Speech Production Measurement
Speech Articulation Tests
Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases
Metal Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn
Communication Aids for Disabled
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine. (1/171)Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified. (+info)
Isolated dysarthria due to extracerebellar lacunar stroke: a central monoparesis of the tongue. (2/171)OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of dysarthria can preferentially be studied in patients with the rare lacunar stroke syndrome of "isolated dysarthria". METHODS: A single study was carried out on seven consecutive patients with sudden onset of isolated dysarthria due to single ischaemic lesion. The localisation of the lesion was identified using MRI. The corticolingual, cortico-orofacial, and corticospinal tract functions were investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Corticopontocerebellar tract function was assessed using 99mTc hexamethylpropylene amine oxime-single photon emission computerised tomography (HMPAO-SPECT) in six patients. Sensory functions were evaluated clinically and by somatosensory evoked potentials. RESULTS: Brain MRI showed the lesions to be located in the corona radiata (n=4) and the internal capsule (n=2). No morphological lesion was identified in one patient. Corticolingual tract function was impaired in all patients. In four patients with additional cortico-orofacial tract dysfunction, dysarthria did not differ from that in patients with isolated corticolingual tract dysfunction. Corticospinal tract functions were normal in all patients. HMPAO-SPECT showed no cerebellar diaschisis, suggesting unimpaired corticopontocerebellar tract function. Sensory functions were not affected. CONCLUSION: Interruption of the corticolingual pathways to the tongue is crucial in the pathogenesis of isolated dysarthria after extracerebellar lacunar stroke. (+info)
Regulation of parkinsonian speech volume: the effect of interlocuter distance. (3/171)This study examined the automatic regulation of speech volume over distance in hypophonic patients with Parkinson's disease and age and sex matched controls. There were two speech settings; conversation, and the recitation of sequential material (for example, counting). The perception of interlocuter speech volume by patients with Parkinson's disease and controls over varying distances was also examined, and found to be slightly discrepant. For speech production, it was found that controls significantly increased overall speech volume for conversation relative to that for sequential material. Patients with Parkinson's disease were unable to achieve this overall increase for conversation, and consistently spoke at a softer volume than controls at all distances (intercept reduction). However, patients were still able to increase volume for greater distances in a similar way to controls for conversation and sequential material, thus showing a normal pattern of volume regulation (slope similarity). It is suggested that speech volume regulation is intact in Parkinson's disease, but rather the gain is reduced. These findings are reminiscent of skeletal motor control studies in Parkinson's disease, in which the amplitude of movement is diminished but the relation with another factor is preserved (stride length increases as cadence-that is, stepping rate, increases). (+info)
Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute lacunar syndromes. A clinical-radiological correlation study. (4/171)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical-radiological correlation studies in lacunar syndromes have been handicapped by the low sensitivity of CT and standard MRI for acute small-vessel infarction and their difficulty in differentiating between acute and chronic lesions. METHODS: We prospectively studied 43 patients presenting with a classic lacunar syndrome using diffusion-weighted MRI, a technique with a high sensitivity and specificity for acute small-vessel infarction. RESULTS: All patients were scanned within 6 days of stroke onset. An acute infarction was identified in all patients. Pure motor stroke was associated with lesions in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), pons, corona radiata, and medial medulla; ataxic hemipareses with lesions in the PLIC, corona radiata, pons, and insular cortex; sensorimotor stroke with lesions in the PLIC and lateral medulla; dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome with lesions in the PLIC and caudate nucleus; and pure sensory stroke with a lesion in the thalamus. Supratentorial lesions extended into neighboring anatomic structures in 48% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lacunar syndromes can be caused by lesions in a variety of locations, and specific locations can cause a variety of lacunar syndromes. Extension of lesions into neighboring structures in patients with lacunar syndromes appears to be more frequent than previously described in studies using CT and standard MRI. (+info)
Tumour type and size are high risk factors for the syndrome of "cerebellar" mutism and subsequent dysarthria. (5/171)OBJECTIVE: "Cerebellar mutis" and subsequent dysarthria (MSD) is a documented complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. In this prospective study the following risk factors for MSD were assessed: type, size and site of the tumour; hydrocephalus at presentation and after surgery, cerebellar incision site, postoperative infection, and cerebellar swelling. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 42 children with a cerebellar tumour, speech and neuroradiological studies (CT and MRI) were systematically analysed preoperatively and postoperatively. Speech was assessed using the Mayo Clinic lists and the severity of dysarthria using the Michigan rating scale. RESULTS: Twelve children (29%) developed MSD postoperatively. The type of tumour, midline localisation, and vermal incision were significant single independent risk factors. In addition, an interdependency of possible risk factors (tumour>5 cm, medulloblastoma) was found. CONCLUSION: MSD often occurs after paediatric cerebellar tumour removal and is most likely after removal of a medulloblastoma with a maximum lesion diameter>5 cm. (+info)
Knowing no fear. (6/171)People with brain injuries involving the amygdala are often poor at recognizing facial expressions of fear, but the extent to which this impairment compromises other signals of the emotion of fear has not been clearly established. We investigated N.M., a person with bilateral amygdala damage and a left thalamic lesion, who was impaired at recognizing fear from facial expressions. N.M. showed an equivalent deficit affecting fear recognition from body postures and emotional sounds. His deficit of fear recognition was not linked to evidence of any problem in recognizing anger (a common feature in other reports), but for his everyday experience of emotion N.M. reported reduced anger and fear compared with neurologically normal controls. These findings show a specific deficit compromising the recognition of the emotion of fear from a wide range of social signals, and suggest a possible relationship of this type of impairment with alterations of emotional experience. (+info)
Episodic ataxia: a case report and review of literature. (7/171)This report describes the clinical features of a 29 year female presenting with a 3 years history of episodes of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus lasting 3-5 days, recurring almost every month. Sleep disturbance and buzzing in ears were noted 3-4 days before each episode. No other precipitant factor was present. Family history was negative. She was diagnosed as a case of episodic ataxia type-2 and was successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. She was asymptomatic at 2 year followup. (+info)
Parietal cheiro-oral syndrome. (8/171)Cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal lesion has been reported in conjuction with a brain tumor, infarction and migraine. Only six reports of cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal infarction have been reported to date. We treated a 45-year-old woman with cheiro-oral syndrome due to a parietal infarction. Her sensory disturbance was characterized by paresthesia in the lower face and hand on the left side, and severe involvement of stereognosis and graphesthesia in the left hand. The pathogenesis of parietal cheiro-oral syndrome is discussed. (+info)
Dysarthria is a speech disorder characterized by difficulty in producing clear speech due to weakness, paralysis, or poor coordination of the muscles involved in speech production. It can result from a variety of neurological conditions, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or brain injury, as well as from certain genetic disorders or muscle diseases. Dysarthria can affect the clarity, volume, pitch, and rate of speech, and may also cause slurred or slow speech, difficulty in swallowing, and changes in voice quality. Treatment for dysarthria may involve speech therapy, which can help individuals improve their speech clarity and communication skills.
Speech disorders, also known as speech and language disorders, are conditions that affect a person's ability to communicate effectively using speech, language, and/or voice. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, neurological, developmental, environmental, and medical conditions. Speech disorders can affect different aspects of communication, such as the ability to produce sounds, form words and sentences, understand spoken and written language, and use nonverbal communication. Some common types of speech disorders include: 1. Articulation disorders: These disorders affect the production of speech sounds, such as lisping or difficulty pronouncing certain sounds. 2. Fluency disorders: These disorders affect the flow and rhythm of speech, such as stuttering or repeating sounds. 3. Voice disorders: These disorders affect the quality, pitch, and volume of a person's voice, such as hoarseness or loss of voice. 4. Language disorders: These disorders affect a person's ability to understand and use language, such as difficulty with grammar, vocabulary, or comprehension. Speech disorders can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, including their ability to communicate with others, participate in social activities, and perform academic or occupational tasks. Treatment for speech disorders typically involves a combination of speech therapy, language therapy, and other interventions, depending on the specific type and severity of the disorder.
Ataxia is a medical condition characterized by a lack of coordination and balance, resulting in difficulty with movement and stability. It can affect various parts of the body, including the arms, legs, speech, and gait. Ataxia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, brain injuries, infections, toxins, and degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The severity of ataxia can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe, and it can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.
Articulation disorders, also known as speech sound disorders, refer to difficulties in producing speech sounds correctly. These disorders can affect the way a person pronounces individual sounds or groups of sounds, making it difficult for others to understand them. Articulation disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, hearing loss, developmental delays, and oral-motor problems. They can affect people of all ages, but are most commonly diagnosed in children. Treatment for articulation disorders typically involves speech therapy, which focuses on improving the production of speech sounds and helping the individual to communicate more effectively. Speech therapists work with the individual to identify the specific sounds that are being mispronounced and develop exercises and strategies to help them produce those sounds correctly. With consistent practice and therapy, many individuals with articulation disorders are able to improve their speech and communicate more effectively.
Mutism is a medical condition characterized by a complete or partial absence of speech. People with mutism may have difficulty initiating or maintaining conversations, and may avoid speaking altogether. Mutism can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including neurological disorders, mental health conditions, and developmental disorders. It can also be caused by physical trauma or injury to the brain or mouth, or by certain medications. Treatment for mutism depends on the underlying cause and may include speech therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, or medication.
Cerebellar Ataxia is a neurological disorder characterized by a lack of coordination and balance, resulting in difficulty with walking, speech, and other movements. It is caused by damage to the cerebellum, a part of the brain responsible for controlling movement and coordination. The symptoms of cerebellar ataxia can vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include uncoordinated movements, tremors, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and problems with fine motor skills. Cerebellar ataxia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, and degenerative diseases. Treatment for cerebellar ataxia may include physical therapy, medication, and assistive devices to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Hypoglossal nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the hypoglossal nerve, which is the twelfth cranial nerve in the human body. The hypoglossal nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of the tongue, and any damage or dysfunction to this nerve can result in a range of symptoms and complications. Some common hypoglossal nerve diseases include: 1. Hypoglossal nerve palsy: This is a condition in which the hypoglossal nerve is damaged or paralyzed, leading to weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles. This can result in difficulty swallowing, speech problems, and drooling. 2. Hypoglossal nerve tumor: A tumor that develops on the hypoglossal nerve can cause compression of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles, difficulty swallowing, and speech problems. 3. Hypoglossal nerve injury: Trauma to the head or neck can cause injury to the hypoglossal nerve, leading to symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles, difficulty swallowing, and speech problems. 4. Hypoglossal nerve inflammation: Inflammation of the hypoglossal nerve, such as that caused by an infection or autoimmune disorder, can lead to symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles, difficulty swallowing, and speech problems. Treatment for hypoglossal nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or repair an injury to the nerve. In other cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms and improve function.
Metal metabolism, inborn errors refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to properly regulate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of essential metals such as iron, copper, zinc, and manganese. These metals play important roles in various biological processes, including energy production, DNA synthesis, and immune function. Inborn errors of metal metabolism can result in a range of clinical manifestations, depending on the specific metal affected and the severity of the disorder. For example, disorders of iron metabolism can cause anemia, fatigue, and developmental delays, while disorders of copper metabolism can cause neurological problems, liver disease, and skin pigmentation abnormalities. Diagnosis of inborn errors of metal metabolism typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, and genetic analysis. Treatment may involve dietary modifications, supplementation with the deficient metal, or chelation therapy to remove excess metal from the body. Early diagnosis and appropriate management are important to prevent or minimize the long-term consequences of these disorders.
"Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn" refers to a group of neurological disorders that are caused by genetic mutations or inherited metabolic disorders that affect the normal functioning of the brain. These disorders can affect various parts of the brain, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem, and can result in a wide range of symptoms, including developmental delays, seizures, intellectual disability, movement disorders, and behavioral problems. Examples of inborn metabolic brain diseases include phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), and galactosemia. These disorders are caused by a deficiency or abnormality in enzymes that are necessary for the metabolism of certain amino acids or sugars, leading to the accumulation of toxic substances in the brain. Inborn metabolic brain diseases are typically diagnosed through newborn screening tests or genetic testing. Treatment may involve dietary restrictions, supplementation with missing enzymes or nutrients, and in some cases, medications or other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing long-term neurological damage and improving outcomes for affected individuals.
In the medical field, "Communication Aids for Disabled" refers to devices or tools that are designed to help individuals with disabilities communicate more effectively. These aids can include a wide range of devices, such as hearing aids, speech-generating devices, sign language interpreters, and alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) devices. Hearing aids are devices that amplify sound and can help individuals with hearing loss to better hear and understand speech. Speech-generating devices are electronic devices that allow individuals with speech impairments to communicate by selecting words or phrases from a pre-programmed vocabulary. Sign language interpreters are trained professionals who translate spoken language into sign language, allowing individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to communicate with others. AAC devices are a broad category of devices that can include anything from simple picture boards to complex computer-based systems. These devices can be used by individuals with a wide range of disabilities, including those who have difficulty speaking or who have difficulty with written language. Overall, communication aids for disabled individuals are an important part of medical care, as they can help to improve communication and quality of life for individuals with disabilities.
Cranial nerve diseases refer to disorders or injuries that affect the cranial nerves, which are a group of 12 nerves that originate from the brain and control various functions of the head and neck. These nerves are responsible for controlling movement, sensation, and other functions such as hearing, taste, and smell. Cranial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, tumors, trauma, degenerative diseases, and genetic disorders. Some common examples of cranial nerve diseases include: 1. Bell's palsy: A condition that affects the seventh cranial nerve, causing facial paralysis or weakness on one side of the face. 2. Meningitis: An infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, which can affect any of the cranial nerves. 3. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition that causes severe pain in the face, typically triggered by simple activities such as chewing or talking. 4. Multiple sclerosis: A chronic autoimmune disorder that can affect any part of the body, including the cranial nerves, causing symptoms such as numbness, weakness, and vision problems. 5. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the eighth cranial nerve, which controls hearing and balance. 6. Optic neuritis: An inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss or double vision. 7. Guillain-Barré syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis, including weakness in the cranial nerves that control eye movement and facial expression. Treatment for cranial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms experienced by the patient. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, or other interventions.
Cerebral infarction, also known as a stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted, causing brain tissue to die. This can happen when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked by a clot or when a blood vessel bursts and leaks blood into the surrounding brain tissue. Cerebral infarction can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the affected area of the brain. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Cerebral infarction is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment to minimize the risk of long-term disability or death. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
Apraxia of speech
Cerebral palsy sport classification
List of OMIM disorder codes
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Harry Lee Parker
X-linked sideroblastic anemia and spinocerebellar ataxia
Glossary of psychiatry
Athetoid cerebral palsy
Augmentative and alternative communication
Lateral medullary syndrome
National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale
Dysarthria: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Dysarthria (Slurred Speech): Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment
Difference between apraxia and dysarthria | Difference Between
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- Without adequate levels of vitamin E, individuals with AVED have neurological issues like trouble coordinating movements (ataxia) and speech (dysarthria), loss of reflexes in the legs (lower limb areflexia) and a loss of sensation in the limbs (peripheral neuropathy). (rarediseases.org)
- There is progressive ataxia, dysarthria, decreased proprioception/vibration sense and muscle weakness. (bristol.ac.uk)
People with dysarthria5
- People with dysarthria have trouble making certain sounds or words. (medlineplus.gov)
- Surgery may help people with dysarthria. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some people with dysarthria have only minor speech problems . (webmd.com)
- Speech therapy helps some people with dysarthria. (msdmanuals.com)
- Because the ability to understand and use language is not usually affected, most people with dysarthria can read and write normally. (msdmanuals.com)
Types of dysarthria2
Apraxia and dysarthria1
- I have advanced training in Stroke/Brain Injury Rehabilitation and have been treating clients who have aphasia, apraxia, and dysarthria for 18 years, in both public and private settings. (asapp.ca)
- Depending on the cause of dysarthria, symptoms may improve, stay the same, or get worse slowly or quickly. (medlineplus.gov)
- Treatment will depend on the cause of your dysarthria, the type, and your symptoms. (webmd.com)
- To diagnose dysarthria, a doctor asks the person about symptoms and does a physical examination. (msdmanuals.com)
- symptoms improved slightly during hospitalization, although dysarthria and choreoathetosis continued. (cdc.gov)
- Lesions of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) cause spastic dysarthria where there is continued contraction of muscles whereas lesions of the peripheral nervous system cause flaccid dysarthria where there is complete relaxation of muscles. (differencebetween.net)
- Dysarthria in Multiple Sclerosis. (webmd.com)
- Method: Data from 6 children with CP and a clinical diagnosis of moderate dysarthria were compared with data from 9 TD children using a multiple speech subsystems approach. (ed.gov)
- Thoroughly standardised and suitable for a wide age spread of clients, this well established test is used for the differential description and diagnosis of dysarthria. (winslowresources.com)
- Normative data is reported within the manual for adults without dysarthria as well as patients with specific dysarthrias associated with confirmed medical diagnosis. (winslowresources.com)
- In a person with dysarthria, a nerve, brain, or muscle disorder makes it difficult to use or control the muscles of the mouth, tongue, larynx, or vocal cords. (medlineplus.gov)
- Dysarthria caused by a stroke or brain injury will not get worse, and may improve. (medlineplus.gov)
- Dysarthria is a condition in which the part of your brain that controls your lips, tongue , vocal cords, and diaphragm doesn't work well. (webmd.com)
- Dysarthria may be caused by a lesion in the brain (tumour), nerve damage during surgery, neuromuscular diseases (myasthenia gravis, Parkinson's disease) and due to toxic injury by alcohol. (differencebetween.net)
- American Stroke Association: "Steps to Improve Communication for Survivors with Dysarthria. (webmd.com)
- A person with dysarthria may also drool and have problems chewing or swallowing. (medlineplus.gov)
- Slurred speech, or dysarthria, is a common disorder that affects much of the elderly population. (carefecthomecareservices.com)
- The disorder that causes dysarthria can also cause difficulty chewing and swallowing. (msdmanuals.com)
- If the clearness or articulation of "pataka" is reduced, for example due to dysfunction of either the muscles or the cranial nerves, this results in a motor speech disorder referred to as dysarthria. (epilepsygenetics.net)
- Dysarthria after surgery to the tongue or voice box should not get worse, and may improve with therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Treatment for apraxia is by speech and occupational therapy while dysarthria can be corrected by treating the underlying neurological cause. (differencebetween.net)
- For dysarthria or mutism, therapy can include the use of technical means for augmentative and alternative communication, such as speech-generating devices. (nih.gov)
- Another type of communication problem, dysarthria, encompasses a group of motor speech disorders caused by a disturbance in the neuromuscular control of speech. (medscape.com)
- Dysarthria is disrupted muscular control due to lesions of either the central or the peripheral nervous systems, meaning there will be difficulty in pronunciation of words. (differencebetween.net)
- Aspects of speech like articulation, phonation, resonance, rate and respiration are affected in dysarthria whereas all these are almost normal in apraxia. (differencebetween.net)
- In dysarthria, characterized by difficulties with articulation, "pataka" still comes out - however, it may sound mumbled or slurred. (epilepsygenetics.net)
- Depending on its cause, dysarthria may develop slowly or occur suddenly. (medlineplus.gov)
- In dysarthria, there is an error in transmission of the impulses controlling motor movements for speech. (differencebetween.net)
- The video presented by Turner and collaborators present a patient from one of the families with prominent dysarthria , giving the proband's speech a distinct quality ( link to video from Neurology website). (epilepsygenetics.net)
- With data collection ongoing, these findings may contribute towards the goal of developing an objective measure of dysarthria for use in clinical practice and research. (neurologylive.com)
- American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: "Dysarthria. (webmd.com)
University of Roc1
- University of Rochester Medical Center: "Dysarthria. (webmd.com)
- Sit close enough so that you and the person who has dysarthria can use visual cues. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hence, often there are associated problems of difficulty in swallowing food in patients suffering from dysarthria. (differencebetween.net)
- Dysarthria has not been described in GRIN2A patients before. (epilepsygenetics.net)
- It was not described before that affected patients also had dysarthria. (epilepsygenetics.net)
- Rehabilitation of impaired speech function (dysarthria, dysglossia). (webmd.com)
- Overall, the results support the need for further study of listener-based manipulations to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the observed perceptual benefits for each dysarthria type. (elsevierpure.com)
- Dysarthria is loss of the ability to articulate words normally. (msdmanuals.com)
- Dysarthria is the inability to speak due to damage to the motor speech areas of the cerebrum. (differencebetween.net)
- Dysarthria results from a neurological injury of the motor component of the motor speech system i.e. the neuromuscular system involved in talking. (differencebetween.net)
- Merck Manual Consumer Version: "Dysarthria. (webmd.com)
- Slurred speech or difficulty speaking (dysarthria) may also be present. (rarediseases.org)
- In the dimension of the nervous system , this is miles away from the regions that may result in dysarthria when lesioned. (epilepsygenetics.net)
- National Health Services: "Dysarthria (difficulty speaking). (webmd.com)
- People who have dysarthria produce sounds that approximate what they mean and that are in the correct order. (msdmanuals.com)