Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Postthrombotic Syndrome: A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Protein S Deficiency: An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Vena Cava Filters: Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Postphlebitic Syndrome: A condition characterized by a chronically swollen limb, often a leg with stasis dermatitis and ulcerations. This syndrome can appear soon after phlebitis or years later. Postphlebitic syndrome is the result of damaged or incompetent venous valves in the limbs. Distended, tortuous VARICOSE VEINS are usually present. Leg pain may occur after long period of standing.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices: Instruments that generate intermittent forces, uniformed or graduated, to facilitate the emptying of VEINS. These devices are used to reduce limb EDEMA and prevent venous THROMBOEMBOLISM, such as deep vein thrombosis in the legs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Activated Protein C Resistance: A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Antithrombin III Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Enoxaparin: Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Protein C Deficiency: An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Splenorenal Shunt, Surgical: Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CAVERNOUS SINUS of the brain. Infections of the paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, and THROMBOPHILIA are associated conditions. Clinical manifestations include dysfunction of cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, marked periorbital swelling, chemosis, fever, and visual loss. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p711)Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Hypersplenism: Condition characterized by splenomegaly, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells in the presence of a normal or hyperactive bone marrow, and the potential for reversal by splenectomy.Nadroparin: A heparin fraction with a mean molecular weight of 4500 daltons. It is isolated from porcine mucosal heparin and used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Gravity Suits: Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Cranial Fossa, Anterior: The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sclerotherapy: Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Lateral Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the LATERAL SINUSES. This condition is often associated with ear infections (OTITIS MEDIA or MASTOIDITIS) without antibiotic treatment. In developed nations, lateral sinus thrombosis can result from CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; THROMBOPHILIA; and other conditions. Clinical features include HEADACHE; VERTIGO; and increased intracranial pressure.Popliteal Cyst: A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Superior Sagittal Sinus: The long large endothelium-lined venous channel on the top outer surface of the brain. It receives blood from a vein in the nasal cavity, runs backwards, and gradually increases in size as blood drains from veins of the brain and the DURA MATER. Near the lower back of the CRANIUM, the superior sagittal sinus deviates to one side (usually the right) and continues on as one of the TRANSVERSE SINUSES.PolyvinylsDoppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Compression Bandages: Strips of elastic material used to apply pressure to body parts to control EDEMA and aid circulation.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Behcet Syndrome: Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Dalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Early Ambulation: Procedure to accelerate the ability of a patient to walk or move about by reducing the time to AMBULATION. It is characterized by a shorter period of hospitalization or recumbency than is normally practiced.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Fusobacterium necrophorum: A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Thrombocythemia, Essential: A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic: A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Sclerosing Solutions: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Aseptic thrombi can also form in the dural venous sinuses and/or the cerebral veins draining into them. Most patients present ... Puerperal women are liable to thrombosis, especially thrombophlebitis of the leg and pelvic veins. ... Kalbag R M, Woolf A L (1967) Cerebral Venous Thrombosis, with Special Reference to Primary Aseptic Thrombosis. Oxford, Oxford ... Lanska D J, Kryscio R J (2000) Risk factors for peripartum and postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. Stroke 31 ...
... such as extremity phlebitis or dural sinus vein thrombosis. Patients with a well-documented (i.e., present at least twice) ... Thrombosis is treated with anticoagulants (LMWHs and warfarin). Antonia Joussen; T.W. Gardner; B. Kirchhof (23 October 2007). ... Patients with no history of thrombosis and a lupus anticoagulant should probably be observed. Current evidence suggests that ... Treatment for a lupus anticoagulant is usually undertaken in the context of documented thrombosis, ...
Veins of orbit. Cavernous sinus Cavernous sinus thrombosis Dural venous sinuses Yasuda; et al. (Jun 2008). "Microsurgical ... Superior ophthalmic vein Inferior ophthalmic vein Superficial middle cerebral vein Inferior cerebral vein Sphenoparietal sinus ... There are also connections with the pterygoid plexus of veins via inferior ophthalmic vein, deep facial vein and emissary veins ... Superior and inferior ophthalmic veins Sphenoparietal sinus Superficial middle cerebral veins The veins of exit are to the ...
The cause of vein thrombosis is explained by venous drainage of the frontal sinus, which occurs through diploic veins, which ... communicate with the dural venous plexus; septic thrombi can potentially evolve from foci within the frontal sinus and ... Pott's puffy tumor can be associated with cortical vein thrombosis, epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and brain abscess. ...
For example patients that have spinal dural fistulas can experience venous hypertension caused by thrombosis of these veins. ... Anterior spinal veins (also known as anterior coronal veins and anterior median spinal veins) are veins that receive blood from ... Together, these two sets of veins also collect blood from intramedullary radial veins as well as other veins. They are drained ... After their fusion the group of central veins drains its combined contents into an anterior spinal vein. These veins can ...
Other common causes of dural sinus thrombosis include tracking of infection through the ophthalmic vein in orbital cellulitis. ... While rare, dural sinus thrombosis may lead to hemorrhagic infarction or cerebral oedema with serious consequences including ... The dural venous sinuses (also called dural sinuses, cerebral sinuses, or cranial sinuses) are venous channels found between ... and mainly empty into the internal jugular vein. The walls of the dural venous sinuses are composed of dura mater lined with ...
"Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus ... Ferro JM, Canhão P, Bousser MG, Stam J, Barinagarrementeria F (2005). "Cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis in elderly ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of acute thrombosis (a blood clot) in the dural venous sinuses, which ... The veins of the brain, both the superficial veins and the deep venous system, empty into the dural venous sinuses, which carry ...
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. It most commonly affects leg veins, such as the ... is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by a thrombus. Symptoms may include ... Thrombosis may occur in veins (venous thrombosis) or in arteries. Venous thrombosis leads to congestion of the affected part of ... In deep vein thrombosis this manifests as pain, redness, and swelling; in retinal vein occlusion this may result in macular ...
Cerebral vein thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis, hepatic vein, or other intra-abdominal thrombotic events. Jugular vein ... The location of the clot is often unusual or found in a spot in the body that is uncommon such as the dural sinus. Patients ... Typically blood clots develop in the deep veins of the lower extremities, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or as a blood clot in the ... Central retinal vein and/or central retinal arterial thrombosis. Small vessel thrombosis affecting one or more organs, systems ...
Southwick, FS; Richardson EP, Jr; Swartz, MN (March 1986). "Septic thrombosis of the dural venous sinuses". Medicine. 65 (2): ... It was previously thought that veins in the area were valveless and that this was the major cause of the retrograde spread, ... "Cavernous sinus thrombosis - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. NHS Choices. Retrieved 27 May 2016. "Cavernous sinus thrombosis: ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain ...
... which drains into a larger vein. The drains will either drain into a Dural venous sinuses or into a deep ependymal vein. It ... Most common locations for the DVA: DVA can be diagnosed through the Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with collateral drainage. ... On imaging it is seen as a number of small deep parenchymal veins converging toward a larger collecting vein. DVA can be ... Demyelinating disease has also been found to enlarge Medulla veins. D'Souza, Donna. "Developmental venous anomaly , Radiology ...
Between 15 and 25 percent of deep vein thrombosis is caused by cancer (often by a tumor compressing a vein), and it may be the ... Some diagnostic procedures, such as lumbar puncture (see post-dural-puncture headache), venipuncture, paracentesis, and ... The superior vena cava (a large vein carrying circulating, de-oxygenated blood into the heart) may be compressed by a tumor, ...
Deep vein thrombosis is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a deep vein. This is usually the veins of the legs, although ... The coronary veins all empty into the coronary sinus which empties into the right atrium. The dural venous sinuses within the ... Communicating veins are veins that directly connect superficial veins to deep veins. Pulmonary veins are a set of veins that ... the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein, the posterior vein of the left ventricle, and the vein ...
Type III dural AV fistulas drain directly into subarachnoid veins. These veins can form aneurysms and bleed. Type III dural ... occurring in response to thrombosis and collateral revascularization of a venous sinus. Cerebral angiography is the diagnostic ... Type I dural arteriovenous fistulas are supplied by meningeal arteries and drain into a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. ... The high pressure within a Type II dural AV fistula causes blood to flow in a retrograde fashion into subarachnoid veins which ...
Catheter misplaced into a vein (uncommon, less than 1 in 300). Occasionally the catheter may be misplaced into an epidural vein ... This may cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to leak out into the epidural space, which may in turn cause a post dural puncture ... such as subdural hematoma or cerebral venous thrombosis. Delayed onset of breastfeeding and shorter duration of breastfeeding: ... Bloody tap (occurs in about 1 in 30-50). Epidural veins can be inadvertently punctured with the needle during the procedure. ...
Venous sinus thrombosis is the most frequent vascular manifestation in NBD followed by cortical cerebral veins thrombosis. On ... This happens in the dural venous sinuses. Stroke-like symptoms such as confusion, weakness, and dizziness may be monitored. ... The main clinical characteristic is the cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). If one experiences CVT, a clot in one of the blood ... Tunc R, Saip S, Siva A, Yazici H. Cerebral venous thrombosis is associated with major vessel disease in Behçet's syndrome. Ann ...
Neurological involvements range from aseptic meningitis to vascular thrombosis such as dural sinus thrombosis and organic brain ... psychoses deep vein thrombosis epididymitis extreme exhaustion inflammatory problems in chest and lungs mouth ulcers nervous ... Brissaud P, Laroche L, de Gramont A, Krulik M (March 1985). "Digital angiography for the diagnosis of dural sinus thrombosis in ... Fujikado T, Imagawa K (1994). "Dural sinus thrombosis in Behçet's disease--a case report". Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38 (4): 411-6. ...
Renal vein thrombosis[edit]. Main article: Renal vein thrombosis. Renal vein thrombosis is the obstruction of the renal vein by ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by ... Portal vein thrombosis[edit]. Main article: Portal vein thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis affects the hepatic portal vein, ... Deep vein thrombosis[edit]. Main article: Deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot ...
allodynia). Deep vein thrombosis Between 15 and 25 percent of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is caused by cancer (often by a tumor ... 5) Post-dural-puncture headache In some patients, subsequent leakage of CSF through the dura mater puncture causes reduced CSF ... Common symptoms include shortness of breath, swelling of the face and neck, dilation of veins in the neck and chest, and chest ... Superior vena cava syndrome The superior vena cava (a large vein carrying circulating, de-oxygenated blood into the heart) may ...
Deep vein thrombosisEdit. Main article: Deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis is a condition in which a blood clot forms ... The dural venous sinuses within the dura mater surrounding the brain receive blood from the brain and also are a point of entry ... the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein, the posterior vein of the left ventricle, and the vein ... the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein, the smallest cardiac veins, and the anterior cardiac veins. Coronary veins ...
... as well as the formation of blood clots in the veins (cerebral venous thrombosis), may all lead to weakness, loss of sensation ... and inserting a needle into the dural sac (a sac around the spinal cord) to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). When this has ...
Catheter misplaced into a vein (uncommon, less than 1 in 300). Occasionally the catheter may be misplaced into an epidural vein ... Sprigge JS, Harper SJ (2008). "Accidental dural puncture and post dural puncture headache in obstetric anaesthesia: ... such as subdural hematoma or cerebral venous thrombosis.[44] ... Accidental dural puncture with headache (common, about 1 in 100 ... This may cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to leak out into the epidural space, which may in turn cause a post dural puncture ...
Neurological involvements range from aseptic meningitis to vascular thrombosis such as dural sinus thrombosis and organic brain ... branch retinal vein occlusion (5.8%),[7] and retinal edema (6.6%).[7] However, optic atrophy was the most significant cause of ... Fujikado T, Imagawa K (1994). "Dural sinus thrombosis in Behçet's disease--a case report". Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38 (4): 411-6. ... Fujikado T, Imagawa K (1994). "Dural sinus thrombosis in Behçet's disease--a case report". Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38 (4): 411-6. ...
Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis. Results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus ... Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis in Elderly Patients. José M. Ferro, Patrícia Canhão, Marie-Germaine Bousser, Jan Stam ... Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis in Elderly Patients. José M. Ferro, Patrícia Canhão, Marie-Germaine Bousser, Jan Stam ... Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis in Elderly Patients. José M. Ferro, Patrícia Canhão, Marie-Germaine Bousser, Jan Stam ...
Dural sinus and internal jugular vein thrombosis",. abstract = "Dural sinus thrombosis (DST) has an annual incidence of 3-4 per ... Dural sinus and internal jugular vein thrombosis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Intracranial Sinus Thrombosis ... Caplan, J. M. ; Khalpey, Z. ; Gates, J. / Closed traumatic head injury : Dural sinus and internal jugular vein thrombosis. In: ... Caplan JM, Khalpey Z, Gates J. Closed traumatic head injury: Dural sinus and internal jugular vein thrombosis. Emergency ...
Management of thrombosis of the dural sinus and cerebral veins (CVT) includes treatment of the underlying condition, ... Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus ... Management of thrombosis of the dural sinus and cerebral veins (CVT) includes treatment of the underlying condition, ... Ferro JM, Canhão P, Bousser MG, et al.; ISCVT Investigators: Early seizures in cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis. Risk ...
"Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus ... Ferro JM, Canhão P, Bousser MG, Stam J, Barinagarrementeria F (2005). "Cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis in elderly ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of acute thrombosis (a blood clot) in the dural venous sinuses, which ... The veins of the brain, both the superficial veins and the deep venous system, empty into the dural venous sinuses, which carry ...
Closed traumatic head injury: dural sinus and internal jugular vein thrombosis. Dural sinus thrombosis (DST) has an annual ... dural sinus and internal jugular vein thrombosis. (Abstract). causes (eg, Lemierres syndrome). A case of thrombosis of the ... Lemierre syndrome is a rare clinical entity, characterized by thrombosis of the internal jugular vein that develops after an ... He developed internal jugular vein and cavernous sinus thrombosis, metastatic abscesses in the temporal lobe and lungs, ...
Aseptic thrombi can also form in the dural venous sinuses and/or the cerebral veins draining into them. Most patients present ... Puerperal women are liable to thrombosis, especially thrombophlebitis of the leg and pelvic veins. ... Kalbag R M, Woolf A L (1967) Cerebral Venous Thrombosis, with Special Reference to Primary Aseptic Thrombosis. Oxford, Oxford ... Lanska D J, Kryscio R J (2000) Risk factors for peripartum and postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. Stroke 31 ...
Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Diabetic Foot Ulcers, Diabetic Wound Care , Dialysis Access, Dural... ... Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Diabetic Foot Reconstruction, Diabetic Wound Care , Dialysis Access, Endovascular... ...
Deep vein thrombosis of lower extremities. *Other sites: pelvic veins, prostatic veins, dural sinuses ...
Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus ... Delay in hospital admission of patients with cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis.Cerebrovasc Dis 2005; 19: 152-6.PubMed ... Stam J. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses.N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 1791-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Distinguishing dural sinus thrombosis from benign intracranial hypertension.Emerg Med J 2004; 21: 245-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
... enlarged cortical veins into the dural venous sinus. The deep veins and dural venous sinus are often not visualized in these ... Whether the absent veins are congenitally aplastic or occluded as a result of thrombosis is not certain. ... Enlarged deep medullary veins that drain deep to the subependymal veins are present. ... The superficial cortical veins in the region of the dystrophic calcification have markedly slow flow as a result of venous ...
Safety of Pregnancy After Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Results of the ISCVT (International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural ... 7. Safety of Pregnancy After Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Results of the ISCVT (International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural ... International Study of Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis). Patients were interviewed by local neurologists to assess ... Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis Flare (PubMed). Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in a ...
Autopsy case of dural thickening caused by widespread dural vein thrombosis associated with disseminated bone marrow ...
The dural sinuses are grouped into the sagittal, lateral (including the transverse, sigmoid, and petrosal sinuses), and ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was initially described by Bright in 1831 as a complication of epidural and subdural ... Cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis in elderly patients. Stroke. 2005 Sep. 36(9):1927-32. [Medline]. ... cavernous sinus thrombosis is the most important of any intracranial septic thrombosis. [1] Cavernous sinus thrombosis is ...
Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus ... Yasargil MG, Damur M, Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In: Newton TH, Potts DJ, eds. Radiology of the Skull ... such as cortical venous thrombosis, thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, and thrombosis of the deep cerebral veins. ... internal cerebral veins, vein of Galen, anastomotic veins of Labbé, and basal veins of Rosenthal. In addition, the presence of ...
Thrombolysis for cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis Cochrane Systematic Reviews, 13-Oct-2008 Treatment of cerebral sinus ... Thrombolysis for acute deep vein thrombosis Cochrane Systematic Reviews, 9-Nov-2016 Standard treatment for deep vein thrombosis ... of all deep vein thromboses occur in the upper extremities. Serious complications of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, such ... Trauma patients are at high risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The incidence varies according to the method used to measure th ...
Dural Arterial Venous Fistula. *Jugular Vein Thrombosis. *PRIMARY NEOPLASMS OF THE JUGULAR FORAMEN ...
This is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT can cause pain and swelling in your leg and, in rare cases, may lead to a ... Dural tear. Theres a risk of a dural tear occurring during all types of spinal surgery, including lumbar decompression surgery ... Your surgeon will be aware of the risk of a dural tear, and if it does occur they will close the tear with stitches. In most ...
Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with associated elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a rare complication of ... stenoses of the dural sinus has been treated by stenting. this has been published. Images in top row are before stenting. ... Thrombosis in stented vein after CCSVI procedure 1, 2, 3by mila77 » Mon Aug 16, 2010 2:04 pm 33 Replies. 7870 Views. Last post ... neck injuries leading to jugular vein thrombosis 1, 2by Cece » Fri Dec 30, 2011 3:52 pm 16 Replies. 2634 Views. Last post by ...
This phenomenon may be similar to what is seen after cerebral infarction from cortical vein or dural sinus thrombosis. All of ... Interestingly, the study showed that there were no meaningful differences in the rates of deep venous thrombosis, myocardial ...
Cerebral vein/dural sinus thrombosis. Sinus tenderness, fever, purulent nasal discharge. Rhinosinusitis ... cervical and cranial arteries and veins, the ear, the eye and orbits, and portions of the cranial and cervical nerves. ... arterial thrombosis or dissection, hemorrhage, cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure, inflammation, metabolic ...
Ipsilateral Dural Thickening and Enhancement: A Sign of Isolated Cortical Vein Thrombosis? A Case Report and Review of the ... Hybrid Operating Room Settings for Treatment of Complex Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas. World neurosurgery, 2018. ... Intraoperative Visualization of Bilateral Thrombosis in the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Apparent in the ... Overview: Endothelial dysfunction, micro thrombosis and inflammation. Vasospasm 12th International Conference on Neurovascular ...
Second International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis (ISCVT 2) Investigators. Decompressive surgery in ... cerebrovenous thrombosis: a multicenter registry and a systematic review of individual patient data. Stroke. 2011 Oct;42(10): ... stroke due to an arterial vessel blockage or an intracranial bleed as well as patients with disorders of the arteries and veins ...
Over-coagulation of the venous collaterals, particularly the emissary veins, resulted in dural venous sinus thrombosis and ... angiography clearly visualized a mass with a diameter of approximately 10 mm connected to the diploic vein. The mass was ...
Major dural sinuses: Superior sagittal sinus, transverse, straight and sigmoid sinuses.. * Cortical veins:* Vein of Labbe, ... Chronic dural sinus thrombosis and related syndromes. DAVF. Chronic dural sinus thrombosis can lead to dural arteriovenous ... Venous thrombosis of vein of Galen and straight sinus Venous infarction (4) - Deep cerebral veins. On the far left a FLAIR ... Venous infarcts (3) - vein of Labbe. Another typical venous infarction is due to thrombosis of the vein of Labbe.. On the left ...
Venous Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Cerebral Dural Sinus Thrombosis Adrenal Hemorrhagic Infarction ... The most common venous thrombotic complication was deep vein thrombosis, which was responsible for more than 60% of thrombotic ... Sequelae Incidence Thrombosis 30%-50% Amputation 20% (arterial thrombosis) Death 22% to 28% . ... Thrombosis or other sequelae ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Confirmed new thrombosis, skin necrosis, or acute systemic ...
  • Static contrast-enhanced 3D MRV techniques, which enable a superior visualization of intracranial veins relative to TOF MRV, 4 , 7 - 10 have only been tested in smaller series for diagnostic yield in CVT. (ajnr.org)
  • There's a risk of a dural tear occurring during all types of spinal surgery, including lumbar decompression surgery. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Dural puncture from spinal anesthesia can cause herniation in the presence of intracranial mass effect, while an epidural anesthetic can transiently increase ICP. (soap.org)