and those with anxiety and sleep disturbances. Improving quality of life after myocardial infarction remains a challenge for physicians. (+info)
Syphilitic aortic regurgitation. An appraisal of surgical treatment. (7/1741)During the 10 years from 1964 to 1973, fifteen patients with severe syphilitic aortic regurgitation were treated surgically at the National Heart Hospital. In thirteen the valve was replaced and in two it was repaired. In addition four had replacement of an aneurysmal ascending aorta with a Dacron graft and seven some form of plastic repair to the coronary ostia. Three patients died within 1 month of surgery and a further six during the follow-up period which varied from 1 to 55 months (mean 25-5). The six survivors have been followed-up for an average of 33 months. Factors contributing to this high mortality were analysed and it was found that the mean duration of effort dyspnoea was 22 months in the survivors compared with 48 months in those who had died. Similarly the average duration of nocturnal dyspnoea was 4 months in the survivors compared with a mean of 8 months in those who had died. Only six out of the fifteen patients had angina; this was present in two of the survivors and in four of the fatalities. The pulse pressure, heart size, and haemodynamic findings were similar in the two groups. The prognostic value of an elevated erythocyte sedimentation rate was also examined. It was concluded that preoperative investigations should include aortography, coronary arteriography, an assessment of left ventricular function, and whenever possible myocardial biopsy. These data were interpreted as suggesting that patients should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage in the disease--certainly before the onset of cardiac failure and--and that if this more aggresive attitude was adopted, as it has been in non-syphilitic cases of aortic valve disease, the present high mortality in this group would be reduced. (+info)
Multicentre randomised controlled trial of nursing intervention for breathlessness in patients with lung cancer. (8/1741)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing intervention for breathlessness in patients with lung cancer. DESIGN: Patients diagnosed with lung cancer participated in a multicentre randomised controlled trial where they either attended a nursing clinic offering intervention for their breathlessness or received best supportive care. The intervention consisted of a range of strategies combining breathing control, activity pacing, relaxation techniques, and psychosocial support. Best supportive care involved receiving standard management and treatment available for breathlessness, and breathing assessments. Participants completed a range of self assessment questionnaires at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. SETTING: Nursing clinics within 6 hospital settings in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 119 patients diagnosed with small cell or non-small cell lung cancer or with mesothelioma who had completed first line treatment for their disease and reported breathlessness. OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual analogue scales measuring distress due to breathlessness, breathlessness at best and worst, WHO performance status scale, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and Rotterdam symptom checklist. RESULTS: The intervention group improved significantly at 8 weeks in 5 of the 11 items assessed: breathlessness at best, WHO performance status, levels of depression, and two Rotterdam symptom checklist measures (physical symptom distress and breathlessness) and showed slight improvement in 3 of the remaining 6 items. CONCLUSION: Most patients who completed the study had a poor prognosis, and breathlessness was typically a symptom of their deteriorating condition. Patients who attended nursing clinics and received the breathlessness intervention experienced improvements in breathlessness, performance status, and physical and emotional states relative to control patients. (+info)
Dyspnea is a medical term that refers to difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. It can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, lung disease, and anxiety disorders. Dyspnea can range from mild and occasional to severe and persistent, and it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. In some cases, dyspnea may be a symptom of a life-threatening emergency, such as a heart attack or a severe asthma attack.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term lung disease characterized by a persistent and progressive airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes. COPD includes two main conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by inflammation and thickening of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which leads to increased mucus production and difficulty breathing. Emphysema, on the other hand, involves damage to the air sacs in the lungs, which makes it difficult to exhale and leads to shortness of breath. Symptoms of COPD include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The severity of symptoms can vary from person to person and can worsen over time. COPD is a progressive disease, and there is currently no cure. However, treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Dyspnea, paroxysmal refers to a sudden and severe episode of shortness of breath that comes on suddenly and may be accompanied by wheezing, coughing, or chest tightness. It is a common symptom of various medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and anxiety disorders. During a paroxysmal dyspnea episode, the person may feel like they cannot get enough air, and their breathing may become rapid and shallow. The episode may last for a few minutes to several hours and can be triggered by physical exertion, emotional stress, exposure to allergens or irritants, or changes in weather or altitude. Treatment for paroxysmal dyspnea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to open airways, manage heart failure, or reduce anxiety. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for oxygen therapy or other interventions.
Lung diseases, obstructive, refer to a group of conditions that obstruct the flow of air in and out of the lungs. These conditions are characterized by a blockage or narrowing of the airways, which can make it difficult to breathe. Some common examples of obstructive lung diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, air pollution, and genetics. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves medications to open up the airways and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.
In the medical field, a cough is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the chest and throat to expel air from the lungs. It is a common symptom of many respiratory conditions, including colds, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma. A cough can be dry, meaning that no phlegm or mucus is produced, or wet, meaning that mucus is produced. A persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing may be a sign of a more serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Treatment for a cough depends on the underlying cause. For example, a cough caused by a cold or flu may be treated with over-the-counter cough suppressants or expectorants, while a cough caused by a more serious condition may require prescription medication or other medical interventions.
Airway obstruction refers to a blockage or narrowing of the airways that prevents air from flowing freely in and out of the lungs. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, swelling, mucus production, foreign objects, or physical compression of the airways. Airway obstruction can be classified as either partial or complete. Partial airway obstruction is when the airway is narrowed but not completely blocked, while complete airway obstruction is when the airway is completely blocked, preventing air from entering or leaving the lungs. Airway obstruction can be a serious medical condition, particularly if it is not treated promptly. It can lead to difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and even respiratory failure if left untreated. Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or in severe cases, emergency medical intervention such as intubation or surgery.
Breathing exercises, also known as respiratory exercises, are techniques used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of breathing. These exercises are commonly used in the medical field to treat a variety of respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and sleep apnea. Breathing exercises can be performed in a variety of ways, including diaphragmatic breathing, pursed-lip breathing, and deep breathing. These exercises aim to improve lung function, increase oxygen intake, and reduce shortness of breath. In addition to their use in treating respiratory conditions, breathing exercises are also used in stress management and relaxation techniques. They can be performed alone or in conjunction with other forms of therapy, such as physical therapy or medication. Overall, breathing exercises are a valuable tool in the medical field for improving respiratory function and promoting overall health and well-being.
Bronchodilator agents are drugs that are used to relax and widen the airways in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. Bronchodilators work by targeting the muscles in the airways, causing them to relax and open up. This allows more air to flow in and out of the lungs, making breathing easier and improving lung function. There are several different types of bronchodilators, including beta-agonists, anticholinergics, and theophyllines. These drugs are available in a variety of forms, including inhalers, tablets, and nebulizers.
Scopolamine derivatives are a class of drugs that are derived from the plant Datura stramonium, also known as the Jimson weed. These drugs are known for their potent anticholinergic effects, which means that they block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in many bodily functions. Scopolamine derivatives are often used in the medical field to treat certain conditions, such as motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting. They are also sometimes used to treat certain types of tremors and to reduce muscle spasms. However, these drugs can also have serious side effects, including confusion, dizziness, and hallucinations, and they can be addictive if used for a long period of time. Scopolamine derivatives are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and injections. They are typically prescribed by a healthcare provider and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a group of disorders that affect the lungs' interstitium, which is the tissue that lies between the air sacs (alveoli) and the walls of the blood vessels. The interstitium is responsible for providing structural support to the lungs and facilitating gas exchange. ILDs can be classified into several categories based on their underlying cause, such as autoimmune disorders, environmental exposures, genetic disorders, infections, and connective tissue diseases. Some common examples of ILDs include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The symptoms of ILDs can vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, and chest pain. In some cases, ILDs can progress to a point where breathing becomes difficult, and oxygen therapy may be required. Treatment for ILDs depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms or slow the progression of the disease. In more severe cases, lung transplantation may be considered as a treatment option.
Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure, is a medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can lead to a buildup of fluid in the lungs, liver, and other organs, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and ankles. Heart failure can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the heart muscle from a heart attack, high blood pressure, or long-term damage from conditions such as diabetes or coronary artery disease. It can also be caused by certain genetic disorders or infections. Treatment for heart failure typically involves medications to improve heart function and reduce fluid buildup, as well as lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the heart failure or to improve heart function.
Lung diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the lungs and their ability to function properly. These conditions can be acute or chronic, and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of lung diseases include: 1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. 3. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A progressive lung disease that causes scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, making it difficult to breathe. 4. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and weight loss. 5. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can cause fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. 6. Emphysema: A lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. 7. Interstitial Lung Disease: A group of lung diseases that affect the tissue between the air sacs in the lungs, causing difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 8. Lung Cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body. These are just a few examples of the many different types of lung diseases that can affect people. Treatment for lung diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Bronchial diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bronchi, which are the two tubes that carry air from the trachea (windpipe) to the lungs. These diseases can cause inflammation, narrowing, or blockage of the bronchi, leading to difficulty breathing, coughing, and other respiratory symptoms. Some common bronchial diseases include: 1. Chronic bronchitis: A long-term condition characterized by persistent coughing and production of mucus. 2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 3. Emphysema: A progressive lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. 4. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the bronchi become enlarged and infected, leading to chronic coughing and production of mucus. 5. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): A lung disease that occurs in premature babies and is characterized by abnormal lung development. 6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by chronic airflow obstruction and breathlessness. Treatment for bronchial diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Hemoptysis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of blood in the sputum or coughed-up phlegm. It is typically caused by bleeding from the lungs, airways, or blood vessels in the chest. Hemoptysis can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including lung infections, lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The severity of hemoptysis can vary widely, from a small amount of blood in the sputum to large amounts of blood that can be life-threatening. Treatment for hemoptysis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, and surgery.
Heart neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the heart or its surrounding tissues. These tumors can be either benign or malignant, and they can occur in any part of the heart, including the atria, ventricles, valves, and pericardium. Heart neoplasms are relatively rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cardiac tumors. They can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on their location and size, including chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, and fatigue. In some cases, heart neoplasms may not cause any symptoms and are only discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination. Diagnosis of heart neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for heart neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tumor, while in other cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be used to shrink the tumor or prevent it from growing. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary if the tumor is small and not causing any symptoms.
Tracheal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the trachea, which is the tube that carries air from the larynx to the lungs. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) in nature. Benign tracheal neoplasms are relatively rare and may include polyps, papillomas, and granulomas. These growths can cause symptoms such as difficulty breathing, hoarseness, and coughing, and may require surgical removal. Malignant tracheal neoplasms, on the other hand, are more common and can include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. These tumors can spread to other parts of the body and are typically more aggressive than benign neoplasms. Treatment options for malignant tracheal neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Overall, tracheal neoplasms can have significant impact on a person's quality of life and may require prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to control inflammation and open up the airways, as well as lifestyle changes to avoid triggers and improve overall lung function.
Tracheal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the trachea, which is the tube that carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs. The trachea is a vital part of the respiratory system, and any problems with it can lead to breathing difficulties and other health complications. Some common tracheal diseases include: 1. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, which can be caused by viral or bacterial infections. 2. Tracheal stenosis: Narrowing of the trachea, which can be caused by injury, scarring, or other factors. 3. Tracheal collapse: Collapse of the trachea, which can be caused by aging, weight gain, or other factors. 4. Tracheomalacia: Softening of the trachea, which can be caused by injury, scarring, or other factors. 5. Tracheobronchomalacia: Softening of the trachea and bronchi, which can be caused by injury, scarring, or other factors. 6. Tracheal cancer: Cancerous growths in the trachea, which can cause blockages and other complications. 7. Tracheal granulomas: Noncancerous growths in the trachea, which can be caused by infections or other factors. Treatment for tracheal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be sufficient to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to treat the condition.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves using a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope to examine the inside of the bronchial tubes and lungs. The bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth and advanced down the airways until it reaches the bronchi, which are the main branches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead to the lungs. During a bronchoscopy, a doctor or other healthcare provider can examine the bronchial tubes and lungs for signs of disease, such as inflammation, infection, or cancer. They can also take samples of tissue or fluid from the lungs for further testing. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and infections such as tuberculosis. It can also be used to remove foreign objects from the airways, such as a piece of food or a foreign body. There are two main types of bronchoscopy: flexible bronchoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy. Flexible bronchoscopy uses a flexible, thin tube that can bend and move to access different areas of the airways. Rigid bronchoscopy uses a thicker, more rigid tube that is inserted through the nose or mouth and advanced down the airways to reach the bronchi.
Natriuretic Peptide, Brain (NPB) is a hormone that is produced by the brain and released into the bloodstream. It is a member of the natriuretic peptide family, which also includes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). NPB has several functions in the body, including regulating blood pressure, fluid balance, and heart rate. It works by inhibiting the release of renin, a hormone that stimulates the production of angiotensin II, which in turn constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure. NPB also has a role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate and blood pressure. It can stimulate the release of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps to relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure. In the medical field, NPB is being studied as a potential diagnostic tool for various cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and hypertension. It may also have therapeutic potential for these conditions, as it has been shown to improve cardiac function and reduce blood pressure in animal models.
Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic lung disease characterized by the destruction of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, leading to a loss of elasticity and a decrease in the ability of the lungs to expand and contract properly. This results in difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and a persistent cough, which may produce mucus or blood. Pulmonary emphysema is typically caused by long-term exposure to cigarette smoke or other irritants, and is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a progressive disease that can lead to respiratory failure and death if left untreated. Treatment options for pulmonary emphysema include medications to manage symptoms, oxygen therapy, and in severe cases, lung transplantation.
Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat asthma and other conditions that cause difficulty breathing. It is a type of bronchodilator, which means that it helps to relax and widen the muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in a variety of forms, including inhalers, nebulizers, and tablets. It is also sometimes used to treat heart conditions, such as heart failure, because it can help to improve blood flow and reduce the workload on the heart.
Pericardial effusion is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, which is a sac-like structure that surrounds the heart. The pericardial sac is filled with a small amount of fluid that helps to lubricate and protect the heart. When there is an excessive amount of fluid in the pericardial sac, it can lead to a condition called pericardial effusion. Pericardial effusion can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, heart failure, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of pericardial effusion may include chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, and fatigue. In some cases, pericardial effusion may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination. Diagnosis of pericardial effusion typically involves imaging tests such as echocardiography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for pericardial effusion depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, drainage of the fluid, or surgery.，，，。
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) breaks off from a vein in the leg, arm, or pelvis and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs. The clot can block one or more of the small blood vessels in the lungs, which can lead to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the lungs. The symptoms of pulmonary embolism can vary depending on the size and location of the clot, but common symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort, coughing, and rapid heartbeat. In severe cases, pulmonary embolism can lead to shock, respiratory failure, and even death. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, or ultrasound. Treatment for pulmonary embolism typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the formation of new blood clots and dissolve existing ones, as well as oxygen therapy and supportive care. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the clot.
Bronchial Provocation Tests (BPTs) are a series of medical tests used to diagnose and evaluate asthma and other respiratory conditions. These tests involve exposing a person to specific substances or conditions that can trigger bronchoconstriction, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs. The goal of BPTs is to determine the specific triggers that cause bronchoconstriction and to help develop an effective treatment plan for the individual. There are several types of BPTs, including: 1. Methacholine Challenge Test: This test involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine, a substance that can cause bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. 2. Exercise Challenge Test: This test involves exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike while breathing through a mouthpiece. The exercise can cause bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. 3. Cold Air Challenge Test: This test involves breathing in cold air, which can cause bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. 4. Food Challenge Test: This test involves eating or drinking a specific food or drink that may trigger bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. BPTs are typically performed in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare provider. The results of the tests can help guide the development of an individualized treatment plan for the person's specific condition.
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP) is a type of lung disease characterized by the formation of granulation tissue in the lungs, which can lead to the development of small, round opacities on chest X-rays or CT scans. The term "cryptogenic" refers to the fact that the cause of the disease is unknown or unexplained. COP is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and a ruling out of other possible causes of the lung disease. Symptoms of COP may include cough, fever, and shortness of breath, and the disease can affect people of all ages and both genders. Treatment for COP typically involves the use of corticosteroids, which can help reduce inflammation and improve lung function. In some cases, other medications or therapies may also be used to manage symptoms or address underlying causes of the disease. While COP can be a serious condition, it is generally treatable and most people with the disease are able to recover fully with appropriate treatment.
Tracheal stenosis is a medical condition in which the trachea (windpipe) becomes narrowed or blocked, making it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or scarring. Symptoms of tracheal stenosis may include difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Treatment options for tracheal stenosis may include medications, breathing exercises, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.
Chest pain, also known as angina, is a common symptom experienced by individuals with heart disease. It is a sensation of discomfort, pressure, squeezing, or burning in the chest that can radiate to the neck, jaw, arms, or back. Chest pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, or physical exertion. However, it can also be a sign of a serious medical condition, such as a heart attack or aortic dissection. In the medical field, chest pain is typically evaluated by a healthcare provider through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), stress test, or coronary angiogram. Treatment for chest pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
List of causes of shortness of breath
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- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) is an attack of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occurs at night. (wikipedia.org)
- Dyspnea can come in many forms, but it is commonly known as shortness of breath or having difficulty breathing. (wikipedia.org)
- Learn more about risks for dyspnea/shortness of breath. (brighamandwomens.org)
- What are the causes of dyspnea/shortness of breath? (brighamandwomens.org)
- For example, if dyspnea is caused by pleural effusion , draining fluid from inside the chest can reduce shortness of breath. (brighamandwomens.org)
- What medication is used to treat dyspnea/shortness of breath? (brighamandwomens.org)
- How can patients manage dyspnea/shortness of breath? (brighamandwomens.org)
- Can relaxation exercises help with dyspnea/shortness of breath? (brighamandwomens.org)
- Shortness of breath, or dyspnea is a condition of the cardio-pulmonary system which may be caused by, for example, a heart or lung disease, or physical load. (ieee.org)
- Dyspnea - Difficulty BREATHING or shortness of breath. (beltina.org)
- Also called "shortness of breath," dyspnea can be a temporary condition due to intense exercise or physical exertion, or it can be a symptom of another-perhaps more serious-medical condition. (pregistry.com)
- SPO 94% with no emergency signs (chest pain, dyspnoea, shortness of breath, altered mental status)- normal reading. (who.int)
- Since paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea occurs mainly because of heart or lung problems, common risk factors include those that affect the function of the heart and lungs. (wikipedia.org)
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is a serious medical symptom that can develop into worsening conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Many tests can be done in order to evaluate the cause of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. (wikipedia.org)
- With paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea specifically, it is felt while sleeping and causes a person to wake up after about 1 to 2 hours of sleep. (wikipedia.org)
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is a common symptom of several heart conditions such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, in addition to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
Perception of dyspnea2
- The perception of dyspnea is theorized to be a complicated connection between peripheral receptors, neural pathways, and the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike those for other types of noxious stimuli, there are no specialized dyspnea receptors (although MRI studies have identified a few specific areas in the midbrain that may mediate perception of dyspnea). (msdmanuals.com)
- As a subjective symptom self-reported by people, dyspnea is difficult to characterize since its severity cannot be measured. (wikipedia.org)
- Dyspnea affects about 25% of people in the ambulatory care setting and is a common symptom of many underlying conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Dyspnea is a subjective symptom, meaning it can only be expressed by the person experiencing it, and it is imperative in diagnosis to distinguish it from other breathing problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Physicians need to recognize the cause of dyspnea and know how to treat it, ensuring that patients can cope effectively with this distressing symptom. (who.int)
- With three sections spanning the mechanisms of dyspnea, measurement and assessment strategies, and management techniques, this book provides the vital information needed to understand this complex symptom and will be invaluable to pulmonologists and all healthcare professionals who care for patients with this distressing and disabling problem. (who.int)
- Relaxation, meditation and other techniques to manage your emotions may help decrease the severity of dyspnea. (brighamandwomens.org)
- Severity can be determined by assessing the activity level required to cause dyspnea (eg, dyspnea at rest is more severe than dyspnea only when climbing stairs). (msdmanuals.com)
- Table I. - Clinical signs of severity in the presence of dyspnea. (medicinus.net)
- We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Neurophysiological model / Mahler -- Neuroimaging / Evans -- Gender/aging / Guenette -- Pregnancy/obesity / Jensen -- Dyspnea in COPD / O'Donnell -- Dyspnea in asthma and restrictive lung disease / Laveneziana -- Domains of dyspnea measurement / Parshall -- Longitudinal changes in dyspnea / Oga -- The measurement of dyspnea in clinical trials / Hareendran -- Anxiety, depression, and panic / von Leupoldt -- Chronic dyspnea / Gifford -- Bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids / O'Donnell -- Oxygen / Goldstein -- Pulmonary rehabilitation / Lareau -- Other treatments / Mahler -- Palliative care / Abernethy. (who.int)
- With the high prevalence of chronic pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, and interstitial lung disease, it is important to understand the mechanisms, measurement, and management of dyspnea, which is the patien*t's primary complaint. (who.int)
- Equine asthma is a very common cause of chronic dyspnea, while Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) and viral and bacterial infections are usually acute. (vetster.com)
- If dyspnea occurs regardless of activity, the animal may suffer from equine asthma or other chronic conditions. (vetster.com)
- Cost-effectiveness of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in patients with acute dyspnea. (bmj.com)
- Q In patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute dyspnoea, is a diagnostic strategy based on rapid measurement of B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations more cost effective than conventional diagnosis? (bmj.com)
- 452 patients (mean age 71 y, 58% men) who presented to the ED with acute dyspnoea. (bmj.com)
- Sudden acute dyspnea could be an indicator of a life-threatening condition and as such must be treated as an emergency. (vetster.com)
- Dyspnea that has developed recently is categorized as acute, while chronic dyspnea has persisted for longer than several days. (vetster.com)
- Cause and evaluation of chronic dyspnea in a pulmonary disease clinic. (msdmanuals.com)
- Dyspnea associated with cardiovascular or pulmonary disease may lessen slightly with pulmonary rehabilitation and improved physical conditioning but typically does not improve substantially unless the underlying disease condition improves. (beltina.org)
- CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) and HEART FAILURE are the two most common causes of dyspnea. (beltina.org)
- Dyspnea occurs when the body does not receive enough oxygen. (beltina.org)
- The most important variable with dyspnea is when it occurs. (vetster.com)
- If dyspnea occurs also at rest it might be an indicator of heaves. (vetster.com)
- Observations about when dyspnea occurs are helpful for narrowing down the diagnosis. (vetster.com)
- Dyspnoea is characterised as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity [and] vary in their unpleasantness and in their emotional and behavioral significance" [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Dyspnea is defined by American Thoracic Society as a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consist of qualitatively distinct sensation that vary in intensity. (umk.pl)
- People presenting with dyspnea usually show signs of rapid and shallow breathing, use of their respiratory accessory muscles, and may have underlying conditions causing the dyspnea, such as cardiac or pulmonary diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- PND can be explained by mechanisms similar to those of orthopnea and typical dyspnea. (wikipedia.org)
- Contains new chapters on dyspnea based on gender, with the aged, in pregnancy and obesity, and in palliative care settings providing guidance for these challenging special populations. (who.int)
- Receptors in the chest wall and central airways, as well receptors in the respiratory center of the central nervous system, produce an increased requirement for ventilation which is not matched by respiratory output, resulting in the conscious recognition of dyspnea. (wikipedia.org)
- Respiratory muscles and vagal afferent neural pathways relay information from the chest wall/airways to the central nervous system, facilitating the presentation of dyspnea. (wikipedia.org)
- Dyspnea can also be an indicator of a condition not directly related to the respiratory system. (vetster.com)
- Perceptual sensitivity for dyspnea (i.e. breathlessness) is often quantified using the slope of magnitude estimations plotted against the physical stimulus intensities of respiratory loads. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
- Dyspnea is difficulty breathing. (vetster.com)
- If poor fitness or obesity are contributing to dyspnea, weight loss and increased activity should improve your episodes of dyspnea. (pregistry.com)
- A case of unexplained dyspnoea: when lung function testing matters! (ers-education.org)
- Dyspnea: Mechanisms, Measurement and Management, Third Edition, has been completely updated and revised to help pulmonologists and all those interested in lung disease understand the complex nature of dyspnea. (who.int)
- Presents comprehensive coverage of dyspnea in chronic pulmonary diseases. (who.int)
- The physicians who treat patients at the Dyspnea Center at Brigham and Women's Hospital provide expert care, collaborating with specialists in pulmonary and critical care medicine, thoracic surgery, cardiovascular medicine, neurology and cardiovascular and thoracic imaging. (brighamandwomens.org)
- Dr. D only experienced dyspnea after running 3 miles, which may seem perfectly reasonable in most patients! (cooperhealth.org)
- In congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction will also increase pulmonary congestion, so further congestion caused by the redistribution of blood volume upon laying down will worsen any dyspnea. (wikipedia.org)
- There is growing awareness that dyspnoea, like pain, is a multidimensional experience, but measurement instruments have not kept pace. (ersjournals.com)
- This complexity is not evaluated adequately by current measurement methods for the assessment of dyspnoea, and it is often difficult to compare results between laboratory and clinical studies because they typically use different dyspnoea instruments. (ersjournals.com)
- Offers the insight of international experts and key opinion leaders who provide trusted, authoritative information Includes key guidelines on the multi-dimensional measurement, assessment, and management of dyspnea to ensure best practice. (who.int)
- Oxygen therapy should perhaps be considered following a trial of opioid or anxiolytic agent to control dyspnoea. (copdx.org.au)
- This study investigated whether this slope and its stability varies as a function of (1) affective versus sensory aspects of dyspnea, and (2) interindividual differences in Fear of Suffocation. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
- What if I have dyspnea during pregnancy? (pregistry.com)
- In addition to the redistribution of blood in the body, most cases of dyspnea are accompanied by an increase in the overall work of breathing, often caused by abnormal pulmonary mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
- The MDP assesses dyspnoea during a specific time or a particular activity (focus period) and is designed to examine individual items that are theoretically aligned with separate mechanisms. (ersjournals.com)
- There is increasing recognition that dyspnoea is a multidimensional experience, and that at least some of the dimensional variation results from different afferent mechanisms [ 2 - 4 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Test-retest reliabilities were low to moderate suggesting that perceptual sensitivity to dyspnea is less stable than commonly assumed. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
- Physicians should note how much dyspnea has changed from the patient's usual state. (msdmanuals.com)
- Etiology reference Dyspnea is unpleasant or uncomfortable breathing. (msdmanuals.com)
- Treatment varies according to the underlying condition causing dyspnea. (vetster.com)
- Although dyspnea is a relatively common problem, the pathophysiology of the uncomfortable sensation of breathing is poorly understood. (msdmanuals.com)
- The experience of dyspnea likely results from a complex interaction between chemoreceptor stimulation, mechanical abnormalities in breathing, and the perception of those abnormalities by the central nervous system. (msdmanuals.com)
- Although dyspnea is a relatively common problem, the pathophysiology. (msdmanuals.com)
- Dyspnea is treated by addressing the underlying disease or condition. (brighamandwomens.org)
- For the topic Dyspnea , go here . (pregistry.com)